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Anesthesia practice for endovascular therapy of acute ischemic stroke in Europe

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Abstract

Purpose of review: Anesthetic assistance is often required during endovascular therapy (EVT) of large vessel occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It is currently debated whether EVT should be performed under general anesthesia or conscious sedation. This review will summarize the recent literature with emphasis on the influence of anesthesia method on neurological outcome. Recent findings: Recent randomized trials have reported no difference in outcome after EVT performed under either conscious sedation or general anesthesia. This is in contrast to a substantial number of retrospective studies, which found that EVT performed under general anesthesia was associated with a worse neurologic outcome compared with conscious sedation. Anesthetic drugs affect vessel tone and the level of blood pressure may influence outcome. The most favorable choice of anesthetic agents and ventilatory strategy is still debated. Summary: The optimal anesthetic practice for EVT remains to be identified. Currently, conscious sedation is often an easy first-line strategy, but general anesthesia can be considered an equal and safe alternative to conscious sedation when there is a carefully administered anesthetic that maintains strict hemodynamic control. Attention to ventilation is advocated. The presence of a specialized neuroanesthesiologist or otherwise dedicated anesthesia personnel is highly recommended.

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... However, the clinical outcomes of ET vary from patient to patient, depends on both patient factors (age, comorbidities, severity of stroke), as well as procedural factors (time window, operational details) [4,5]. Previous studies have demon-strated that anesthetic approach also have an effect on clinical outcomes, but which anesthetic approach results in the best clinical outcomes remains unclear [6][7][8]. Both general anesthesia (GA) and conscious sedation/monitored anesthesia care (MAC) during ET have been implemented in clinical trials, and several retrospective studies reported that patients treated with general GA may have worse outcomes than those treated with MAC, but these results may have various bias, including selection bias, recall bias and confounding bias [9][10][11]. ...
... Table 3 and Figure 4). Final infarct volume was smaller in the GA group than in the MAC group (median (IQR), 27 24-hour NIHSS score showed that 11 (interquartile range (IQR), [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] in GA group and 11 (interquartile range (IQR), 7-25) in MAC group, but were not statistically significant. The median (IQR) of length of hospital stay was 17 (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24) d after GA and 16 (9-21) d after MAC, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.095). ...
... Although these studies demonstrated that patients treated with MAC behaved similarly to those treated with GA with similar clinical outcomes and complications, they failed to balance the differences in the NIHSS scores between the GA group and MAC group. NIHSS scores at 24 hours (median (IQR): 11 (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22) vs. 11 (7-25)) were not significantly higher in the GA cohort. In addition, our study had been well balanced regarding the NIHSS score prospectively, which made our founding more reliable. ...
Article
Objective: The objective is to compare the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) on clinical outcomes in patients with endovascular therapy for vertebrobasilar occlusion stroke. Methods: 139 patients undergoing endovascular therapy for vertebrobasilar stroke, were recruited. The patients were randomized into GA group and MAC group (about 1:1 ratio). GA group received general anesthesia and MAC group received monitored anesthesia care during endovascular therapy. The primary outcome measure was the shift in the degree of disability among the 2 groups as measured by the modified Rankin scale score (mRS) at 90 days (80-100 days). Secondary end points included infarct volume and related complications. Results: The patients were assigned randomly (about 1:1 allocation) to GA group (n=72) and MAC group (n=67). The primary outcome of functional independence measured by 90-day mRS score was not significantly different between the 2 groups (median (IQR), 2 (1-3) vs. 3 (1-4); P=0.316). Final infarct volume was smaller in the GA group than in the MAC group (median (IQR), 27.60 (13.75-83.52) vs. 33.60 (26.85-92.95); P=0.045). There were no differences with statistical significance in rates of successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) 2b-3) between 2 groups (73.61% vs. 76.12%; P=0.734). Early neurological outcomes measured by the 24-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (NIHSS) showed that 11 (interquartile range (IQR), 3-22) in GA group and 11 (interquartile range (IQR), 7-25) in MAC group, but were not statistically significant. There was no statistical difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Conclusion: For patients who underwent endovascular therapy for vertebrobasilar occlusion strok caused by occlusions in the posterior circulation, MAC appears to be as effective as GA. However, MAC is associated with bigger final infarct volume. Future studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
... EVT may be performed in general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation (CS). Several studies have examined the effects and the benefits of GA vs. CS, but the optimal approach is still a matter of debate [4]. Both Klemens Winder and Michael Knott contributed equally to this work. ...
... Both Klemens Winder and Michael Knott contributed equally to this work. methods are considered equally safe, as long as hemodynamic stability is guaranteed and no delay in "door to grointime" for EVT is produced [4]. The anesthetic method of choice for EVT depends on patients' condition, preference of the treating physician, as well as on organizational and logistic aspects of the local hospital [2,4,5]. ...
... methods are considered equally safe, as long as hemodynamic stability is guaranteed and no delay in "door to grointime" for EVT is produced [4]. The anesthetic method of choice for EVT depends on patients' condition, preference of the treating physician, as well as on organizational and logistic aspects of the local hospital [2,4,5]. CS is often used as an easy first-line strategy when patients are cooperative, whereas GA is preferred in patients with excessive movements, respiratory compromise, or loss of consciousness [4,[6][7][8][9][10]. ...
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Purpose Endovascular therapy (EVT) of large-vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) may be performed in general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation (CS). We intended to determine the contribution of ischemic cerebral lesion sites on the physician’s decision between GA and CS using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). Methods In a prospective local database, we sought patients with documented AIS and EVT. Age, stroke severity, lesion volume, vigilance, and aphasia scores were compared between EVT patients with GA and CS. The ischemic lesions were analyzed on CT or MRI scans and transformed into stereotaxic space. We determined the lesion overlap and assessed whether GA or CS is associated with specific cerebral lesion sites using the voxel-wise Liebermeister test. Results One hundred seventy-nine patients with AIS and EVT were included in the analysis. The VLSM analysis yielded associations between GA and ischemic lesions in the left hemispheric middle cerebral artery territory and posterior circulation areas. Stroke severity and lesion volume were significantly higher in the GA group. The prevalence of aphasia and aphasia severity was significantly higher and parameters of vigilance lower in the GA group. Conclusions The VLSM analysis showed associations between GA and ischemic lesions in the left hemispheric middle cerebral artery territory and posterior circulation areas including the thalamus that are known to cause neurologic deficits, such as aphasia or compromised vigilance, in AIS-patients with EVT. Our data suggest that higher disability, clinical impairment due to neurological deficits like aphasia, or reduced alertness of affected patients may influence the physician’s decision on using GA in EVT.
... Conscious sedation (CS) is frequently chosen as a first-line approach [6]. Conscious sedation (CS) with local anaesthesia (LA) have some potential advantages: less cardiovascular impact, shorter time to procedure start and the possibility of continuous neurologic evaluation during the procedure [7]. CS is not free from disadvantages anyway: a lack of patient immobilization and airway protection, procedural complications (i.e. ...
... CS is not free from disadvantages anyway: a lack of patient immobilization and airway protection, procedural complications (i.e. longer time to reperfusion, lower grade of reperfusion, vessel perforation, embolization, etc.) [6,7]. ...
Article
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Acute ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability for adults. Endovascular therapy is the standard of care for severe acute ischemic stroke, caused by large-vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation; however, the optimal anaesthetic management during the procedure is still a matter of debate. The best anesthetic treatment should mainly be related to patients' clinical conditions and the site of arterial occlusion. With this article, we share our experience based on the use of ketamine as the choosen hypnotic drug for general anesthesia, in order to avoid a sudden drop in blood pressure. The core of our proposal approach is the general anesthesia management by the medical emergency team with skills on both time-dependent diseases and neurocritical care.
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In the current study, two new Co(II)-containing coordination polymers (CPs) with the chemical formulae of {[Co(dimb)2(ndc)3]·2DMF}n (1) and {[Co2((R)-CBA)2(dimb)2](H2O)}n (2) have been successfully prepared by reaction of the N-donor ligand 1,3-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dimb) with the Co(NO3)2·6H2O and the different carboxylate ligands (1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H2ndc) for 1 and 4-(1-carboxyethoxy)benzoic acid (H2CBA ) for 2). Furthermore, the treatment effect of compounds 1 and 2 on the cardiac arrest induced by anesthesia was evaluated in the biological functional study. Firstly, the cardiac arrest-cardiopulmonary resuscitation animal model was constructed and compounds 1 and 2 were given for treatment at serious concentrations. The content of cardiac troponin T and B brain natriuretic peptide was measured with ELISA detection kit, and the RT-PCR was performed to detect the relative expression level of the Sirt1 in the rat myocardial tissue after compounds treatment.
