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# Induced Ripening Agents and Their Effect on Fruit Quality of Banana

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Ripening is a genetically programmed highly coordinated irreversible phenomenon which includes many biochemical changes including tissue softening, pigment changes, aroma and flavour volatile production, reduction in astringency, and many others. Banana is one of mostly consumed fruit crops in the world. Since banana is a climactic fruit, induced ripening is essential in commercial scale banana cultivation and distribution to assure good flavour, texture, and uniform peel colour. Ethylene gas, acetylene gas liberated from calcium carbide, and ethephon are some of the commercial ripening agents used successfully in the trade and they have been widely studied for their effectiveness on initiating and accelerating the ripening process and their effect on fruit quality and health related issues. Lauryl alcohol was also shown as a ripening agent for bananas. Most studies suggest that there is no difference in biochemical composition and sensory quality in bananas treated with chemicals that induce ripening from naturally ripened bananas. However volatile profiles of artificially ripened bananas were shown to be considerably different from naturally ripened bananas in some studies. This review discusses induced ripening agents and their effect on fruit quality of bananas.
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... The use of ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) causes salivation, lacrimation, irregular bowel movement, stomach cramps, appetite loss, loss of body weight, liver damage, and frequent urination (Beyrouti et al., 2002;Bhadoria et al., 2018). Others are ethylene glycol, lauryl alcohol, ethylene, and methylene jasmonate (Islam et al., 2016;Maduwanthi and Marapana, 2019). The mechanism of their effects is linked to arsenic and phosphate toxicity as well as a reduction in available nutrients like iron and potassium but much remains to be elucidated. ...
... The mechanism of their effects is linked to arsenic and phosphate toxicity as well as a reduction in available nutrients like iron and potassium but much remains to be elucidated. These pretreatments are typically applied to fruits to improve customer acceptance and provide better marketing quality like softer tissue, pigment changes, aroma and flavour production, astringency reduction, etc. through the artificial fruit ripening agent (Prasanna et al., 2007;Maduwanthi and Marapana, 2019;Ikhajiagbe et al., 2021;Sojinu et al., 2021). A commonly used organic compound that facilitates these chemical changes during fruit ripening is ethylene. ...
... Changes in turgor pressure, degradation of cell wall polysaccharides, and enzymatic degradation of starch all contribute to fruit softening. Colour production in many fruits is a key indicator of maturity and is related to ripening (Maduwanthi and Marapana, 2019). The degradation of chlorophylls and the synthesis of anthocyanins and carotenoids unmask preexisting pigments, which is a common cause of colour change during fruit ripening (Lizada, 1993). ...
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The use of calcium carbide (CaC2) to ripen Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and other non-climacteric fruit is prevalent in parts of the Global South. However, little to no information exists about the potential effects and risks associated with such practices. Hence, it is necessary to determine if contaminants like arsenic that are associated with CaC2 accumulate significantly in orange juices after they are ripened with the chemical. Fresh mature but unripe C. sinensis were harvested from an orchard in Benin City, Nigeria, and exposed to the different concentrations (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 g) of dry and wet CaC2 in small lidded cylindrical containers with a surface area of 1507.96 cm2. In each container, three oranges were placed while the control setup was allowed to naturally ripen. The control oranges began to ripen on the 7th day, with severe colour loss, whereas the oranges treated with 5.0 g CaC2 (dry) began to ripen on the second day. However, there were already signs of rotting by the sixth day. Even though the orange exposed to 5.0 g CaC2 (wet) began to ripen after 24 h, there were no symptoms of fruit degradation after one week. Moreover, in oranges ripened with CaC2, there was a large deposition of arsenic. The dried and wet-CaC2-exposed oranges showed no significant variations in arsenic accumulation. It was found that the oranges contain 2.15 mg/L juice and 2.06 mg/L peel material. The use of CaC2 for fruit ripening is discouraged and could contribute to reducing the incidence of cancer, skin lesions, poor cognitive development, and non-communicable diseases like diabetes caused by arsenic exposure.
... Banana is like other fruits, subjected to a significant color conversion 269 as it passes through the process of ripening (Adi et al., 2019). The change in the peel 270 color from green to yellow is considered the first observable sign of banana ripening 271 (Maduwanthi and Marapana, 2019;Soltani et al., 2010). It has been highlighted that the 272 external color changes of banana during the ripening process often reflects the flesh 273 color changes. ...
