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Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places

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Public places cast an impression on the user or visitor of the place. However, there exists a substantial gap in analyzing and understanding this impression scientifically. Human beings take crucial decisions based on this environmental perception which in turn has ramifications upon feelings and emotions. This directly or indirectly impacts on image building, financial and well-being aspects. This research is built on image-based qualitative analysis and on the feedback derived from selected locations of IIT Kharagpur campus in India using empirical eye tracking methods. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the gap that exists between individual's visual perception and the visual aesthetic of the urban environment. The experiments executed in this study have generated heat maps for attractiveness, organization, novelty and smartness; which share lots of common aspects. It was noted that given the nature of the heat maps, there are certain pivotal elements, which dictate the aesthetic impression of the observer. Text is one of the elements, which garners attention as it engages the observer in a conscious thought process. Further, the definition of smartness given to the participants has corroborated the findings of this experiment.
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International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
ISSN 0973-6077 Volume 12, Number 6 (2017), pp. 1223-1239
© Research India Publications
http://www.ripublication.com
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of
People's Impression of Places
Siddharth Kandra1 and Mainak Ghosh2*
1Architect & Independent Researcher, Former B.Arch student,
Department of Architecture and Regional Planning
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Kharagpur-721302, India.
2Assistant Professor
Department of Architecture and Regional Planning
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Kharagpur-721302, India.
*Email: mainak.ghost@gmail.com, mg@arp.iitkgp.ernet.in
Abstract
Public places cast an impression on the user or visitor of the place. However,
there exists a substantial gap in analyzing and understanding this impression
scientifically. Human beings take crucial decisions based on this
environmental perception which in turn has ramifications upon feelings and
emotions. This directly or indirectly impacts on image building, financial and
well-being aspects. This research is built on image-based qualitative analysis
and on the feedback derived from selected locations of IIT Kharagpur campus
in India using empirical eye tracking methods. The objective of the present
study is to demonstrate the gap that exists between individual’s visual
perception and the visual aesthetic of the urban environment. The experiments
executed in this study have generated heat maps for attractiveness,
organization, novelty and smartness; which share lots of common aspects. It
was noted that given the nature of the heat maps, there are certain pivotal
elements, which dictate the aesthetic impression of the observer. Text is one of
the elements, which garners attention as it engages the observer in a conscious
thought process. Further, the definition of smartness given to the participants
has corroborated the findings of this experiment.
1224 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
1. INTRODUCTION
As India ushers into the smart age, the government did not fall behind on
commissioning the smartening of the cities. In the first phase, 100 cities have been
selected from all the states of India for implementing smart initiatives. Smart cities
and villages are complex systems with a culmination of various parameters. Smart
city features are not just restricted to domains of mobile phones and internet services
but the smart dwellings and enhanced living enclosures. In a larger context, it relates
to Internet of Things concept (Rathore et al., 2016 and Saber et al., 2017). While
existing emphasis on smartness revolves around technology, communication,
governance and sustainability, often the aspect of visual perception is completely
ignored. Vision being the most dominant of all the senses put together for human
beings, our perception of the environment is crucial for human cognition and behavior
towards it (Barbara and Eugenio, 2015). Visual perception is also deeply connected
with aesthetic evaluation. In the growing buzz of smart cities and smart places, where
one can find the ‘smartness’ in the aesthetic paradigm of our cities, is urbanscape.
Undeniably, the aesthetics shape our environmental behavior, and culture (Dominic et
al., 2015). It also affects our feelings, emotions and decision making to some extent.
Making cities smarter, making human lives smarter is not only about infusing and
imposing technology, but also about human visual perception towards the new
paradigm of context to the existing, which affects the environment they interact with
affecting their daily lives (Gibbs, 2000; Betsill and Bulkeley, 2006; Rydin et al.,
2012).
