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A Scoping Study
Source: Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure GoK 2014
The Development Corridors Partnership is a research and capacity building
collaboration among institutions from China, Kenya, Tanzania, and the UK. Its main
purpose is to deliver effective research and build capacity so development corridor decision-
making can be based on sound scientific evidence and effective use of available planning
tools and procedures.
How to cite this report:
DCP Kenya (2019). Development Corridors in Kenya - A Scoping Study. A Country Report
of the Development Corridors Partnership (DCP). Contributing authors: Daniel Olago, Lucy
Waruingi, Tobias Nyumba, Catherine Sang, Yvonne Githiora, Mary Mwangi, George Owira,
Francis Kago, Sherlyne Omangi, Jacob Olonde and Rosemary Barasa. Institute for Climate
Change and Adaptation (ICCA) the University of Nairobi and African Conservation Centre
(ACC), Nairobi, Kenya. e-Published by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK
This report presents the results of the study ‘‘Development Corridors in Kenya: A Scoping Study”.
The objective was to review the current baseline situation in relation to mega-scale development
corridor projects in Kenya with regard to the people and society, environment, conservation and
development. The work forms the basis for the planning and implementation of the Development
Corridors Partnership (DCP) research programme that will offer innovative solutions towards
achieving these mentioned goals both in Kenya and Tanzania but also aims to showcase best
practice applicable to other countries and regions.
The scope of the report includes a conceptual framework for understanding development
corridors in Kenya and related initiatives as outlined in the National Spatial Plan 2015-2045, with
the Lamu Port and Lamu-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) and Standard Gauge
Railway (SGR) corridors being the two main corridors under consideration. It then reviews a
broad array of stakeholders and their influence on Kenya’s development corridors. It analyses the
development corridor implementation in Kenya by looking into Corridor Project Negotiation and
Agreement Process, challenges to corridor implementation, litigation and resultant impacts. It
goes further to highlight potential social and ecological impacts of development corridors, and
climate change-related risks facing the development corridors.
The study applied several data collection and analysis tools. Literature review, stakeholder
analysis and a critical review of relevant policies and legislation were completed to identify actors
and policy, as well as legislative frameworks relevant to the development corridors in Kenya.
Efforts were also made to collect data from selected government agencies and actors through
telephone and email communications (Section 1.1 to 1.3).
1. Development corridors in Kenya and related initiatives (Section 2.1 & 2.2)
This study established that Kenya has two main development corridor projects. The first one is
the Lamu Port-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET), a flagship project under Kenya’s
Vision 2030, whose aim is to create seamless connectivity between the East African countries of
Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan. The second is the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR), which is
also a Vision 2030 flagship project as well as the East Africa Railways Master Plan (2009) project
aimed at connecting Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Additionally, other development corridor
related initiatives identified include dams and water transfers, Lake Turkana Wind Power Farm,
oil and gas exploration and production, airports, resort cities and industrial park projects.
2. Key Stakeholders and their influence in Kenya’s Development Corridors (Section 3.1
Over 100 stakeholders involved in the design, development and implementation of development
corridors in Kenya were identified and documented. These include government ministries,
parastatals and research institutions, industries, regional bodies, international/donor agencies,
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and umbrella bodies (such as Kenya Private Sector
Alliance (KEPSA) and Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM)). All these stakeholders have
continued to influence policies towards development corridors in Kenya at varying levels as
discussed in Section 3. The Office of the President (OP) features prominently as the key initiator
and decision maker in the development corridor processes in Kenya. However, the government
through its relevant ministries play a central role in providing strategic direction and support for
the implementation of the projects.
3. Development corridor implementation in Kenya (Section 4.1 to 4.3)
The conceptual framework for the development corridors in Kenya is outlined in the National
Spatial Plan 2015-2045. The study found that the process of initiation and implementation of
development corridors in Kenya is guided by the Public Private Partnership Act No 15 of 2013.
Moreover, the project execution process begins with the relevant government authority inviting
proposals from potential project investors and contractors to show their interest and eligibility,
and follows through eighteen stages. The conducive regulatory framework in the utility sectors
facilitates Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), supportive policy and legal environment, with
several sectoral legal strategies and policy process.
4. Challenges to corridor implementation (Section 4.4)
The study established that there are several challenges faced during development corridors
implementation in Kenya. These include: litigation and its resultant impacts, change to a
devolved system of government, national and regional politics, management challenges due to
human resource management issues, corruption and fraud during land acquisition and
compensation, delay in passing of legislation, financial constraints resulting to delayed
construction, insecurity due to presence of the Al-Shabaab, and climate change-related risks.
These challenges have resulted mainly in the delay in the implementation of the corridor projects,
lack of support by the local communities, loss of revenue and investor confidence, and conflict
between different stakeholders.
5. Potential impacts of development corridors (Section 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 6.2 & 6.3)
The study identified several potential impacts associated with the development corridors in
Kenya. These include land and water scarcity, biodiversity loss, social marginalisation, economic
displacement, resource-based conflicts, deforestation, threats to heritage sites, livelihood impacts
and dilution of cultural identity, increased exposure to drugs and diseases (including HIV/AIDS
expansion), and child labour and climate change related impacts. Although Kenya has put in
place a comprehensive climate change strategy and climate change institutional structures, it
was found that there is little evidence of the integration of climate risks into plans for Kenya’s
development corridor processes to foresee and mitigate climate change impacts. Apart from the
negative impacts, the results of the study also showed that there are several potential positive
impacts which include: opening of remote areas, economic growth and development of the area,
more efficient modes of transport, improved security, reduced accidents in the highways, rapid
growth of urban centres, and perhaps intensified agricultural activities.
6. Kenya’s ESIA and SEA process (Section 7.1 &7.2)
The Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) and Strategic Environmental
Assessment (SEA) are anchored on the National Environment Management and Coordination
Act of 1999 and revised in 2015 to both align it with the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and to
incorporate some aspects such as Strategic Environmental Assessments. These processes are
governed by the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). As a party to
international conventions, treaties and agreements on the management of the environment,
Kenya through NEMA initiate legislative proposals to give effect to them. The objective of the
SEA in Kenya is to systematically integrate environmental considerations into policy, planning
and decision-making processes, such that environmental information derived from the
examination of proposed policies, plans, programmes or projects are used to support decision
making. This study established that the ESIA and SEA processes and results underestimated the
actual impacts of the SGR and LAPSSET projects on nature and people, while the mitigation
measures, their implementation, monitoring and evaluation were inadequate or non-existent.
7. Priority research areas and capacity needs in Kenya (Section 8.1 & 8.2)
Based on the findings of the scoping study, several priority research areas are proposed with
themes that are centred on corridor impacts, mitigation and sustainable management. These are
biodiversity and conservation, water resources and supply-demand assessments, livelihoods,
climate change adaptation in corridors, and scenarios of land use in the corridors. The study
identified some capacity needs and are as follows: training for professionals in carrying out EIAs
and SEAs, training for regulators in ESIAs and SEAs, training of Post-Doctoral Research
Assistants and Research Assistants on quantitative and qualitative research methods,
stakeholder engagement skills, land use scenarios analysis, image processing and GIS,
modelling, climate change and adaptation skills, and scientific writing skills.
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................... 1
Key Findings............................................................................................................................. 1
Contents ...................................................................................................................................... 1
Figures ......................................................................................................................................... 3
List of Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................... 1
1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 2
2 Methodological approach to the scoping study ...................................................................... 3
2.1 Literature review ............................................................................................................ 3
2.2 Stakeholder analysis ...................................................................................................... 3
2.3 Observations and interviews .......................................................................................... 3
3 Development corridors in Kenya and related initiatives ......................................................... 3
3.1 LAPSSET corridor.......................................................................................................... 5
3.1.1 How it came about, where and what it is ................................................................. 5
3.1.2 LAPSSET past and current stretch ......................................................................... 6
3.1.3 LAPSSET key decision makers .............................................................................. 6
3.2 SGR corridor .................................................................................................................. 6
3.2.1 How it came about, where and what it is ................................................................. 6
3.2.2 SGR past and current stretch .................................................................................. 7
3.2.3 SGR key decision makers ....................................................................................... 7
3.3 Related initiatives ........................................................................................................... 8
3.3.1 Dams and water transfers ....................................................................................... 8
3.3.2 Lake Turkana Wind Power Farm............................................................................. 8
3.3.3 Oil and gas exploration and production ................................................................... 8
4 Stakeholders and their influence in Kenya’s development corridors ...................................... 9
4.1 Government Ministries and county governments ........................................................... 9
4.2 Parastatals and research institutions ........................................................................... 11
4.3 Industries ..................................................................................................................... 12
4.4 Regional bodies ........................................................................................................... 13
4.5 Donor agencies and international NGOs ...................................................................... 13
4.6 National Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) ..................................................... 15
4.7 Umbrella bodies ........................................................................................................... 16
5 Development corridor implementation in Kenya .................................................................. 16
5.1 Regulatory anchors ...................................................................................................... 16
5.2 Corridor project negotiation and agreement process .................................................... 17
5.3 Procedures for the execution of projects ...................................................................... 18
5.4 Challenges to corridor implementation ......................................................................... 20
5.4.1 Litigation and its resultant impacts ........................................................................ 20
5.4.2 Devolution, national and regional politics .............................................................. 21
5.4.3 Management challenges ....................................................................................... 21
5.4.4 Corruption and fraud during land acquisition and compensation ........................... 21
5.4.5 Delay in the passing of legislation ......................................................................... 21
5.4.6 Financial constraints resulting in delayed construction .......................................... 22
5.4.7 Insecurity due to the presence of the Al-Shabaab ................................................. 22
6 Potential impacts of development corridors ......................................................................... 22
6.1 Biophysical impacts of development corridors .............................................................. 22
6.1.1 Land and water ..................................................................................................... 22
6.1.2 Biodiversity ........................................................................................................... 23
6.2 Socio-economic impacts of development corridors ...................................................... 23
6.2.1 Displacement of people, conflicts and land speculation ........................................ 23
6.2.2 Social marginalisation and cultural value deterioration .......................................... 23
6.2.3 Livelihoods and poverty reduction ......................................................................... 24
7 Climate Change-related risks facing the development corridors .......................................... 24
7.1 Climate change key trends ........................................................................................... 24
7.2 Impacts on development corridors from climate change .............................................. 25
7.3 Climate change adaptation and mitigation ................................................................... 25
8 Kenya’s ESIA and SEA process .......................................................................................... 26
8.1 Regulatory framework .................................................................................................. 26
8.2 The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA) processes .................................................................................................................... 26
9 Priority research areas and capacity needs in Kenya .......................................................... 28
9.1 Priority research areas ................................................................................................. 28
9.2 Capacity needs ............................................................................................................ 29
10 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 30
11 Bibliography .................................................................................................................... 31
12 Appendices ..................................................................................................................... 35
12.1 Appendix 1. Quality of the coverage of the sectors in the adaptation literature ............. 35
12.2 Appendix 2. List of Key Stakeholders in the Development Corridors in Kenya ............. 36
12.3 Appendix 3. List of Development Corridor and related projects .................................... 38
12.4 Appendix 4. Policy and Legislative Frameworks relevant to the Development Corridor
Processes .............................................................................................................................. 42
12.5 Appendix 5. The likely impacts of development corridors on biodiversity and areas of
conservation importance ........................................................................................................ 47
12.5.1 References ........................................................................................................... 49
12.6 Appendix 6. Key challenges to corridor implementation in Kenya by Corridor projects . 50
Figure 1: The northern corridor member states and envisaged transit and transport links. ............. 4
Figure 2: Position of the SGR (Phases I & II) (a) in relation to the LAPSSET and (b) location of the
LAPSSET Corridor including roads, proposed resort cities and proposed airports ........................... 5
Figure 3: Power vs influence diagram for government ministries in corridor development processes.
Figure 4: Power vs influence diagram for parastatals and research institutions .............................. 11
Figure 5: Power vs influence diagram for industries ............................................................................. 12
Figure 6: Power vs influence diagram for donor agencies and international NGOs ........................ 14
Figure 7: Power vs influence diagram for NGOs ................................................................................... 15
Figure 8: Power vs influence diagram for umbrella bodies .................................................................. 16
Figure 9: Steps in Establishing Public-Private Partnerships ............................................................... 18
Figure 10: Steps to be followed in Development Corridors Projects Identification and Selection . 18
Figure 11: Steps followed in actualizing solicited proposals ............................................................... 19
Figure 12: Steps followed when acquiring land for development corridors ....................................... 20
Figure 13: Integrated EIA development process in Kenya. Note: PPP – Policies, Plans and
Programmes ................................................................................................................................................ 27
Figure 14: SEA development process in Kenya .................................................................................... 28
List of Abbreviations
AfDB- African Development Bank
ASALs- Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
AU- African Union
COMESA- Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
CRBC- China Road and Bridge Corporation
CRDC- China Railway Design Corporation
CSOs- Civil Society Organizations
DCP- Development Corridors Partnership
EAC- East African Community
EIA- Environmental Impact Assessments
ERS- Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation
ESIAs- Environmental and Social Impact Assessments
EU- European Union
FoNNAP- Friends of Nairobi National Park
GDP- Gross Domestic Product
GIS- Geographic Information System
GoK- Government of Kenya
HIV/AIDS- Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
IGAD- Intergovernmental Authority on Development
INGOs- International Non-Governmental Organizations
JICA- Japan International Corporation Agency
KALRO- Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization
KAM- Kenya Association of Manufacturers
KEPSA- Kenya Private Sector Alliance
KRB- Kenya Roads Board
KWCA- Kenya Wildlife Conservancies Associations
LAPSSET- Lamu Port-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport
LCDA- LAPSSET Development Corridor Authority
MoICNG- Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government
MoNTP- National Treasury and Ministry of Planning
NCTTA- Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Agreement
NEMA- National Environment Management Authority
NGO- Non-Governmental Organizations
NLC- National Land Commission
NNP- Nairobi National Park
PIDA- Programme for Infrastructural Development in Africa
PPP- Public Private Partnership Act
UNDP- United Nations Development Programme
RAs- Research Assistants
SADC- Southern African Development Community
SDGs- Sustainable Development Goals
SEAs- Strategic Environmental Assessments
SGR- Standard Gauge Railway
STE- Save The Elephants
USAID- United States Agency for International Development
VDS- Vision 2030 Delivery Secretariat
WB- World Bank
The Kenya Vision 2030 is Kenya’s long-term development blueprint that “aims to transform
Kenya into a newly industrializing, middle-income country providing a high quality of life to all its
citizens by 2030 in a clean and secure environment” (GoK-NESC 2007). The Kenya Vision 2030
was launched on October 30, 2006 and is based on three ‘pillars’: the economic, the social and
the political. The adoption of the Vision follows the successful implementation of the Economic
Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERS) launched in 2002 (GoK 2003).