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Background Observational studies have suggested that low blood pressure and blood pressure variability may partially explain adverse neurological outcome after endovascular therapy with general anaesthesia (GA) for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to further examine whether blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy are associated with neurological outcome. Methods The GOLIATH trial randomised 128 patients to either GA or conscious sedation for endovascular therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin Score. The haemodynamic protocol aimed at keeping the systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and mean blood pressure >70 mm Hg during the procedure. Blood pressure related parameters of interest included 20% reduction in mean blood pressure; mean blood pressure <70 mm Hg, <80 mm Hg, and <90 mm Hg, respectively; time with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg; procedural minimum and maximum mean and systolic blood pressure; mean blood pressure at the time of groin puncture; postreperfusion mean blood pressure; blood pressure variability; and use of vasopressors. Sensitivity analyses were performed in the subgroup of reperfused patients. Results Procedural average mean and systolic blood pressures were higher in the conscious sedation group (P<0.001). The number of patients with mean blood pressure <70–90 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, blood pressure variability, and use of vasopressors were all higher in the GA group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant association between any of the examined blood pressure related parameters and the modified Rankin Score in the overall patient population, and in the subgroup of patients with full reperfusion. Conclusion We found no statistically significant association between blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy and neurological outcome. Clinical trial registration NCT 02317237.
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Background: Thrombectomy is currently recommended for eligible patients with stroke who are treated within 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, with blinded outcome assessment, of thrombectomy in patients 6 to 16 hours after they were last known to be well and who had remaining ischemic brain tissue that was not yet infarcted. Patients with proximal middle-cerebral-artery or internal-carotid-artery occlusion, an initial infarct size of less than 70 ml, and a ratio of the volume of ischemic tissue on perfusion imaging to infarct volume of 1.8 or more were randomly assigned to endovascular therapy (thrombectomy) plus standard medical therapy (endovascular-therapy group) or standard medical therapy alone (medical-therapy group). The primary outcome was the ordinal score on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability) at day 90. Results: The trial was conducted at 38 U.S. centers and terminated early for efficacy after 182 patients had undergone randomization (92 to the endovascular-therapy group and 90 to the medical-therapy group). Endovascular therapy plus medical therapy, as compared with medical therapy alone, was associated with a favorable shift in the distribution of functional outcomes on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days (odds ratio, 2.77; P<0.001) and a higher percentage of patients who were functionally independent, defined as a score on the modified Rankin scale of 0 to 2 (45% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The 90-day mortality rate was 14% in the endovascular-therapy group and 26% in the medical-therapy group (P=0.05), and there was no significant between-group difference in the frequency of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (7% and 4%, respectively; P=0.75) or of serious adverse events (43% and 53%, respectively; P=0.18). Conclusions: Endovascular thrombectomy for ischemic stroke 6 to 16 hours after a patient was last known to be well plus standard medical therapy resulted in better functional outcomes than standard medical therapy alone among patients with proximal middle-cerebral-artery or internal-carotid-artery occlusion and a region of tissue that was ischemic but not yet infarcted. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; DEFUSE 3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02586415 .).
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Background and purpose: The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke in a single document. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 guidelines and subsequent updates. Methods: Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained. Members were not allowed to participate in discussions or to vote on topics relevant to their relations with industry. The members of the writing group unanimously approved all recommendations except when relations with industry precluded members voting. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 4 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. These guidelines use the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2015 Class of Recommendations and Levels of Evidence and the new American Heart Association guidelines format. Results: These guidelines detail prehospital care, urgent and emergency evaluation and treatment with intravenous and intra-arterial therapies, and in-hospital management, including secondary prevention measures that are appropriately instituted within the first 2 weeks. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care in both the prehospital and hospital settings. Conclusions: These guidelines are based on the best evidence currently available. In many instances, however, only limited data exist demonstrating the urgent need for continued research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
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Importance Endovascular therapy (EVT) is the standard of care for select patients who had a stroke caused by a large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, but there is uncertainty regarding the optimal anesthetic approach during EVT. Observational studies suggest that general anesthesia (GA) is associated with worse outcomes compared with conscious sedation (CS). Objective To examine the effect of type of anesthesia during EVT on infarct growth and clinical outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants The General or Local Anesthesia in Intra Arterial Therapy (GOLIATH) trial was a single-center prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point evaluation that enrolled patients from March 12, 2015, to February 2, 2017. Although the trial screened 1501 patients, it included 128 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation within 6 hours of onset; 1372 patients who did not fulfill inclusion criteria and 1 who did not provide consent were excluded. Primary analysis was unadjusted and according to the intention-to-treat principle. Interventions Patients were randomized to either the GA group or the CS group (1:1 allocation) before EVT. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was infarct growth between magnetic resonance imaging scans performed before EVT and 48 to 72 hours after EVT. The hypothesis formulated before data collection was that patients who were under CS would have less infarct growth. Results Of 128 patients included in the trial, 65 were randomized to GA, and 63 were randomized to CS. For the entire cohort, the mean (SD) age was 71.4 (11.4) years, and 62 (48.4%) were women. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were balanced between the GA and CS treatment arms. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 18 (interquartile range [IQR], 14-21). Four patients (6.3%) in the CS group were converted to the GA group. Successful reperfusion was significantly higher in the GA arm than in the CS arm (76.9% vs 60.3%; P = .04). The difference in the volume of infarct growth among patients treated under GA or CS did not reach statistical significance (median [IQR] growth, 8.2 [2.2-38.6] mL vs 19.4 [2.4-79.0] mL; P = .10). There were better clinical outcomes in the GA group, with an odds ratio for a shift to a lower modified Rankin Scale score of 1.91 (95% CI, 1.03-3.56). Conclusions and Relevance For patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation, GA did not result in worse tissue or clinical outcomes compared with CS. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02317237
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Background: The choice of anesthetic technique, general anesthesia (GA) versus Monitored Anesthesia Care, may impact the outcome of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with good discharge outcome in patients receiving GA for AIS. Materials and methods: Electronic medical records of patients above 18 years old who underwent endovascular treatment of AIS under GA at a Comprehensive Stroke Center from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed. Good outcome was defined as discharge modified Rankin Score 0 to 2 and poor outcome as modified Rankin Score 3 to 6; logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the clinical characteristics and the outcome. Results: In total, 88 patients (56 males), aged 63±15 years with median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 16 (range, 4 to 38) were included. Nineteen (22%) patients had good outcome and 78 (88%) had systolic blood pressure below the guideline recommended 140 mm Hg under GA. After adjusting for age and NIHSS score, the independent predictors of good discharge outcomes were higher maximum end-tidal carbon dioxide (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.28; P=0.02) and extubation after endovascular treatment (OR, 26.31; CI, 4.80-144.12; P<0.0001). A secondary analysis was performed after excluding 25 patients emergently intubated in the Emergency Department for airway protection. In the logistic regression analysis controlling for age and NIHSS score, postprocedure extubation was still associated with higher odds of good outcomes (OR, 13.35; CI, 2.58-68.90; P=0.002). Conclusions: These findings indicate the importance of ventilation management and extubation after endovascular intervention under GA in patients with AIS.
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Background and purpose: Retrospective studies have found that patients receiving general anesthesia for endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke have worse neurological outcome compared with patients receiving conscious sedation. In this prospective randomized single-center study, we investigated the impact of anesthesia technique on neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods: Ninety patients receiving endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in 2013 to 2016 were included and randomized to general anesthesia or conscious sedation. Difference in neurological outcome at 3 months, measured as modified Rankin Scale score, was analyzed (primary outcome) and early neurological improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and cerebral infarction volume. Age, sex, comorbidities, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, intraprocedural blood pressure, blood glucose, Paco2 and Pco2 modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score, and relevant time intervals were recorded. Results: In the general anesthesia group 19 of 45 patients (42.2%) and in the conscious sedation group 18 of 45 patients (40.0%) achieved a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 (P=1.00) at 3 months, with no differences in intraoperative blood pressure decline from baseline (P=0.57); blood glucose (P=0.94); PaCO2 (P=0.68); time intervals (P=0.78); degree of successful recanalization, 91.1% versus 88.9% (P=1.00); National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at 24 hours 8 (3-5) versus 9 (2-15; P=0.60); infarction volume, 20 (10-100) versus 20(10-54) mL (P=0.53); and hospital mortality (13.3% in both groups; P=1.00). Conclusions: In endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke, no difference was found between general anesthesia and conscious sedation in neurological outcome 3 months after stroke. Clinical trial registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01872884.