... Also, respiration rate increments can produce flavor quality losses, particularly 327 sweetness (Sugianti et al., 2022). The increase observed in respiration of banana fruit 328 or any fresh produce indicated the cellular metabolic activity and is considered as an 329 attribute of the phases in the life cycle of the fruit like ripening, development, and 330 senescence (Maduwanthi and Marapana, 2019). Overall, the respiration rate is 331 proportional to the rate of deterioration. ...
Article
Abstract Background Banana fruit is a popular crop in global agriculture production and trade. Bananas are delicate fresh produce where external factors can highly affect their quality resulting in high losses during the postharvest supply chain. Scope and approach This paper describes the most common nutritional, chemical, physical, and physiological quality attributes of the banana fruit. It also discusses the practiced technologies that are employed in the supply chain of bananas and their influence on banana fruit characteristics. Postharvest technologies play a crucial role in preserving fruits. Before implementing appropriate postharvest technology, it is essential to understand the quality changes in banana fruit during the ripening process. Key findings and conclusions Various technologies are being used like storage, artificial ripening, packaging, handling, and transportation for bananas within the supply chain. The review can increase awareness and knowledge by selecting and implementing suitable postharvest techniques to enhance postharvest shelf-life and retain the nutritional and marketable quality of this important fruit. Relevant recent studies on banana packaging are highlighted and some current non-destructive image processing techniques applied to bananas are described. Ultimately, this review suggests strategies to reduce postharvest losses in the physical, chemical, and nutritional quality of banana fruit and provides future research trends to achieve fruit safety, security, and quality.
... Fruit ripening is a series of physiological, molecular, and biochemical processes leading to alterations in fruit in color, TSS, TA, flavor, texture, and aroma. The higher values of the TSS and TA, and the darker color suggest more mature strawberries (Kour et al. 2018;Maduwanthi and Marapana 2019;Valero and Serrano 2013). Considering that the length of the cultivation period was identical for the strawberries from all the treatment groups, it can be suggested that the PGPR presumptively behaved as a ripening enhancer. ...
... Considering that the length of the cultivation period was identical for the strawberries from all the treatment groups, it can be suggested that the PGPR presumptively behaved as a ripening enhancer. Faster ripening can be a potential advantage that may enable farmers to release the product at the desired ripening stage and avoid heavy competition with other producers in markets (Maduwanthi and Marapana 2019). Although more trials and deeper analysis are required, the current finding of PGPR's potential role on maturation of strawberries can be the foundation of further research. ...
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The natural soil environment is considered one of the most diverse habitats containing numerous bacteria, fungi, and larger organisms such as nematodes, insects, or rodents. Rhizosphere bacteria play vital roles in plant nutrition and the growth promotion of their host plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Pseudomonas monteilii for their potential role as a biofertilizer. The effect of the PGPR was examined at a commercial strawberry farm in Dayton, Oregon. The PGPR were applied to the soil of the strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivar Hood) plants in two different concentrations of PGPR, T1 (0.24% PGPR) and T2 (0.48% PGPR), and C (no PGPR). A total of 450 samples from August 2020 to May 2021 were collected, and microbiome sequencing based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was conducted. The strawberry quality was measured by sensory evaluation, total acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), color (lightness and chroma), and volatile compounds. Application of the PGPR significantly increased the populations of Bacillus and Pseudomonas and promoted the growth of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The TSS and color evaluation showed that the PGPR presumptively behaved as a ripening enhancer. The PGPR contributed to the production of fruit-related volatile compounds, while the sensory evaluation did not show significant differences among the three groups. The major finding of this study suggests that the consortium of the three PGPR have a potential role as a biofertilizer by supporting the growth of other microorganisms (nitrogen-fixing bacteria) as part of a synergetic effect and strawberry quality such as sweetness and volatile compounds.
... Promise [12] dried banana using indirect solar drying and determined its proximate analysis and microbial counts. Also, many other works on the drying of agricultural products have been published in the literature [13][14][15][16][17][18][19], yet, there is no adequate information on drying of plantain using regulated drying temperature. This work spotlights the drying effects using different regulated drying temperatures of 333K, 343K and 353K on plantain samples. ...