The Vision is being implemented in successive five-year medium-term plans, with the current
third plan covering the period 2018-2022. The economic, social and political pillars of the Kenya
Vision 2030 are anchored on macroeconomic stability, continuity in government reforms,
enhanced equity and wealth-creation opportunities for the poor, infrastructure, energy, science,
technology and innovation, land reform, human resources development, security, and public
sector reforms. Being a top priority government plan and with mandates cutting across multiple
ministries, it is nested in the Office of the President (GoK-NESC 2007).
The Vision has identified several flagship projects in every sector to be implemented over the
Vision period and to facilitate the desired growth rate. In the Vision 2030 Sessional Paper No. 12
of 2012, one of the goals/strategies is to build infrastructure development to support identified
flagship projects, to ensure contribution to the economic growth and social equity goals. It also
calls for the strengthening of the institutional framework for infrastructure development and
accelerating the speed of completion. This development must be assessed against the backdrop
of “Isolation, insecurity, weak economic integration, limited political leverage, and a challenging
natural environment that combine to produce high levels of risk and vulnerability”, as noted in the
Vision 2030 Development Strategy for Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands (GoK 2012).
More recently, Kenya launched the Big Four Agenda and Action Plan to guide the development
agenda of the country in the period 2018-2022. The Agenda is closely aligned to the Vision 2030
and is focused on following topical issues: manufacturing, affordable housing, universal health
care and food security. Manufacturing has the potential to advance socio-economic development
through increased and diversified exports, reduced import bills and enhanced employment
creation (KIPPRA 2018). But it, along with housing and food security, are associated with
buildings and associated structures that occupy land spaces and host activities that impact on
the environment. Likewise, a clean environment and universal access to safe water can greatly
improve public health and minimise costs related to health care services. In this manner, well
designed Environmental Impact Assessments and Strategic Environmental Assessments for
development corridors and auxiliary infrastructure can play a critical role in meeting the goals of
the Big Four Agenda.
Corridor developments, which comprise the installation of linear or polygonal megastructures,
have direct and indirect impacts on the four “spheres” of planet earth: the biosphere,
hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere. As well as impacting on people and their diverse
societal structures and interactions, including socio-ecological interdependencies, within their
known, predicted, and unknown spheres of influence. Given these actual and potential effects, it
is important to ensure that corridor developments are undertaken ensuring that a balance is
maintained between conservation and development, and that generational and inter-generational
benefits are at least sustained, or better still accrue with time. This Scoping Report reviews the
current baseline situation in relation to mega-scale corridor development in Kenya with regard to
society, environment, conservation, and development. This report forms the basis for the
planning and implementation of the Corridors Development Partnership (DCP) research
programme that will offer innovative solutions towards achieving these mentioned goals, both in
Kenya and globally.
2 Methodological approach to the scoping study
2.1 Literature review
The DCP Kenya team conducted a detailed review of relevant open access published papers;
government documents, policy papers, reports and strategies; private sector reports, documents
and strategies; and media reports and commentaries related to development corridors. In
particular, the team reviewed documents relating to the planning process, implementation and
impacts of the installation of the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) and the Lamu Port South
Sudan Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) corridor and their related initiatives in Kenya.
2.2 Stakeholder analysis
The stakeholder analysis was conducted systematically based on Mitchell’s taxonomy of
stakeholders (Mitchell et al. 1997). Stakeholders were identified and mapped based on their
interaction either with the SGR and LAPSSET directly, or with the communities living in the
corridor areas. Power-influence mapping was undertaken based on the perceived authority of the
stakeholder in the corridor area. For example, government parastatals and ministries with
representatives on the LAPSSET Corridor Development Authority Board would be considered to
have high power and influence.
2.3 Observations and interviews
The foundation laid by the literature review and the stakeholder analysis made it possible for the
research team to carry out visits to the field, where primary data was collected. Formal and
informal interviews with corridor institutions such as LAPSSET, Konza Technopolis Development
Authority (KOTDA), Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA), Geothermal Development
Company ( GDC) and SGR were conducted as were opportunistic interviews with individuals
interested in development corridors in Kenya. This included groups such as Kenya Wildlife
Conservancies Association (KWCA), Save the Elephants (STE), Amara Conservation, Friends of
Nairobi National Park (FoNNAP) and other stakeholders.
3 Development corridors in Kenya and related initiatives
In 1985, the countries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda
signed the Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Agreement (NCTTA) and its associated
protocols to implement the Northern Corridor. The Northern Corridor is a multimodal trade route
linking the landlocked countries of the Great Lakes Region with the Kenyan maritime seaport of
. South Sudan acceded to the Agreement in 2012. The Northern Corridor was
envisaged to facilitate regional economic development. Implementation of the Agreement was
vested in the Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Coordination Authority which is based in
Mombasa, Kenya. This is partly the context within which the national development corridors have
been framed (Figure 1).
Figure 1: The northern corridor member states and envisaged transit and transport links.
Source: Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Coordination Authority website
The conceptual framework for the development corridors in Kenya is outlined in the National
Spatial Plan 2015-2045, with the LAPSSET and SGR corridors being the two of focus (GoK
2015). Development corridors in Kenya are diverse, ranging from linear infrastructure such as
rails, roads and pipelines, to spatially spread nodes such as business hubs, ports and luxury
cities (Figure 2). Today, several projects have been proposed and are either ongoing or planned.
Four projects have featured prominently. These are 1) The LAPSSET Corridor; 2) SGR Corridor;
3) KOTDA, and 4) the Resort Cities. Other associated projects include the expansion of existing
highways in the country, installation of wind power projects in Northern Kenya and the
construction of dams to aid water transfer in the country. These projects are outlined briefly
below, and more details are presented in the Appendices.
Figure 2: Position of the SGR (Phases I & II) (a) in relation to the LAPSSET and (b) location of the
LAPSSET Corridor including roads, proposed resort cities and proposed airports
Source: Kenya Railways 2013, Letai and Tiampati 2013
3.1 LAPSSET corridor
3.1.1 How it came about, where and what it is
The Lamu Port-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) corridor was initiated under
Kenya’s Vision 2030. The project aims to create seamless connectivity between the Eastern
African Countries of Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan, connecting an estimated population of
160 million people across these three countries. Further, the corridor is part of the larger land
bridge intended to connect the East African coast from Lamu Port to the west coast of Africa at
Douala Port, Cameroon. Regional economic bodies such as COMESA-EAC-SADC Tripartite and
the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGAD) are involved in the
extension efforts (Lapsset Corridor Development Authority 2016).
LAPSSET comprises Lamu Port, a railway line, road network, oil pipeline, oil refinery, airports
(e.g. at Isiolo, Lamu), and resort cities (e.g. Isiolo). Some of these elements are in progress. For
instance, the Lamu Port construction was launched on 2nd March 2012 and is still ongoing,
whereas an airport in Isiolo is already complete although is not yet operational. The road that
links Isiolo with Moyale on the Ethiopian border was 85% complete by 2016 (Lapsset Corridor
Development Authority 2016).
During the African Union (AU) Summit held in Johannesburg, South Africa in June 2015,
LAPSSET was endorsed and added to the AU Presidential Infrastructure Championship Initiative
(PICI) project. Further, the project’s admission to the African Union PIDA project (Programme for
Infrastructure Development in Africa) elevated its financial support from continental institutions
such as AU/NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development) (Lapsset Corridor Development
3.1.2 LAPSSET past and current stretch
The only extensive infrastructure prior to the implementation of the LAPSSET corridor project
was the road network, but it was poorly to moderately developed, comprising mainly of marram.
The envisioned corridor, when complete, will have a length of over 2,000km, from the coastal
town of Lamu and extending into the hinterland, to the Sudan border through the Isiolo, Lodwar
and Nakodok, and with a branch from Isiolo extending northwards to the Ethiopia border via
Moyale. It traverses the following counties: Lamu, Garissa, Isiolo, Meru, Laikipia, Samburu,
Baringo, Marsabit and Turkana (Figure 2). Further, LAPSSET will consist a 1,710km long railway
line, a 2,240km long oil pipeline, and a dual carriageway of 880km (REPCON Associates 2017).
3.1.3 LAPSSET key decision makers
There are multi-level, and multi-sectoral stakeholders involved with key decision making process
at various stages of the LAPSSET project. They included: The Office of the President (OP) which
initiated and is leading the process, as well as government ministries, parastatals, umbrella
bodies, regional and international agencies, and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs),
among others. In March 2013, through the Presidential Order Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 51,
Legal Notice No. 58, the LAPSSET Corridor Development Authority (LCDA) was established.
The agency is charged with steering the LAPSSET corridor project working in conjunction with
the Office of the President and key stakeholder ministries as key decision makers. The ministries
that sit on the LCDA board, and that can, therefore, be considered as the core ministries, are the
National Treasury, Transport, Infrastructure, Housing and Urban Development, Energy, Tourism
and Wildlife, and Lands and Physical Planning. The ministries have associated parastatals such
as Kenya Ports Authority (KPA), National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), and the
National Land Commission (NLC) that are also key decision makers since they are directly
involved in the project implementation and sit on the Board of the LCDA. NGOs and Civil Society
Organisations (CSOs) such as Save Lamu and Muslims for Human Rights (MUHURI) have
attempted to shape the implementation of LAPSSET. Organisations, from an African, East
African and international perspective, including the African Union (AU), Inter-Governmental
Authority on Development (IGAD), East African Community (EAC) and international donor
organisations and investors, have had variable levels of influence on the LAPSSET project
decision making, as reflected in Section 3 below.
3.2 SGR corridor
3.2.1 How it came about, where and what it is
The standard gauge railway (SGR) is another large flagship project conceived under the Kenya
Vision 2030 development agenda. It followed the recognition that the old railway system that was
fully established by the early 1900s, running westwards to Uganda from the coastal town of
Mombasa and through the central and western parts of Kenya, was aged and unable to sustain
the ideal load capacity of the region (AWEMAC 2012). Regionally, the SGR forms part of both
the East Africa Railways Master Plan (2009) and the Eastern African SGR regional network. This
master plan aims to rejuvenate existing railways serving Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, and
make extensions to Rwanda, Burundi, South Sudan, Ethiopia and beyond (CPCS Transcom
International Limited 2009).
On 1st October 2009, Kenyan and Ugandan governments signed a memorandum of
understanding for the construction of the SGR from Mombasa to Kampala. On 28th August 2013,
Rwanda came on board, and the three governments (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda) signed a
Tripartite Agreement commitment to fast track the SGR development to their respective capital
cities. South Sudan later joined as an interested stakeholder in the project. The government of
Kenya has completed the first phase of the SGR project from Mombasa to Nairobi. The
construction of the second phase from Nairobi to Naivasha has begun (Ministry of Transport and
3.2.2 SGR past and current stretch
Prior to the conception of the SGR project, Kenyan railways had a total network length of
2,210km. The main network, covering 1,083km, runs from Mombasa through Nairobi and
Nakuru, to Malaba at the Uganda border point. Another 217km branch line run from Nakuru to
Kisumu, linking with the ferry service on Lake Victoria (Berger 2011). Another additional set of
branch lines, of 618km in total length, runs from Nairobi to the towns of Magadi, Taveta
(Tanzania border), Kitale and Butere (western Kenya), and to Nyahururu, Nanyuki and Solai
(central Kenya) (Berger 2011).
Kenya’s SGR, commonly referred to as the Mombasa-Nairobi-Kisumu-Malaba SGR, is to be
implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is the Mombasa-Nairobi railway covering a total length of
485km. The phase traverses eight counties of Mombasa, Kwale, Kilifi, Taita-Taveta, Makueni,
Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi, passing through 31 towns, with 33 terminals. The Phase 1
subgrade length is 427km and comprises 98 medium and large bridges, 969 culverts, and 77
overpasses across roads (AWEMAC, 2012). The SGR Phase 1 route generally runs parallel to
the Mombasa-Nairobi Highway (A109), which is 482km long. Full operation of this phase was
intended in December 2017 (Habitat Planners 2016), but the passenger component was
launched earlier by Kenya’s President on 1st June 2017.
Phase 2 is divided into sub-components A and B. Phase 2A has already begun. It starts at
Nairobi South Station and will terminate at Enoosupukia in Narok County covering a total length
of 120km. This phase will pass through five counties, namely: Nairobi, Kajiado, Kiambu, Nakuru
and Narok, in that order. There will be six terminals and four tunnels built along the corridor. The
first tunnel will be built at a length of 4.5Km. Phase 2B is set to undergo a separate
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study and report from Phase 2A. When completed, the
SGR will connect Mombasa city port with the interior part of the country (Habitat Planners, 2016).
3.2.3 SGR key decision makers
The SGR project has been led by the Office of the President under the Vision 2030 development
programme. Kenya Railways Corporation (KRC), as the implementing agency, is mandated to
work in liaison with such players for successful implementation. The following two ministries sit
on the board of the KRC and are therefore regarded as the primary decision-makers in its
implementation: The National Treasury, Transport, Infrastructure, Housing and Urban
Development ministries. The key parastatals include KeNHA, NEMA, and NLC. International
donors such as China Exim Bank, World Bank (WB), and the African Development Bank (AfDB)
have directly funded roads and energy infrastructure along the corridor. Umbrella bodies such as
KCC, Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM), conservation groups, CSOs, and other
stakeholders’ efforts may also contribute to some of these decision-making situations. These are
discussed further in Section 3 below.