In the past, studies pertaining to detailed characterization of urban environment in
terms of visual perception and aesthetics is however missing. Hence, this present
research aims to study this gap that exists between visual perception relating to
individual internal smartness and the visual aesthetic of urban environment. An urban
environment whether smart or not, is a source for infinite stimuli. These stimuli affect
people’s perception, and thus percolates to various actions in their daily lives
(Mosavynezhad and Jafari, 2015). The research envisages on methodological
approach towards to physical parameters, sieved through visual parameters which
finally affects the perceptual impression. That in turn serves the basic function
towards aesthetic evaluation. This conceptual framework needed to be validated by
analyzing each of the parameters mentioned. The research employs an experimental
setup to back up this theoretical argument. Empirical study has been based on Eye-
tracking mechanism (Piga et al., 2011; Piga and Eugenio, 2013), to establish
relationship between these parameters. Set of willing participants have engaged in the
experiment to unearth the process by which immediate visual perceptions lay
foundation for linking aesthetics, urbanscape and behavioral constraints. Emphasis
has been on studying the perception mechanisms that warrant a reaction from the
observer. These reactions are parameter based and these reactions give essential clues
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1225
to the relationship of aesthetic evaluation, visual perception and environments
physical parameters. This research also brings out an important facet relating to
culture or community specificity. Given that the perceptions are not universal, for a
country like India, with such diverse populous, the need to integrate cognitive
processes with the development of the framework is also realized. Hence,
demonstration of this variability in a flexible yet robust framework has essentially
been the target of the study.
1.1. Visual perception and Aesthetic impression
This paper gives useful insight to how visual perception plays an important function
relating to change of physical parameters in the urban environment on one hand, and
on the other, the reactions evoked or impressions created towards the environment.
Various environmental initiatives, including smart cities, often lack this perception
centric paradigm due to lack of proper methodology. There has been an endeavor to
mitigate this existing gap through this paper. Visual perception is the capability to
(Perovic and Folic, 2012; Basu and Ghosh, 2016) understand and interpret our
environment or surroundings. It is both a conscious and subconscious meaning-
making process which is a result of the external visual stimuli and our own knowledge
accumulated since the time of birth (Greenwald et al., 1995; Ghosh et al., 2013 and
Ghosh et al., 2015). Aesthetic impression is related to an individual’s evaluation of
the surrounding environment. It is directly related to the visual perception as the
‘evaluation’ goes parallel with registering of the visual stimuli and the process of
turning the stimuli into a meaningful experience (Winters, 1986; Arnold and Carlson,
2007).
Urban is a place-based characteristic that incorporates elements of population density,
social and economic organization, and the transformation of natural environment into
a built environment (Weeks, 2008). The built environment which consists of man-
made elements such as buildings, furniture, hoardings, landscape, etc. is a source for
plethora of visual stimuli. Undeniably the visual perception shapes our behaviour,
and, in fact, in most cases our behaviour can be viewed as a direct response to the
environmental stimuli of which the visual component is dominant. People create an
urban place and then are influenced by the place that has been created (Weeks, 2010).
This influence of the urban place can manifest in our responses, that is, in our
emotions, behaviour, and our decision making process. This means that the aesthetics
which are part of the urban place impact us greatly. People not only see the physical
environment of buildings and react to what they see but they also have memory
images of the environment and their behaviour is strongly affected by this images
(Gary, 1979). Hence, the smartness of an urban place, in turn, of an entire City, is not
only through technology, communication, sustainability, etc., but also through visual
1226 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
parameters which influence our aesthetic evaluation. Thus, there is a requirement for
emphasis on the study of visual parameters as to how they influence our aesthetic
impression and in turn how they influence human behavior (Emily, 2003).
1.2. The smart city Paradigm
As India moves into the high growth phase, the government did not fall back on
launching the ‘smart cities’ project (Smart Cities Mission, 2017). This includes
combining the development with high technology into governance, sustainability, etc.
However, given the aesthetics have a great impact on our decision making process, no
effort has been made to integrate the aesthetic paradigm into the developmental
process. The statement from the government for the 100 Indian smart cities is
“………the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a
decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and
application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive
development and the idea is to look at compact areas, create a replicable model
which will act like a light house to other aspiring cities.” The features for the smart
cities would be mixed use development, housing and inclusiveness, walkable
localities, preserving and developing open spaces, variety of transport options,
citizen-friendly governance, smart solutions to infrastructure, and to create an identity
based on main economic activity, local cuisine, sports, culture, furniture, hosiery, etc.