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Background and purpose: The impact of anesthesia technique on the outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke remains an issue of debate. We investigated the association of general anesthesia with outcomes in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for ischemic stroke. Methods: We performed a cohort study involving patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for ischemic stroke from 2009 to 2013, who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. An instrumental variable (hospital rate of general anesthesia) analysis was used to simulate the effects of randomization and investigate the association of anesthesia technique with case-fatality and length of stay. Results: Among 1174 patients, 441 (37.6%) underwent general anesthesia and 733 (62.4%) underwent conscious sedation. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we identified that general anesthesia was associated with a 6.4% increased case-fatality (95% confidence interval, 1.9%-11.0%) and 8.4 days longer length of stay (95% confidence interval, 2.9-14.0) in comparison to conscious sedation. This corresponded to 15 patients needing to be treated with conscious sedation to prevent 1 death. Our results were robust in sensitivity analysis with mixed effects regression and propensity score-adjusted regression models. Conclusions: Using a comprehensive all-payer cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy in New York State, we identified an association of general anesthesia with increased case-fatality and length of stay. These considerations should be taken into account when standardizing acute stroke care.
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In retrospective studies, patients receiving general anesthesia for endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke have worse neurological outcome compared with patients receiving conscious sedation. It has been suggested that this is caused by general anesthesia-associated hypotension. We investigated the effect of intraprocedural hypotension on neurological outcome. One hundred eight patients with acute ischemic stroke, who underwent endovascular treatment in general anesthesia between 2007 and 2012, were included. Analyzed predictors of neurological outcome were age, sex, comorbidities, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, intraprocedural relative changes in mean arterial blood pressure from baseline, blood glucose, modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score, and elapsed time from stroke to computed tomography, groin puncture, and recanalization/end of procedure. A fall in mean arterial blood pressure of >40% was an independent predictor for poor neurological outcome (P=0.032), as were higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (P=0.008) and lack of recanalization (P=0.003). Profound intraprocedural hypotension is an independent predictor for poor neurological outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular therapy in general anesthesia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
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Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, intraarterial treatment is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, proof of a beneficial effect on functional outcome is lacking. Methods: We randomly assigned eligible patients to either intraarterial treatment plus usual care or usual care alone. Eligible patients had a proximal arterial occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation that was confirmed on vessel imaging and that could be treated intraarterially within 6 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days; this categorical scale measures functional outcome, with scores ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 6 (death). The treatment effect was estimated with ordinal logistic regression as a common odds ratio, adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors. The adjusted common odds ratio measured the likelihood that intraarterial treatment would lead to lower modified Rankin scores, as compared with usual care alone (shift analysis). Results: We enrolled 500 patients at 16 medical centers in The Netherlands (233 assigned to intraarterial treatment and 267 to usual care alone). The mean age was 65 years (range, 23 to 96), and 445 patients (89.0%) were treated with intravenous alteplase before randomization. Retrievable stents were used in 190 of the 233 patients (81.5%) assigned to intraarterial treatment. The adjusted common odds ratio was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.30). There was an absolute difference of 13.5 percentage points (95% CI, 5.9 to 21.2) in the rate of functional independence (modified Rankin score, 0 to 2) in favor of the intervention (32.6% vs. 19.1%). There were no significant differences in mortality or the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusions: In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion of the anterior circulation, intraarterial treatment administered within 6 hours after stroke onset was effective and safe. (Funded by the Dutch Heart Foundation and others; MR CLEAN Netherlands Trial Registry number, NTR1804, and Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN10888758.).
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General anesthesia (GA) for acute stroke interventions may be associated with inferior functional outcomes. Our goal was to identify physiologic parameters that mediate this association. Consecutive patients treated at our institution between August 2007 and December 2010 were identified from a prospective database. Clinical data were then extracted by retrospective chart review. Variables significantly associated with outcome in univariate analysis were also examined in multivariate analysis, controlling for well-established prespecified predictors of functional outcome. Of the 106 patients identified, 20 were excluded (17 due to the absence of 90-day mRS and 3 due to insufficient anesthetic records). Blood pressure (BP) decreased significantly after induction of GA, but there was no association between BP and outcome. End tidal carbon dioxide values (ETCO2) at 60 and 90 min, however, were significantly associated with outcomes in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Mean ETCO2 in patients with favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-3) was higher than in those with unfavorable outcomes (mRS 4-6): 35.2 mmHg versus 32.2 (p = 0.03) at 60 min and 34.9 versus 31.9 (p = 0.04) at 90 min. The adjusted odds ratios for poor outcomes for each 1 mmHg decrease in ETCO2 were the same: 0.76 (95 % CI 0.65-0.92; p = 0.004) at 60 min and 0.76 (95 % CI 0.61-0.93; p = 0.01) at 90 min. While BP decreased significantly in patients undergoing GA for acute stroke intervention, it did not correlate with patient outcome. Decreases in ETCO2 at 30 and 60 min, however, were associated with 90-day mRS.
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The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is traditionally understood in relation to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, a recent reanalysis of the flow-diffusion equation shows that increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) can reduce the oxygen extraction efficacy in brain tissue for a given CBF. Changes in capillary morphology are typical of conditions predisposing to stroke and of experimental ischemia. Changes in capillary flow patterns have been observed by direct microscopy in animal models of ischemia and by indirect methods in humans stroke, but their metabolic significance remain unclear. We modeled the effects of progressive increases in CTTH on the way in which brain tissue can secure sufficient oxygen to meet its metabolic needs. Our analysis predicts that as CTTH increases, CBF responses to functional activation and to vasodilators must be suppressed to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation. Reductions in CBF, increases in CTTH, and combinations thereof can seemingly trigger a critical lack of oxygen in brain tissue, and the restoration of capillary perfusion patterns therefore appears to be crucial for the restoration of the tissue oxygenation after ischemic episodes. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of these findings for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of acute stroke.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.18.
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There is considerable heterogeneity in practice patterns between sedation in the intubated state vs nonintubated state during endovascular acute stroke therapy. We sought to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes between these 2 sedation modalities. Consecutive patients with acute stroke due to middle cerebral artery-M1 segment occlusion treated with endovascular therapy between January 2006 and July 2009 were identified in our interventional acute stroke database. Level of sedation was determined as intubated (IS) vs nonintubated (NIS) state. Final infarct volumes on follow-up imaging and clinical outcomes at 3 to 6 months were obtained. A total of 126 patients were included (73 [58%] NIS vs 53 [42%] IS). In IS patients, intensive care unit length of stay was longer (6.5 vs 3.2 days, P=0.0008). Intraprocedural complications were lower in NIS patients compared with IS patients (5/73 [6%] vs 8/53 [15%], respectively), but the difference was not significant (P=0.13). In univariate and multivariate analyses, NIS was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio=0.32, P=0.011), good clinical outcome (odds ratio=3.06, P=0.042), and final infarct volume (odds ratio=0.25, P=0.004). In endovascular acute stroke therapy, treatment of patients in NIS appears to be as safe as treatment in IS and may result in more favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes. Our preliminary observations derived from this retrospective study await confirmation from prospective trials.
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Patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke receive either general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation. GA may delay time to treatment, whereas conscious sedation may result in patient movement and compromise the safety of the procedure. We sought to determine whether there were differences in safety and outcomes in GA patients before initiation of IAT. A cohort of 980 patients at 12 stroke centers underwent IAT for acute stroke between 2005 and 2009. Only patients with anterior circulation strokes due to large-vessel occlusion were included in the study. A binary logistic-regression model was used to determine independent predictors of good outcome and death. The mean age was 66+/-15 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 17 (interquartile range, 13-20). The overall recanalization rate was 68% and the symptomatic hemorrhage rate was 9.2%. GA was used in 44% of patients with no differences in intracranial hemorrhage rates when compared with the conscious sedation group. The use of GA was associated with poorer neurologic outcome at 90 days (odds ratio=2.33; 95% CI, 1.63-3.44; P<0.0001) and higher mortality (odds ratio=1.68; 95% CI, 1.23-2.30; P<0.0001) compared with conscious sedation. Patients placed under GA during IAT for anterior circulation stroke appear to have a higher chance of poor neurologic outcome and mortality. There do not appear to be differences in hemorrhagic complications between the 2 groups. Future clinical trials with IAT can help elucidate the etiology of the differences in outcomes.