3.3 Related initiatives
3.3.1 Dams and water transfers
The National Water Master Plan (NWMP) 2030 is aligned with Vision 2030 and aims to develop
the country’s available surface and groundwater resources to the fullest extent possible. In order
to meet water demands and mitigate drought impacts through multipurpose development, inter-
and intra-basin transfers, as well as through promotion of water saving, reuse of water, roof and
rock catchments for water harvesting, among others (MEWNR and JICA 2013). For example,
activities proposed along the yet to be constructed western sector of the SGR are: a multi-
purpose (domestic, irrigation, hydropower) dam in the Nandi hills to transfer 189 million cubic
metres per year (MCM/yr) of water to Lake Victoria South Catchment Area, including Kisumu City
(MEWNR and JICA, 2013); Itare and Londiani dams will be built in the Lake Victoria South
Catchment Area (Mau) which will transfer 41MCM of water per year to the Greater Nakuru area;
and augmentation of groundwater supplies to Nakuru town from three major well fields of
Kabatini, Baharini, and Olobanita (15,000 m3/day). In association with the LAPSSET corridor, it is
proposed for Wajir town to pipe water from the Merti aquifer in Habaswein area, 110km south of
Wajir, to relay a total of 2.2MCM/year of potable water to Wajir (Luedeling et al. 2015). This plan
illustrates the significant role of groundwater storage in water security assurance (Foster and
MacDonald 2014), particularly in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). Further, in the Lamu area
where the port construction is taking place, it has been estimated that the water demand for the
port construction will be 1200m3/day, against a supply of 450m3/day from the ten boreholes at the
Hindi-Magogoni water supply. This water deficit will be worsened by the expected growth in the
population of Lamu area, from 16,146 people in 2009 (with a demand that is not being met of
181,550m3/day) to 450,000 people by 2030 (County government of Lamu 2013).
3.3.2 Lake Turkana Wind Power Farm
The Lake Turkana Wind Power project which was commissioned in 2018 is of significant
strategic benefit to Kenya and is one of the largest private investments in Kenya’s history. The
wind farm site is in Marsabit District in northern Kenya, approximately 50km north of South Horr
Township and 8km east of Lake Turkana. The farm consists of three interconnected components:
a wind farm at Lake Turkana, Lake Turkana to Suswa transmission line, and road adjustments,
upgrades and construction. It aims to provide 300MW of reliable, low-cost wind energy to the
national grid, equivalent to over 20% of the current installed electricity generating capacity. The
project includes rehabilitation of the existing road from Laisamis to the wind farm site,
approximately 200km, as well as plant and equipment lay-down areas, and access road network
in and around the site for construction, operations and maintenance purposes. The construction
of the transmission line is the responsibility of the Kenyan Government through the state-owned
Kenya Electricity Transmission Company (KETRACO). KETRACO will own the transmission line
and have a tolling arrangement with Kenya Power (Lake Turkana Wind Power Project 2011).
3.3.3 Oil and gas exploration and production
In 2012, Tullow Oil made the first discovery of crude oil in the South Lokichar Basin at the
Ngamia-1 well. Since then, Tullow drilled more wells in Turkana County and determined that they
are economically viable, with an estimated 600 million recoverable barrels of crude oil. Tullow oil
has already improved the road infrastructure to support the pilot transfer of 2000 barrels of oil per
day by road to the coast, which started at the end of 2017. Eventually, pipeline infrastructure
extending to Lamu port, with a transfer capacity of 200,000 barrels of crude oil per day, will be
built to replace the road transportation
4 Stakeholders and their influence in Kenya’s development
The importance of including stakeholders in a project has been widely recognised. According to
Freeman (1984), a stakeholder is “any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the
achievement of an organisation’s objectives”. Stakeholders can range from individuals to formal
and informal groups and institutions, directly or indirectly involved with an organisation and its
activities. Stakeholder analysis is an essential part of stakeholder management.
Within the Kenyan development corridor context, a wide range of stakeholders have been
identified (Appendix 2.) with varying degrees of involvement in the development corridor
processes. Some inferences have been made specific to LAPSSET and SGR in Section 2 above.
This section examines the broader stakeholder pool and how they inter-relate. The power and
influence of stakeholders are also illustrated in this section. In this context, power is the level of
authority a stakeholder has in relation to the corridor development project, while influence is the
level of involvement of the stakeholder in the project, and/or the degree to which they can
influence those with power to change the course of the proposed development.
4.1 Government Ministries and county governments
The government of Kenya through the Office of the President and various ministries has
developed multi-sectorial initiatives towards the realisation of the development needs of the
country. Under the Presidency, the Vision 2030 which is the national development blueprint, and
the Constitution of Kenya, 2010 have been key milestones in the organization and coordination of
the government’s input towards the development agenda. More recently, the Big Four Agenda
that was launched by the President, comprising manufacturing, housing, universal health care
and food security, and underpinning job creation, health, food security and development, has
added on to the Vision 2030’s 3rd Medium Term Plan (MTP) targets and tangible achievements
expected by 2022.
To promote and spur sustainable socio-economic activities countrywide, and in resonance with
the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the African Union Agenda 2063,
Kenya has reviewed and streamlined its policies, strategies and plans. This is in order to inspire
coordination between national and county governments, and national growth in all sectors,
including: transport and development, environment and forestry, energy, agriculture, water and
sanitation, industrialization and development, and extractives. Some of the intended
transformative flagship projects include LAPSSET, the SGR, and the Northern Corridor and their
associated nodes. To ensure sustainable implementation and actualization of the desired
economic transformation, the National Treasury and Ministry of Planning (MoNTP) has sought
partnerships with local and international monetary funds and donors to mobilize projects’
finances, while the LAPSSET Development Corridor Authority (LDCA) and the Vision 2030
Delivery Secretariat (VDS), both domiciled in the Office of the President, were established to
oversee the implementation, hence they have both high power and influence in corridor
development projects (Figure 3).
Figure 3: Power vs influence diagram for government ministries in corridor development
MoSH= Ministry of Sports & Heritage, MoL= Ministry of Lands, MoH = Ministry of Health, MoFAIT = Ministry of Foreign Affairs &
International Trade, MoAI = Ministry of Agriculture & Irrigation, MoPM = Ministry of Petroleum & Mining, MoICT = Ministry of
Information, Communication & Technology, MoI&ED = Ministry of Industrialization, Enterprise and Development, MoEd = Ministry of
Education, MoTW = Minstry of Tourism and Wildlife, MoE = Ministry of Energy, MoD&ASAL = Ministry of Devolution and Arid and
Semi-Arid Lands, MoLSP = Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, MoEF = Ministry of Environment & Forestry, MoNTP = Ministry
of the National Treasury & Planning, MoT&ID = Ministry of Transport & Infrastructure Development.
Those ministries in whose dockets implementing agencies fall, and those that sit on the boards of
such agencies, tend to have both high power and influence. As a major mobilizer of funds across
the mega projects, the Ministry of the National Treasury and Planning (MoNTP) also has a lot of
power and influence on the projects’ implementation. This is however intertwined with the
mandates, roles and responsibilities of at least twelve other ministries and the shared sustainable
development agenda within and across sectors. For example, the Ministry of Information
Communication and Technology (MoICT) might be particularly needed for effective
telecommunication infrastructure installation along the corridors, just as the Ministry of Interior
and Coordination of National Government (MoICNG) would ensure security and safety which is
important for successful projects’ implementation, especially during site works.
The government works with global finance organisations such as the World Bank and African
Development Bank, international agencies such as the UN and powerful International Non-
Governmental Organisations (INGOs) such as Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA),
the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Union (EU).
However, there are concerns of the low level of partnership with the private sector and NGOs
with a national and subnational scope.
Office of the
4.2 Parastatals and research institutions
Under the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure Development, the Kenya Roads Board (KRB)
has the mandate to oversee the national road network and co-ordinate its development,
rehabilitation and maintenance. KENHA plays an important role in highways. When the Kenya
Roads Bill 2017 transitions into an Act, there will be established an overall Public Roads
Standards Board with representation from some of the smaller existing and proposed new
institutions and other stakeholder groups. Other parastatals such as the Kenya Rural Roads
Authority (KERRA) and Kenya Urban Roads Authority (KURA) are also involved, but due to their
more restricted jurisdictions, they have less power and influence over the overall corridor
development (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Power vs influence diagram for parastatals and research institutions
KRC = Kenya Railways Corporation, WASREB = Water Services Regulatory Board, KPLC = Kenya Power & Lighting Company, KFS
= Kenya forest Service, KVDA = Kenya Valley Development Authority, LBDA = Lake Basin Development Authority, KALRO = Kenya
Agricultural & Livestock Research Organisation, KERRA = Kenya Rural Roads Authority, NLC = National Lands Commission, UON =
University of Nairobi, JKUAT = Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, CETRAD = Centre for Training and
Integrated Research, T.A.R.D.A = Tana & Athi River Development Authority, NWCPC = National Water Conservation and Pipeline
Corporation, KURA = Kenya Urban Roads Authority, WRA = Water Resources Authority, KEFRI = Kenya Forestry Research Institute,
NDMA = National Drought Management Authority, KWS = Kenya Wildlife Service, NEMA = National Environment Management
Authority, KENHA = Kenya National Highways Authority, LCDA = APSSET Corridor Development Authority, KPA = Kenya Ports
The National Environmental Authority (NEMA) and Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) which mainly
deal with environmental and biodiversity conservation, also play a huge role in the establishment
of large transport corridors. NEMA requires that Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs)
and Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs) are carried out for all projects that
are implemented in the country. KWS manages over twenty national parks and reserves in the
country, which cover a considerable area of the national land mass and contribute significantly to
the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) through tourism. The organization also has high
visibility due to the international profile of its parks and partnerships and holds a high-power vs
influence standing (Figure 4).
Kenya Railways Corporation (KRC) is responsible for the supervision of the construction of the
SGR but seems to have both low power and influence in the current scheme of things, being
more of a recipient of the finished product to manage (Figure 4). The parastatals such as NEMA,
KURA, KERRA, KWS, among other parastatals generally partner with international organisations
such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment
(UNEP), as well as national research institutes such as Kenya Agricultural and Livestock
Research Organisation (KALRO), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), and universities.
They do this to promote research and build capacity in development sectors such as agriculture,
water, biodiversity, energy, and transport and infrastructure. Due to this, the research institutions
have relatively high influence, but because they are far removed from the actual corridor
implementation and development process, they have low power (Figure 4).
Several industry stakeholders are working in the development corridors particularly in the
construction and extractives (cement and quarry, mining, and oil and gas) sectors. However, the
Chinese companies that have been awarded construction contracts are dominant. These are the
China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC), China Railway Design Corporation (CRDC), and
the CRRC Corporation, which manufactures locomotives. These companies all fall within the low
power-low influence quadrant as they are the recipients of contracts with more operational rather
than decision making roles in the projects (Figure 5). The Kenya based cement manufacturers,
including Bamburi Cement Company, have the same influence but higher power than the
Chinese construction companies. In part because they have established track records within the
country. Amongst the industry group, Tullow Oil Company scores highest on both power and
influence, particularly because fossil fuel is still a major energy source and a pipeline is to be
constructed to transport the resource from Turkana area to the Lamu Port (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Power vs influence diagram for industries
APEC Ltd = APEC Consortium Ltd, ARM AFRICA = ARM Cement Ltd, AOC = Africa Oil Corporation, CRRC = CRRC
Corporation Ltd, TGMC= Turkana Gold Mining Company Ltd., BAMBURI = Bamburi Cement Company, CRDC = China
Railway Design Corporation, CRBC = China Road and Bridge Corporation, MMC = Mayfox Mining Company,
DANGOTE = Dangote Cement Plc, EAPC = East African Portland Cement, TULLOW = Tullow Oil Company
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
4.4 Regional bodies
East Africa has three regional bodies, the African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC
and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD
) whose main mandates are to
deepen socio-economic, political and cultural ties, and promote regional cooperation and
integration. There are already tangible efforts to create an East Africa common market.
Conceptions of joint mega projects such as LAPSSET and the SGR from the port of Mombasa,
Kenya all the way to the Democratic Republic of Congo can be a major boost to the region’s
The EAC has developed and reviewed various multi-sectoral policies to guide a common
development agenda in key sectors such as energy, fisheries and trade. It has developed a
Vision 2050 development plan geared to spur economic transformation in the East African
countries. At the continental scale, AU’s Agenda 2063 emphasizes the role of infrastructure in the
growth and sustainable development of the continent, for example through its Programme for
Infrastructural Development in Africa (PIDA).
The partnership has been another key investment area for regional bodies. IGAD, AU, and EAC
have worked very closely with respective government ministries, the United Nations, European
Union, among other stakeholders in various areas of conflict resolution, drought, climate change,
water, agriculture and biodiversity. One key commission created by EAC is the Lake Victoria
Basin Commission, established in 2001 to coordinate various interventions in the Lake Victoria
Basin region and to turn it into an economic growth zone for regional livelihood improvement. All
these bodies fall in the high power-high influence bracket but are subservient to each country’s
development agenda and priorities.
4.5 Donor agencies and international NGOs
The donor agencies and international NGOs involved in corridor development projects in Kenya
have been doing so through funding and research. These agencies hold different levels of power
and influence over the development corridor processes (
East African Community (EAC) member states are; Burundi, Kenya, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda,
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is composed of eight-member states, namely; Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia,
Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, the Sudan, and South Sudan
Figure 6), with most of them clustering in the categories of moderate to high influence, and
moderate power. This could be partly attributed to their international scope, presence and
acceptance among the nations, and strong participation in funding for development projects
through country line ministries, and an inclination to make such projects have positive
development-oriented outcomes for the countries within which they carry out their projects.
Figure 6: Power vs influence diagram for donor agencies and international NGOs
IFAW = International Fund for Animal Welfare, GIZ = Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, UNDP = United
Nations Development Programme, USAID = United States Agency for International Development, CI = Conservation
International, IUCN = International Union for the Conservation of Nature, TNC = The Nature Conservancy, DANIDA =
Danish International Development Agency, DFID = Department for International Development, EU = European Union,
UNEP = United Nations Environment, WWF = World Wide Fund for Nature, AFDB = African Development Bank.