No reference has been made to visual parameters and aesthetics in the smart cities
(Smart Cities Mission, 2017).
Many studies have proved that the interdependence of visual perception, aesthetic
impression and stimulus from the urban environment (Ulrich, 1983), but, the issue
now at hand is to incorporate this theoretical framework into the development
policies. The purpose of this paper is to raise this very particular issue. Including
aesthetics on papers and policies cannot be mere shallow terms without objectivity. It
is possible to analyze visual parameters as to how they influence the aesthetic
impression. This analysis is intended to form a basis for quantifying aesthetic aspects
of the urban environment based on experimental evidence. To achieve this the onus is
on supporting the already existing theoretical framework with a Visual Performance
Survey (VPS) experiment. This experiment is designed to evaluate and colligate key
elements of the visual stimuli provided by selected images with the rating provided by
the persons who have participated in the experiment.
2. METHODOLOGY
The present study is set up in three parts: (a) Setting up the experiment and the
experimental framework, (b) carrying out the experiments and collecting the data and
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1227
opinions of the subjects, and, (c) analyzing the gathered data and checking in what
way and to how much extent it corroborates with the existing theoretical framework
and studies.
2.1. Experimental Framework
For the sake of objectivity, the experiment is designed to analyze few basic
parameters that form a part of the whole ‘aesthetic impression’. These basic
parameters are Attractiveness, Organization, Novelty and Smartness (Ernawati, 2013).
These parameters, for the sake of this experiment, are defined as follows in basic
terms.
Attractiveness is the unmediated impression of how likable and good a setting or the
image of that setting appears to an individual. Organization is described as how
systemic the spaces and its elements are, which extends to how easily understandable
the (built) environment is. Novelty, as told to the subjects of the experiment, is the
degree of uniqueness they attribute to the scene or setting. In simple terms, novelty
extends to more uniquely recognizable elements of the scene. Integrating the above,
for the sake of easy comprehension, smartness is defined. A ‘smart’ urban
environment should be attractive, unique to the purpose, and organized among other
aspects. However, for the case of visual-perception study, these three factors are more
dominant.
The purpose of the experiment is to understand how peoples urban impression is
influenced based on characteristics of the place. The characteristic locations used in
this study are as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The experiment is itself crafted in a simple
fashion. The individuals who participate in the experiment are shown a set of two
images of two familiar places. The set of images is shown four times. Each time the
set is shown, the urban settings shown should be individually rated, on 0 to 5 scale. In
each set both the images are displayed on the screen for 10 seconds each. After
displaying the set for the first time, the images are to be individually rated for
attractiveness. The second time for organization, third for novelty and finally the
fourth time for smartness.
1228 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
Fig. 1. Technology Students’ Gymkhana in IIT Kharagpur Campus, India
Fig. 2. Tech Market, Shopping Complex Plaza IIT Kharagpur Campus, India
2.1.1. The Experimental Set up
The two images used are those of two built settings within the Indian Institute of
Technology (IIT) Kharagpur campus. One is the Technology Students Gymkhana
(Figure 1) and the other is of the Tech Market (Figure 2). All the people participating
in the experiment are familiar with both the places. The Gymkhana is a recently
constructed building, which is the major activity center for the student life in the
campus. The Tech market is a relatively old structure, which is the most prominent
place for shopping within the campus. The images are taken such that buildings
dominate the most part, but the streetscape is also present to give a sense of space,
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1229
scale, location, etc. These two locations are selected keeping in view of the
importance of these locations for students, very high relevance to smart aspect, urban
form-congregational and activity oriented. The most important aspect of this process
is ‘eye-tracking’. Before the set of images is shown, the individuals are told that they
are required to give a score to the images for one of the above four parameters. And,
while they are viewing the images, the eye tracker records the eye path and also notes
which areas in the images catch the attention, i.e., a heat map is generated. The eye
tracking device is positioned in front of the test subjects while they view the images
on a display. This device is an infra-red tracker, which tracks and records the eye
moments and also duration of gaze. In addition, to attune to an individual’s eye
movements, calibration of the tracker is done for every person undergoing the
experiment.