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Among patients with acute stroke, high blood pressure is often associated with poor outcome, although the reason is unclear. We analyzed data from the International Stroke Trial (IST) to explore the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), subsequent clinical events over the next 2 weeks, and functional outcome at 6 months in patients with acute stroke. We included in the analysis 17 398 patients from IST with confirmed ischemic stroke. A single measurement of SBP was made immediately before randomization. Clinical events within 14 days of randomization were recorded: recurrent ischemic stroke, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, death resulting from presumed cerebral edema, fatal coronary heart disease, and death. Survival and dependency were assessed at 6 months. Outcomes were adjusted for age, sex, clinical stroke syndrome, time to randomization, consciousness level, atrial fibrillation, and treatment allocation (aspirin, unfractionated heparin, both, or neither). A U-shaped relationship was found between baseline SBP and both early death and late death or dependency: early death increased by 17.9% for every 10 mm Hg below 150 mm Hg (P<0.0001) and by 3.8% for every 10 mm Hg above 150 mm Hg (P=0.016). The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke within 14 days increased by 4.2% for every 10-mm Hg increase in SBP (P=0.023); this association was present in both fatal and nonfatal recurrence. Death resulting from presumed cerebral edema was independently associated with high SBP (P=0.004). No relationship between symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and SBP was seen. Low SBP was associated with a severe clinical stroke (total anterior circulation syndrome) and an excess of deaths from coronary heart disease (P=0.002). Both high blood pressure and low blood pressure were independent prognostic factors for poor outcome, relationships that appear to be mediated in part by increased rates of early recurrence and death resulting from presumed cerebral edema in patients with high blood pressure and increased coronary heart disease events in those with low blood pressure. The occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 14 days was independent of SBP.
Article
Background and Purpose In the new era of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke, one of the main predictors of good neurological outcome is a short time interval from stroke onset to recanalization of the occluded vessel. In this study, we examined the effect of on‐hour vs off‐hour admittance on the time intervals from stroke onset to recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT). Methods One‐hundred‐ninety‐eight patients receiving EVT for anterior AIS between 2007 and 2016 were included. Time of day and weekday for stroke admittance were recorded as well as several time intervals. Age, sex, co‐morbidities, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), intraprocedural blood pressure, blood glucose, modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score (mTICI) and neurological outcome at 3 months, measured as modified Rankin Scale (mRS), were registered. On‐hour was defined as 8 am‐4 pm weekdays, and off‐hour as weekdays outside these hours and weekends. Results The time interval from CT (computed tomography) to recanalization was longer during off‐hours, while no difference was seen in the time interval from stroke onset to CT. No statistically significant difference was seen in neurological outcome between the on‐ and off‐hour groups in a univariate analysis. Conclusions Stroke admittance during off‐hours is associated with longer time interval from CT examination to vessel recanalization. The study highlights the need of logistic improvement and probably more resources off‐hour in order to deliver an effective stroke care around the clock.
Article
Introduction Debate continues about the optimal anesthetic management for patients undergoing endovascular treatment (ET) of acute ischemic stroke due to emergent large vessel occlusion. Objective To compare, using current evidence, the clinical outcomes and procedural characteristics among patients undergoing general anesthesia (GA) and local or monitored anesthesia (non-GA). Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available studies that involved the use of stent retrievers for ET (stentriever group). Additionally, we included studies that were published in 2015 and later, and compared the clinical outcomes among the studies using stentrievers or no stentrievers (pre-stentriever group). Outcome variables included functional independence (FI; modified Rankin Scale scores of 0–2), symptomatic hemorrhage, mortality, procedure duration, and vascular and respiratory complications. We calculated pooled odds ratios and 95% CIs using random-effects models. Results Sixteen studies (three randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and 13 non-randomized studies) were identified comprising 5836 patients. Although non-GA was associated with higher odds of 3-month FI (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.10; P=0.003) and lower odds of 3-month mortality (OR=0.62; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.82; P=0.0006, substantial heterogeneity was noted across included trials. Sensitivity analyses of RCTs showed that non-GA was inversely associated with FI (OR=0.55; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.89; P=0.01; I²=15%), while no association was noted with mortality (OR=1.36; 95% CI 0.79 to 2.34; P=0.27; I²=0%). Conclusion Our updated meta-analysis demonstrates favorable results with non-GA, probably owing to inclusion of non-randomized studies. Recent single-center RCTs indicate that GA is associated with higher odds of FI at 3 months, while other outcomes are similar between the two groups.
Article
Background and purpose: The GOLIATH trial (General or Local Anesthesia in Intra-Arterial Therapy) compared infarct growth and outcome in patients undergoing endovascular therapy under either general anesthesia or conscious sedation. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after the procedure to study infarct growth. In this post hoc analysis of GOLIATH, we aimed to characterize the workflow of patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging selection before endovascular therapy. Methods: We randomized 128 patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke within 6 hours of onset to either general anesthesia or conscious sedation (1:1 allocation). We studied workflow time intervals to examine whether magnetic resonance imaging conferred a time delay in treatment when compared with computed tomography-based studies that emphasized rapid workflow. Results: Of 128 patients enrolled between March 2015 and February 2017, 65 were randomized to general anesthesia. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were balanced between the treatment arms. The median interval from scan to groin puncture was 56.5 minutes (interquartile range, 44.5-73.5) for all patients. The median interval from admission to groin puncture was 68 minutes (interquartile range, 54.5-87 minutes). Comparable intervals in recent randomized data were 51 minutes (interquartile range, 39-68) for scan to groin puncture in the ESCAPE trial (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) and 90 minutes (interquartile range, 69-120 minutes) for door to groin puncture in the SWIFT-PRIME study (Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment). Conclusions: Workflow in GOLIATH demonstrates that magnetic resonance imaging selection for endovascular therapy can be accomplished rapidly and within a similar time frame as computed tomography-based selection. Clinical trial registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02317237.
Article
Background and purpose: Outcome after mechanical thrombectomy for ischemic stroke may be influenced by blood pressure (BP). This study aims to assess the association of BP changes during general anesthesia versus conscious sedation with functional outcome after mechanical thrombectomy. Methods: SIESTA (Sedation vs Intubation for Endovascular Stroke Treatment) was a monocentric randomized trial of general anesthesia versus conscious sedation during mechanical thrombectomy involving BP target protocols. In this post hoc analysis, BP measurements were divided into 4 phases: preintervention, prerecanalization, postrecanalization, and postintervention. We examined the association between BP and functional outcomes (defined by improvement of 24-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] and 3-month modified Rankin Scale). Results: We found no association between the difference in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure from baseline to the different phases of intervention and NIHSS change after 24 hours. Only baseline diastolic BP was associated with a reduced improvement in NIHSS (β=0.17, P<0.01). There was no association of BP drops with a change in modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. About sedation, only baseline mean arterial pressure preintervention revealed significant associations (β=0.16, P<0.01) with less change in 24-hour NIHSS in conscious sedation group. Otherwise, there was no association for differences of any of the BP measurements with a change in 24-hour NIHSS and long-term functional outcome either in general anesthesia or the conscious sedation group when analyzed separately, consistent with our findings in the entire cohort. Doses of propofol (β=0.84, P=0.04) and norepinephrine (β=1.87, P=0.01) administered during intervention before recanalization were associated with reduced improvement of NIHSS at 24 hours. Conclusions: In a setting, where both sedation regimes general anesthesia and conscious sedation were performed according to strict protocols directed at avoiding BP extremes, our findings suggest that peri-interventional BP drops were not associated with either early neurological improvement or long-term functional outcome. Clinical trial registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02126085.
Article
Background: The association between anesthesia type and outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT) remains a subject of ongoing debate. Methods: This prospective nonrandomized controlled trial included 149 consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation stroke who underwent EVT. The primary outcome was functional independence assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 3 months. Results: A total of 105 (70.5%) and 44 (29.5%) patients undergoing EVT who received conscious sedation (CS) and general anesthesia (GA), respectively. The patients who received GA had similar demographics and basic National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores (17 vs. 16, P>0.05) as the patients who received CS. The recanalization time (304 vs. 311 min, P=0.940) and the recanalization rate (86.4% vs. 84.1%, P=0.170) did not differ between the patients receiving the different types of anesthesia. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale at 24 hours was lower in the patients who received CS than in those who received GA (β=-2.26, 95% confidence interval, -5.30 to 0.79). The independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2) at 3 months was equal between patients who received GA and those who received CS (odds ratio=0.73, 95% confidence interval, 0.32-1.68). The mortality and the morbidity rates did not differ. Conclusions: The data indicated that the selection of GA or CS during EVT had no impact on the independent outcomes of patients with anterior circulation occlusion.