4.6 National Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs)
Most of the NGOs that are carrying out programmes and projects within the development
corridors tend to focus on biodiversity and environmental conservation, development,
governance, extractives, health, livelihoods, famine relief, and poverty alleviation. Other sectors
include media, land, water and general or cross-cutting research areas (Appendix 2.). Most of
these organisations cluster around moderate power, but along that line have a wide range of
influence (Figure 7). This could be attributed to their visibility,
capacity, and recognition by the
government as being a proven and dependable key actor, e.g. the Kenya Red Cross which
stands out as having the highest power and influence among the considered group of
Figure 7: Power vs influence diagram for NGOs
TCG = Tsavo Conservation Group, IHRB = Institute of Human Rights and Business, KCWCM = Kenya Climate
Change Working Group, ADS = Anglican Development Services, KCSPOG = Kenya Civil Society Platform for Oil and
Gas, STE = Save the Elephants, FoNNAP = Friends of Nairobi National Park, ACCESS = Africa Collaborative Centre
for Earth Systems Science, KLA = Kenya Land Alliance, TI – Kenya = Transparency International Kenya, SUPKEM =
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims, AWF = African Wildlife Foundation, DSWT = David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust,
AFRICOG = African Centre for Open Governance, ADA Consortium = The Adaptation Consortium, CAK =
Conservation Alliance of Kenya, Kenya Red Cross.
Caritas is widely recognized by communities in marginalised counties such as Turkana where the Catholic church was traditionally
the main provider of basic services such as education and water (Conversation with Professor Daniel Olago, Institute for Climate
Change and Adaptation, University of Nairobi on 23rd April 2018)
4.7 Umbrella bodies
Transparency, accountability, inclusivity, gender and good governance are today key pre-
requisites for bankable development projects, from their design to implementation. Civil Society
Organizations (CSOs) and other umbrella bodies have traditionally taken on the watchdog role to
ensure that these principles, as well as human rights, effective resource management and
environmental protection, are incorporated in projects and programmes countrywide. In Kenya,
umbrella bodies have been formed coalescing around thematic areas of interest such as
biodiversity, human rights, climate change, and property rights. The umbrella bodies play other
critical roles such as monitoring the actions of donors and other actors and fostering cooperation
and constitutionalism among various stakeholders to promote transparency, accountability and
good governance in projects and programmes. These umbrella bodies vary in their scope from
national, regional to global.
Although generally characterised by low power, the influence of umbrella organisations ranges
from low to high (Figure 8). Some of the more influential umbrella bodies like Kenya Private
Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) have continued to
influence policies geared towards creating enabling business environments and promoting
national and international trade. The NGO Coordination Board has high power and influence
because of its mandate which is to register, facilitate and coordinate all national and international
NGOs operating in Kenya.
Figure 8: Power vs influence diagram for umbrella bodies
LSK = Law Society of Kenya, KCCWG = Kenya Climate Change Working Group, AFRICOG = African Centre for Open
Governance, GSK = Geological Society of Kenya, KNHRC = Kenya National Human Rights Commission, TI – Kenya,
EAWLS = East African Wildlife Society, MUHURI = Muslims for Human Rights.
5 Development corridor implementation in Kenya
5.1 Regulatory anchors
In Kenya, corridor development projects are governed by the Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
Act which was enacted in 2013, paved the way for capital and infrastructure projects to gravitate
towards PPPs. The PPP Act defines a PPP as an agreement between a contracting authority
and a private authority, where the private body undertakes and takes the risk of providing a
public function and receives the benefit regarding compensation from a public fund or charges
collected from the users of the public function. The Act further defines a contracting authority to
0 1 2 3 4 5
be a state department, agency, state corporation or county government, which intends to have a
function undertaken by it performed by a private party (Section 3, Public-Private Partnerships Act
(No 15 of 2013).
The development of the PPP Act begun with the creation of an enabling legal environment,
ensuring that PPP initiatives are part of the reform agenda. Domestication of internationally
successful PPP models and the preparation of PPP bankable transactions resulted in a PPP
pipeline in June 2012 (Ministry of Finance Kenya 2014). In March 2009, the government adopted
an institutional framework through the Public Procurement Disposal (Public-Private Partnerships)
Regulations 2009 (PPPU). This was followed by an enquiry into the country’s legal and
regulatory framework which recommended the enactment of a PPP law to address the identified
gaps, conflicts, inconsistencies and overlaps in the laws in existence then in 2010. In December
2011 the government approved a PPP policy statement which formed the basis for the
establishment of institutions to champion the PPP agenda, facilitate mobilisation of domestic and
international private sector investments, and to provide for Government support for PPP projects,
as well as providing a clear and a transparent process for project development. On 5th December
2012, the government received financial support from the World Bank for the Infrastructure
Finance and PPP project to increase private sector investment in the Kenyan infrastructure
market (GoK-PPP Unit 2018).
Subsequently, the Public-Private Partnership Act was passed and came into effect on 8th
February 2013. The Act provides for the participation of the private sector in the financing,
construction, development, operation, or maintenance of infrastructure or development projects
of the Government, through concession or other contractual arrangements and the establishment
of the institutions to regulate, monitor and supervise the implementation of project agreements on
infrastructure or development projects (PPP Act 2013). The Act defines the process of PPP
projects identification, prioritisation, conceptualisation, preparation, tendering, negotiations,
award, approval, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and finally how they are handed
over to the government where applicable (Appendix 4.).
5.2 Corridor project negotiation and agreement process
The process of initiation and implementation of development corridors in Kenya is guided by the
Public Private Partnership Act No 15 of 2013. The PPP is defined as a performance-based
contract under which the private sector supplies public services over time and is paid by the
public sector, end user or hybrid of both. The output is specified by the contracting authority while
input is the responsibility of the private sector. The Act describes nine steps for the establishment
of a partnership (Figure 9) and stipulates the processes to be guided by the principles of
transparency, free and fair competition and equal opportunity. Meanwhile, the process of
identifying and selecting a suitable development project follows the steps in Figure 10.
Figure 9: Steps in Establishing Public-Private Partnerships
Source: Public-Private Partnerships Act, No 15 of 2013
Figure 10: Steps to be followed in Development Corridors Projects Identification and Selection
Source: Public-Private Partnerships Act, No 15 of 2013
5.3 Procedures for the execution of projects
The project execution process begins with the relevant government authority inviting proposals
from potential project investors and contractors to show their interest and eligibility. It follows
through eighteen stages as shown in Figure 11 below.
Project Agreement PPP Arrangement Sector Diagnosis and
Execution of a
Approval of Projects
by Committee and
Approved Projects Pre-Qualification
Gurantee or Letter
of Comfort by the
Figure 11: Steps followed in actualizing solicited proposals
Source: Public-Private Partnerships Act No 15 of 2013
The acquisition of land for the development corridors and associated projects in Kenya is guided
by the Land Acquisition Act, Chapter 295. The Act stipulates the steps to be taken in the
identification, approval and surrender of land that the government seeks to use for development
purposes (Figure 12).
Invitation to BidSubmission of BidsCompetitive Dialogue
Evaluation Report Negotiation
Sbmision of Risk
Cabinet for Approval
Approval of Project
Execution of a
Figure 12: Steps followed when acquiring land for development corridors
Source: The Land Acquisition Act, Chapter 295
5.4 Challenges to corridor implementation
Large projects such as development corridors have rarely been rejected to the point of halting
their commencement in Kenya (Kakonge 2015). However, their implementation has been stalled,
delayed or progressively slowed down at some point in the process. Recent experiences with the
development corridor projects have identified some common causes of such delays to include
compensation for land and property, devolution, national and regional politics, lack of public
participation, negative impacts of projects on environment and biodiversity as well as a violation
of cultural rights. These have affected different corridor projects variably as discussed in
Appendix 6. .
5.4.1 Litigation and its resultant impacts
Prolonged incidents of legal battles have impacted the projects finances and timelines, leading to
loss of billions of shillings in lost time, legal costs, and operating costs. From 2015, human rights
activists and institutions, biodiversity and environmental lobby groups, interested individuals,
indigenous community groups, financial institutions, contractors and public and private
investment companies, and government agencies have sued and or have been sued for various
reasons relating to the implementation of the development corridors in Kenya. The legal
challenges have revolved around fraudulent acquisition of land, exclusion in participation in key
•The Commisioner Issues
Notice in the Gazette
Survey to Ascertain
Damage caused by
entry for survey
Land Marked Out
Notice of Award Payment of
Survey of Acquired
Documents of Title
corridor processes, inadequate compensation for land and property, inflated project costs, abuse
or infringement of human rights including cultural, economic and social rights, damage to and or
potential damage to the environment and key natural resources and national heritage sites, and
tendering and contracting processes.
Two examples are presented to illustrate the resultant impacts of litigation, and others are listed
in Appendix 6. . In August 2015, the Nairobi County filed a petition in court to stop the payment of
Ksh. 2.5 billion in compensation for land that had been earmarked for construction of the
Standard Gauge Railway. The county claimed that the compensation would benefit fraudsters
who were using fake title deeds for parcels of land that were located along the Embakasi
Township Reserve (Kamau 2015). In January 2017, activist Okiya Omtatah and the Kenya
Coalition for Wildlife Conservation demanded court orders be given to quash the Environmental
Impact Assessment License that had been issued by NEMA on 13th December 2016, which
allowed the construction of SGR Phase 2 through Nairobi National Park (Rajab 2017). Grounds
for the appeal before the National Environment Tribunal included the following: scientific studies
for purposes of identifying the most suitable of all seven possible routes for SGR to pass through
Nairobi National Park (NNP) had not been undertaken; due process was not followed in acquiring
of a licenses, including use of faulty ESIA reports; and finally that construction through the NNP
would cause continuous irreversible degradation and damage to the ecosystem. Respondents
included the China Road and Bridge Corporation, NLC, KWS, NEMA, KRC, Attorney General
Githu Muigai and the Transport ministry. These have resulted in delays in project implementation
as the court processes take considerable time to resolve (Wasuna 2016, Rajab 2017).
5.4.2 Devolution, national and regional politics
Development corridor projects traverse numerous counties in Kenya, and consequently there
are many stakeholders involved who have varied interests and expectations. It is not uncommon
to encounter devolution and geographical conflicts between neighbouring counties. For example,
Machakos and Makueni counties have claimed ownership of the Konza Techno City project
(Nzioka 2013). In addition, conflict and delays among East African Community (EAC) countries
have been reported (Kagire 2017) leading to delays in the implementation of project components,
cancellation of project partnerships and financial commitments and rerouting and renegotiations
with new alliances and partnerships.
5.4.3 Management challenges
Human resource management challenges such as poor payment and wrongful termination of
employment contracts for workers have resulted in protests and demonstrations, and standoffs
between the project implementers such as the China Roads and Bridges Company (CRBC) and
workers leading to disruption of the SGR construction activities.
5.4.4 Corruption and fraud during land acquisition and compensation
Incidents of corruption and fraud linked to the acquisition of, and compensation for, land and
property earmarked for development corridor projects have been reported across in the country.
Cases of inflated costs of land have been linked to the Konza Techno City (Mung’ahu 2017) and
the LAPSSET project (Guguyu 2015) resulting in delays as well as loss of credibility with funders
and investors in these projects. Low payments to landowners have in some cases resulted in
them refusing to vacate the land, leading to protracted compensation claims (Okoth 2016) and
hindering the implementation of these projects.
5.4.5 Delay in the passing of legislation
Delays in passing relevant legislation have resulted in delayed project implementation including
the creation of relevant corridor institutions. For example, the delay in the creation of Konza
Technopolis Development Authority (KOTDA) has been linked to the delays of consultancy work
by Tetra Tech Inc, a US consultancy firm that was expected to oversee the implementation of the
first phase of the project by marketing it, building primary infrastructure, water and sewerage
systems, and roads, and negotiate land leases with potential investors (Okuttah 2013).
5.4.6 Financial constraints resulting in delayed construction
In 2014, the Kenyan government allocated funds to the SGR but failed to allocate LAPSSET
Sh10 billion required to facilitate putting up the first three berths of Lamu port. The launch of the
construction of the berths, which was contracted to China Roads and Bridge Corporation in
August 2016, was postponed three times before construction was later initiated in 2016.
Inadequate funds have also resulted in scaling down of the project by doing away with some
components of the project. This has included scaling down the capacity of Lamu coal-fired power
plant by half (expected to power port operations) to cut on costs and avoid generating more
electricity than needed (Otuki 2018).
5.4.7 Insecurity due to the presence of the Al-Shabaab
The existence of terror groups and long-standing conflicts between rival clans and communities
living in different counties that the LAPSSET project passes through has posed a challenge to
the implementation of the projects (Kimanthi 2015). In most of the 12 counties that LAPSSET
passes through (Lamu, Wajir, Garissa, Isiolo, Turkana, Tana River, Samburu, and Marsabit),
serious cases of insecurity have been experienced.
6 Potential impacts of development corridors
6.1 Biophysical impacts of development corridors
6.1.1 Land and water
The SGR and LAPSSET corridors are essentially linear features but their influence is likely to
extend into spatially large swaths of land, with them at the centre, due to their expected effects in
spurring economic growth and development and the consequent ramifications such as rapid
growth of urban centres and perhaps intensified agricultural activities as they open external
markets. They thus have significant direct and indirect, and contribute to cumulative impacts on
when other existing and planned activities are taken into consideration. Increasing deforestation
and fragmentation of habitats for varied end-uses, such as settlement and agriculture,
compromises the services of many ecosystems (Mogaka et al. 2009), and changes the surface
and groundwater regimes with resultant impacts on water availability and the function and
operation of existing water infrastructure (Stockholm Environment Institute 2009). For example,
100,000ha of the Mau Complex (part of the recharge zone for the Kisumu and Nakuru regional
groundwater aquifers was lost between 2000 and 2009 (UNEP 2009). River and groundwater
systems are being degraded by human activities, through for example, catchment degradation,
pollution, siltation, bank encroachment, and over-abstraction (Moinde-fockler et al. 2007,
Stockholm Environment Institute 2009, UNEP 2009). Such stresses and geographical location in
arid settings exacerbate vulnerability to current and future climate risks (Stockholm Environment
Institute 2009, Field et al. 2014). Thus, the protection of the biophysical systems associated with
rivers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater, is of prime importance. Such protection will not work
without adequate land use planning, based on the assessment of the vulnerability of the
resources to land degradation effects, including those from mega-infrastructure projects. Water
users also must understand the need for surface and groundwater protection (Mumma et al.