2.1.2 Eye Tracking Experiment
As discussed in the previous section, the eye-tracking is central to the whole
experiment. But, the onus is on how the experiment is framed. This can be done by
adding detail as to how the experiment is executed. As the person sits for the
experiment, he or she is asked to view the images and give a rating at the end. The
experiment starts with showing the set of two images for rating them based on
attractiveness. The person sitting in front of the display is asked to view the set for the
first time, each of the two images for ten seconds, and rate them individually for
attractiveness only. The same is repeated for the other three parameters. The
presumption is that when the person knows what he or she is going to rate the settings
(or the images of the settings) for, they consciously or unconsciously view certain
elements in those scenes so as to judge them. Further, when a person is asked to rate
for attractiveness, it is desired to know what elements are being viewed the most and
how long. Same is the case with organization, novelty and smartness. Obviously, the
rating they give at the end is based on what they see and how they see it and for how
long. These heat maps not only have how long an individual observes a particular area
on the display, but also gives a path diagram of the eye movement on the display. In
addition, all these heat maps can be superimposed to get a heat map of an ‘average’
person.
2.1.3. Procedure for analysis
Once the heat maps are generated, they are carefully examined to see if there are any
considerable commonalities in a particular category or not. Also, the ratings given
would be pitted against the heat maps to find out based on what the judgement is
being made. In addition to this, the average of the heat maps of both the images will
be compared with the aggregate of the ratings given to the images for each category.
1230 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
For instance, where organization is concerned, the average heat map of both the
images will be generated to see what aspects of the settings are being observed while
being rated for organization. Also, heat maps of individuals can be separately
analyzed with the scores they give to get a better understanding of how to proceed
with the analysis. The average score for organization for both the Figures 1 and 2 will
reveal which of the two settings was perceived to be more organized, and by
extension, comparing the average of heat maps for organization of both the images
against the scores can give further insights into the understanding.
3. OBSERVATIONS AND FINDINGS
The images of the aggregate heat maps, i.e., the one which is the combination of all
the heat maps generated by the participants of the experiment are shown in the
following discussions. The number of individuals from whom the data for this
experiment is collected are 40. Hence, the analysis for the each of the parameters is
not standalone, but it is in comparison to the other parameters. In addition, as a whole
the major emphasis will be on how the first three parameters i.e., attractiveness,
organization and novelty relate to the smartness paradigm as it is defined. Also, the
major emphasis will be on the average of heat maps and not on individual heat maps
of a single person since deriving generalizations from a set of 40 individuals is not
possible. However, individual heat maps have been looked at by the experimenter
and the weightage contributed to the study is included. The following discussion deals
with the attractive, organization, novelty and smartness heat maps of the two cases
studied.
3.1. Attractiveness heat maps of Gymkhana and Tech Market
This section discusses and compares the attractive heat maps of the two cases studied,
namely Gymkhana and Tech Market. Figures 3 and 4, shows the attractive heat map
of the Gymkhana and Tech Market locations considered in this study. The figure
demonstrates that the maximum burn through is observed in the large glazed area
present at the top of the building and also at the text presented (see places on the
building façade). Some amount of attention or eye gaze has been captured by the
street elements such as the lighting post railing and such. What is interesting to note is
that the road and the part of the street below the building plinth have captured very
little or no attention. The attention garnered by the glazing could be attributed thusly:
the reflective black glazing could have generated a sense of depth or the bright
framing of the arches in contrast with the dark skin may have gained fixations or both.
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1231
Fig. 3. Attractiveness heat map of Gymkhana
Fig. 4. Attractiveness heat map of Tech market
In the context of TechMarket; as seen in the case study of Gymkhana, the attention is
grabbed by the text in various places on the streetscape as shown in the Figure 4.
However, the most burn through is over the central foliage. Undoubtedly, this
particular foliage occupies major area in the center of the screen and the green color
in contrast with the buildings in the background works in its favor in resting the
viewers gaze.