Article
Objective: Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) is the standard of care for eligible patients presenting with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the outcomes between patients undergoing general anesthesia (GA) versus conscious sedation (CS) for these procedures. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify studies reporting the EMT outcomes of AIS patients who underwent GA or CS for the procedure. Baseline, treatment, and outcomes data were analyzed. Good outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale of 0-2 at 3 months, and successful reperfusion was defined as modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grade of 2b-3. Results: Nine studies, comprising a total of 1,379 patients treated with GA (n=761) or CS (n=618) for EMT were included. Based on pooled data, GA achieved good outcome in 35% and successful reperfusion in 81%, whereas CS achieved good outcome in 41% and successful reperfusion in 75%. Meta-analyses showed no significant differences in the rates of good outcome (p=0.51) or successful reperfusion (p=0.39) between the GA and CS groups. The rates of pneumonia were significantly higher in the GA group (21% vs. 11%; p=0.01). Conclusion: The use of either GA or CS during EMT for patients with anterior circulation acute ELVO does not yield significantly different rates of functional independence at 3 months.
Article
Background: General anaesthesia (GA) during endovascular thrombectomy has been associated with worse patient outcomes in observational studies compared with patients treated without GA. We assessed functional outcome in ischaemic stroke patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion undergoing endovascular thrombectomy under GA, versus thrombectomy not under GA (with or without sedation) versus standard care (ie, no thrombectomy), stratified by the use of GA versus standard care. Methods: For this meta-analysis, patient-level data were pooled from all patients included in randomised trials in PuMed published between Jan 1, 2010, and May 31, 2017, that compared endovascular thrombectomy predominantly done with stent retrievers with standard care in anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients (HERMES Collaboration). The primary outcome was functional outcome assessed by ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 90 days in the GA and non-GA subgroups of patients treated with endovascular therapy versus those patients treated with standard care, adjusted for baseline prognostic variables. To account for between-trial variance we used mixed-effects modelling with a random effect for trials incorporated in all models. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane method. The meta-analysis was prospectively designed, but not registered. Findings: Seven trials were identified by our search; of 1764 patients included in these trials, 871 were allocated to endovascular thrombectomy and 893 were assigned standard care. After exclusion of 74 patients (72 did not undergo the procedure and two had missing data on anaesthetic strategy), 236 (30%) of 797 patients who had endovascular procedures were treated under GA. At baseline, patients receiving GA were younger and had a shorter delay between stroke onset and randomisation but they had similar pre-treatment clinical severity compared with patients who did not have GA. Endovascular thrombectomy improved functional outcome at 3 months both in patients who had GA (adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) 1·52, 95% CI 1·09-2·11, p=0·014) and in those who did not have GA (adjusted cOR 2·33, 95% CI 1·75-3·10, p<0·0001) versus standard care. However, outcomes were significantly better for patients who did not receive GA versus those who received GA (covariate-adjusted cOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·14-2·04, p=0·0044). The risk of bias and variability between studies was assessed to be low. Interpretation: Worse outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy were associated with GA, after adjustment for baseline prognostic variables. These data support avoidance of GA whenever possible. The procedure did, however, remain effective versus standard care in patients treated under GA, indicating that treatment should not be withheld in those who require anaesthesia for medical reasons. Funding: Medtronic.
Article
Background The effect of endovascular thrombectomy that is performed more than 6 hours after the onset of ischemic stroke is uncertain. Patients with a clinical deficit that is disproportionately severe relative to the infarct volume may benefit from late thrombectomy. Methods We enrolled patients with occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery or proximal middle cerebral artery who had last been known to be well 6 to 24 hours earlier and who had a mismatch between the severity of the clinical deficit and the infarct volume, with mismatch criteria defined according to age (<80 years or ≥80 years). Patients were randomly assigned to thrombectomy plus standard care (the thrombectomy group) or to standard care alone (the control group). The coprimary end points were the mean score for disability on the utility-weighted modified Rankin scale (which ranges from 0 [death] to 10 [no symptoms or disability]) and the rate of functional independence (a score of 0, 1, or 2 on the modified Rankin scale, which ranges from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating more severe disability) at 90 days. Results A total of 206 patients were enrolled; 107 were assigned to the thrombectomy group and 99 to the control group. At 31 months, enrollment in the trial was stopped because of the results of a prespecified interim analysis. The mean score on the utility-weighted modified Rankin scale at 90 days was 5.5 in the thrombectomy group as compared with 3.4 in the control group (adjusted difference [Bayesian analysis], 2.0 points; 95% credible interval, 1.1 to 3.0; posterior probability of superiority, >0.999), and the rate of functional independence at 90 days was 49% in the thrombectomy group as compared with 13% in the control group (adjusted difference, 33 percentage points; 95% credible interval, 24 to 44; posterior probability of superiority, >0.999). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage did not differ significantly between the two groups (6% in the thrombectomy group and 3% in the control group, P=0.50), nor did 90-day mortality (19% and 18%, respectively; P=1.00). Conclusions Among patients with acute stroke who had last been known to be well 6 to 24 hours earlier and who had a mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct, outcomes for disability at 90 days were better with thrombectomy plus standard care than with standard care alone. (Funded by Stryker Neurovascular; DAWN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02142283.)
Article
Purpose: To investigate whether the sedation mode (ie, conscious sedation [CS] vs general anesthesia [GA]) affects the angiographic workflow applied for treatment of endovascular stroke in a post hoc analysis of a recent randomized controlled trial, Sedation versus Intubation for Endovascular Stroke Treatment (SIESTA). Materials and SIESTA was an institutional review board?approved, sin-Methods: gle-center, prospective, randomized, parallel-group, open-label treatment trial with a blinded end-point evaluation to compare GA with CS for treatment of endovascular stroke in 73 and 77 patients, respectively. By using descriptive data from SIESTA, the influence of the mode of sedation on angiographic workflow during treatment for endovascular stroke (eg, procedure times) and other radiologic outcome parameters (eg, radiation exposure) were analyzed. The time between angiographic key steps for patients who underwent GA and CS was evaluated with t tests. P values were corrected for false discovery rate. Results: The median time from groin puncture to first intracranial flow restoration with CS was 47 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 29-70 minutes), and for GA, it was 41 minutes (IQR, 28-60 minutes) (P = .546). The median time to the end of angiography with CS was 104 minutes (IQR, 75-150 minutes), and with GA, it was 73 minutes (IQR, 53-125 minutes) (P = .052). Fluoroscopy time with CS was 49 minutes (IQR, 25-85 minutes), and with GA, it was 35 minutes (IQR, 20-74 minutes) (P = .098). The times were comparable in both groups for these measures. The time from groin puncture to the final angiographic result with GA, at 72 minutes (IQR, 45-109 minutes) was shorter than that with CS, at 98 minutes (IQR, 64-135 minutes) (P = .048). Conclusion: This post hoc analysis of the single-center SIESTA trial revealed that time from groin puncture to final angiographic result was shorter with patients under GA than that with patients under CS.