The development corridors in Kenya, especially SGR and LAPSSET have been widely discussed
both in print and electronic media. According to these sources, the two projects have already
impacted on and still have potential impacts on different areas of conservation importance and
biodiversity. However, the impacts are varied and may be restricted to certain sections of the
projects. In particular, the project's impacts have been identified as land degradation,
fragmentation and habitat loss; loss of aesthetic values of the landscapes; loss of and reduction
of biological diversity; changes in wildlife movement, behaviour and blockage of migration
corridors; increase in and emergence of human-wildlife conflicts; loss of wildlife due to road kills
and accidents; water and air pollution due to noise and spillages; and parament destruction of
wetlands. These are discussed in detail in Appendix.
6.2 Socio-economic impacts of development corridors
6.2.1 Displacement of people, conflicts and land speculation
The implementation of development corridor projects requires large parcels of land, which is rare
in the hands of government or government agencies. Consequently, the government must
acquire these parcels of land from private landowners or community owned parcels. Recent
analyses have indicated that such demand for larger parcels of land has resulted in
displacements of people and an influx of “foreigners” leading to land speculation and higher land
prices. Especially within the key development hubs such as LAPSSET’s Lamu, Isiolo and
Turkana’s proposed resort cities. For example, Isiolo has witnessed both a rise in land prices
from less than USD$2500 to more than $1 million per acre and high incidents of land grabbing
(Abdi and Kamwana 2014, Versi 2014). It is expected that other cities along the development
corridors will face similar challenges.
Development corridors have also fostered the emergence of new dimensions of conflict at
different levels: among counties, between local and central government, among communities,
and between locals and ‘foreigners’. For example, conflicts have emerged between Isiolo and
Nyambene counties over the economic benefits stemming from infrastructural development such
as LAPSSET’s airport (Kiarie 2012) and over the resort city boundary between Isiolo and Meru
Counties (Abdi and Kamwana 2014). Meanwhile, the influx of “foreigners” along the development
corridors, land grabbing and the resultant landlessness faced by the locals is likely to create and
exacerbate violence and conflict among local communities (Kiarie 2012, Versi 2014). For
example, Isiolo has witnessed several episodes of conflict, usually involving pastoralist
communities clashing over natural resources. Whereas in Turkana, cross-border insecurity, inter-
ethnic resource-based conflict, small arms proliferation and low state penetration (Fong 2015)
that compromises law and order, have been reported.
6.2.2 Social marginalisation and cultural value deterioration
Because of their remote locations, low agricultural production potential, low human population
densities, vast lands, and poor infrastructure, among other factors, the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
(ASALs) have been historically marginalised with respect to the national socio-economic
development programmes. One outcome of this marginalisation is that these areas are
characterised by high illiteracy levels with significantly fewer schools, poor infrastructure and
social amenities. The long-standing historical marginalization of these indigenous communities
exacerbates their vulnerability to competition for economic opportunities occasioned by the
corridor projects. If they are forcibly torn off their traditional forms of livelihood and culture, the
change-over would be troubled and torturous (Letai and Tiampati 2013).
Most of the development corridor and their associated projects cut across many indigenous
communities’ settlement areas. The indigenous communities in Kenya’s ASALs, including the
Awer, Orma, Somali, Borana, Rendille, Samburu and Turkana, have historically distinct social,
economic and cultural traditions. The emergence of new infrastructure in these areas may result
in social and cultural changes: many ESIA reports that have been done in these areas point out
some aspects of concern related to labour and employment, changes in social behaviour due to
the influx and influence of people with different cultures, traditions and social perspectives,
increased exposure to drugs and diseases, including HIV/AIDS expansion, and child labour,
among others (Sena 2014).
6.2.3 Livelihoods and poverty reduction
Kenyans living in arid and semi-arid lands have the highest incidence of income poverty.
Development corridors are aimed at economic improvement and poverty reduction. However, it is
not clear how these projects have or will impact on poverty levels both locally and nationally. Yet,
preliminary studies have pointed to serious impacts on local livelihoods, especially of resource-
dependent communities due to obstructed access to these resources
. For example, studies
along the Kenyan coast have shown that fisher communities in Lamu have lost access to
fisheries due to closures of traditional fishing waters. This has affected a significant number of
artisanal fisher-persons who presently depend upon the waters of the channel for their livelihood.
Projects that traverse pastoralist areas are likely to disrupt access to both livestock and wildlife
grazing due to the blocking off migratory routes and grazing areas, and the loss of crucial fall-
back zones for these animals during drought. Other expected challenges associated with such
projects include an increase in the level of vulnerability with many people dropping out of
pastoralism (Letai and Tiampati 2013). The creation of investment and job opportunities are
positive benefits, but these may not directly accrue to the resident communities due to a lack of
adequate education and requisite skills sets. This leads to “outsiders” getting the much better
paid technical jobs, while the locals are restricted to the poorly paid non-skilled jobs. This creates
conflict, such as has been witnessed in the oil exploration and production sector in Turkana.
7 Climate Change-related risks facing the development
7.1 Climate change key trends
Kenya’s vulnerability to climate change has been widely recognised (Herrero et al. 2010, Ojwang’
et al. 2010, Parry et al. 2012, Mwangi and Mutua 2015, USAID 2018). Kenya’s climatic conditions
vary significantly between it's coastal, interior and highland regions (Herrero et al. 2010, Parry et
al. 2012). The climate pattern is influenced mainly by its position relative to the equator, proximity
to the Indian Ocean and Lake Victoria, varied topography and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) phenomenon (Parry et al. 2012). In Kenya, climate change manifests in extreme climatic
events such as droughts and floods posing a considerable challenge to development and poverty
Recent temperature trend analyses have pointed to an increase in observed mean annual
temperature of 1.0°C since 1960 representing an average rate of 0.21°C per decade
(Mcsweeney et al. 2009). Predictive models suggest that warming of about 1°C will occur by the
2020s, and 4°C by 2100, and will vary by regions (Funk et al. 2010). Similar trends have been
The ‘Handbook for Preparing a Resettlement Action Plan’ (IFC 2002), authored by the International Finance Corporation (IFC)
reported in rainfall patterns with increased rainfall unreliability across the country. The
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) analyses project a general decrease in
mean annual rainfall in Kenya, a situation that is echoed by Funk et al., (2010) and the ETC East
Africa (2006). Extreme changes in precipitation and related disasters, such as droughts and
flooding have been reported (ETC East Africa 2006), with a devastating loss to wildlife, human
life and property over the years (Herrero et al. 2010, Ojwang’ et al. 2010). Other climatic-related
hazards in Kenya include forest fires and landslides. The projections of these extreme weather
patterns vary but are closely linked to changes in precipitation (ETC East Africa 2006, Stockholm
Environment Institute 2009).
7.2 Impacts on development corridors from climate change
There is already evidence of impacts of climate change on the development agenda for Kenya
with significant economic and social costs (Mcsweeney et al. 2009, Funk et al. 2010, GoK 2010,
Herrero et al. 2010, Ojwang’ et al. 2010, Mwangi and Mutua 2015, USAID 2018). For example,
the production of hydroelectric power has been affected over the past 20 years by the reduced
rainfall and destruction of water towers (GoK 2010). Energy sector analysts predict that “climate
change is likely to worsen the situation as it will result in prolonged droughts which will see water
levels in the generating dams recede further”, whereas “extreme weather events such as
rainstorms will destroy the energy generation and distribution systems.”
Mega infrastructure such as railways, resort and port cities and communication installations are
also vulnerable to climate change impacts, especially torrential rains and the accompanying
floods, and increasing temperatures. For example, industry experts predict that “climate change
poses and will continue to pose serious impacts linked to the degradation, maintenance and
potential decrease in lifespan of the key infrastructural development projects such as warping of
rail-tracks”. Meanwhile, the industrial sector has been affected by the reduced access to water
supplies and hydroelectric power during times of drought, and damage to coastal installations
due to the rise in sea levels. Thus, the cumulative impacts of climate change have the potential to
reverse much of the progress made towards the attainment of Kenya’s Vision 2030 that also
forms the foundation for development corridors in the country (GoK-NESC 2007).
7.3 Climate change adaptation and mitigation
Although Kenya has put in place a comprehensive climate change strategy and climate change
(e.g. GoK-NESC 2007, Linddal and Mutimba 2007, GoK 2010), there is
little evidence of the integration of climate risks into plans for Kenya’s development corridor
processes to foresee and mitigate climate change impacts. Furthermore, factors such as poverty,
weak institutions, inadequate information, poor access to financial resources and high-interest
rates, low management capabilities and competition over scarce environmental resources have
been linked to the “climate ignorance” scenarios in the country. In addition, the OECD (2015)
reported an uneven sectoral coverage of knowledge about climate risks with the largest data
gaps witnessed on biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as infrastructure and business
and industry (Appendix 1. ). It is therefore important that relevant policies and measures for
adaptation and mitigation against climate change are identified and implemented. These should
aim to bridge the gap between the assessment of impacts and tangible, actionable results to
facilitate investment in key areas to mitigate and adapt to the climate change impacts by the
development corridor actors.
Kenya has made attempt at increasing its capacity to cope with climate change through the National Environmental Management
Authority (NEMA); Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD); and the National Disaster Operations Centre (NOC). Additional relevant
institutional structures relevant to climate change are included in Appendix 1. .
8 Kenya’s ESIA and SEA process
8.1 Regulatory framework
The Sessional Paper No. 6 of 1999 entitled “Environment and Development” gave rise to the
National Environment Management and Coordination Act of 1999. This Act (revised in 2015 to
both align it with the Constitution of Kenya 2010 and to incorporate better some aspects such as
Strategic Environmental Assessments), established the National Environment Management
Authority to manage the environment and matters connected with it. This was established under
Section 7 of the Act. NEMAs mandate is to monitor the operations of industries, projects or
activities to determine their immediate and long-term effects on the environment. The Act also
lays down provisions about environmental quality standards. Further, where Kenya is a party to
an international convention, treaty or agreement on the management of the environment, the
Authority must initiate legislative proposals to give effect to them (Section 124). The Authority
may prescribe measures to ensure that the biological resources in place are preserved, issue
guidelines to promote the conservation of the various terrestrial and aquatic systems, and protect
species, ecosystems and habitats threatened with extinction.
The National Environment Policy 2013 provides a framework for an integrated approach to
planning and sustainable management of Kenya’s environment and natural resources. Of note
are the “Environmental Right” which states that “every person in Kenya has a right to a clean and
healthy environment and a duty to safeguard and enhance the environment”; and the “Right to
Development” which states that “the right to development will be exercised taking into
consideration sustainability, resource efficiency and economic, social and environmental needs”.
These two rights reflect a desired and positive balance between conservation and development,
that neither should impede the other, and that EIA processes must be professionally and
competently undertaken to ensure such a balance.
8.2 The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental
Assessment (SEA) processes
The 2015 revision of the EMCA 1999 changes the previous reference to “Environmental Impact
Assessment”, to “Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment” in recognition of the fact that
such assessments should also include social, economic, cultural and other factors, and should
not focus solely on environmental aspects. The Integrated EIA process also referred to locally as
ESIA (Environmental and Social Impact Assessment), although the latter terminology is not
specified in the Act, has as its overall objective “to ensure that environmental concerns are
integrated into all development activities to contribute to sustainable development”. The EIA
process in Kenya is illustrated in Figure 13.
Figure 13: Integrated EIA development process in Kenya. Note: PPP – Policies, Plans and
Source: Olago, 2012; adapted from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya
Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) were not previously incorporated in EMCA 1999.
Recognising this, the Environmental (Impact, Audit and Strategic Assessment) Regulations, 2009
were enacted to fill in this gap (Figure 14). However, the SEA is now adequately captured in
EMCA (Amendment) Act 2015. The objective of the SEA in Kenya is to “systematically integrate
environmental considerations into policy, planning and decision-making processes, such that
environmental information derived from the examination of proposed policies, plans, programmes
or projects are used to support decision making”.
Proponent selects EIA expert
and commissions EIA Study
Scoping to determine detail
required in EIA
implementation of EIA study
Production of scoping report
with EIA TOR by experts
Outline EIA process: disciplines,
Submission of EIA study report
Publishing and circulation of
EIA report in Kenya Gazette and
newspapers for review by the
Review and validation of the
report by stakeholders
Issuance of approval licence by
Review of report and
stakeholder comments by
Figure 14: SEA development process in Kenya
Source: Olago, 2012; adapted from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya
9 Priority research areas and capacity needs in Kenya
9.1 Priority research areas
Based on the findings of the scoping study, the following priority research areas are proposed:
Process: the decision-making processes through which corridor projects are designed,
approved and implemented is still to be mapped clearly. There is a need to identify key
decision-making points where the project can make a significant impact by providing
technical input or building capacity.
Biodiversity and conservation: this will include inventorying and mapping biodiversity,
sensitive sites, and wildlife migration corridors. These data will be assessed against
proposed infrastructure and linked to land use scenarios for the corridors.
Current and future supply and demand for water: there are major challenges to ensure
water supply in the corridor areas of influence. There is a need to assess the existing
water resource base for both surface and groundwater. Current and proposed plans for
augmentation of water supply in the corridors and their areas of influence will be
assessed in the context of resource limitations (quantity and quality), as well as current
and future competing demands and risks. These will also be evaluated with respect to
their impacts on the communities of users. Aspects relating to water accounting from
source to users will be assessed in specific areas, as will the value addition of enhanced
water supplies to other sectors (e.g. agriculture). The impact of the corridors on water
resources will also be assessed, as this together with other risks such as climate change
may affect the water supply in the corridors and beyond.
