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Effects of Acute Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Cognitive Function and Salivary Cortisol Responses

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness of aerobic vs. resistance exercise on cognitive function. In addition, salivary cortisol responses, as an indicator of arousal-related neuroendocrine responses, were assessed as a potential mechanism underlying the effects of these 2 modes of acute exercise on cognition. Forty-two young adults were recruited and performed the Stroop task after 1 session of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and a sedentary condition performed on separate days. Saliva samples were collected at baseline and immediately and 30 min after treatment conditions. Acute exercise, regardless of exercise modality, improved multiple aspects of cognitive function as reflected by the Stroop task. Cortisol responses were higher after both modes of acute exercise compared with the sedentary condition and were higher at baseline and 30 min afterward compared with immediately after treatment conditions. These findings suggest that acute exercise of moderate intensity facilitates cognitive function, and, although salivary cortisol is influenced by acute exercise, levels were not related to improvements in cognition.

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... The model of acute intense resistance exercise has been proved dramatically increasing blood cortisol concentration . Increased cortisol concentration is usually associated with anticipation of high-intensity exercise in human beings (Jamurtas et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2019), which indicates that acute intensity resistance exercise may be a suitable method for examining the benefits of TG supplementation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of TG supplementation on cortisol responses induced by an acute intense resistance exercise, and its potential impacts on adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and WBC. ...
... High-intensity resistance exercise is effective at triggering a cortisol stress response in humans, resulting in a rapid rise in cortisol levels Wang et al., 2019;Tsuda et al., 2020). Compared to other types of stimulation such as fear and visual stimulation, high-intensity resistance exercise is more controllable, repeatable and non-invasive. ...
... Compared to other types of stimulation such as fear and visual stimulation, high-intensity resistance exercise is more controllable, repeatable and non-invasive. It is the preferred method for studying the inherent relationship between external stimulation and the cortisol stress response (Finke et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2019). According to , the four resistance exercise sessions, i.e., shoulder press, back squat, bench press, and deadlift, could effectively activate all major muscle groups of the human body quickly and trigger the optimum cortisol stress response when the workload is four sets × 4 repetitions × 10 RM (with a 2-min rest between sets and repetitions). ...
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Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 4-week tangeretin supplementation on the cortisol stress response induced by high-intensity resistance exercise. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of twenty-four soccer players was conducted during the winter training season. The experimental group (EG) took the oral supplement with tangeretin (200 mg/day) and the control group (CG) took placebo for 4 weeks. Before and after the 4-week intervention, all players performed a high intensity bout of resistance exercise to stimulate their cortisol stress responses. Serum cortisol, adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were obtained by collecting blood samples before (PRE), immediately after (P0), and 10 (P10), 20 (P20) and 30 minutes (P30) after the exercise. Results: The serum cortisol level (PRE, p = 0.017; P10, p = 0.010; P20, p = 0.014; P30, p = 0.007) and ACTH (P10, p = 0.037; P30, p = 0.049) of experimental group significantly decreased after the 4-week intervention. Compared with control group, EG displayed a significantly lower level of the serum cortisol (PRE, p = 0.036; P10, p = 0.031) and ACTH (P30, p = 0.044). Additionally, EG presented significantly higher superoxide dismutase activity level compared with CG at P30 ( p = 0.044). The white blood cell of EG decreased significantly (PRE, p = 0.037; P30, p = 0.046) and was significantly lower than CG at P20 ( p = 0.01) and P30 ( p = 0.003). Conclusion: Four-week tangeretin supplementation can reduce serum cortisol and ACTH, which may ameliorate the cortisol stress response in soccer players during high-intensity resistance exercise training. It can also enhance antioxidant capacity, accelerate the elimination of inflammation throughout the body, and shorten recovery time after high-intensity exercise.
... Resistance exercise (RE) has been shown to improve not only neuromuscular function but also executive function 18 . To our knowledge, there are 11 previous studies which have investigated the effects of acute RE on the performance of the Stroop task [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] . The type of RE is critical when constructing a RE program to maximize both cognitive and physical performance in the long-term. ...
... It has been proposed that multiple-joint, free-weight, structural (the force vectors directed primarily through the spine and hip 30 ) resistance exercises will have greater effects relative to single-joint, machine-based, non-structural exercise on functional movement 31 , bone mineral density 32,33 , the release of neurotrophic factor 34-37 , and degree of muscle activations 38,39 . However, these proposals remain untested in previous studies [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] . It is also difficult to determine optimal RE protocols from previous studies primarily because of the possibility of underestimation of maximal strength, or unreported training parameters. ...
... being inappropriately assessed as not showing benefit, both the direction of effects and statistical significance will be discussed 73 . Eleven of the 14 comparisons indicating that RE favored information processing speed reached statistical significance [21][22][23][24][25]29 , whereas only one in five comparisons favoring the control interventions was significant 23 . Although these studies used similar forms of Stroop tasks to measure cognitive performance, www.nature.com/scientificreports/ it is difficult to compare these results directly with the current study due to the methodological and reporting limitations included potential underestimation of maximal strength, unreported information related to the intervention program, lack of active control and ITT analysis. ...
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It is difficult to draw conclusions about the effect of resistance exercises on information processing speed and inhibitory control from previous studies due to possible underestimations of maximal strength and the lack of information on the intervention programs. To address this issue, a familiarization of resistance exercise was introduced before the strength test, and the repetition-to-fatigue method was used to calculate the 1RM (one repetition max). A two-arm RCT was conducted to evaluate the cognitive effect of resistance exercise. Male adults aged 50–65 years old performed a single bout of multiple joint, structural barbell resistance exercises (back squat, press, and deadlift) with 75% 1RM * 5 repetitions * 3 sets with 2–3 min rest between sets and exercises or a stretching exercise session (active-control intervention). This type of resistance exercise improved the information processing speed measured by Stroop task reaction time (t(23) = − 2.313, p = .030, M = − 16 ms, 95% CI [− 30, − 2]) and decreased the conflict-related neural activity measured by event-related potential N2b in both congruent (t(20) = 2.674, p = .015, M = 2.290 μv, 95% CI [0.504, 4.075]) and incongruent (t(20) = 2.851, p = .018, M = 2.291 μv, 95% CI [0.439, 4.142]) conditions. Resistance exercise significantly improved information processing speed and decrease conflict-related neural activity, but did not change inhibitory control in older adults compared to active control. Trial registration: NCT04534374 (01/09/2020).
... Various approaches such as mindfulness meditation (Zeidan et al., 2010;van de Weijer-Bergsma et al., 2012;Westbrook et al., 2013), aerobic exercise (Kamijo et al., 2009;Crush and Loprinzi, 2017;Wang et al., 2019), and computer-based training (Basak et al., 2008;Owen et al., 2010;Nouchi et al., 2013) have found significant training effects on the plasticity of EFs in adults. However, because of the different degrees of the prefrontal cortex brain maturation (Karbach and Unger, 2014) and the data on behavioral measurements (Karbach and Kray, 2009;Zhao et al., 2016), it is important to figure out whether these training approaches could be generalized and applied to the younger age groups. ...
... Several studies have utilized computerbased training to investigate the training and transfer effects on adults. According to Wang et al. (2019), computer-based training that includes game elements could significantly enhance working memory and cognitive flexibility in adults, but not inhibition; however, there is also a review study that reached a conclusion that the effects of game-based training such as Cogmed on individuals' working memory are unsubstantial (Shipstead et al., 2012). Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using game elements in EF training for children (Klingberg et al., 2005;Alloway et al., 2013;Dunning et al., 2013;de Vries et al., 2015;Homer et al., 2017). ...
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Computer-based training has attracted increasing attention from researchers in recent years. Several studies have found that computer-based training resulted in improved executive functions (EFs) in adults. However, it remains controversial whether children can benefit from computer-based training and what moderator could influence the training effects. The focus of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of computer-based training on EFs in children: working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control. A thorough search of published work yielded a sample of 36 studies with 216 effect sizes. The results indicated that computer-based training showed moderate training effects on improving EFs in children (g = 0.35, k = 36, p < 0.001), while training effects of working memory were significantly higher. Furthermore, we found near-transfer effects were marginally significantly higher than far-transfer effects. The standard training method was significantly more effective than training with game elements. In computer-based training, typically developing children had significantly better training effects than atypically developing children. Some additional factors, such as the number of training sessions and age, also modulated the training effects. In conclusion, the present study investigated the effects and moderators of computer-based training for children's EFs. The results provided evidence that computer-based training (especially standard training) may serve as an efficient way to improve EFs in children (especially typically developing individuals). We also discussed some directions for future computer-based training studies.
... 2005), as well as performance on various inhibitory control tasks like the Attention Network Test 6 Pérez et al., 2014), Flanker task (Kamijo et al., 2007;Kao et al., 2018;Kubesch et al., 2009;Sebastian Ludyga et al., 2018), and Stroop task (Chang et al., 2017;Faulkner et al., 2016;Harveson et al., 2016;Park & Etnier, 2019;Salas-Gomez et al., 2020;C.-C. Wang et al., 2019;Yanagisawa et al., 2010). ...