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This paper reports the effect of convective heat on plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Ripe and unripe plantains were bought from Eremi-adale local market in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The samples were washed, peeled, sliced into mass sizes of 20g each, and load into the chamber of a fabricated convective dryer. Samples were removed from the chamber after every hour for measurement to determine their moisture losses. The plantain samples were dried at various drying time and with regulated drying temperatures of 333K, 343K, and 353K. Results of the laboratory analysis review that, the viable microbial counts decrease when the drying temperatures increase. Ripe samples were found to have higher percentage of crude fibre, fat and protein, than the unripe samples while unripe samples have higher percentage of carbohydrate and ash than the ripe samples, at the drying temperatures. It was equally reported from the proximate analysis test that, the percentage amount of moisture content, carbohydrate and crude fibre decreases when the regulated drying temperatures increase while the amount of protein, fat and ash increases with an increase of the regulated drying temperatures.
... O amadurecimento artificial permite aos comerciantes minimizar perdas durante o transporte e liberar o produto a tempo no estágio de amadurecimento desejado. Os plátanos podem ser amadurecidos artificialmente por diferentes agentes de maturação 10 . ...
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... Artificial ripening enables traders to minimize losses during transportations as well to timely release the product at desired ripening stage. Plantains can be artificially ripened by different ripening agents 10 . ...
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Introduction: Artificial fruit ripening agents such as ethanol, ethylene, ethephon, and calcium carbide (CaC2) is usually employed in stimulating the fruit ripening process. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding the effects of various artificial fruits ripening methods on the health status of consumers. In this study, the physiological effects and possible health hazards associated with the consumption of plantain ripened by CaC2 and other non-chemical methods on the kidneys were investigated. Methods: Artificially ripened plantain was mixed with rat feed and fed to Wistar albino rats for four weeks, and the levels of plasma electrolytes (Na+, HCO3-, K+, and Cl-), urea, creatinine, as well as histological changes in the kidneys were determined. Results: Results indicated that rats fed with carbide-ripened plantain had a significantly high level of plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) compared to control rats., but there was no difference in the level of plasma sodium (Na+). However, the levels of plasma potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) were significantly low in rats fed with CaC2-ripened plantain as compared to the control rats. Furthermore, the levels of urea and creatinine were significantly high in rats fed with CaC2-ripened plantain compared to the control animals. Histological analyses showed glomeruli atrophy and tubular necrosis in kidneys of rats fed with CaC2-ripened plantain, thereby further indicating toxicity to the kidneys. Conclusions: Histological evidence and alterations in the level of the plasma electrolytes, urea, and creatinine suggest that consumption of fruits ripened with calcium carbide may be harmful to the kidneys.
... The necessity for artificial ripening also arises if the fruit sellers wish to sell fruits before their due season to make additional profit. Ethylene, ethanol, methanol, propylene, methyl jasmonate, ethylene glycol, ethephon, and calcium carbide are used to ripen fruits and vegetables artificially [25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. The ripening agents and their key features are documented in Table 1. ...
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Food adulteration refers to the alteration of food quality that takes place deliberately. It includes the addition of ingredients to modify different properties of food products for economic advantage. Color, appearance, taste, weight, volume, and shelf life are such food properties. Substitution of food or its nutritional content is also accomplished to spark the apparent quality. Substitution with species, protein content, fat content, or plant ingredients are major forms of food substitution. Origin misrepresentation of food is often practiced to increase the market demand of food. Organic and synthetic compounds are added to ensure a rapid effect on the human body. Adulterated food products are responsible for mild to severe health impacts as well as financial damage. Diarrhea, nausea, allergic reaction, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc., are frequently observed illnesses upon consumption of adulterated food. Some adulterants have shown carcinogenic, clastogenic, and genotoxic properties. This review article discusses different forms of food adulteration. The health impacts also have been documented in brief.
... The development of fruits encompasses variation in the sugar, minerals, acids, etc., by changing different biochemical or metabolic processes [4]. These metabolic and physiological changes result in softening, fragrance development, color and fruit firmness [5]. However, after harvesting, the fruits are still alive until a certain period, and numerous hard-to-control biochemical processes continue, which result in quality deterioration during the postharvest handling and transformation [6]. ...