Impacts on livelihoods: in Kenya any development process must undergo some public
participation, but such processes generally don’t consider livelihoods. Case study areas
will be identified where the influence of corridors on livelihoods can be tested – for
example, the impacts that land-use changes and corridor project implementation have on
PPP brief to
whether SEA is
final SEA report
Issuance of approval for
implementation of plans
or programmes by
END for Plans and
Minister for Environment
informs minister responsible
for the policy on SEA outcome
END for Policy
Publishing and circulation
of SEA report in Kenya
Gazette and newspapers
for review by the public
SEA report sent to
Tabling cabinet paper
the social-ecological systems and their consequent impacts of livelihoods. The corridors
spheres of influence and the aspects that are beneficial or detrimental to livelihoods will
Climate change adaptation in corridors: there is a need to assess the climate change
adaptation and mitigation measures, including the role of climate finance in sustainable
investment in the corridor areas.
Scenarios of land use in the corridors: scenarios of land use change will be analysed
to determine the impacts of the corridors on the socio-economic and bio-physical
Cumulative impact assessments: a development corridor is constituted by several
individual projects that will shape the landscape, and impact people and nature. However,
impact assessments that look at the combined future impacts of these projects, at a
corridor level, don’t exist. This project will aim to conduct at least one cumulative impact
assessment in one corridor of choice.
Co-ordination, co-operation and collaboration between the various
sectors/stakeholders in the corridors: there is a need to understand the kind of co-
ordination, co-operation and collaborations that exist between the various sectors or
stakeholders in corridors.
Community and stakeholders: There is a need to understand the needs of the
community and stakeholders, and the best way to present the outputs of the study so that
they can be understood and used to inform policy – how can we make the
communities/stakeholders own the interventions proposed by the study?
9.2 Capacity needs
The following capacity needs/gaps have been identified:
Low availability of information to the local communities: most claim to have learned of
the development projects only when the EIAs were being conducted. EIAs are required to
carry out public meetings to explain the proposed project and its potential impacts, and to
capture and incorporate the views of the stakeholder communities.
Training for professionals in carrying out EIAs and SEAs: the quality of the EIAs
delivered to NEMA is inconsistent. Many EIAs underestimated the actual impacts on nature
and people of the proposed projects, while cumulative and residual impacts are generally
inadequately addressed. Some training is needed for registered EIA experts to develop
their skills in EIA and SEA assessments and learn techniques that could allow them to make
Training for regulators: why are some clearly inadequate EIA and SEA approved? What
should regulators request regarding scope and quality of EIA/SEA reports? Where should
experts be involved and how? Also, it is important to build capacity on why stage-by-stage
processing and considering international best practice is important. For example, the SEA
process for the LAPSSET project was conducted after some components of the project had
already begun (construction of the Lamu Port).
Training of Post-Doctoral Research Assistants and Research Assistants: on
quantitative and qualitative research methods, stakeholder engagement skills, land use
scenario analysis, image processing and GIS, modelling, climate change and adaptation
skills, and scientific writing skills.
The scoping study set out to address two objectives. First was to review the current baseline
situation about mega-scale development corridor projects in Kenya and how they interact with
people and the environment. The results of this study have provided and illustrated the
development corridor investment and development process in Kenya. In particular, the review
has highlighted the SGR and the LAPSSET and described other related projects along the
corridor areas. The review further established that the corridor development process, from
planning, implementation to maintenance has varied levels of impacts on both humans and the
natural environment. Furthermore, the study has demonstrated that the corridor implementation
process in Kenya has been faced with numerous challenges, including legal, social, economic,
and cultural challenges. A wide range of stakeholders exert varying levels of influence and power
which affect corridor implementation to various degrees. The study has also established a lack of
accountability by the corridor proponents especially for the implementation of impact mitigation
measures. Project beneficiaries and those affected have not been adequately involved in various
Secondly, the study hoped to justify the planning and implementation of the Development
Corridor Partnership research programme in Kenya. The preceding issues form a strong basis for
research and capacity on sustainable investment in development corridors in Kenya.
Particularly, the study has outlined key areas of research gaps and capacity needs that require
prioritisation. It is based on these considerations that we believe the Development Corridor
Partnership project is timely as it will offer innovative solutions towards some of these issues.
Indeed, the preliminary results of the study will be evaluated further during the actual
implementation of the DCP project in Kenya with other key partners and development corridor
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Available from: https://africanbusinessmagazine.com/africa-within/countryfiles/isiolo-shakes-
dust-cobwebs/3/ [Accessed 21 Jan 2019].
Wasuna, B., 2016. Tribunal halts SGR construction over park - Business Daily [online]. The
Business Daily. Available from: https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/news/Tribunal-
61hbwhz/index.html [Accessed 20 Jan 2019].
12.1 Appendix 1. Quality of the coverage of the sectors in the adaptation literature
Comprehensive coverage at global, national and local
levels in impact assessment studies. Good evidence base
on early low regret options and iterative adaptive
management including policy studies and decision making
under uncertainty (real options).
X X X
X X X
Growing number of adaptation cost and benefit estimates
(impact assessment studies) in several countries and local
areas, particularly on river flooding. Evidence base
emerging on low regret options and non-technical options.
Some applications of decision making under uncertainty.
A recent focus on supply-demand studies at the national
level, but a range of global, river basin or local studies
available. Focus on supply, engineering measures; less
attention to demand, soft, and ecosystem-based measures.
Some examples of decision making under uncertainty,
particularly robust decision making, with policy relevant
Several studies on road and rail infrastructure. Examples of
wind storm and permafrost.
High coverage of the benefits of farm level adaptation (crop
models), and some benefits and costs from impact
assessment studies at global and national level. Evidence
base emerging on potential low regret adaptation, including
climate smart agriculture options (soil and water
Good cost information on heat-alert schemes and some
cost-benefit studies for future climate change. Increasing
coverage of autonomous costs1 associated with cooling
from impact assessment studies (global and national).
Growing evidence base on low-regret options for built
environment (e.g. passive cooling).
Increasing studies of preventative costs for future disease
burden (e.g. water, food and vector borne disease), but
coverage remains partial.
Low evidence base, with a limited number of studies on
restoration costs and costs for management of protected
areas for terrestrial ecosystems.
Very few quantitative studies available, except for the
electricity sector, oil and gas production and tourism. Some
focusing on winter tourism and some on autonomous
adaptation from changing summer tourism flows.
Key: X X X Comprehensive coverage at different geographical scales and analysis of uncertainty.
X X Medium coverage, with a selection of national or sectoral case studies.
X Low coverage with a small number of selected case studies or sectoral studies.
The absence of a check indicates extremely limited or no coverage.
Adapted from the OECD 2015
12.2 Appendix 2. List of Key Stakeholders in the Development Corridors in Kenya
African Conservation Centre
Africa Collaborative Centre for Earth Systems Science
Act, Change, Transform
African Centre for Technology Studies
African Development Solutions
Anglican Development Services
Africa Environmental Film Foundation
African Development Bank
African Centre for Open Governance
Africa Centre for Open Governance
Arid Lands Information Network
Association of Professional Societies of East Africa
African Wildlife Foundation
Conservation Alliance of Kenya
Community Action for Nature Conservation
Centre for Environmental Justice and Development
Centre For Training And Integrated Research In ASAL Development
Centre for Training and Integrated Research
Centre for International Forestry Research
China Road and Bridge Corporation
China Railway Development Company
China Communication Construction Company
Danish International Development Agency
David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust
East African Community
East African Civil Society Organizations' Forum
East African Wildlife Society
Friends of Lake Turkana
Friends of Nairobi National Park
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit
Geological Society of Kenya
Human Rights Agenda
International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
International Development Law Organization
International Development Law Organization
International Fund for Animal Welfare
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development
Institute for Human Rights and Business
Institute of Human Rights and Business
Institute for Law and Environmental Governance
Institute for Law and Evironmental Governance
International Trade Centre
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organisation
Kenya Association of Manufactures
Kenya Civil Aviation Authority
Kenya Climate Change Working Group
Kenya Chambers of Mines
Kenya Civil Society Platform for Oil and Gas
Kenya Coalition for Widlife Conservation and Management
Kenya Forestry Research Institute
Kenya National Highways Authority
Kenya Private Sector Alliance
Kenya Rural Roads Authority.
Kenya Forest Service
Katiba Institute of Kenya
Kenya Land Alliance
Kenya National Human Rights Commission
Kenya Oil & Gas Working Group
Kenya Oil and Gas Working Group
Kenya Ports Authority
Kenya Pipeline Company
Kenya Power & Lighting Company
Kenya Railways Corporation
Kenya Red Cross
Kenya Urban Roads Authority
Kerio Valley Development Authority
Kenya Wildlife Conservancies Association
Kenya Wildlife Service
Lapsset Corridor Development Authority
Law Society of Kenya
Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government
Ministry of Environment and Forestry
Ministry of Agriculture & Irrigation
Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Devolution and ASAL areas
Ministry of Energy
Ministry of Education
Ministry of East Africa and Nothern Corridor Development
Ministry of Foreign Affairs & International Trade
Ministry of Health
Ministry of Industrization &Enterprise Development
Ministry of Information, Communication and Technology
Ministry of Lands
Ministry of Labour and Social Protection
The National Treasury and Ministry of Planning
Ministry of Petroleum and Mining
Ministry of Public Service,Youth and Gender Affairs
Ministry of Sports and Herritage
Ministry of Transportand Infrastructure Development
Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife
Muslims for Human Rights
Ministry of Water and Sanitation
National Drought Management Authority
National Environment Management Authority
National Lands Commission
Northern Rangelands Trust
National Water Conservation & Pipeline Corporation
Pastoralist Girls Initiative
Railway Training Institute
Save The Elephants
Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims
Tana & Athi River Development Authority
Tsavo Conservation Group
The Nature Conservancy
Turkana Development Organization Forum
Turkana Pastoralists Development Organization
United States Agency for International Development
Water Services Regulatory Board
Water Resources Authority
12.3 Appendix 3. List of Development Corridor and related projects
Consists of 32 deep sea
berths at Manda Bay
estimated to cost US $5
First berth will be ready in June 2018
Two will be ready in December 2020.
The other berths are intended to be constructed and
operated by the private sector.
Kenya (US $480
Investors US$ 5
Inter-regional Highways from
Lamu to Isiolo, Isiolo to Juba
(South Sudan), Isiolo to Addis
Ababa (Ethiopia), and Lamu
to Garsen (Kenya)
Detailed engineering designs for Lamu – Garissa – Isiolo
(537 Km) are completed.
Construction of Nakodok – Lokichar road (738 km)
505 km Isiolo – Marsabit – Moyale completed.
Construction of Lamu – Witu – Garsen (112 KM) has
been prioritised for construction to connect with existing
(Estimated US$ 1.4
World Bank (US$
500 million loan)
Inter-regional standard gauge
railway lines from Lamu to
Isiolo, Isiolo to Nakodok
(Kenya/South Sudan border)
and Juba (South Sudan),
Isiolo to Moyale
(Kenya/Ethiopia border) and
Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), and
Nairobi to Isiolo.
Preliminary engineering and feasibility studies have been
completed for Kenya-Ethiopia route.
(US$ 7.1 Billion)
Crude Oil Pipeline from
Lokichar to Lamu to Isiolo. In
the longer-term additional
crude oil pipelines may be
extended to link with fields in
Crude oil pipeline from Lokichar to Lamu along with tank
storage and loading facilities is under FEED (Front End
53 ha of land have been reserved for oil tank storage and
an oil refinery with a capacity of 125,000 bpd at Lamu.
International airports are
proposed at Lamu, Isiolo and
Turkana. The Airport at Lamu
and Turkana need upgrading,
and a new Airport is proposed
Intermediary airports are under construction to build up
air transport and logistic business case for international
Preliminary facilities (2.3 km runaway and terminal
building) at Manda airport in Lamu have been completed.
1 km runway in Isiolo airport and a terminal building are
Work at Lake Turkana airport has not started yet.
(an estimated cost
of US$ 188 million,
US$ 175 million and
US$ 143 million for
Lamu, Isiolo and
Three resort cities have been
proposed at Lamu, Isiolo and
Lake Turkana. Lamu Resort
City will mainly comprise a
convention centre as the core
facility, amusement centre,
terminal station, culture centre
and fisherman’s wharf as
Preparation work for a master plan for Lamu Resort city
and Metropolis is underway.
(estimated cost of
about US$ 970
million, US$ 200
million and US$ 42
million for Lamu,
Isiolo and Lake
Covers 472 km from
Mombasa to Nairobi
The China Road and
EXIM Bank of China
Covers Naivasha to Malaba
and is divided into four
Kisumu–Malaba; Kisumu Port
development and expansion
of the Inland Container Depot
at Embakasi in Nairobi.
The two-lane Nairobi-
Mombasa Highway is being
converted into a dual
carriageway to address the
increasing traffic congestion
between Kenya’s capital city
Nairobi and the country’s
major port city Mombasa.
The project was unveiled in
US and UK export
This is an ongoing project. It
is funded by
Phase 1 of this project is complete
(KSh 8 billion)
9JICA) and the
Kenya at a cost of
- Dongo Kundu
The project has already begun
Exim bank of China
Kenya Ksh 18.7
The 445km highway covers
Malindi – Mombasa-Lunga
and crosses into Tanzania
covering Tanga-Pangani and
Saadani to Bagamoyo
The project is yet to begin.
(AfDB) US $751.3m
dualling is Sh3
The dualling project has already began
Kenya Sh3 billion
The project involves construction of the second
phase of the second container terminal at the
The project is ongoing
Funded by JICA at a
cost of Sh35 billion
Konza will be a smart city, with an integrated urban
information and communication technology (ICT)
network that supports delivery of connected urban
services and allows for efficient management of
those services on a large scale.