... This result has been shown in children (Álvarez-Bueno et al., 2017;Booth et al., 2014;Chu et al., 2019;Drollette et al., 2018;Drollette & Hillman, 2020;Raine et al., 2018;Sibley & Etnier, 2003;Syväoja et al., 2018;Vazou et al., 2016;Westfall et al., 2018), young adults (Chang, Labban, et al., 2012;Chrismas et al., 2019;Gejl et al., 2018;Johnson et al., 2019;Labban & Etnier, 2018;S. Ludyga et al., 2019;Luque-Casado et al., 2016;Park & Etnier, 2019; C.-C. Wang et al., 2019), as well as older adults (Chang, Ku, et al., 2012;Colcombe & Kramer, 2003;Falck et al., 2018;J. Fanning et al., 2017;Charles H. Hillman et al., 2018;Northey et al., 2017;Stillman et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
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Physical activity (PA) levels have been declining worldwide, despite the physical health benefits of increased PA having been known and messaged for decades. One possible reason for this is that physical health improvements are too long term, and it may be more effective to promote short-term benefits instead. PA has been shown to improve cognitive function over relatively short timescales and promoting these cognitive benefits may be a better approach for increasing PA levels in the population. What remains unclear is how certain moderators can affect the PA-cognition relationship, and how we can better measure PA in real-world environments. Over three studies, my dissertation aims to examine the effect of moderators like PA intensity and PA time window, as well as develop a novel methodology for measuring low-intensity physical activities, like walking, in outdoor settings. In the first study, I found that PA measured over the week prior to cognitive testing is not predictive of cognitive function, and that this does not depend on PA intensity. In the second study, I found that PA measured over the day prior to testing is associated with improved cognitive performance. In the third study, I examined the bidirectional nature of this relationship, and found that changes in cognition can have a marked impact on outdoor walking behaviour, and that these changes in gait dynamics can be detected using a smartphone-based measurement technique. Overall, my research shows that while PA does appear to be associated with cognitive function, the effects are quite small and dependent on factors like when the PA is measured relative to cognitive testing. In terms of PA promotion, more research needs to be conducted on the limits of this relationship before we can draw any definitive conclusions about the cognitive benefits of PA, as small statistically significant effects don’t necessarily translate to useful practical benefits in the real world.
... In recent years, several research studies have been conducted to investigate the acute effects of exercise on cognitive abilities. Cognitive improvements have 2 of 8 been noted in studies of young adults [9], patients with depression [6], breast cancer [5] and multiple sclerosis [10] patients, and older adults [11,12]. ...
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Background: This study aims to investigate the acute effects of an augmented reality session and a cycle ergometer session compared to no exercise on the reaction times, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency of older adults. Methods: Each participant did a familiarization with cognitive tests and the following three sessions: cycle ergometer, no exercise (control group), and augmented reality exergame (Portable Exergame Platform for Elderly) sessions. The participants were randomized in a within-group design into one of six possible combinations. Each moment had a 30 min duration, and after the session, the participants performed a Trail Making Test, a verbal fluency test, and a Deary-Liewald reaction time task. The data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment. Results: The analysis between the no exercise, cycle ergometer, and augmented reality sessions showed no significant differences in the cognitive measurements. Conclusions: One session of the cycle ergometer exercise or the augmented reality exergames does not acutely improve the reaction times, cognitive flexibility, or verbal fluency in the elderly.
... Changes in cortisol levels are suggested to be responsible for these favorable effects during aerobic activities [40,41]. According to a recent meta-analysis, aerobic exercise has a large and significant effect on depression, whereas mixed therapies (aerobic and anaerobic exercise) had no effect [42]. ...
Article
Background: There is a worldwide struggle to quit smoking and prevent relapsing. Aerobic exercises are frequently utilized to aid in smoking cessation and prevent relapse. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercises of different intensity on the level of anxiety, smoking addiction, and quality of sleep and life in former smokers. Methods: The study included 60 people aged 18 to 45 who had quit smoking within the previous month. Individuals were randomly assigned to control (CON), mild-intensity aerobic activity (MIA), and moderate-intensity aerobic activity (MoIA) groups. The MIA group did submaximal aerobic exercises at 40% of maximum heart rate (MHR), while the MoIA group did them at 60% of MHR for 8 weeks/3 days. Participants' anxiety levels were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), smoking addiction was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and Substance Craving Scale (SCS), sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 Short Form Scale (SF-36). Results: The SCS score of the MoIA group declined more than the MIA and CON groups, and the MIA group had a lower sleep disturbance score than other groups when the influence of exercise training was assessed over time (p < 0.05). Aerobic exercise had no influence on SF-36 or BAS scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The benefits of mild and moderate aerobic exercise on quality of life and anxiety are similar. However, mild-intensity aerobic exercises may be suitable for sleep difficulties while moderate-intensity aerobic exercises may be preferred for reducing smoking addiction.
... First, studies have shown that both aerobic and resistance exercise help improve cortisol responsiveness (42), and particularly, physical activity can act as a synchronizer in correcting cortisol circadian rhythms in obesity (43). Second, a study showed that mealtime is a compelling zeitgeber in biological rhythms (44). ...
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Context Cortisol, an important hormone regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is associated with obesity. However, it is unclear whether the relationship between cortisol and obesity is causal or could be explained by reverse causality. Objective This work aims to assess the role of morning plasma cortisol in clinical classes of obesity. Methods In this bi-directional two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) study, cortisol-associated genetic variants were obtained from the CORtisol NETwork consortium (n = 12,597). The primary outcomes were obesity class I (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2), class II (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2), and class III (BMI ≥ 40kg/m 2). Inverse variance weighting (IVW) method was used as the main analysis, with weighted median, MR-Egger, and MR-PRESSO as sensitivity analyses. Conversely, genetic variants predicting clinical classes of obesity were applied to the cortisol GWAS. Results Genetically predicted cortisol was associated with reduced risk of obesity class I (OR = 0.905; 95% CI, 0.865-0.946; p < 0.001). Evidence from bi-directional MR showed that obesity class II and class III were associated with lower cortisol levels ((class II-cortisol OR = 0.953; 95% CI, 0.923-0.983; p = 0.002); (class III-cortisol OR = 0.955; 95% CI, 0.942-0.967; p < 0.001)), indicating reverse causality between cortisol and obesity. Conclusions This study demonstrates that cortisol is negatively associated with obesity and vice versa. Together, these findings suggest that blunted morning plasma cortisol secretion may be responsible for severe obesity. Regulating morning plasma secretion might be a prevention measure for obese people.
... Another study found no difference in salivary cortisol levels after sitting uninterrupted for 180 min compared with sitting with physical activity breaks (Sperlich et al., 2018). Salivary cortisol can indicate circulating cortisol from training stress and psycho-physiological stress reactions to exercise, activating the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis (Wang et al., 2019). Therefore, it is not surprising that the reduction in cortisol is largest after sitting. ...
Article
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Prolonged sitting is increasingly common and may possibly be unfavorable for cognitive function and mood. In this randomized crossover study, the effects of frequent, short physical activity breaks during prolonged sitting on cognitive task-related activation of the prefrontal cortex were investigated. The effects on working memory, psychological factors, and blood glucose were also examined, and whether arterial stiffness moderated prefrontal cortex activation. Thirteen subjects (mean age 50.5 years; eight men) underwent three 3-h sitting conditions, interrupted every 30-min by a different 3-min break on separate, randomized-ordered days: seated social interactions (SOCIAL), walking (WALK), or simple resistance activities (SRA). Arterial stiffness was assessed at baseline. Before and after each 3-h condition, psychological factors (stress, mood, sleepiness, and alertness) were assessed through questionnaires and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure changes in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), indicative of cortical activation, while performing working memory tasks [1-(baseline), 2-, and 3-back]. Blood glucose levels were continuously measured throughout the conditions. Results revealed no significant changes in Oxy-Hb during the 2-back compared with the 1-back test in any condition, and no time-by-condition interactions. During the 3-back test, there was a significant decrease in Oxy-Hb compared with the 1-back after the WALK condition in the right prefrontal cortex, but there were no time-by-condition interactions, although 3-back reaction time improved only in the WALK condition. Mood and alertness improved after the WALK condition, which was significantly different from the SOCIAL condition. Arterial stiffness moderated the effects, such that changes in Oxy-Hb were significantly different between WALK and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | www.frontiersin.org 1 September 2021 | Volume 15 | Article 719509 Heiland et al. ABBaH: Activity Breaks on Brain Health SOCIAL conditions only among those with low arterial stiffness. Blood glucose during the interventions did not differ between conditions. Thus, breaking up prolonged sitting with frequent, short physical activity breaks may reduce right prefrontal cortex activation, with improvements in some aspects of working memory, mood, and alertness. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04137211.
... Fourth, we only examined the effects of acute AE on FAA. Whether our results generalize to other types of exercise such as exergaming, a form of AE involving hand-eye coordination exercises (Benzing, Chang, & Schmidt, 2018); Tai Chi Chuan , a form of traditional Chinese, low impact, mind-body exercise; or resistance exercises (Hsieh, Chang, Hung, & Fang, 2016;Wang et al., 2019) needs to be independently examined. Fifth, although the current study used an age-based HRmax method (207 -[0.7 × age]) for effectively setting HR range at target intensity during exercise (Gellish et al., 2007), HRmax can be estimated more accurately determined by VO 2 peak tests (American College of Sports Medicine, 2018). ...