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Plants host diverse microbial communities, which undergo a complex interaction with each other. Plant-associated microbial communities provide various benefits to the host directly or indirectly, viz. nutrient acquisition, protection from pathogen invaders, mitigation from different biotic and abiotic stress. Presently, plant-associated microbial strains are frequently utilized as biofertilizers, biostimulants and biocontrol agents in greenhouse and field conditions and have shown satisfactory results. Nowadays, the plant/fruit microbiome has been employed to control postharvest pathogens and postharvest decay, and to maintain the quality or shelf life of fruits. In this context, the intervention of the natural fruit microbiome or the creation of synthetic microbial communities to modulate the functional attributes of the natural microbiome is an emerging aspect. In this regard, we discuss the community behavior of microbes in natural conditions and how the microbiome intervention plays a crucial role in the postharvest management of fruits
Article
Automatic detection of artificially ripened fruits based on a non-destructive approach has recently gained significant attention. This work explores the inherent properties of multi-spectral imaging to distinguish between natural and artificially ripened bananas. The proposed method combines the prediction scores computed from the Support Vector Machine (SVM) on the individual and fused spectral bands images to detect the artificially ripened banana. Extensive analyses are performed on 5760 banana images captured in eight different spectrum bands covering Visible and Near-Infra-Red ranges. Obtained results indicate the average detection accuracy of $97.1\pm 3.6\%$ , thereby illustrating our proposed work's applicability.
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Banana (Musa spp.) is an important source of nutrients. 'Embul' is a popular banana variety in Sri Lanka. Banana ripening is practiced naturally and artificially. But artificial ripening could have negative effects on human and the nutrient content of such banana could be altered. Therefore, the investigation was based on the evaluation of postharvest quality of Embul banana following the artificial ripening treatments with respect to physico-chemical and sensory quality evaluation. Three samples of Embul banana at same maturity stage were treated with 0.25g/ L Calcium Carbide, 1 mL/ L Ethephon with Calcium hydroxide in airtight separate containers and the other sample was allowed to ripe naturally. Total sugar content, vitamin C, total titratable acidity, pH, total soluble solids, moisture content in pulp and peel and brix/total titratable acidity ratio were the assessed physico-chemical quality parameters, for each banana sample during the six days period of ripening with two days intervals. Aroma, taste, colour, texture and overall acceptability were recorded as five sensory quality assessing attributes. The best physico-chemical quality was observed for naturally ripened banana and the least quality was recorded for Calcium Carbide treated sample for almost all the quality parameters. Quality of Ethephon treated sample was in between the other two samples. The highest sensory scores were recorded for naturally ripened banana. Therefore, the results revealed that the chemically treated Embul banana had low level of nutritional and organoleptic quality than naturally ripened banana.
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Commercial ripening has become an important aspect fruit industry. People consume fruits, ripened with hazardous chemicals like calcium carbide which pose great health risks to the population. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare natural ripening agents (apple, pear, tomato) with artificial ripening agent (calcium carbide) for ripening of banana. Different Batches of banana were made with natural ripening agents & calcium carbide (1gm and 2 gm). The ripening ability was assessed by keeping the batches in two different storage conditions i.e. paper bag & plastic container. Sensory evaluation was done both by Hedonic scoring. The data revealed that bananas kept in plastic container ripened before those placed in paper bags and were more acceptable. Moreover, bananas placed in containers with apples took only 4 days to ripen whereas those placed with calcium carbide at both concentrations took 5 days. The study concluded that natural ripening agents especially Apple are better as compared to artificial ripener. Also, they are devoid of any potential health risks for the adolescents & adults.