Project is ongoing
(Ksh. 595 Billion)
The Project is in Loiyangalani District, Marsabit
County, Kenya. It comprises of 365 wind turbines,
each with a capacity of 850kW, and a high voltage
substation that will be connected to the Kenyan
national grid through an associated Transmission
Funded through a
(Ksh. 61.172 Billion)
One of the water transfer projects includes Elgeyo
Marakwet Mega Dam. This is an example of some
of the periphery projects along the development
corridors targeting Western and Northern Kenya. It
is expected to irrigate more than 20,000 acres of
funding from CMD di
Ravena and Itenera
12.4 Appendix 4. Policy and Legislative Frameworks relevant to the Development
1. Climate Change Act 2016: The Climate Change Act (No. 11 of 2016) is the first
comprehensive legislative framework for climate change governance for Kenya.
The objective of the Act is to “Enhance climate change resilience and low carbon
development for sustainable development of Kenya.” The Act establishes the
National Climate Change Council (Section 5), Climate Change Directorate (Section
9) and Climate Change Fund Section 25). All these new institutions have distinct
mandates under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
2. Kenya Vision 2030 (2008) and its Medium-Term Plans: Vison 2030 Secretariat is
the mandated institution to oversee the implementation of the Kenya Vision 2030
– the country’s development blueprint. It recognises climate change as a risk that
could slow the country’s development. Climate change actions were identified in
the Second Medium Term Plan (MTP) (2013-2017). The Third MTP (2018-2022)
included climate change as a thematic area and mainstreamed climate change
actions in sector plans
3. National Climate Change Response Strategy 2010: Kenya’s National Climate
Change Response Strategy was the first national policy document on climate
change. It aimed to advance the integration of climate change adaptation and
mitigation into all government planning, budgeting and development objectives.
4. National Climate Change Action Plan (2018-2023): Kenya’s National Climate
Change Action Plan, 2013-2017 was a five-year plan that aimed to further Kenya’s
development goals in a low carbon climate resilient manner. The plan set out
adaptation, mitigation and enabling actions.
5. National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (2015-2030): Kenya’s National
Adaptation Plan, 2015-2030 was submitted to the UNFCCC in 2017. The NAP
provides a climate hazard and vulnerability assessment and sets out priority
adaptation actions in 21 planning sectors.
6. Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan (GESIP): GESIP is Kenya’s
blueprint to advance toward a low-carbon, resource efficient, equitable and
inclusive socio-economic transformation. The GESIP aims to integrate resource
use efficiency into and minimize negative environmental impacts related to the
country’s economic development.
7. National Climate Finance Policy (2018): The National Climate Finance Policy
(2018) establishes the legal, institutional and reporting frameworks to access and
manage climate finance. The goal of the policy is to further Kenya’s national
development goals through enhanced mobilisation of climate finance that
contributes to low carbon climate resilient development goals.
8. National Climate Change Framework Policy (2018): The National Climate Change
Framework Policy (2018) aims to ensure the integration of climate change
considerations into planning, budgeting, implementation and decision-making at
the national and county levels and across all sectors.
9. Water Act 2016: Provides for the regulation, management and development of
water resources, water and sewerage services such as construction of mega dams
and water storage facilities.
10. Agriculture Sectoral Sector Development Strategy 2010-2020: Seeks to stimulate
increased investment in rural railway, roads, water supply, transportation, storage,
cattle dips, rural markets, electrification, communications, water management
schemes, stockholding grounds, stock auction markets, stock routes and abattoirs.
The stock of rural infrastructure is in poor condition and inadequate for the
development of the rural economy, and is also unevenly distributed leaving some
high agricultural potential areas with little or no coverage
11. Tourism Act 2011: Provide for the development, management, marketing and
regulation of sustainable tourism and tourism-related activities and services. It also
seeks to promote expansion of tourism facilities such as resorts and airports.
12. Community Land Act, 2016 : It provides for the recognition, protection and
registration of community land rights; management and administration of
community land; to provide for the role of county governments in relation to
unregistered community land and for connected purposes.
13. Energy Bill (2017): Part 3, section 43; Part 4, section 74 (i), and Part 9 address
climate change related issues. It consolidates the laws relating to energy, to
provide for National and County Government functions in relation to energy, to
provide for the establishment, powers and functions of the energy sector entities;
promotion of renewable energy; exploration, recovery and commercial utilization of
geothermal energy; regulation of midstream and downstream petroleum and coal
activities; regulation, production, supply and use of electricity and other energy
14. Northern Corridor Master Plan: Promises to improve logistics and ease cargo
congestion in East Africa, promote industrial development and stimulate the
15. National Spatial Plan (2015-2045): The National Spatial Plan 2015-2045 provides
a national spatial design framework for the integration of social, economic and
political policies. The plan indicates Kenya’s intention to enhance disaster
preparedness in all disaster-prone areas and improve the capacity for adaptation
to climate change.
16. Kenya’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) (2016): Kenya’s NDC under the
Paris Agreement of the UNFCCC includes mitigation and adaptation contributions.
Regarding adaptation, “Kenya will ensure enhanced resilience to climate change
towards the attainment of Vision 2030 by mainstreaming climate change into the
Medium-Term Plans (MTPs) and implementing adaptation actions.” The mitigation
contribution “seeks to abate its GHG emissions by 30% by 2030 relative to the BAU
scenario of 143 MtCO2eq.” Achievement of the NDC is subject to international
support in the form of finance, investment, technology development and transfer
and capacity development.
17. Blue Economy Strategy (2017): To be implemented by the Ministry of Water in
partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Ministry of Transport,
Infrastructure and Ministry of Housing and Urban Development.
18. National Trade Policy (2009): Seeks to ensure adequate infrastructure including
transportation, water, electric power, waste disposal, security and telephones as
well as secure, affordable storage and warehousing facilities at ports and several
infrastructural programmes including roads, energy, rail transport and Nairobi
Metropolitan development programmes.
19. Environmental Management and Coordination Act (No. 8 of 1999 and Amendment
2015): It emphasizes that every person in Kenya is entitled to a clean and healthy
environment and had the duty to safeguard and enhance the environment. The Act
provides overarching regulations and enforcements for the overall protection and
conservation of the environment in Kenya, including air quality, water pollution and
the regulation of toxins. The Act also mandates the relevant authority to ensure the
sustainable use of hill sides, mountain and forest areas within the country and shall
control the harvesting of forests and any natural resources in these areas, to
protect water catchment areas, prevent soil erosion and regulate human
20. Kenya’s Foreign Policy 2014: Kenya’s Foreign Policy aims to achieve several
national objectives, inter alia to: Protect Kenya’s sovereignty and territorial integrity;
Promote integration; Enhance regional peace and security; Advance the economic
prosperity of Kenya and her people; Project Kenya’s image and prestige; Promote
multilateralism; Promote the interests of Kenyan Diaspora and partnership with the
21. Executive Order: The Nairobi Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (2017):
Provides a comprehensive and dynamic platform for addressing the decades-old
challenges in the transport sector that have bedevilled the Metropolitan Area that
encompasses four counties of Kiambu, Machakos, Kajiado and Nairobi. It seeks to
develop a sustainable urban mobility plan that will be the basis for the orderly and
structured development of the proposed Metropolitan Area mass-transit system,
which incorporates both bus rapid-transit and commuter rail.
22. County Public Participation Guidelines: Public participation is both a key promise
and provision of the Constitution of Kenya. It is instilled in the national values and
principles of governance stipulated in article 10. The Legislature and Executive at
both national and county levels are required to engage the public in the processes
of policy making, monitoring and implementation. 2. The Constitution, (Article
174c), provides that one object of devolution is: “to give powers of self-governance
to the people and enhance their participation in the exercise of the powers of the
State and in making decisions affecting them”. The Constitution assigns the
responsibility to ensure, facilitate and build capacity of the public to participate in
the governance to the county government through function 14 (Schedule 4 Part 2).
23. Public Private Partnerships Act 2013: Provides for the participation of the private
sector in the financing, construction, development, operation, or maintenance of
infrastructure or development projects of the Government through concession or
other contractual arrangements; the establishment of the institutions to regulate,
monitor and supervise the implementation of project agreements on infrastructure
or development projects and for connected purposes.
24. Urban Areas and Cities Act (No 13 of 2011): Provides for the, classification,
governance and management of urban areas and cities; to provide for the criteria
of establishing urban areas, to provide for the principle of governance and
participation of residents.
25. National Government Loans Guarantee Act (No 18 of 2011): Provides for the
transparent, prudent and equitable management of the authority to guarantee
loans conferred on the National Government by Article 213 of the Constitution.
26. Environment and Land Court Act (No 19 of 2011): Establishes a superior court to
hear and determine disputes relating to the environment and the use and
occupation of, and title to, land, and to make provision for its jurisdiction functions
27. Bretton Woods Agreements Act 1963: Provides for acceptance by Kenya of the
Agreements for the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development.
28. Government Contracts Act 1956: Provide for the making of contracts on behalf of
the Government and for matters connected therewith.
29. Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation: This an Act of Parliament to
establish a corporation to be known as the Industrial and Commercial Development
Corporation for facilitating the industrial and economic development of Kenya [Act
No. 7 of 1967.]
30. Investment Promotion Act 2004: Promotes and facilitate investment by assisting
investors in obtaining the licenses necessary to invest and by providing other
assistance and incentives.
31. Roads Act 2008: Provides for the establishment of the Kenya National Highways
Authority, the Kenya Urban Roads Authority and the Kenya Rural Roads Authority,
to provide for the powers and functions of the authorities.
32. Kenya's Industrial Transformation Programme: Seeks to promote sector-specific
flagship projects in agro-processing, textiles, leather, construction services and
materials, oil and gas and mining services and IT related sectors that build on our
comparative advantages. It creates an enabling environment to accelerate
industrial development through industrial parks/zones along infrastructure
corridors, technical skills, supporting infrastructure and ease of doing business.
33. Kenya Country Strategy Paper 2014-2018/African Development Bank 2014-2018:
The Bank’s Country Strategy Paper (CSP) 2014-18 for Kenya supports the
country’s ambitions and addresses its main developmental challenges by
promoting job creation as the overarching objective. To achieve it, the CSP is
articulated around the following two pillars: (i) Enhancing physical infrastructure to
unleash inclusive growth; and (ii) Developing skills for the emerging labour market
of a transforming economy.
34. World Bank Group Country Partnership Strategy for Kenya, 2014-2018: It targets
investments of $4 billion during its five-year implementation period (2014-18) to
support Kenya’s national goal of promoting sustained, more inclusive, and
35. Nairobi Integrated Urban Development Master Plan (NIUPLAN): Integrates all the
existing Master Plans of various infrastructures within the city of Nairobi and its
surrounding. Infrastructure to be included is urban transport, railway, airport,
power, water supply, sewerage, telecommunication and solid waste management.
36. National Broadband Strategy (NBS) for Kenya 2013-2017: The Strategy focuses
on five key thematic areas that have direct impact on its implementation and
success. These are: Infrastructure, Connectivity and Devices Content; Applications
Capacity Building and Awareness; Policy, Legal and Regulatory Environment
Financing and Investment.
37. Vision 2030 Development Strategy for Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands:
Seeks to achieve cost-effective, world-class infrastructure facilities and services in
38. United Nations Development Assistance Framework for Kenya 204-2018: This an
expression of the UN’s commitment to support the Kenyan people in their self-
articulated development aspirations. This UNDAF has been developed according
to the principles of UN Delivering as One (DaO), aimed at ensuring Government
ownership, demonstrated through UNDAF’s full alignment to Government priorities
and planning cycles, as well as internal coherence among UN agencies and
programmes operating in Kenya.
39. Policy Statement on Public Private Partnerships, 2011: Articulates and underscore
the Government's commitment and lay the foundation for an enabling environment
for attracting private sector partners in financing and managing infrastructure
12.5 Appendix 5. The likely impacts of development corridors on biodiversity and
areas of conservation importance
The SGR development corridor is likely to have impacts on biodiversity, areas of conservation
importance, water resources and ecosystem services. The impacts may vary for different sections of
the corridor. Some of the impacts are listed in the table below
Section of the SGR
Nairobi National Park
(the SGR encroaches
on 87.29 ha of the
park) dividing the park
into two portions)
Exposure of the fragile ecosystem to irreversible damage and degradation
(Rajab, 2017, Connor, 2015)
Division of the park into two and human traffic during construction will result to
disturbance of vegetation and wildlife likely to change animal behaviour
Loss of aesthetic value of the park
Reduction in biological diversity due to negative impacts on species
Habitat fragmentation may lead to inbreeding of wildlife species eventually
resulting to genetically weak populations prone to diseases.
Interruption of natural river flow (Ambani, 2017)
Changes in animal behaviour and movement dur to noise pollution and
disturbance in dispersal areas (Michengi, 2016)
Increased incidents of human-wildlife conflicts (Muchengi, 2016)
Habitat degradation of animal passage ways that have been constructed has
been reported due to illegal use of the passage ways by herds to drive
thousands of cattle into the Tsavo National Parks (Okita-Ouma, 2017).
Loss of wildlife space e.g. about 10.2 km² of land in Tsavo West and East has
been lost to SGR construction.
Blockage of wildlife dispersal areas when areas fenced off hinder wildlife
movement (Okita-Ouma, 2017).
Increased human-wildlife conflicts are expected in areas experiencing illegal
settlements of people that block vital animal passages. This has already been
witnessed in the Tsavo area where passages have been constructed to
mitigate against negative impact of SGR on wildlife movement.
Permanently degradation of natural environments
Increased rail and road kills of wildlife especially elephants
Eroding of the banks of the Tsavo River at Section 2 by excavation activities
undertaken during the construction (Kariuki, 2015)
Death and injury to wildlife is likely to be experienced if wildlife is not properly
funnelled into the passages and instead attempt to cross the railway (Koech,
2018, Okita- Ouma, 2017)
Blocking of streams that ensure consistent supply water to neighboring
communities (Kariuki, 2015). For example, blocking of Mkupe Stream and
Mwang’ombe River at the Mariakani
Destruction of wetlands (Kariuki, 2015). For example, the reclamation of a
section of a tidal flood wetland in Maganda to allow construction of a camp site
for Chinese workers
Pollution due to noise, waste and dust coming from the
workstations (Ambani, 2017)
Habitat degradation through forest clearing and exposure to human activities
Figure 1. A section of the standard gauge railway passing through Tsavo National Park in Taita Taveta
(Source: Salaton Njau, Nation Media Group).