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Background Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) has been associated with the regulation of certain types of internalizing psychopathologies, and is affected by acute aerobic exercise (AE). However, no previous studies have examined the association between FAA and internalizing problems or the effects of acute exercise on FAA in children with ADHD. Aims This study had two objectives. First, it aimed to examine the relationship between FAA and internalizing behaviors in children with ADHD. Second, it sought to investigate the differential effects of acute AE (30 and 50 min) on FAA. Method Participants were assigned to one of the following three groups: 50 min of AE, 30 min of AE, and a control group. Resting electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded before and after their respective treatments. EEG data from 43 participants were analyzed to investigate the association between pre-test FAA and internalizing problems as assessed by Child Behavior Checklist scores. Additionally, EEG data from 46 participants were analyzed to examine the effects of acute AE on post-test FAA while controlling for pre-test FAA. Results Pre-test FAA was found to be significantly negatively associated with internalizing problems, with both hemispheres contributing to this association. Regarding the effects of acute exercise, the 50-minute AE group had highest post-test FAA, reflected by the increased relative left-side frontal activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that FAA is a biological marker of internalizing symptoms in children with ADHD, and a 50-minute session of AE can effectively modulate FAA.
... In addition, the findings of Chang et al. [34] and Kamijo et al. [35] revealed similar improvements in both incongruent (different ink color and written color word) and congruent (same ink color and written color word) conditions during the Stroop test in healthy older adults. Recently, it was reported that the interference tested by the Stroop task improved following acute aerobic exercises in older and younger adults [58,59]. In addition, Park et al. [60] and Yanagisawa et al. [21] demonstrated that a single 20 min cycling exercise at moderate intensity (50% VO 2peak ) significantly improved cognitive performances in the Stroop task among healthy young subjects. ...
Article
Background: Many studies have shown the impact of acute aerobic exercises (AAE) on cognition in healthy adults or at a pre-dementia stage. Few studies, however, have explored the positive effects of AAE in moderate Alzheimer's disease (ADM) patients. Objective: Evaluating the effect of AAE on cognitive functions in ADM patients. Methods: Overall, 79 (age: 69.62±0.99) ADM patients were recruited. Participants were divided into three groups according to the task: aerobic exercises done alone or combined with cognitive games presented on a screen, and a control group who performed a reading task. The aerobic exercise protocol consisted of a 20-min cycling exercise of moderate intensity, corresponding to 60%of the individual target maximal heart rate recorded in a 6-minute walking test. The participants' cognition was monitored before and after the intervention using the Tower of Hanoi, Digit Span, and Stroop tasks. Results: After the exercise, the participants' attention in both the physical and combined groups improved for the Stroop, the forward and backward Digit Span tasks, as well as the time taken to solve the Tower of Hanoi, although no significant differences were found in the number of moves taken in the latter. By contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvement for most of the cognitive tasks after the reading session. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that AAE may help to improve cognitive functions in ADM patients. This improvement is enhanced when the exercise is combined with cognitive games. Safe and progressive types of exercises should be promoted among ADM patients.
... Y. K. Changʼo su bendraautoriais (2017) tyrimai parodė, kad aerobiniai vidutinio intensyvumo pratimai teigiamai veikia kognityvines funkcijas, todėl ir šiame tyrime buvo taikytas vidutinio intensyvumo aerobinis krūvis. Taip pat nustatyta, kad efektyviausiai kognityvines funkcijas veikianti vienkartinio aerobinio krūvio trukmė yra 20 minučių (Chang et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2019). ...
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Tyrimo pagrindimas. Mokslininkai aptinka vis daugiau sąsajų tarp kognityvinių funkcijų ir fizinio aktyvumo. Visgi dauguma tyrimų, nagrinėjančių vienkartinio aerobinio krūvio poveikį kognityvinėms funkcijoms, yra atliekami laboratorinėmis sąlygomis, todėl trūksta informacijos apie skirtingose aplinkose atliekamo vienkartinio aerobinio krūvio poveikį kognityvinėms funkcijoms. Tikslas – nustatyti skirtingose aplinkose atlikto vienkartinio aerobinio krūvio poveikį vyrų kognityvinėms funkcijoms. Metodai. Buvo tiriama 10 fiziškai aktyvių sveikų 23,2 ± 2,2 metų amžiaus vyrų. Buvo taikomas 20 minučių vienkartinis aerobinis krūvis miško, miesto ir uždaroje (salės) aplinkose. Prieš krūvį ir po jo kiekvienoje aplinkoje vertintos kognityvinės funkcijos „Stroop“ bei „Kelio paieškos“ testais. Rezultatai. Protinis lankstumas (p < 0,05; p = 0,01) reikšmingai pagerėjo miško aplinkoje, lyginant su miesto aplinka. Taip pat pastebėta, kad dėmesys (p < 0,05; p = 0,01), reakcijos greitis (p < 0,05; p = 0,02) ir protinis lankstumas (p < 0,05; p = 0,01) reikšmingai pagerėjo krūvį atliekant miško aplinkoje, lyginant su salės aplinka. Išvados. Vienkartinis aerobinis krūvis, atliktas tiek ramioje miško, tiek miesto, tiek uždaroje (salės) aplinkose, reikšmingai pagerino kognityvines funkcijas. Nustatyta, kad protinis lankstumas reikšmingai pagerėjo miško aplinkoje, lyginant su miesto ar uždara aplinka, o dėmesys ir reakcijos greitis statistiškai reikšmingai pagerėjo atliekant krūvį miško aplinkoje, lyginant su salės aplinka. Raktažodžiai: vienkartinis aerobinis krūvis, vyrai, kognityvinės funkcijos, aplinka.
... This moderating role of sexual dimorphism might be accounted for by the fact that men and women have differential secretion of hormones (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone) relating to arousal (De Menezes et al., 2016) and metabolic responses (Ponjee et al., 1994) following acute exercise, with women showing greater acute exercise-induced secretion (Heaney et al., 2013). Overall, the current evidence supporting the beneficial effect of acute HIIT on inhibition in adults aligns with the effects of single bouts of continuous aerobic exercise (Chang et al., 2012;Hsieh et al., 2018;Kao et al., 2020;Ludyga et al., 2016) and resistance exercise (Chang et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2019), suggesting HIIT may be an alternate means to benefit inhibition during adulthood. ...
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Research regarding the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on executive function has grown exponentially in recent years. However, there has been no comprehensive review of the current state of literature. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarize previous research regarding the acute and chronic effects of HIIT on executive function across the lifespan and highlight future research directions. The results indicated that acute bouts of HIIT has a positive effect on inhibition in children/adolescents and adults, and further that chronic HIIT benefits inhibition and working memory in children. More research employing chronic interventions, focusing on middle-aged and older adults, and examining the effects on the working memory and cognitive flexibility domains of executive function are needed. Future research should also focus on a) the use of stronger research designs, b) the effects of HIIT dosage/modality, c) consideration of individual differences, d) possible underlying mechanisms, and e) examining the feasibility of translating HIIT to real-word settings.
... ичина рада у адекватној зони интензитета заправо најадекватнији параметар разлике у повећању нивоа кортизола, што је вероватно разлика у стресном стимулусу на систем. Свакако да постоје разлике када су у питању поређења између аеробног и анаеробног рада (Kindermann et al., 1982), с тим да у оба случаја ниво кортизола расте (Kindermann et al., 1982;C. C. Wang et al., 2019). ...
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During physical activity, systemic response is dependable from interaction of training stimuli and adaptive systems such as musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory and endocrine. Newer research also indicates that there is endocrine response of certain immune factors and also towards influence that immune response has on metabolic changes during physical activity. This further makes understanding more complex, but with purpose to provide full picture and illustrate the complexity of systemic functioning. From endocrine point of view, regarding as important homeostatic system especially with role towards stress and exercise response, one of hormones that has important role is catabolic hormone cortisol for which secretion adrenal gland is responsible. In this paper, and based on current evidence, focus is towards cortisol role in metabolism during physiologic conditions and as response of this hormone to stress caused by training stimulus.
... Exercising at different intensities and the subject's level of physical fitness directly interfere with the immune system response, as shown in the explanatory model of the "J" shaped curve (Nieman, 1994). Exercise can induce hormonal changes, such as increased cortisol levels (Wang et al., 2019). These changes are described as mediating immunosuppression after the training session (Smith, 2004). ...
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Introduction: The effects of aerobic exercise on the immune system are not yet fully defined in the scientific literature. This fact demonstrates the need to investigate its influence on existing immunological markers by classifying and quantifying their acute and chronic effects. Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on inflammatory markers of healthy adults. Methods: This study is a systematic review according to PRISMA recommendations. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, Bireme and Cochrane Library and article references. The last search was performed in March 2019. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) investigating the acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on immune markers in healthy male and female adults aged 20 to 45 years, without restrictions in language or year of publication. Two authors independently analyzed the studies by reading the titles, abstracts and full texts. Risk of Study bias was analyzed using Cochrane's Risk of Bias Tool. Outcomes: We included 15 studies in this systematic review, 13 of which were acute intervention and 2 were chronic, with 296 participants, 196 men and 100 women all being healthy individuals. It was observed that the acute intervention promotes changes in most immunological markers, while the chronic intervention interferes with a smaller proportion, this being in lymphocyte subpopulations. In the evaluation of quality, it was found that most studies did not present a high risk of bias in the evaluated aspects, but an unclear related risk of bias was observed, requiring a more careful analysis. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the evidence indicates that acute and chronic interventions may modify most immune markers, but aspects such as gender, contraceptive pill use in women, physical capacity of the investigated individuals, environment, and type and intensity of the exercises may interfere with these markers as well as the data analysis. Therefore, this review suggests that further research is needed to contribute to the confirmation and estimation of results.