Article
Importance Hypoxia is common in the first few days after acute stroke, is frequently intermittent, and is often undetected. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary neurological deterioration and thus has the potential to improve recovery. Objective To assess whether routine prophylactic low-dose oxygen therapy was more effective than control oxygen administration in reducing death and disability at 90 days, and if so, whether oxygen given at night only, when hypoxia is most frequent, and oxygen administration is least likely to interfere with rehabilitation, was more effective than continuous supplementation. Design, Setting, and Participants In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, 8003 adults with acute stroke were enrolled from 136 participating centers in the United Kingdom within 24 hours of hospital admission if they had no clear indications for or contraindications to oxygen treatment (first patient enrolled April 24, 2008; last follow-up January 27, 2015). Interventions Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to continuous oxygen for 72 hours (n = 2668), nocturnal oxygen (21:00 to 07:00 hours) for 3 nights (n = 2667), or control (oxygen only if clinically indicated; n = 2668). Oxygen was given via nasal tubes at 3 L/min if baseline oxygen saturation was 93% or less and at 2 L/min if oxygen saturation was greater than 93%. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was reported using the modified Rankin Scale score (disability range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]; minimum clinically important difference, 1 point), assessed at 90 days by postal questionnaire (participant aware, assessor blinded). The modified Rankin Scale score was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, which yields a common odds ratio (OR) for a change from one disability level to the next better (lower) level; OR greater than 1.00 indicates improvement. Results A total of 8003 patients (4398 (55%) men; mean [SD] age, 72 [13] years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 5; mean baseline oxygen saturation, 96.6%) were enrolled. The primary outcome was available for 7677 (96%) participants. The unadjusted OR for a better outcome (calculated via ordinal logistic regression) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05; P = .47) for oxygen vs control, and the OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.13; P = .61) for continuous vs nocturnal oxygen. No subgroup could be identified that benefited from oxygen. At least 1 serious adverse event occurred in 348 (13.0%) participants in the continuous oxygen group, 294 (11.0%) in the nocturnal group, and 322 (12.1%) in the control group. No significant harms were identified. Conclusions and Relevance Among nonhypoxic patients with acute stroke, the prophylactic use of low-dose oxygen supplementation did not reduce death or disability at 3 months. These findings do not support low-dose oxygen in this setting. Trial Registration ISRCTN Identifier: ISRCTN52416964
Article
Background and purpose: There is currently controversy on the ideal anesthesia strategy during mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients undergoing general anesthesia (GA group) and those receiving either local anesthesia or conscious sedation (non-GA group). Methods: A literature search on anesthesia and endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke was performed. Using random-effects meta-analysis, we evaluated the following outcomes: recanalization rate, good functional outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Score≤2), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, death, vascular complications, respiratory complications, procedure time, and time to groin puncture. Results: Twenty-two studies (3 randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies), including 4716 patients (1819 GA and 2897 non-GA) were included. In the nonadjusted analysis, patients in the GA group had higher odds of death (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-2.45) and respiratory complications (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.37) and lower odds of good functional outcome (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48-0.64) compared with the non-GA group. There was no difference in procedure time between the 2 primary comparison groups. When adjusting for baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, GA was still associated with lower odds of good functional outcome (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.29-0.94). When considering studies performed in the stent-retriever/aspiration era, there was no significant difference in good neurological outcome rates (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.06). Conclusions: Acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy may have worse outcomes when treated with GA as compared with conscious sedation/local anesthesia. However, major limitations of current evidence (ie, retrospective studies and selection bias) indicate a need for adequately powered, multicenter randomized controlled trials to answer this question.
Article
Background: The optimal method of anaesthesia for endovascular therapy (EVT) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has not been identified. Nordic departments of anaesthesiology may handle EVT cases for AIS differently. The aim of this survey was to describe the current practice patterns of Nordic anaesthesia departments in anaesthetic management of EVT in AIS. Methods: A survey consisting of 13 questions was sent to one qualified individual at all Nordic departments of anaesthesiology who manage anaesthesia for EVT interventions. The individual completed the questionnaire on behalf of their department. Results: Response rate was 100%. The majority of departments (84%) managed all EVT cases at their respective centres. Most departments have institutional guidelines on anaesthetic management (84%) including blood pressure management (63%) and were able to provide a 24-h immediate response to an EVT request (63%). Conscious sedation was favoured by 68% of the departments using a variety of sedation protocols. Propofol and remifentanil was preferred for GA (58%). Emergent conversion to GA due to uncontrolled patient movements or loss of airway was experienced by 82% and 35% of the departments, respectively. Majority of the departments (89%) responded that non-specialist anaesthetists occasionally handle EVT cases. Conclusions: This survey indicates that the majority of Nordic anaesthesia departments who manage anaesthesia for EVT are able to provide immediate 24-h response to an EVT request. Most of these departments have institutional guidelines for EVT anaesthesia and haemodynamic management. Conscious sedation appears to be the preferred method of anaesthetic care.
Article
Background: Up to two-thirds of patients are either dependent or dead 3 months after thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Loss of cerebral autoregulation may render patients with AIS vulnerable to decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Objective: To determine whether a fall in MAP during intervention under general anesthesia (GA) affects functional outcome. Methods: This subgroup analysis included patients from the MR CLEAN trial treated with thrombectomy under GA. The investigated variables were the difference between MAP at baseline and average MAP during GA (ΔMAP) as well as the difference between baseline MAP and the lowest MAP during GA (ΔLMAP). Their association with a shift towards better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 90 days was determined using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for prognostic baseline variables. Results: Sixty of the 85 patients treated under GA in MR CLEAN had sufficient anesthetic information available for the analysis. A greater ΔMAP was associated with worse outcome (adjusted common OR (acOR) 0.95 per point mm Hg, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99). An average MAP during GA 10 mm Hg lower than baseline MAP constituted a 1.67 times lower odds of a shift towards good outcome on the mRS. For ΔLMAP this association was not significant (acOR 0.97 per mm Hg, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.00, p=0.09). Conclusions: A decrease in MAP during intervention under GA compared with baseline is associated with worse outcome. Trial registration number: NTR1804; ISRCTN10888758; post-results.
Article
Importance: Optimal management of sedation and airway during thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is controversial due to lack of evidence from randomized trials. Objective: To assess whether conscious sedation is superior to general anesthesia for early neurological improvement among patients receiving stroke thrombectomy. Design, setting, and participants: SIESTA (Sedation vs Intubation for Endovascular Stroke Treatment), a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, open-label treatment trial with blinded outcome evaluation conducted at Heidelberg University Hospital in Germany (April 2014-February 2016) included 150 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (>10), and isolated/combined occlusion at any level of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to an intubated general anesthesia group (n = 73) or a nonintubated conscious sedation group (n = 77) during stroke thrombectomy. Main outcomes and measures: Primary outcome was early neurological improvement on the NIHSS after 24 hours (0-42 [none to most severe neurological deficits; a 4-point difference considered clinically relevant]). Secondary outcomes were functional outcome by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 3 months (0-6 [symptom free to dead]), mortality, and peri-interventional parameters of feasibility and safety. Results: Among 150 patients (60 women [40%]; mean age, 71.5 years; median NIHSS score, 17), primary outcome was not significantly different between the general anesthesia group (mean NIHSS score, 16.8 at admission vs 13.6 after 24 hours; difference, -3.2 points [95% CI, -5.6 to -0.8]) vs the conscious sedation group (mean NIHSS score, 17.2 at admission vs 13.6 after 24 hour; difference, -3.6 points [95% CI, -5.5 to -1.7]); mean difference between groups, -0.4 (95% CI, -3.4 to 2.7; P = .82). Of 47 prespecified secondary outcomes analyzed, 41 showed no significant differences. In the general anesthesia vs the conscious sedation group, substantial patient movement was less frequent (0% vs 9.1%; difference, 9.1%; P = .008), but postinterventional complications were more frequent for hypothermia (32.9% vs 9.1%; P < .001), delayed extubation (49.3% vs 6.5%; P < .001), and pneumonia (13.7% vs 3.9%; P = .03). More patients were functionally independent (unadjusted mRS score, 0 to 2 after 3 months [37.0% in the general anesthesia group vs 18.2% in the conscious sedation group P = .01]). There were no differences in mortality at 3 months (24.7% in both groups). Conclusions and relevance: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation undergoing thrombectomy, conscious sedation vs general anesthesia did not result in greater improvement in neurological status at 24 hours. The study findings do not support an advantage for the use of conscious sedation. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02126085.
Article
Background: The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of anesthetic management on the effect of treatment in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). Methods: MR CLEAN was a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial of intra-arterial therapy (IAT) vs no IAT. The intended anesthetic management at the start of the procedure was used for this post hoc analysis. The primary effect parameter was the adjusted common odds ratio (acOR) for a shift in direction of a better outcome on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days, estimated with multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis, which included a term for general anesthesia (GA). Results: GA was associated with significant (p = 0.011) effect modification, resulting in estimated decrease of 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 31%-86%) in treatment effect compared to non-GA. We found a shift in the distribution on the mRS in favor of non-GA compared to control group (acOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.49-3.20]). The shift in distribution between GA and control group was in a similar direction (acOR 1.12 [95% CI 0.71-1.78]) with loss of statistical significance. Conclusions: In this post hoc analysis, we found that the type of anesthetic management influences outcome following IAT. Only treatment without general anesthesia was associated with a significant treatment benefit in MR CLEAN. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing IAT, mRS scores at 90 days improve only in patients treated without GA.