Figure 2. A lioness killed by a speeding train on the SGR near Voi (Courtesy of Koech, 2018).
Under the Wildlife Management and Conservation Act 2013 and the Forests Act 2005, the
LAPSSET section between the Indian Ocean at Lamu and Kisima (Samburu) has been
reported to host a total of 13 areas protected (1 gazetted Forest, 3 National Parks and 9
National Reserves) offering habitats to huge numbers of wildlife (SEA-037 LAPSSET
Corridor Authority Development report -NEMA–2017). The SEA report outlined the likely
negative impacts of the LAPSSET on key wildlife spots, biodiversity and conservation areas
along the route as follows;
Section of the LAPSSET
Fragmentation of critical habitat for the critically endangered Hirola antelope
and associated wild dogs which are endangered around the Arwale nature
reserve and conservancies
Blockage of watering paths for the Rothschild Giraffe accessing River Tana
Loss of woodland habitat for Buffaloes from the Boni Forest Nature reserve
Fragmentation of habitat around Rahole National Reserve
Fragmentation of the vast Meru Conservation area whose nucleus is Meru
National Park and Bisanadi National Reserve
Isiolo Archers Post
Blockage of Elephant Migratory corridor between Lewa Conservancy Bufallo
Springs, Samburu and Shaba game reserves
Blockage of the Kirimon Elephant Migratory Corridor
Blockage of major elephant migratory corridor
Loosai and Mt. Marsabit
Blockage of Elephant Migratory Corridor to and from Marsabit National Park
Ambani, M.2017. GIS Assessment of Environmental Footprints of the Standard Gauge
Railway ( SDR) on Nairobi National Park,Kenya. Accessed from
Connor, S. 2015. Africa: Destructive development 'corridors' being built through some of
world’s most precious wildlife areas: Africa is changing now probably faster than any
continent in human history. Independent, Wednesday 25 November 2015 Accessed from
Kariuki, N. 2015. Contractor violates laws protecting the environment and endangers
people’s health, says report Accessed from https://www.nation.co.ke/news/1056-2698166-
Koech, G. 2018. Killing of wildlife by speeding trains worries animal lobbies. Accessed from
Michengi, W.2016. Conservationists call for fresh evaluation of SGR’s impact on Nairobi
National Park. Accessed from https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2016/12/05/conservationists-
Okita-Ouma, B. 2017. Likely negative consequences of SGR construction for wildlife. June
2017, DAILY NATION Accessed from; https://www.nation.co.ke/oped/opinion/ouma-likely-
Rajab, R.2017. Okiya Omtatah, conservationist in court to block SGR phase I. THE STAR,
Jan. 12, 2017. Accessed from https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2017/01/12/okiya-omtatah-
REPCON Associates (2017) SEA-037 LAPSSET Corridor Authority Development report -
NEMA – Draft Report January 2017. Accessed from
12.6 Appendix 6. Key challenges to corridor implementation in Kenya by Corridor
A. The Standard Railway Gauge Development Corridor
The SGR project has been delayed at different stages for a number of reasons.
Litigation and its resultant impacts on the projects finances and timelines has been a serious
issue, leading to loss of billions of shillings in lost time, legal costs, and operating costs
(Oruko, 2017). As a result, the financier China Exim Bank had to cut down on cost of
constructing the second phase of the line by an estimated KSh. 32 billion (Oruko, 2017).
Litigation has included:
In 2017, there were at least four active cases in relation to construction of the
Nairobi- Naivasha section (Phase 2A). While one was on the National Environment
Tribunal, three were in the Environment and Lands Court. In September 2017, the
National Environment Tribunal temporarily stopped construction of the section until
the case was heard and determined. Despite these orders, continuation of the work
by the China Bridge Corporation and Kenya Railways Corporation had activist
Omtatah together with environment conservation lobby group demanded the jailing of
the officials for contempt of the Tribunal’s orders.
In early 2017, the Miritini Free Port Ltd and African Gas and Oil Company Ltd moved
to Court to stop the construction of a section of the SGR until a compensation suit
they had filed was heard and determined. The two claimed that the two companies
had not been paid Sh519 million that National Land Commission awarded them for
compensation of land. Compensation conflicts between the government and
communities then becomes an obstacle. An audit conducted by National Land
Commission’s Audit department and the Kenya Railways Corporation Risk and Audit
department confirmed that between April and June 2015, an estimated Ksh.370
million was paid through fraudulent and inflated compensation for land in areas such
as Voi (Taita Taveta) required for construction of the Standard Gauge Railway
(Oruko, 2015). In early March, 2018, land conflicts were reported as one of the key
causes of delay in construction of the 273 kilometer Malaba-Kampala section of the
SGR (Nakato, 2018). This has been made worse by lack of funds to compensate
landowners so they can give up their land for construction of the SGR
There has also been conflict and delays among East African Community (EAC) countries for
a number of reasons (Kajilwa, 2015). For example, in 2016, Kenya lost its SGR partnership
deal with Rwanda when the latter chose to use the Tanzania railway as its link to the ocean
because of cost considerations. Kenya’s failure to get financial resources to build the SGR to
the Uganda border has also led Uganda scale back its ambition to the rail gauge (Barigaba,
2018). In addition, lack of resources by Tanzania has also affected Kenya’s pace of
completing the SGR. Tanzania through the Minister of Finance Philip Mpango in February
2016 asserted that Tanzania lacked its own financial resources to support their part of the
SGR project (Majaliwa, 2016). The cancellation of financing contract with the Chinese due
to alleged irregularities in the tendering process led Tanzania’s President Magufuli to seek
alternative finance from a number of sources. However, the efforts were unsuccessful, and
Tanzania had to allocate part of the country’s development budget to finance Phase 1 SGR
from Dar-es-salaam to Morogoro (194km) costing Tsh1 trillion ($450 million) (Sarokin, 2017).
Even after the completion of the Mombasa-Nairobi section of the SGR, there is no
assurance that funds will be available for completion of SGR in the Kenyan part to the
Ugandan border and Kisumu. The Ugandan and Rwandan sections have not yet been
completed. The China Exim Bank that has funded the major part of the SGR construction
has also shown reluctance to provide more funds without Uganda’s assurance of
commitment to the project
Human resource management problems such as poor payment / wrongful termination of
employment contracts for workers resulting to protests/demonstrations, and standoffs
between the China Roads and Bridges Company (CRBC) and workers leading to disruption
of construction activities. This was witnessed in April 13, 2016 when hundreds of workers
who had been hired by the CRBC to construct SGR held demos blocking the Mombasa
Road at Makindu protesting poor pay (Wanyama, 2016).
B. Konza Technology City
One of the key development projects being undertaken in Kenya and which is expected to
compliment greater economic transformation along the SGR corridor is the Konza Techno
City, Malili Ranch in Machakos County. This digital city is set to become Africa’s tech hub
when completed. The project was launched in 2013 and was expected to have been
completed by end of 2017 but it has had many false starts with delays/ stalling due to a
number of factors.
Corruption scandals in relation to Konza Techno City have marred the dream of building the
techno city. Court cases have been filed against senior government officials who have been
accused on behalf of Kenyan government of brokering deal with Malili Ranch Ltd to
purchase 5,000 acres of land for construction of the techno city (Mung’ahu, 2017). The case
confirmed conspiracy charges to defraud Malili Ranch between February 2, 2009 and
January 11, 2010. Although the case has been concluded, the scandal has continued to
haunt the project and blemish the dream of the techno city.
Delay in passing of legislation have also been a contributing factor. In 2013, the delay in
passing of the KOTDA Bill to institutionalize the Konza Technopolis Development Authority
(KOTDA) as a legal entity hence give it power to enter into contractual obligations with the
financiers made the construction of the technopolis fall behind schedule (Okuttah, 2013). For
instance, this delayed the work of the US consultancy firm Tetra Tech Inc. that was expected
in June to oversee the implementation of the first phase of the project by marketing it,
building primary infrastructure, water/ sewerage systems and roads, and negotiate land
leases with potential investors
Financial constraints brought about by the delay of passing of the KOTDA Bill hence delay in
fundraising efforts of KOTDA to support the initial phase of the project are another challenge
(Okuttah, 2013). Although the government had during the phase one of the project allocated
only Sh1.3 billion, the project required Sh63.8 billion to be completed. Although the Jubilee
government allocated Sh793 million in the 2013/2014 budget for the project, not much was
achieved (Okoth, 2016). The private sector is expected to inject huge amounts of funds in
the project while the government is expected to invest heavily in basic infrastructure.
Devolution and geographical politics; where Machakos and Makueni counties are claiming
ownership of the project (Okoth, 2016). This issue has yet to be resolved.
Fears of investors in relation to availability of sufficient and uninterrupted water supply
steady and low cost energy as stated in the city’s plan (Ochieng, 2016). Although
construction at Konza City was expected to begin in April 2016, the investors held onto their
funds, as they demand that the government to give assurance that infrastructure will be
rolled out as promised on paper and supply of power and water be reliable. Availability of
water has been challenge making it necessary for the government in November 2017 to
spearhead commission the building of Thwake Dam at the confluence of and Athi and
Thwake rivers to begin in January 2018 (Ngotho, 2017).
C. Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia-Transport (LAPSSET)
The stalling of some key stages of the LAPSSET project can be attributed to a number of
Financial constraints resulting to delayed construction. For example, in 2014, the Kenyan
government allocated funds to the SGR but failed to allocate LAPSSET Sh10 billion required
to facilitate putting up of the first three berths of Lamu port. The launch of the construction of
the berths contracted in August 2016 to China Roads and Bridge Corporation was
postponed three times before construction was later initiated in 2016. Inadequate funds have
also resulted to scaling down of the project by doing away with some components of the
project. This has included scaling down by half the capacity Lamu coal-fired power plant
(expected to power port operations) in order to cut on costs and avoid generating more than
needed electricity (Otuki, 2018)
Pursuit national interests within the EAC have also led to challenges in the project. For
instance, for the Uganda oil pipeline, the push for Uganda to choose the Tanzania route over
Kenya’s was advocated for by France’s Total Petroleum since it was also drilling oil there
(Achuka, 2016). Given that the passage of Uganda’s pipeline was expected to play a key
role in export of Kenya’s oil and the success of the LAPSSET, this move by Uganda has
undermined completion and success of the LAPSSET project as earlier planned.
Problems in land acquisition and compensation hence causing delays in meeting the
projects’ timelines. In Kenya, low payments to landowners of parcels of land being acquired
for the project have in some cases refused to vacate their land leading to protracted
compensation claims (Okoth, 2016). Furthermore, investors in the LAPSSET project have
complained about rocketing cost of land hence making taking up of projects related to
LAPSSET a huge obstacle (Guguyu, 2015). In November, 2014, an injunction against any
Lamu port work was issued by the High court sitting in Malindi where six land owners had
filed a petition to have the mega project suspended until their concerns on land were
resolved (Machuhi, 2014). They demanded information on mode of resettling and
compensating people displaced be provided. They also expressed fears that a false list of
beneficiaries for the land was being used by the Ministry of Lands under the then Land
Legal issues resulting to court orders being launched to challenge the project. For example,
court case by Lamu residents against the project where claims have been made that before
the launch of the project, a comprehensive transboundary EIA by all the countries was not
conducted and it was political leaders who played a major role in the approval of the project
Corruption allegations have also plagued the LAPSSET project. A good example is the
planned construction of Kenya’s largest dam (96km²), High Grand Falls Dam, proposed at
the common border of Kitui, Tharaka-Nithi, and Tana River counties at Kivuka on River
Tana. In 2013, the construction of the dam was halted due to claims of inflated cost. The
revised amount of Sh. 148 billion in 2016 was being sought as loan from China to complete
the construction. The dam is meant to generate between 500MW and 700MW of electricity
as well as supply water to the proposed Lamu port and resort city (Okoth, 2016).
Insecurity due to presence of the Al-Shabaab terror group as well as and long-standing
conflicts between rival clans and communities living in different counties that LAPSSET
project passes through has also posed a challenge (Kimanthi, 2015). In most of the 12
counties that LAPSSET passes through (Lamu, Wajir, Garissa, Isiolo, Turkana, Tana River,
Samburu, and Marsabit), serious cases of insecurity have been experienced. Cattle rustling
has also been undermining the success of the project.
In addition, the EIA process was considered to have uncertainties in relation to
compensation, land rights and disruption of livelihoods and protection of world heritage site.
Since the project was launched in 2012, critical information related to the project was not
shared with the stakeholders. These were among issues raised in a court case filed by
Malindi fishermen in 2012 aimed at halting the LAPSSET project. Lamu residents filed a
petitioned in the High Court against the LAPSSET Project earmarked for Lamu and
surrounding areas (Katiba Institute, 2018). The case was successful on the grounds raised,
with the court ruling that the project failed to meet basic legal and constitutional
requirements. The court ordered the issues to be incorporated in the ESIA report by NEMA.
On May 1, the Malindi High Court ordered Kenyan government to pay 4,600 fishermen Ksh.
1.7 billion as compensation due to loss of their traditional fishing and cultural rights.
Construction and operations of the Lamu port was expected to halt traditional fishing
practices. In addition, the court directed officials in charge of LAPSSET return to court in
October 2018, that the EIA licence be returned to NEMA for further action in accordance with
the ruling as well as involvement of government agencies and Lamu County Government in
LAPSSET implementation. With about 42 per cent of the project completed and
commissioning of the first berth scheduled for June 2018, monetary compensation has been
ruled out by the government, the disagreement between the fishermen and government
have continued with the fishermen insisting they want the compensation in monetary terms
hence will return to court for legal redress (Kazungu, 2018).