... For example, young adults demonstrated improved reaction times after performing acute moderate-intensity (50-70% of maximal heart rate) exercise for 20-30 min (Sibley et al., 2006;Harveson et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019). Cognitive improvements have also been reported among clinical populations (e.g., patients with Multiple Sclerosis, depression, breast cancer) after acute bouts of moderate-intensity activity (Vasques et al., 2011;Sandroff et al., 2015;Salerno et al., 2019). ...
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Acute exercise stimulates brain regions involved in motor and cognitive processes. Recent research efforts have explored the benefits of aerobic exercise on brain health and cognitive functioning with positive results reported for both healthy and neurocognitively impaired individuals. Specifically, exercise positioned near therapeutic (both behavioral and physical) activities may enhance outcomes associated with treatment outcomes (e.g., depression or motor skill) through neural plasticity promoting mechanisms (e.g., increased brain flow and oxygenation). This approach has been termed “exercise priming” and is a relatively new topic of exploration in the fields of exercise science and motor control. The authors report on physiological mechanisms that are related to the priming effect. In addition, parameters related to the exercise bout (e.g., intensity, duration) and the idea of combining exercise and therapeutic rehabilitation are explored. This exercise-based priming concept has the potential to be applied to many areas such as education, cognitive therapy, and motor rehabilitation.
... This notion falls in line with the current study's findings as the recognition task was conducted after only 1 h of completion of exercise. However, recent studies have shown that although acute exercise increases cortisol, increased cortisol does not modulate cognitive function related to working memory (Ponce, Del Arco, & Loprinzi, 2019;Wang et al., 2019). Interestingly, for those partaking in chronic exercise regimes, an increase in basal cortisol levels, typically associated with an increase in stress and thus cognitive impairment, can be viewed differently to that of acute, high intensity exercise or psychosocial stress (Chen et al., 2017). ...
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Whilst there are many studies comparing the different effects of exercise on long-term memory, these typically adopt varying intensities, durations, and behavioural measures. Furthermore, few studies provide direct comparisons between exercise and different types of rest. Therefore, by providing a standardised methodological design, this study will ascertain the most effective intensity and protocol of exercise for the modulation of long-term memory, whilst directly comparing it to different types rest. This was achieved using the same old/new recognition memory test and an 80-90 min retention interval. Three experiments were performed (total N=59), each with a three-armed crossover design measuring the extent to which physical exercise and wakeful rest can influence long-term memory performance. In Experiment 1, the effects of continuous moderate intensity exercise (65-75% HRmax), passive rest (no cognitive engagement) and active rest (cognitively engaged) were explored. In Experiment 2, continuous moderate intensity exercise was compared to a type of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and passive rest. Experiment 3 observed the effects of low- (55-65% HRmax), moderate- and high-intensity (75-85% HRmax) continuous exercise. Across the three experiments moderate intensity exercise had the greatest positive impact on memory performance. Although not significant, HIIT was more effective than passive-rest, and passive rest was more effective than active rest. Our findings suggest that it is not necessary to physically overexert oneself in order to achieve observable improvements to long-term memory. By also investigating wakeful rest, we reaffirmed the importance of the cognitive engagement during consolidation for the formation of long-term memories.
... This notion falls in line with the current study's findings as the recognition task was conducted after only 1 h of completion of exercise. However, recent studies have shown that although acute exercise increases cortisol, increased cortisol does not modulate cognitive function related to working memory (Ponce, Del Arco, & Loprinzi, 2019;Wang et al., 2019). Interestingly, for those partaking in chronic exercise regimes, an increase in basal cortisol levels, typically associated with an increase in stress and thus cognitive impairment, can be viewed differently to that of acute, high intensity exercise or psychosocial stress (Chen et al., 2017). ...
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Objectives Many studies have looked at the effects of physical exercise on long-term memory. However, to date, no study has compared the effect of different intensities and protocols of physical exercise and different rest conditions on long-term memory. Methods In three studies (N=59) we measured the extent that physical exercise (in its varying intensities) and wakeful rest (active-rest; in which participants were cognitively engaged while seated and passive-rest; no cognitive engagement while seated) could influence long-term memory. Across all three studies, nearly identical procedures were employed, using the same old/new recognition memory test in order to establish the most effective protocol for cognitive enhancement. In Study 1, the effects of continuous moderate intensity exercise, uninterrupted wakeful rest (passive) and rest with an engagement task (active) were explored. In Study 2, continuous moderate intensity exercise was compared to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and passive rest. Study 3 observed the effects of low-, moderate- and high-intensity continuous exercise. Results Across the three studies moderate intensity exercise had the greatest positive impact on memory performance. Passive rest was more effective than active rest, however, less than high-intensity interval-training (HIIT). Conclusion Our findings suggest that it is not necessary to physically overexert oneself in order to achieve observable improvements to long-term memory. By also investigating uninterrupted wakeful rest, it reaffirmed the importance of the consolidation period for the formation of long-term memories.
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Background: This study compared the acute effects of aerobic (AE) and resistance (RE) exercise on reaction time (RT) and working memory (WM) in individuals with intellectual disability. Methods: RT tests and Corsi test for WM were performed before and after three intervention sessions: AE, RE, or control session consisting on watching video. Results: The RT values decreased significantly (p < .001) after both of AE and RE with higher extend after the RE but did not vary following the control session. Corsi scores increased significantly (p < .001) after AE but not after RE or control session. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the effects of acute exercise on cognitive function in individuals with intellectual disability depend on the exercise mode as well as the nature of the cognitive task. The RE seems to be more recommended for RT enhancement whereas only the aerobic one could improve WM in these individuals.
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Emerging evidence indicates that acute exercise improves executive function, but its effects on higher-order executive functioning skills among people with a risk of Alzheimer’s disease are not well understood. This study addressed the effects of acute exercise on the planning dimension of executive function among late middle-age adults who carried Apolipoprotein (APOE)-ɛ4. Exercise volume was kept constant, but exercise intensity and duration were manipulated. Eighteen adults in the age range 55–70 years who carried APOE-ɛ4 were recruited for a laboratory-based study set in a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. There was a reading control condition along with three exercise conditions: Acute cycle exercise at a moderate intensity for 30 min (MI-30); higher intensity exercise of a shorter duration (16 min); and lower intensity exercise of a longer duration (40 min). Exercise volume was set with reference to energy expenditure in MI-30. The Tower of London Test was administered at the end of each condition. Acute aerobic exercise improved cognitive performance in regard to move-related scores and time-related scores, but not violation-related scores, when compared to the control condition. There was no difference in terms of the facilitation effect among the three exercise conditions. The present findings indicate that acute aerobic exercise, regardless of intensity/duration manipulation, facilitates higher-order executive function in late middle-aged APOE-ɛ4 carriers. Practitioners should, accordingly, consider exercise as a suitable intervention for those at risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
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Acute physical exercise works as an activator of the responses of the human organism to stress. This is based on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affecting physical, physiological and psychological levels. This study aimed to analyse the effects of a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise on cognitive-behavioural responses: visuo-spatial path learning and memory, as well as physiological responses (salivary cortisol levels). Nineteen healthy male military-trained powerlifting subjects were tested in a within-subject design on two experimental days with an interval of 48 h. The stress and cognitive variables were measured by cortisol levels and Ruff-Light trail-learning test (RULIT) test scores, respectively. The results showed the immediate influence of acute exercise on cortisol, with significantly higher cortisol levels found in subjects after completion of the acute resistance exercise. In addition, this study found a significant deterioration of memory and learning ability after a dose of intense resistance exercise. In conclusion, the study highlights the relative effects of resistance exercise on cortisol and cognitive performance depending on the intensity and type of the exercise, the moment of measurement and the cerebral areas implicated.