Article
Background Recent studies have strongly indicated the benefits of endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke, but what remains a continued debate is the role for general anaesthesia versus conscious sedation (CS) for such procedures. Retrospective studies have found poorer neurological outcomes in patients who underwent general anesthesia (GA); however, some have revealed worse baseline stroke severity in these patients. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study aimed at comparing mortality and morbidity of GA versus CS in patients treated with endovascular intervention in acute ischemic stroke. Chi-square and t-test analyses were used. Results Patients in the GA (n=42) group were more likely to be deceased than those in the CS (n=67) group at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months poststroke onset. Morbidity, as defined by modified Rankin Score, was significantly greater in the GA group at hospital discharge, and a similar trend was seen in morbidity at 3 months postdischarge. Conclusion General anesthesia for endovascular intervention in acute ischemic stroke was associated with increased mortality and poorer neurological incomes compared with conscious sedation. In our study, age, gender, history of hypertension, history of diabetes, and baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale were not significantly different between the groups. Although the need for a randomized, prospective study on this topic is clear, our study represents further corroboration of the safety and efficacy of conscious sedation in these procedures.
Article
Background: In 2015, five randomised trials showed efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy over standard medical care in patients with acute ischaemic stroke caused by occlusion of arteries of the proximal anterior circulation. In this meta-analysis we, the trial investigators, aimed to pool individual patient data from these trials to address remaining questions about whether the therapy is efficacious across the diverse populations included. Methods: We formed the HERMES collaboration to pool patient-level data from five trials (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, REVASCAT, SWIFT PRIME, and EXTEND IA) done between December, 2010, and December, 2014. In these trials, patients with acute ischaemic stroke caused by occlusion of the proximal anterior artery circulation were randomly assigned to receive either endovascular thrombectomy within 12 h of symptom onset or standard care (control), with a primary outcome of reduced disability on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. By direct access to the study databases, we extracted individual patient data that we used to assess the primary outcome of reduced disability on mRS at 90 days in the pooled population and examine heterogeneity of this treatment effect across prespecified subgroups. To account for between-trial variance we used mixed-effects modelling with random effects for parameters of interest. We then used mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression models to calculate common odds ratios (cOR) for the primary outcome in the whole population (shift analysis) and in subgroups after adjustment for age, sex, baseline stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), site of occlusion (internal carotid artery vs M1 segment of middle cerebral artery vs M2 segment of middle cerebral artery), intravenous alteplase (yes vs no), baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score, and time from stroke onset to randomisation. Findings: We analysed individual data for 1287 patients (634 assigned to endovascular thrombectomy, 653 assigned to control). Endovascular thrombectomy led to significantly reduced disability at 90 days compared with control (adjusted cOR 2·49, 95% CI 1·76-3·53; p<0·0001). The number needed to treat with endovascular thrombectomy to reduce disability by at least one level on mRS for one patient was 2·6. Subgroup analysis of the primary endpoint showed no heterogeneity of treatment effect across prespecified subgroups for reduced disability (pinteraction=0·43). Effect sizes favouring endovascular thrombectomy over control were present in several strata of special interest, including in patients aged 80 years or older (cOR 3·68, 95% CI 1·95-6·92), those randomised more than 300 min after symptom onset (1·76, 1·05-2·97), and those not eligible for intravenous alteplase (2·43, 1·30-4·55). Mortality at 90 days and risk of parenchymal haematoma and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage did not differ between populations. Interpretation: Endovascular thrombectomy is of benefit to most patients with acute ischaemic stroke caused by occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation, irrespective of patient characteristics or geographical location. These findings will have global implications on structuring systems of care to provide timely treatment to patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. Funding: Medtronic.
Article
Background: Many authors have reported that general anesthesia (GA), as a generic and uncharacterized therapy, is contraindicated for patients undergoing endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke (EMAIS). The recent American Heart Association update cautiously suggests that it might be reasonable to favor conscious sedation over GA during EMAIS. We are concerned that such recommendations will result in patients undergoing endovascular treatment without consideration of the effects of specific anesthetic agents and anesthetic dose, and without appropriate critical consideration of the individual patient's issues. We hypothesized that significant variation in anesthetic practice comprises GA, and that outcome differences among types of GA would arise. Methods: With IRB approval, we examined the records of patients who underwent anterior circulation EMAIS at the University of Pennsylvania from 2010 to 2015. Patients were managed by different anesthesiologists with no specific protocol. We analyzed American Society of Anesthesiologists status, NIH Stroke Scale, type of stroke, procedure, different types of anesthetic, blood pressure control, and outcome metrics. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were determined from medical records. Results: GA was used in 91% of patients. Several types of GA were employed: intravenous, volatile, and intravenous/volatile combined. mRS scores ≤2 at discharge were observed in 42.8% of patients receiving volatile anesthesia and were better in patients receiving only volatile agents after induction of anesthesia (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our data support the notion that anesthetic techniques and associated physiology used in EMAIS are not homogeneous, making any statements about the effects of generic GA in stroke ambiguous. Moreover, our data suggest that the type of GA may affect the outcome after EMAIS.
Article
Background and purpose: Many studies have suggested a relationship between the type of anesthesia provided during intra-arterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke and patient outcomes. Variability in blood pressure and hypotension have previously been identified as possible reasons for worse outcomes in acute stroke. Our aim was to investigate hemodynamic parameters and neurological outcomes of patients receiving either general anesthesia or conscious sedation for intra-arterial therapy of acute stroke. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy from December 2008 to March 2015. Demographic data, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, preoperative physiological variables, procedural details, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, and modified Rankin Scale scores were recorded. Results: 99 patients were included in the study, with 38 receiving general anesthesia and 61 receiving conscious sedation. Patients who received general anesthesia had a lower maximum SBP (p=0.02), minimum SBP (p<0.0001), minimum DBP (p<0.0001), and minimum MAP (p<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, general anesthesia was associated with lower minimum SBP (p=0.04), DBP (p=0.02), and MAP (p=0.007). Conscious sedation was associated with more favorable neurological outcomes (p=0.02). Patients with favorable neurological outcomes had a lower maximum variability in SBP (p=0.01) and MAP (p=0.03), as well as a higher minimum DBP (p=0.03). Conclusions: Patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing intra-arterial therapy with general anesthesia had lower minimum SBP, DBP, and MAP, greater fluctuations in blood pressure, and less favorable outcomes. More studies are needed to examine the implications of variable and reduced blood pressures and neurological outcomes.
Article
Background and purpose: Intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can be performed with or without general anesthesia (GA). Previous studies suggested that IAT without the use of GA (non-GA) is associated with better clinical outcome. Nevertheless, no consensus exists about the anesthetic management during IAT of AIS patients. This study investigates the association between type of anesthesia and clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with AIS treated with IAT. Methods: All consecutive patients with AIS of the anterior circulation who received IAT between 2002 and 2013 in 16 Dutch hospitals were included in the study. Primary outcome was functional outcome on the modified Rankin Scale at discharge. Difference in primary outcome between GA and non-GA was estimated using multiple ordinal regression analysis, adjusting for age, stroke severity, occlusion of the internal carotid artery terminus, previous stroke, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Three hundred forty-eight patients were included in the analysis; 70 patients received GA and 278 patients did not receive GA. Non-GA was significantly associated with good clinical outcome (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.02-4.31). After adjusting for prespecified prognostic factors, the point estimate remained similar; statistical significance, however, was lost (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 0.89-4.24). Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with AIS of the anterior circulation undergoing IAT without GA have a higher probability of good clinical outcome compared with patients treated with general anesthesia.
Article
This article reviews the recent evidence on perioperative neuroprotection in patients undergoing brain surgery and in patients with acute stroke. With varying degrees of success, numerous pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies have been employed to provide neuroprotection for patients during the perioperative period and after acute ischemic stroke (IAS). Recent studies have failed to demonstrate neuroprotective effects of intraoperative remifentanil or propofol use, although hypertonic saline may provide better brain relaxation than mannitol during elective intracranial surgery for tumor. Magnesium sulfate offers no improvement in neurological outcome at 90 days after stroke. Medical management alone may be superior to medical management with interventional therapy for the prevention of death or stroke in unruptured arteriovenous malformations. In patients with IAS with a proximal vessel occlusion, small infarct core, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation, rapid endovascular treatment resulted in improved functional outcomes and reduced mortality. For endovascular clot evacuation after IAS, conscious sedation may be safer than general anaesthesia. Recent evidence provides insufficient evidence of neuroprotective strategies to guide clinical management, and more randomized clinical trials are needed to optimize patient care.