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In recent years, the use of artificial fruit ripening agents has become prevalent mostly due to the commercial purposes. Different ripening agents are reported to be used to initiate the ripening process in fruits during off-seasons. However, the effects of these agents on the nutritional values of fruits are yet to be fully understood. The purpose of this study is to measure, analyze and compare the nutritional value of naturally and artificially ripened fruits. Bari-1 hybrid banana (Musa Spp.; local name: Sagor Kola) was chosen to carry out the experimental study. Ripe samples were collected directly from orchards or local markets. Additionally, unripe green samples were collected and artificially ripened in the laboratory using artificial ripening agents: ethephon, calcium carbide, ethylene glycol and fume from the kerosene stove. Different nutrition parameters, such as moisture content, total titratable acidity, vitamin C and sugar content were assessed for these banana samples. The assessed parameters of naturally and artificially ripened fruits were compared and analyzed to identify the change in nutritional values and determine the health hazards associated with them. The chemical compositions of artificial ripening agents were also investigated and possible health risks related to the impurities of ripening agents were assessed. Therefore, the key objective of this study is to address the changes in nutritional values and health risks associated with theartificial ripening which will be helpful for the consumers, nutritionists, physicians and other shareholders. Subjects: Food Additives & Ingredients; Food Analysis; Fruit & Vegetables; Nutrition; Food Laws & Regulations Keywords: Artificial fruit ripening; ethephon; kerosene fume; calcium carbide; ethylene glycol
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Introduction: In the recent years, ethephon, 2‑chloroethylphosphonic acid, is one of the most commonly used plant growth regulators. At present, it is being used on fruits, vegetables, and cereals for promoting pre‑ and post‑harvest ripening. The effect of artificial ripening has become questionable because of various health‑related issues. This study was conducted to note the morphology of liver after ethephon administration as it is the site where chemicals undergo first pass metabolism and probably will be affected by ethephon. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar albino rats were divided into experimental and control groups (10 each). Ethephon was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day by a gavage tube in the experimental rats for 14 days. The animals were sacrificed within 24 h of the last dose; liver was dissected and processed for light microscopy. Hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections were studied using an image‑pro express analyzer. The data obtained from control and experimental groups were statistically analyzed. Results: In the experimental rats, the body weight was found to be significantly decreased. The orderly arrangement of hepatocytes was disrupted and was replaced by blood‑filled sinusoids. At sites, hepatocytes appeared to be degenerated. Councilman bodies with pyknotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltrations were seen. The population per unit area of the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells was 29.53 ± 10.65 versus 44.18 ± 10.31 and 25.12 ± 4.41versus 13.05 ± 6.5 in experimental and control groups, respectively. The decrease of hepatocytes and increase of Kupffer cells were found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The observations in the liver are probably indicative of degenerative changes associated with ethephon. Hence, we can conclude that this plant growth regulator, Fruit and Vegetable Ripener, has hepatotoxic potential. General awareness and regarding the use of such plant growth regulators is must to reduce the intake.
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A bstract Fruit Ripening is a process wherein fruits become more edible or appetizing. The process of ripening includes several changes, such as texture, colour, taste, aroma etc. In short, ripening process is followed by a sweeter, less green and softer fruit. Although, the acidity content of fruit increases with ripening, but the increased acidity level does not make the fruit look tarter. Tomato ripening is a vastly harmonized progressive procedure that is related with seed growth. Synchronized appearance of several genes manages fruit tendering as well as buildup of natural coloring matter of plant tissue, sugars, acids, and unstable composite that augment appeal to flora and fauna. A grouping of molecular apparatus and ripening-affected deviant has allowed researchers to set up a structure for the regulation of ripening. Tomato, being a climacteric fruit, needs the phytohormone ethylene to ripen. This form of reliance upon ethylene has termed tomato fruit ripening as a system for study of controlling of its synthesis and insight. Here, we explain how ethylene and the changing factors related with the ripening procedure set altogether into a fruit ripening mechanism .
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Ripening of climacteric fruits is found to be a major hitch to enhance the commercial value of several countries. As it is considered to be one of the most abundantly consumed fruit varieties, it is imperative to increase the shelf life of the climacteric fruits. The significant reason for ripening is the production of ethylene hormone in the fruits. The commercial value of these fruits seems to be high and the export rate has also been drastically increasing due to the demand. Currently, CRISPRi is the emerging technology to show the prospect to silence the Aminocyclopropane1-carboxylic acid synthase gene which is mainly responsible for the ethylene biosynthesis, thus this process will retain the freshness of the fruits and thereby the ripening will also be delayed. This review majorly discusses about the existing methods and also focuses on new approach to increase the shelf life of climacteric fruits.
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DOI: 10.3329/fmcj.v5i2.6816Faridpur Med. Coll. J. 2010;5(2):37