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Scope Markers of oxidative and psychological stress are elevated during high intensity exercise. Additionally, when energy intake does not match expenditure, women who actively participate in sports and exercise are at risk of developing menstrual dysfunction, infertility and osteoporosis. Vitamin C is known to reduce exercise‐induced stress. Here we investigate the efficacy of consuming vitamin C from SunGoldTM kiwifruit compared to in isolation, in ameliorating exercise‐induced stress in recreationally active women. Method/results 10 eumenorrheic women were recruited in this crossover study and attended 3 exercise and 1 rest trial. In the exercise trials, participants consumed: 300 mg vitamin C from kiwifruit or drink, or had a placebo drink, followed by 30‐min exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% power. During rest visit, participants sat quietly and consumed a placebo drink. Salivary uric acid (oxidative stress) and cortisol (psychological stress) was measured before and immediately after exercise for 2 hours. Both vitamin C and kiwifruit reduced exercise‐induced uric acid, immediately after exercise. Vitamin C drink continued to decrease uric acid for a further 30 minutes and slightly attenuated exercise‐induced cortisol. Conclusion Consuming liquid vitamin C prior to high intensity cycling appears more effective than eating kiwifruit, in ameliorating exercise‐induced stress in recreationally active women of reproductive age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of judo workout by determining the testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses and their associations with the results of a judo fight. Methods: A prospective study involved 17 judokas. Three blood samples were taken from each athlete: at rest, immediately after a 90 min training session and 72 hours later immediately after a 5 min fight , to evaluate T, C and lactic acid. Results: Results showed no significant difference for T (p = 0.17), C (p = 0.51) or testosterone/cortisol (T/C) ratio (t = 0.901 (16), p =0.38) after training. A significant difference was found for the C (p =0.002) and the T/C ratio (p =0.04) after the fight. In contrast with the losers, the winner judokas reported a significant increase in the C (p = 0.002) and T (p = 0.013) concentrations at rest and after the fight. No significant difference was found for C (p = 0.77) or T (p = 0.43) at rest and after training. Conclusions: The "fight" effort induced more biological stress than the "training" effort. In addition, the cortisol response and the T/C ratio revealed an association with a subsequent victorious judo fight. Thus, the hormonal response, particularly the C concentration, to a training could allow the assessment of the readiness of judokas for a future competition. This new strategy can allow to better manage the capacity of judoka at the training for the sake of an improvement of performance during competitions.
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Background: Acute aerobic exercise leads to positive physiological adaptations within the central nervous system. These findings inspired research on potential cognitive benefits following acute aerobic exercise. The effects of acute aerobic exercise on subsequent cognitive performance, by far, have been the most researched for interference control, a subcomponent of executive function. The results of primary studies on the effects of acute aerobic exercise on subsequent interference control performance are inconsistent. Therefore, we used meta-analytic methods to pool available effect sizes, and to identify covariates that determine the magnitude of exercise-induced interference control benefits. Methods: Medline, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus were searched for eligible records. Hedges' g corrected standardized mean difference values (SMDs) were used for analyses. Random-effects weights were used to pool effect sizes. Moderator analyses were conducted using meta-regressions and subgroups analyses. Covariates that were here tested for moderation included parameters of the applied exercise regimen (exercise intensity and exercise duration), characteristics of examined participants (age and fitness), and methodological features of existing research (type of control group, familiarization with test procedure, type of test variable, delay between exercise cessation, and testing). Results: Fifty studies, with data from 2,366 participants, were included in qualitative and quantitative synthesis. A small, significant beneficial effect of acute aerobic exercise on time-dependent measures of interference control was revealed (k = 49, Hedges' g = −0.26, 95%CI: −34 to −0.18). Effect sizes from time-dependent measures of interference control varied widely and heterogeneity reached statistical significance (T2 = 0.0557, I2 = 28.8%). Moderator analyses revealed that higher exercise intensities (vigorous intensity and high-intensity interval training), also participants at younger or older age, and participants who are familiar with the testing procedure prior to the experiment, benefitted most from acute aerobic exercise. However, noticeable heterogeneity remained unexplained within specific subgroups (high-intensity interval training, preadolescent children, and active and supervised control group). Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise improves subsequent interference control performance. However, the covariates exercise intensity, participants' age, and familiarization with testing procedure determine the magnitude of that effect. Methodological features were not found to influence the magnitude of effects. This dismisses some doubts that exercise induced benefits for interference control performance are scientific artifacts. The fact that large heterogeneity remained unexplained in some subgroups indicates the need for further research on covariates within these subgroups. It should be noted that effect sizes for all analyses were small.
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Objectives: This study addressed the effects of acute, moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise on the shifting aspect of cognition following a 30-min recovery period. It also explored the neuro-electrical activation that underlies the relationship between acute exercise and cognitive function through the examination of P3b and N1 components of event-related potentials. Design: A counterbalanced, repeated-measures experimental design. Methods: Thirty-five volunteer young adults completed two experimental sessions (i.e., acute aerobic exercise (AE) and resistance exercise (RE), matched in terms of intensity, and one reading session (control). The AE entailed cycling at 60-70% of maximal heart rate reserve for 30min. In the RE session, participants performed seven exercises with two sets of 8-12 repetitions at 70% of 10-repetition maximum. Each participant's neuro-electrical activation was recorded 30min after each session while s/he completed the task-switching test. Results: After the 30-min recovery period, both AE and RE elicited shorter response times in global switching (ηp2=0.24) and local switching (ηp2=0.16) were observed when compared to control. Additionally, larger P3b amplitudes (but not N1 amplitudes) were evident in global switching (ηp2=0.15) and local switching (ηp2=0.16), regardless of exercise modality. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that acute exercise has positive effects on cognitive function. Exercise-induced alterations during the later stages of mental processing might result in superior performance. There were significant selective benefits in terms of brain function regardless of exercise modality.
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Stress is something we all experience. While this statement may seem obvious given the antidotal evidence from our personal lives and conversations with others, it is also supported by findings from surveys where people are asked about how they feel about stress. In America, the stress levels are consistently higher that what people deem is a "healthy level of stress," and in 2015 78% of the population reported that they experienced a symptom of stress [1]. It probably also will not come as a surprise that stress is often related to the workplace and is associated with professional circumstances, deadlines, financially-related issues, etc. According to Fink [2], "numerous studies show that job stress is by far the major source of stress for American adults and that it has escalated progressively over the past few decades." The APA Stress in America report comes to a similar conclusion: "stress is a part of our lives and stems from the workplace: The workplace is where we spend most of our time, and it is also a the second most common reported (after money, which one could argue is also related to work) source of very/somewhat significant stress in America" [1]. The prevalence of stress also seems to have escalated over time-the portion of workers reporting high levels of stress at work rose from 55% to 75% between 1983 and 1996 [3]. Stress has even been dubbed the "Health Epidemic of the 21st Century" by the World Health Organization (WHO). This prevalence of stress also is a large burden to the economy. The WHO also estimates that stress costs American businesses $300 billion dollars per year. Clearly, there is a large benefit to addressing both the prevalence and management of stress. Yet the scientific literature has largely focused on the negative aspects of stress. A small but growing area of scientific literature offers some hope by providing evidence that not all consequences of stress are negative, indicating that we need to look at the concept of stress with a more nuanced framework. Cardon & Patel [4] indicate that, controlling for past income and prior health, self-employed people experience greater stress than employees, but stress positively impacts income and self-employment buffers the negative effect of stress on personal health. These relationships are moderated by positive affect (PA), where PA accentuates the positive effect of stress on personal income and mitigates the
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This study examined whether acute moderate intensity exercise results in a general or selective improvement in cognitive function. In addition, multiple stimulus-locked ERP components and serum BDNF levels were assessed to investigate potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying acute exercise effects on select aspects of cognitive performance. Thirty young adults were recruited and participated in exercise and reading control sessions in a counterbalanced order. Following treatments, the Stroop task was administrated, and N1, N2, P3, and N450 components of the ERP waveform were recorded and analyzed. Additionally, blood samples were withdrawn immediately following exercise or rest conditions prior to administration of the Stroop task. Acute exercise facilitated response times for both Stroop congruent and incongruent task conditions, with a similar magnitude of improvement. Larger P3 and reduced N450 amplitudes as well as decreased N450 latency were observed following exercise, but no effects on N1 and N2 components were found. This dose of exercise also did not influence serum BDNF levels. These findings suggest that moderate intensity acute exercise results in a generalized rather than selective improvement in cognition. The facilitation may be related to an increase in attentional or neural resource allocation and conflict detection processes reflected by longer latency endogenous components (P3, N450), but is not influenced by earlier sensory and monitoring processes revealed by earlier ERP components or by serum levels of BDNF.
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The purpose of this study was to examine possible dose-response and time course effects of an acute bout of resistance exercise on the core executive functions of inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Twenty-eight participants (14 females; Mage = 20.5 ± 2.1 yrs) completed a control condition and resistance exercise bouts performed at 40%, 70%, and 100% of their individual 10-repetition maximum. An executive function test battery was administered at 15-min and 180-min post-exercise to assess immediate and delayed effects of exercise on executive functioning. At 15-min post-exercise, high-intensity exercise resulted in less interference and improved reaction time (RT) for the Stroop task, while at 180-min low and moderate-intensity exercise resulted in improved performance on plus-minus and Simon tasks, respectively. These findings suggest a limited and task-specific influence of acute resistance exercise on executive function in healthy young adults.
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Purpose: To investigate whether athletes who engage in different modes of sports training correspondingly exhibit different patterns of performance on general cognition tasks. Methods: Sixty participants were recruited into an endurance, motorically complex, or control group, and were administered a series of physical tests and neuropsychological assessments. Results: Athletes in the endurance group demonstrated the highest levels of cardiovascular fitness and those in the motorically complex group exhibited the highest levels of motor fitness. Nonetheless, no differences in cognitive performance were observed between the 3 groups. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.