1232 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
3.2. Organization heat maps of Gymkhana and Tech Market
This section describes and compares the organization heat maps of the two cases
studied, namely Gymkhana and Tech Market. The organization heat map of the
Gymkhana (Figure 5) is more or less similar to the attractiveness heat map of the
same. The difference between the two is that one can see the burns happening over a
wider span, and also spilling on to the road and the boundary railing separating the
road and the building premises. This horizontal burn through can be observed over the
railing and the row of columns scene in the building.
Fig. 5. Organization heat map of Gymkhana
Fig. 6. Organization heat map of Tech Market
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1233
Following the lines of the Gymkhana heat map, the Tech market heat map (Figure 6)
for organization is similar to its attractiveness heat map. In this heat map, it not only
shows the central foliage which has the maximum burn through, some other elements
such as text and shop doors have a red burn through. Also, the burn through is over a
wider span.
3.3. Novelty heat maps of Gymkhana and Tech Market
In this section, we analyze and compare the novelty heat maps of the two cases
studied namely Gymkhana and Tech Market. Figure 7 shows the novelty heat map of
Gymkhana. In this particular heat map the maximum burn-through is on the glazed
area framed between the arches on the top of the building and also on the area which
is in between the two large circular red columns on the right of the building. Also, the
text has captured the viewer's gaze considerably. Very minimal or no burn through is
observed below the plinth of the building.
Fig. 7. Novelty heat map of Gymkhana
Fig. 8. Novelty heat map of TechMarket
1234 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
Figure 8 shows the novelty heat map of Tech Market. The Novelty heat map for this
particular built environment shows maximum burn through over the central foliage
and some amount of burn through over the areas with large text. Some amount of
minimal burn through, seen in blue, is spread over the entire image except the
periphery.
3.4. Smartness heat maps of Gymkhana and Tech Market
This section discusses and compares the smartness heat maps of the two cases studied,
namely Gymkhana and Tech Market. Figures 9 and 10, show the smartness heat maps
of the Gymkhana and TechMarket locations considered in this study. Among the four
different heat maps for the aforementioned parameters, the ‘Smartness’ heat maps for
both Gymkhana and the Tech Market are more complex compared to the rest. They
are complex in the sense that the spread of the burn areas is more and the burn-
through areas in red are more in number. The burn-through areas in red are the glazed
portion on the top, street lights, text and the area framed by the two big circular
columns on the right. Further, the road, the railing, and the row of columns have
gathered considerable gaze from the people who participated in the experiment.
Fig. 9. Smartness heat map of Gymkhana
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1235
Fig. 10. Smartness heat map of Tech Market
Like the other heat maps of Tech Market, Figure 10, shows an image of burn through
over the foliage. Apart from that, the text also has a good burn through including the
ones which are not so prominent. In addition, the spread of the burn through areas is
larger and varies when compared to others.
4. INFERENCES AND KEY FINDINGS
To understand the heat maps is to understand the understand the link between the
physical and visual characteristics of spaces or elements. This process is nothing but
the understanding the process of stimuli and response: why does a person look at
something for long? How does it affect his or her judgement? And, in what way? As
discussed earlier, given the lack of numbers, individual analysis for each heat map or
the eye path is not possible. As mentioned in the observations, the heat maps of
attractiveness, organization, and novelty share lots of common aspects. One important
thing here, as discussed in previous sections, is that the person undergoing the
experiment is given a description of each of the four parameters before he or she
analyses the images of the settings to give a rating. This definition is intended to have
an impact on the participant so that the heat maps generated are more objective and
easy to analyze. The following are the major inferences and the key findings from this
study:
From the heat maps of the gymkhana, it can be easily made out that the large
glazing framed by the arches caught the most attention followed by the text on
the building facade. This holds true for all four of the heat maps. In the second
heat map for gymkhana, which is for organization, the burn-through has
1236 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
slightly increased in area when compared to the heat maps of attractiveness
and novelty. And, the difference in the heat maps of attractiveness and novelty
for the gymkhana is negligible given the small sampling. Hence, we may infer
that while what is unique in the setting of the Gymkhana is also the attractive
part, one tends to give attention to surrounding or ancillary elements or spaces
when one judges in terms of organization (as it is clearly seen that the front
railing and the circulation area in front of the gymkhana have gathered some
burn through while it was not evident for the same in the other two heat maps).