Article
Background Debate exists as to whether patients with acute ischemic stroke who are undergoing mechanical thrombectomy should receive general anaesthesia or conscious sedation during the procedure. Using a multihospital administrative database, we compared outcomes and complications of patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy, who were receiving general anaesthesia and conscious sedation, and studied trends in usage over time. Materials and methods Premier database patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy from 2006 to 2013 for acute ischemic stroke were identified. Using propensity score analysis, recipients of general anaesthesia and conscious sedation underwent 1:1 matching. Outcomes including usage trends, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, haemorrhage and pneumonia were examined. Results A total of 2512 patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy were identified. 1999 (80%) received general anaesthesia and 513 (20%) received conscious sedation. Following 1:1 matching by the propensity score matching, 507 general anaesthesia and 507 conscious sedation patients were matched. Patients who received general anaesthesia during their procedure had significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality (25% vs 12%, OR=2.37 95% CI 1.68 to 3.37, p<0.0001), and pneumonia (17.0% vs 9.3%, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.96, p=0.0005) compared with patients of thrombectomy who received conscious sedation. ICH/SAH rates were similar between patients receiving general anaesthesia and patients receiving conscious sedation (11% vs 12%, p=0.62). Usage rate of general anaesthesia decreased from 83.8% in 2006 and 74.0% in 2013. Conclusions In our cohort, thrombectomy patients receiving conscious sedation have decreased in-hospital mortality, decreased rates of pneumonia, and lower hospital costs and lengths of stay when compared with patients who received general anaesthesia. However, most practitioners continue to use general anaesthesia in the setting of acute stroke interventions.
Article
Literature on the anesthetic management of endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is limited. Anesthetic management during these procedures is still mostly dependent on individual or institutional preferences. Thus, the Society of Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care (SNACC) created a task force to provide expert consensus recommendations on anesthetic management of endovascular treatment of AIS. The task force conducted a systematic literature review (up to August 2012). Because of the limited number of research articles relating to this subject, the task force solicited opinions from experts in this area. The task force created a draft consensus statement based on the available data. Classes of recommendations and levels of evidence were assigned to articles specifically addressing anesthetic management during endovascular treatment of stroke using the standard American Heart Association evidence rating scheme. The draft consensus statement was reviewed by the Task Force, SNACC Executive Committee and representatives of Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS) and Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) reaching consensus on the final document. For this consensus statement the anesthetic management of endovascular treatment of AIS was subdivided into 12 topics. Each topic includes a summary of available data followed by recommendations. This consensus statement is intended for use by individuals involved in the care of patients with acute ischemic stroke, such as anesthesiologists, interventional neuroradiologists, neurologists, neurointensivists and neurosurgeons.
Article
Previous work that predated the availability of the safer stent-retriever devices has suggested that general anesthesia (GA) may have a negative impact on outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing endovascular therapy. We reviewed demographic, clinical, procedural (GA versus local anesthesia [LA], etc), and site-adjudicated angiographic and clinical outcomes data from consecutive patients treated with the Solitaire FR device in the investigator-initiated North American SOLITAIRE Stent-Retriever Acute Stroke (NASA) Registry. The primary outcomes were 90-day modified Rankin Scale, mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. A total of 281 patients from 18 centers were enrolled. GA was used in 69.8% (196/281) of patients. Baseline demographic and procedural factors were comparable between the LA and GA groups, except the former demonstrated longer time-to-groin puncture (395.4±254 versus 337.4±208 min; P=0.04), lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS; 16.2±5.8 versus 18.8±6.9; P=0.002), lower balloon-guide catheter usage (22.4% versus 49.2%; P=0.0001), and longer fluoroscopy times (39.5±33 versus 28±22.8 min; P=0.008). Recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b; 72.94% versus 73.6%; P=0.9) and rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (7.1% versus 11.2%; P=0.4) were similar but modified Rankin Scale ≤2 was achieved in more LA patients, 52.6% versus 35.6% (odds ratio, 1.4 [1.1-1.8]; P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, hypertension, NIHSS, unsuccessful revascularization, and GA use (odds ratio, 3.3 [1.6-7.1]; P=0.001) were associated with death. When only anterior circulation and elective GA patients were included, there was a persistent difference in good outcomes in favor of LA patients (50.7% versus 35.5%; odds ratio, 1.3 [1.01-1.6]; P=0.04). The NASA Registry has demonstrated that clinical outcomes and survival are significantly better in patients treated with LA, without increased symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage risk. Future trials should prospectively evaluate the effect of GA on outcomes.
Article
Studies of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke have identified general anesthesia as a predictor for poor outcome in comparison with local anesthesia/sedation. This retrospective study attempts to identify modifiable factors associated with poor outcome, while adjusting for baseline stroke severity, in patients receiving general anesthesia. We reviewed charts of 129 patients treated between January 2003 and September 2009. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Score of 0-2 for 3 months poststroke. Predictors of neurologic outcome included baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, blood glucose concentration, and age. Additional risk factors evaluated were prolonged stroke onset-treatment interval and systolic blood pressure less than 140 mmHg. Choice of local anesthesia or general anesthesia was recorded. The study group was 96 out of 129 patients for whom modified Rankin Scale scores were available; 48 patients received general anesthesia and 48 local anesthesia. The proportion of patients with "good" outcomes were 15% and 60% in the general anesthesia group and local anesthesia group, respectively (P < 0.001). Lowest systolic blood pressure and general anesthesia were correlated (r = -0.7, P < 0.001). Independent predictors for good neurologic outcome were local anesthesia, systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg, and low baseline stroke scores. Adjusted for stroke severity, patients who received general anesthesia for treatment are less likely to have a good outcome than those managed with local anesthesia. This may be due to preintervention risk not included in the stroke severity measures. Hypotension, more frequent in the general anesthesia patients, may also contribute.
Article
The response of cerebral blood flow to changes in the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (i.e., carbon dioxide reactivity) has been evaluated as a parameter of cerebral perfusion reserve in patients with cerebrovascular disease. In this study, variations in this reactivity in various ischemic cerebrovascular diseases were evaluated by a newly established method, a transcranial Doppler technique. Thirty-three patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, 13 patients with asymptomatic cerebral infarction, and 25 age-matched normal control subjects were investigated. The symptomatic patients were divided into three groups; those with unilateral carotid artery obstruction, those with cortical infarction, and those with lacunar infarction. The carbon dioxide reactivity of each subject was determined by simultaneously measuring the mean spatial Doppler frequency in the middle cerebral artery and the end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure under normocapnic, hypercapnic, and hypocapnic conditions. In the patients with carotid obstruction, the carbon dioxide reactivity of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the obstruction was more impaired than the reactivity of the symptomatic hemispheres in any other group, and was significantly less than in the contralateral asymptomatic hemisphere (p < 0.01). In patients with cortical infarction, the carbon dioxide reactivity of the symptomatic hemisphere was significantly less than in normal control subjects (p < 0.05) and was also less than that of the contralateral asymptomatic hemisphere (p < 0.05). In patients with lacunar infarction, the carbon dioxide reactivity of both hemispheres was significantly less than that in normal controls (p < 0.01), although there was no difference between the symptomatic and asymptomatic hemispheres. In patients with asymptomatic infarction, the carbon dioxide reactivity was also less than that in normal controls (p < 0.01). The carbon dioxide reactivity of cerebral blood flow measured by this transcranial Doppler technique may be useful for characterizing the hemodynamic changes that occur in various types of ischemic cerebrovascular disease.
Article
The phrase "time is brain" emphasizes that human nervous tissue is rapidly lost as stroke progresses and emergent evaluation and therapy are required. Recent advances in quantitative neurostereology and stroke neuroimaging permit calculation of just how much brain is lost per unit time in acute ischemic stroke. Systematic literature-review identified consensus estimates of number of neurons, synapses, and myelinated fibers in the human forebrain; volume of large vessel, supratentorial ischemic stroke; and interval from onset to completion of large vessel, supratentorial ischemic stroke. The typical final volume of large vessel, supratentorial ischemic stroke is 54 mL (varied in sensitivity analysis from 19 to 100 mL). The average duration of nonlacunar stroke evolution is 10 hours (range 6 to 18 hours), and the average number of neurons in the human forebrain is 22 billion. In patients experiencing a typical large vessel acute ischemic stroke, 120 million neurons, 830 billion synapses, and 714 km (447 miles) of myelinated fibers are lost each hour. In each minute, 1.9 million neurons, 14 billion synapses, and 12 km (7.5 miles) of myelinated fibers are destroyed. Compared with the normal rate of neuron loss in brain aging, the ischemic brain ages 3.6 years each hour without treatment. Altering single input variables in sensitivity analyses modestly affected the estimated point values but not order of magnitude. Quantitative estimates of the pace of neural circuitry loss in human ischemic stroke emphasize the time urgency of stroke care. The typical patient loses 1.9 million neurons each minute in which stroke is untreated.
Anesthesia-related outcomes for endovascular stroke revascularization
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