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Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is related to the preservation of lean body mass. Its decline during ageing is thought to make old adults more susceptible to sarcopenia and functional dependency. The aim of the present study was to investigate circulating total IGF-1 in old adults who engaged in a 12-weeks of progressive resistance training. Design: Intervention study. Setting: Community. Participants: Old Icelandic adults (N = 235, 73.7 ± 5.7 years, 58.2% female). Intervention: Twelve-week resistance exercise program (3 times/week; 3 sets, 6-8 repetitions at 75-80% of the 1-repetition maximum) designed to increase strength and muscle mass of major muscle groups. Measurements: IGF-1. Results: At baseline IGF-1 was significantly associated with lean body mass and appendicular muscle mass (also when corrected for age, gender and various covariates). After the training IGF-1 decreased significantly from 112.1 ± 35.6 to 106.1 ± 35.2 µg/L during the course of the study. On and individual level, IGF-1 decreased in 59% and increased in 39% of the participants. Changes in IGF-1 were inversely related to changes in lean body mass (rho = -0.176, P = 0.013 ) and appendicular muscle mass (rho = -0.162, P = 0.019) also when corrected for protein intake, age, gender, and other covariates. Conclusion: Serum total IGF-1 decreases after 12 weeks of resistance exercise in community dwelling old adults. When looked at IGF-1 changes for participants individually it becomes clear that IGF-1 response to resistances exercise is highly variable. Changes in IGF-1 are negatively related to changes in lean body mass during training, which supports the hypothesis that IGF-1 is redistributed from circulation into tissue during periods of active muscle building.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on motor response inhibition using both behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Methods: The P3 and N1 event-related potential (ERP) components were recorded while performing a stop-signal task in 21 college students following a moderately intense acute exercise bout for 30 min and a sedentary control session that involved reading. Results: Acute exercise induced a shorter stop signal response time (SSRT) as compared to control; however, the go response time (Go RT) remained unchanged. In examining the ERP data, acute exercise increased both P3 amplitude and latency but did not affect the N1 component. Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytic measures, the evidence regarding the optimal exercise intensity at which improvements in speed of cognitive function are triggered. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the catecholamine, lactate, and ventilatory thresholds is the point at which significant improvements in speed of cognitive function are observed. Methods: We compared mean effect sizes for threshold studies and for those studies where exercise intensity was classed as moderate (40%–79% VO2max or equivalent) but in which the thresholds were not measured. Results: Random effects meta-analysis showed significant, moderate, mean effect sizes for studies at the threshold (g = 0.58, Z = 2.98, p
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old) attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 40 minutes after (follow-up) the intervention or control condition respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition levelled out 40 minutes after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity including cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained trough cortisol elevation after acute physical activity.
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This study had the following two aims: First, to explore the effects of acute resistance exercise (RE, i.e., using exercise machines to contract and stretch muscles) on behavioral and electrophysiological performance when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in young male adults; Second, to investigate the potential biochemical mechanisms of such facilitative effects using two neurotrophic factors [i.e., growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)] and the cortisol levels elicited by such an exercise intervention mode with two different exercise intensities. Sixty young male adults were recruited and randomly assigned to a high-intensity (HI) exercise group, moderate-intensity (MI) exercise group, and non-exercise-intervention (NEI) group. Blood samples were taken, and the behavioral and electrophysiological indices were simultaneously measured when individuals performed a Go/No-Go task combined with the Erikson Flanker paradigm at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 minutes of moderate- or high-intensity RE or a control period. The results showed that the acute RE could not only benefit the subjects’ behavioral (i.e., RTs and accuracy) performance, as found in previous studies, but also increase the P3 amplitude. Although the serum GH and IGF-1 levels were significantly increased via moderate or high intensity RE in both the MI and HI groups, the increased serum levels of neurotrophic factors were significantly decreased about 20 minutes after exercise. In addition, such changes were not correlated with the changes in cognitive (i.e., behavioral and electrophysiological) performance. In contrast, the serum levels of cortisol in the HI and MI groups were significantly lower after acute RE, and the changes in cortisol levels were significantly associated with the changes in electrophysiological (i.e., P3 amplitude) performance. The findings suggest the beneficial effects of acute RE on executive functioning could be d
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Purpose: The study aimed to provide evidence-based recommendations for the prescription of a single session of exercise to improve cognitive performance. In particular, the purpose was to determine the dose-response relation between exercise duration and cognitive performance for a moderate-intensity session of aerobic exercise. Methods: Twenty-six healthy young men participated in a reading control treatment and three exercise treatments presented in a random order. The exercise treatments were designed on the basis of the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines and consisted of a 5-min warm-up, a 5-min cooldown, and cycling at moderate intensity (approximately 65% HR reserve) for 10, 20, or 45 min. The Stroop test was administrated after completion of each assigned treatment. Results: Exercise at moderate intensity for 20 min resulted in significantly better cognitive performance, as assessed by shorter response time and higher accuracy. This result was found regardless of the type of cognitive function assessed. In addition, a curvilinear dose-response relation between exercise duration and cognitive performance was observed. Conclusions: An exercise session consisting of a 5-min warm-up, 20 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and a 5-min cooldown improves cognition, whereas shorter or longer durations of moderate exercise have negligible benefits. This study provides the foundation for the prescription of a single session of moderate exercise to facilitate cognitive function in healthy younger adults.
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This study aims to identify the acute effects of physical exercise on specific cognitive functions immediately following an increase in cardiovascular activity. Stair-climbing exercise is used to increase the cardiovascular output of human subjects. The color-naming Stroop Test was used to identify the cognitive improvements in executive function with respect to processing speed and error rate. The study compared the Stroop results before and immediately after exercise and before and after nonexercise, as a control. The results show that there is a significant increase in processing speed and a reduction in errors immediately after less than 30 min of aerobic exercise. The improvements are greater for the incongruent than for the congruent color tests. This suggests that physical exercise induces a better performance in a task that requires resolving conflict (or interference) than a task that does not. There is no significant improvement for the nonexercise control trials. This demonstrates that an increase in cardiovascular activity has significant acute effects on improving the executive function that requires conflict resolution (for the incongruent color tests) immediately following aerobic exercise more than similar executive functions that do not require conflict resolution or involve the attention-inhibition process (for the congruent color tests).
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent.
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The effect of exercise intensity on the tracking of serum and salivary cortisol responses was examined in 12 endurance-trained males (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 58.2 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min). Subjects rested for 30 min (control) and exercised on a cycle ergometer for 30 min at 40% (low), 60% (moderate), and 80% (high intensity) of VO2max on separate days. Serum and saliva samples were collected pretrial, immediately posttrial, and 30 min into the recovery period from each trial. Cortisol responses increased significantly for both serum (40.4%; P = .001) and saliva (170.6%; P = .007) only in response to high-intensity exercise. Peak saliva cortisol occurred at 30 min of recovery, whereas peak serum was at the immediate posttrial sampling time point. The association between serum and saliva cortisol across all trials was examined using concordance correlation (Rc) analysis, which accounts for repeated measures. The overall correlation between serum and saliva cortisol levels in all matched samples was significant (Rc = 0.728; P = .001). The scatter plot revealed that salivary cortisol responses tracked closely to those of serum at lower concentrations, but not as well at higher concentrations. Findings suggest salivary measurements of cortisol closely mirror those in the serum and that peak salivary concentrations do not occur until at least 30 min into the recovery from intense exercise.
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The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance were examined using meta-analytic techniques. The overall mean effect size was dependent on the timing of cognitive assessment. During exercise, cognitive task performance was impaired by a mean effect of -0.14. However, impairments were only observed during the first 20min of exercise. Otherwise, exercise-induced arousal enhanced performance on tasks that involved rapid decisions and automatized behaviors. Following exercise, cognitive task performance improved by a mean effect of 0.20. Arousal continued to facilitate speeded mental processes and also enhanced memory storage and retrieval. Positive effects were observed following exercise regardless of whether the study protocol was designed to measure the effects of steady-state exercise, fatiguing exercise, or the inverted-U hypothesis. Finally, cognitive performance was affected differentially by exercise mode. Cycling was associated with enhanced performance during and after exercise, whereas treadmill running led to impaired performance during exercise and a small improvement in performance following exercise. These results are indicative of the complex relation between exercise and cognition. Cognitive performance may be enhanced or impaired depending on when it is measured, the type of cognitive task selected, and the type of exercise performed.
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A growing number of human studies have reported the beneficial influences of acute as well as chronic exercise on cognitive functions. However, neuroimaging investigations into the neural substrates of the effects of acute exercise have yet to be performed. Using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we sought cortical activation related to changes in the Stroop interference test, elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise, in healthy volunteers (N=20). The compactness and portability of fNIRS allowed on-site cortical examination in a laboratory with a cycle ergometer, enabling strict control of the exercise intensity of each subject by assessing their peak oxygen intake (VO2peak). We defined moderate exercise intensity as 50% of a subject's peak oxygen uptake (50%VO2peak). An acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant improvement of cognitive performance reflecting Stroop interference as measured by reaction time. Consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies, we detected brain activation due to Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral) in the lateral prefrontal cortices in both hemispheres. This Stroop-interference-related activation was significantly enhanced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the acute bout of moderate exercise. The enhanced activation significantly coincided with the improved cognitive performance. This suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely the neural substrate for the improved Stroop performance elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise. fNIRS, which allows physiological monitoring and functional neuroimaging to be combined, proved to be an effective tool for examining the cognitive effects of exercise.