Clearly, we may observe that what is unique or attractive may not necessarily
mean it is well organized or vice versa.
Further, as we can see from the smartness heat map, both the streetlights and
other elements have considerable burn through over them. This aspect makes
the smartness heat map of the Gymkhana a combination of the previous three
heat maps. Hence, the same parallels can be drawn in the case of the Tech
market as well. The smartness heat map for this building has a greater spread
of maximum burn through (in red) when compared to its other three heat
maps. Also, upon observing the overall burn-through, it can be seen that all
aspects that have garnered attention in the first three heat maps combined,
have done so in the smartness heat map as well. Hence, in this case it is safe to
assume that the smartness heat map of Tech Market is at least the combination
of the heat maps of the first three parameters.
As the participants were given the definition that the ‘smartness’ is a
combination of the first three parameters (attractiveness, organization, and
novelty) and more. The heat maps generated corroborate with this definition.
Hence, it is concluded that the participants were consciously or unconsciously
searching for the elements which make the urban setting attractive, organized
and novel while they were judging for smartness.
Given the nature of the heat maps, there are certain pivotal elements, which
dictate the aesthetic impression of the observer. Text is an element, which
garners attention as it engages the observer in a conscious thought process.
Further, the definition of smartness given to the participants has corroborated
the findings of this experiment.
5. CONCLUSION
The impact of visual and aesthetic parameters is much influenced by the socio-
cultural background of the viewer. Where there is much that cannot be generalized or
quantified universally, there can be a few prime parameters, which can be found to be
common. It is the understanding of these commonalities that can usher in future
research in visual semantics, which is not only backed by theory alone, but also by
Environmental Perception: Image Based Analysis of People's Impression of Places
1237
experiments and controlled observations. Though the study in this field and allied
fields is in its nascent stage, further research must develop rapidly for it is required for
the fulfillment of this techno-modern wholesome society. The stimuli that our
surroundings present have the greatest possible impact upon us, and, the visual
component of that stimuli is quite enormous. This presents a very less studied field
contrasted with the great impact such a study can bring to our society.
The study elaborated is in this paper is one of its kind in linking the theoretical
framework to the experimental results in this particular field. This limited scope is
partly due to the limitations of manpower and resources. If such a study were to be
carried out in large scale with many more participants and researchers, more sound
theories can be framed and verified. Also, given the advancement in technology,
many types of devices are now available to study and understand the human
behaviour, and there are numerous possibilities to dwell deeper, as one cannot deny
the fact that the eye tracker, which is a very basic device in its own right, has provided
for a sound and interesting experiment.
The prime objective of this research was to understand and link the relation between
aesthetic impression and visual stimuli one’s environment provides. The medium used
to make the study simpler is the use of images. In this regard, the basic definitions set
out before the experiment and the procedures have held up through the process of the
experiment. To add to this, that the results were positive and corroborative provides
for a great deal of satisfaction.
The future direction of the research leads to detailed analysis various dimensions of
image based eye tracking methodology. Also, different user groups could be surveyed
in order to find differences in perception and associated causes. Public places are
subject to multiple users, stakeholders and varied usage through the day or days.
Hence a sequential study in future would reap useful findings in relation to holistic
place perception. The newer urban development & place making as well as
revitalization projects can adhere to the methodology adopted in the paper for its
prudent analysis and subsequent design interventions. This would lead to a logical and
holistic place making with consideration of its environmental perception. And hence
create a better built environment in the world to live in.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This particular research is a part of the SRIC funded ISIRD project of IIT Kharagpur.
The usage of the eye tracking facility and camera is highly appreciated. Also, the
experiments were conducted in the 3D Media Lab of Department of Architecture &
Regional Planning, IIT Kharagpur. The cooperation of the head and administration is
acknowledged hereby. Finally, this research would not have been successful without
the active and fruitful participation of the student participants of the campus in the eye
1238 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
tracking experiment.
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1240 Siddharth Kandra and Mainak Ghosh
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