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The purpose of the present commentary is to introduce relevant issues with respect to the measurement of executive function in physical activity studies. Suggested definitions of executive function are introduced, and executive function tasks that are commonly used in the neuropsychological literature are presented and briefly described. The extant literature on physical activity and cognition is discussed, and issues relative to the limitations of this body of literature are raised. In summary, research on the effect of physical activity on executive function is still in its infancy. We encourage researchers in this field to provide a clear definition of executive function, to carefully consider the relevance of published effect sizes to their own research questions, and to consider either providing a logical rationale for their selection of particular executive function measures or to use multiple measures of executive function when exploring relationships between physical activity and executive function.
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The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan.
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Objectives: To evaluate the effect of acute resistance exercise on multiple cognitive measures in late middle-aged adults and to address the question of whether general or selective cognitive improvements occur. Design: A counterbalanced repeated-measures experimental design. Methods: Thirty adults (mean age=58.1 ± 3.0 years) were administered five different Stroop test conditions before and after a single bout of resistance exercise and after a no-treatment control. The resistance exercise protocol involved two sets of seven exercises performed at 70% of a 10-repetition maximum, with 30 and 60 s between each set and each exercise, respectively. Results: The exercise treatment resulted in significantly enhanced performance across all Stroop conditions when compared with the control (p<.001). Furthermore, the effect of the exercise treatment on Stroop incongruent performance corresponded to the largest positive influence compared to the performance observed under the other four Stroop test conditions. Conclusions: These findings extend the current knowledge base by demonstrating that acute resistance exercise facilitates general cognition but has a more beneficial effect on cognition that involves executive control.
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Introduction: This study examined the effects of short-term physical training on the acute hormonal response (i.e., growth hormone, total and free insulin-like growth factor I [IGF-I], and IGF binding proteins [IGFBP]-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) to resistance exercise (RE) in women. Methods: Forty-six women (20.3 ± 0.3 yr, mass = 64.1 ± 7.3 kg, height = 165.7 ± 1.0 cm) were randomly assigned to an endurance training (E), resistance training (R), combined training (R + E), or control (C) group for 8wk. Subjects completed a standardized bout of RE (six sets of back squats at 10 repetition maximum) before and after training. Blood samples were obtained at rest (PRE), after the third set, immediately postexercise (POST), and at 15 min and 30 min after exercise. Results: Acute RE significantly increased (P < 0.05) serum growth hormone (mean ± SD; change from PRE to POST = +10.9 ± 7.5 μg·L-1), total IGF-I (+66.1 ± 25.4 μg·L-1), IGFBP-1 (+2.5 ± 3.1 μg·L-1), IGFBP-2 (+86.0 ± 86.8 μg·L-1), and IGFBP-3 (+0.69 ± 0.25 mg·L-1) concentrations and decreased free IGF-I concentrations (-0.14 ± 0.21 μg·L-1). After 8 wk of training, total IGF-I concentrations were significantly increased (change in POST concentrations from week 0 to week 8 = +82.5 ± 120.8 μg·L-1), and IGFBP-1 concentrations were significantly decreased (-6.7 ± 13.6 μg·L-1) during exercise in groups that participated in resistance training (R and R + E); no significant changes were seen after E or C. Conclusions: Participation in resistance training increased total IGF-I and reduced IGFBP-1 concentrations during acute RE, indicating exercise mode-specific adaptations in the circulating IGF-I system.
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The utility of measuring salivary cortisol has become increasingly appreciated since the early 1980s. Salivary cortisol is a measure of active free cortisol and follows the diurnal rhythm of serum or plasma cortisol. The saliva sample may be collected by drooling or through the use of absorbent swabs which are placed into the mouth until saturated. Salivary cortisol is therefore convenient for patients and research participants to collect noninvasively on an outpatient basis. Several assay techniques have been used to measure salivary cortisol, including radioimmunoassay and more recently liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytical sensitivity varies between these assay methods, as does the potential for cross-reactivity with other steroids. The interpretation of salivary cortisol levels relies on rigorous standardization of sampling equipment, sampling protocols and assay technology with establishment of a local reference range. Clinically, the commonest use for salivary cortisol is measuring late-night salivary cortisol as a screening test for Cushing's syndrome. Several studies have shown diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of over 90%, which compares very favourably with other screening tests for Cushing's syndrome such as the 24-h urinary-free cortisol and the 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test. There are emerging roles for the use of salivary cortisol in diagnosing adrenal insufficiency, particularly in conditions associated with low cortisol-binding globulin levels, and in the monitoring of glucocorticoid replacement. Finally, salivary cortisol has been used extensively as a biomarker of stress in a research setting, especially in studies examining psychological stress with repeated measurements.
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There is a substantial body of literature related to the effects of a single session of exercise on cognitive performance. The premise underlying this research is that physiological changes in response to exercise have implications for cognitive function. This literature has been reviewed both narratively and meta-analytically and, although the research findings are mixed, researchers have generally concluded that there is a small positive effect. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated comprehensive analysis of the extant literature on acute exercise and cognitive performance and to explore the effects of moderators that have implications for mechanisms of the effects. Searches of electronic databases and examinations of reference lists from relevant studies resulted in 79 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Consistent with past findings, analyses indicated that the overall effect was positive and small (g=0.097 n=1034). Positive and small effects were also found in all three acute exercise paradigms: during exercise (g=0.101; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.041-0.160), immediately following exercise (g=0.108; 95% CI; 0.069-0.147), and after a delay (g=0.103; 95% CI; 0.035-0.170). Examination of potential moderators indicated that exercise duration, exercise intensity, type of cognitive performance assessed, and participant fitness were significant moderators. In conclusion, the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance are generally small; however, larger effects are possible for particular cognitive outcomes and when specific exercise parameters are used.
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ObjectivesTo examine the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise on cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults.DesignA randomized controlled trial design.MethodsForty-one adults (Mage = 49.10 years, SD = 8.73) were randomly assigned to either resistance exercise or a control condition. The resistance exercise condition consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 6 exercises, and the control condition involved reading about resistance exercise for a time period approximating the duration of the exercise condition. The Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test (TMT) were completed at baseline and immediately following performance of the treatment.ResultsResults indicated that resistance exercise significantly benefits speed of processing (Stroop Word and Stroop Color), and that there is a trend towards resistance exercise benefiting performance on an executive function task (Stroop Color–Word) that requires shifting of the habitual response. However, the results for the TMT were not significant which demonstrates that acute resistance exercise has a limited effect on inhibition.ConclusionThe present findings extend the literature by indicating that an acute bout of resistance exercise has a positive impact on automatic cognitive processes and on particular types of executive function in middle-aged adults.
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Little is known, about the influence of different exercise intensities on cognition, the concentration of steroid hormones (SHs), and their interaction in adolescents. Sixty high school students from the 9th grade were randomly assigned to two experimental (EG 1, EG 2) and a control group (CG). Saliva collection took place after a normal school lesson (t1) and after a 12-min resting control or exercise (t2) in a defined heart rate (HR) interval (EG 1: 50–65% HR max, n = 18; EG 2: 70–85% HR max, n = 20; CG: no intervention, n = 21). Saliva was analyzed for T and C. Cognitive performance was assessed using a working memory task (Letter Digit Span; LDS), which took place after t1 and t2. Repeated measure ANOVAs revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase of C and T level only for EG 2. Results for LDS showed a significant improvement due to exercise when groups were split into low and high performer at pre-test with a higher improvement of the low performers. In addition, post-test T levels negatively correlated with changes in LDS performance in EG 2. The results indicate that the concentrations of C and T are intensity dependent, and that exercise improves working memory in low performing adolescents. Only increased T, however, seems to be related to pre-to-post-test changes in working memory by having a detrimental effect on performance.
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Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans.
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Studies have shown that, depending on intensity, endurance exercise increases neurotrophins and thereby induces neuroplasticity. However, data on the effect of acute resistance exercise at different intensities on neurotrophins is not yet available. Thus, we conducted 2 trials to determine the serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) before and after a low or high intensity resistance exercise in 11 healthy humans. Exercise load was related to 3 repetitions of maximal effort isokinetic work involving knee extension under alternating concentric and eccentric conditions for muscle work at a velocity of 60°s-1 registered during a familiarization session. The torque angle diagrams from these 3 repetitions were averaged and displayed as target curves in the test sessions, the intensity of resistance exercise was set at 40% (trial: R1) or 110% (trial: R2) of the averaged individual maximal effort curve, respectively. After resistance exercise, serum IGF-1 was increased significantly (p<0.01) by 28% in R1 and 16% in R2 compared to pre-exercise levels. Resistance exercise did not increase serum VEGF at any time point. Serum BDNF increased during exercise compared to post-exercise, but did not achieve significant difference from pre-exercise values. The present study shows that either low or high resistance exercise increases levels of IGF-1, but not of BDNF or VEGF. This finding is of importance for health promotion by means of resistance exercise because circulating serum IGF-1 has been demonstrated to mediate positive effects of exercise on brain functions.
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Research on the acute effects of exercise on cognitive performance by older adults is limited by a focus on nonhealthy populations. Furthermore, the duration of cognitive improvements after exercise has not been examined. Thus, this study was designed to test the immediate and delayed effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance of healthy older adults. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop task. Participants were randomly assigned to an exercise (20 min of walking) or control (sitting quietly) condition. The Stroop task was administered at baseline and at 12 time points after treatment. Acute exercise resulted in better Stroop test performance immediately postexercise; however, the effects were limited to the color test. No effects of exercise on performance were observed for the Stroop interference or inhibition tests. Findings suggest that acute exercise performed by healthy older adults has short-term benefits for speed of processing but does not affect other types of cognitive functioning.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive performance. Sixty-eight participants were randomly assigned into control, 40%, 70%, or 100% of 10-repetition maximal resistance exercise groups. Participants were tested on Day 1 (baseline) and on Day 2 (measures were taken relative to performance of the treatment). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, self-reported arousal, and affect were assessed on both days. Cognitive performance was assessed on Day 1 and before and following treatment on Day 2. Results from regression analyses indicated that there is a significant linear effect of exercise intensity on information processing speed, and a significant quadratic trend for exercise intensity on executive function. Thus, there is a dose-response relationship between the intensity of resistance exercise and cognitive performance such that high-intensity exercise benefits speed of processing, but moderate intensity exercise is most beneficial for executive function.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--George Peabody College for Teachers, 1933.
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Chronic exercise has been reported to improve cognitive function. However, whether and how different types of exercise affect various learning and memory tasks remain uncertain. To address this issue, male BALB/c mice were trained for 4 weeks under two different exercise protocols: moderate treadmill running or voluntary wheel running. After exercise training, their spatial memory and aversive memory were evaluated by a Morris water maze and by one-trial passive avoidance (PA), respectively. Levels of neural plasticity-related proteins, i.e. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and synaptotagmin I (Syt I), in hippocampus and amygdala were determined by ELISA or immunoblotting. Finally, the functional roles of these proteins in the basolateral amygdala were verified by locally blocking them with K252a (a TrkB kinase inhibitor), or lentivirus expressing Syt I shRNA. We found that (1) although both moderate treadmill running and wheel running improved the Morris water maze performance, only the former improved PA performance; (2) likewise, both exercise protocols upregulated the BDNF-TrkB pathway and Syt I in the hippocampus, whereas only treadmill exercise upregulated their expression levels in the amygdala; (3) local injection of K252a abolished the treadmill exercise-facilitated PA performance and upregulation of amygdalar TrkB and Syt I; and (4) local administration of Syt I shRNA abolished the treadmill exercise-facilitated PA performance and upregulation of amygdalar Syt I. Therefore, our results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different brain regions, and thus exert diverse effects on various forms of learning and memory.
Article
The goal of this investigation was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on the executive control of working memory. Twenty-one young adult participants completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test and maximal strength tests. On subsequent days, task performance measures of reaction time (RT) and accuracy were collected while participants completed a modified Sternberg working memory task before the start of, immediately after, and 30 min after an intervention consisting of 30 min of either resistance or aerobic exercise and a seated rest control. Findings indicated shorter RT immediately and 30 min after acute aerobic exercise relative to the preexercise baseline with no such effects observed after resistance exercise or seated rest. Further, in the aerobic condition, a larger reduction in RT from the baseline occurred during task conditions requiring increased working memory capacity. Again, no effect was observed in the resistance exercise or the seated rest conditions. These data extend the current knowledge base by indicating that acute exercise-induced changes in cognition are disproportionately related to executive control and may be specific to the aerobic exercise domain.
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Cross-sectional comparisons have consistently revealed that increased age is associated with lower levels of cognitive performance, even in the range from 18 to 60 years of age. However, the validity of cross-sectional comparisons of cognitive functioning in young and middle-aged adults has been questioned because of the discrepant age trends found in longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses. The results of the current project suggest that a major factor contributing to the discrepancy is the masking of age-related declines in longitudinal comparisons by large positive effects associated with prior test experience. Results from three methods of estimating retest effects in this project, together with results from studies comparing non-human animals raised in constant environments and from studies examining neurobiological variables not susceptible to retest effects, converge on a conclusion that some aspects of age-related cognitive decline begin in healthy educated adults when they are in their 20s and 30s.
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In order to analyze the health risks of insufficient activity by international comparisons, the first author obtained the permission to translate and develop a Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The objective was to determine culturally sensitive Chinese translations for the terms "moderate", "vigorous" and "physical activity" as well as to identify representative types of physical activity for Taiwanese. This study used discussions by 12 expert focus groups, 6 expert audits, a scale survey, field study, Cognitive Aspect Survey Methodology (CASM), dual independent translation and back-translation to establish a consensus on physical activity-related concepts, terminologies and types that define the intensity of common activities of Taiwanese by integrating both local and foreign studies. The Chinese terms "fei li", "zhong deng fei li" and "shen ti huo dong", respectively, were identified as suitable and adequate translations for the English terms "vigorous", "moderate" and "physical activity". The common Taiwanese activities were accurately categorized and listed in questionnaires, forming culturally sensitive scales. Taiwan versions of IPAQ's self-administered long version (SL), self-administered short version (SS), and telephone interview short version (TS) were developed. Their content validity indices were .992, .994, and .980, as well as .994, .992, and .994 for language equivalence and meaning similarity between the English and Chinese versions of the IPAQ-LS, IPAQ-SS, and IPAQ-TS, respectively. Consistency values for the English and Chinese versions in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients were .945, .704, and .894, respectively. The IPAQ-Taiwan is not only a sensitive and precise tool, but also shows the effectiveness of the methodology (CASM) used in tool development. Subjects who did not regularly exercise and had an education less than a junior high school level underestimated the moderate-intensity physical activity.
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There is a great demand for perceptual effort ratings in order to better understand man at work. Such ratings are important complements to behavioral and physiological measurements of physical performance and work capacity. This is true for both theoretical analysis and application in medicine, human factors, and sports. Perceptual estimates, obtained by psychophysical ratio-scaling methods, are valid when describing general perceptual variation, but category methods are more useful in several applied situations when differences between individuals are described. A presentation is made of ratio-scaling methods, category methods, especially the Borg Scale for ratings of perceived exertion, and a new method that combines the category method with ratio properties. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed in both theoretical-psychophysical and psychophysiological frames of reference.
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This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions-mental set shifting ("Shifting"), information updating and monitoring ("Updating"), and inhibition of prepotent responses ("Inhibition")-and their roles in complex "frontal lobe" or "executive" tasks. One hundred thirty-seven college students performed a set of relatively simple experimental tasks that are considered to predominantly tap each target executive function as well as a set of frequently used executive tasks: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of Hanoi (TOH), random number generation (RNG), operation span, and dual tasking. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the three target executive functions are moderately correlated with one another, but are clearly separable. Moreover, structural equation modeling suggested that the three functions contribute differentially to performance on complex executive tasks. Specifically, WCST performance was related most strongly to Shifting, TOH to Inhibition, RNG to Inhibition and Updating, and operation span to Updating. Dual task performance was not related to any of the three target functions. These results suggest that it is important to recognize both the unity and diversity of executive functions and that latent variable analysis is a useful approach to studying the organization and roles of executive functions.
Article
Acute cardiovascular exercise effects on cognitive function were examined using an executive control task by comparing neuroelectric and behavioral performance at baseline with post-exercise in 20 undergraduates. A within-subjects design was used to assess the P3 component of an event-related brain potential (ERP) and behavioral performance using a task that varied the amount of executive control required. The baseline session involved participation on the Eriksen flankers task followed by a graded maximal exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness. The exercise session consisted of a 30-min acute bout of exercise on a treadmill followed by the Eriksen flankers task after heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Across midline recordings sites, results indicated larger P3 amplitude following acute exercise compared to baseline. Shorter P3 latency was observed during the baseline Eriksen flankers task for the neutral compared to the incompatible condition; an effect not found following the acute bout of exercise. These findings suggest that acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise affect neuroelectric processes underlying executive control through the increased allocation of neuroelectric resources and through changes in cognitive processing and stimulus classification speed.
Article
The interactive effect of exercise intensity and task difficulty on human cognitive processing was investigated using the P3 component of an event-related brain potential (ERP). Exercise intensity was established using Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale, and task difficulty was manipulated using a modified flanker task comprised of incongruent and neutral trials. Twelve participants (22 to 30 y) performed the flanker task during a baseline session, and again after light (RPE: 11), moderate (RPE: 13), and hard (RPE: 15) cycling exercise. Results indicated that the P3 amplitude increases across task conditions following light and moderate cycling, but not during hard cycling, relative to baseline, suggesting that P3 amplitude may change in an inverted U fashion by as a result of acute exercise intensity. Additionally, the expected delay in P3 latency for incongruent relative to neutral trials was observed during the baseline condition. However, following acute exercise these task condition differences diminished across exercise intensities. Moreover, reaction times following all exercise conditions were shorter when compared to the baseline condition. These findings suggest that P3 latency is more sensitive to task difficulty manipulated by a flanker task than behavioral measures, and P3 latency during trials requiring greater executive control processes might be more sensitive to the effects of acute exercise than tasks requiring minimal effort.
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The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations.
  • Kristenson
Effect of acute exercise on executive function: An event-related potential and brain-derived neurotropic factor study
  • Wang