Article

Electricity infrastructure vulnerabilities due to long-term growth and extreme heat from climate change in Los Angeles County

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Many studies have estimated the effects of rising air temperatures due to climate change on electricity infrastructure systems, but none have quantified impacts in terms of potential outages down to the neighborhood scale. Using high-resolution climate projections, infrastructure maps, and forecasts of peak electricity demand for Los Angeles County (LAC), we estimated vulnerabilities in the electricity infrastructure to 2060. We considered rising air temperatures under IPCC RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 at 2 km² grid cell resolution, two local government population growth scenarios, different efficiency implementations of new residential and commercial buildings, air conditioners (AC), and higher AC penetration. Results were that generators, substations, and transmission lines could lose up to 20% of safe operating capacities (MW). Moreover, based on recent historical load factors for substations in the Southern California Edison service territory, 848–6,724 MW (4–32%) of additional capacity, distributed energy resources, and/or peak load shifting could be needed by 2060 to avoid hardware overloading and outages. If peak load is not mitigated, and/or additional infrastructure capacity not added, then all scenarios result in > 100% substation overloading in Santa Clarita, which would trigger automatic outages, and > 20% substation overloading in at least Lancaster, Palmdale, and Pomona in which protection gear could trip outages within 30 min. Several climate change adaptation options are discussed for electricity infrastructure and building stock with consideration for trade-offs in system stability and other energy and environmental goals.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Many studies [33], [34], [43], [35]- [42] found that the thermal capacities of network components are going to decrease due to global warming. Depending on applied methodology, capacities of electrical network may reduce from 1.5 % and up to 20% [33], [37], [38], [41]. Apart from reduced capacities, warmer temperatures could require unplanned investments to reinforce the electrical network. ...
... Apart from economic concerns, many studies [40], [45], [46] also highlight that climate change may jeopardize the reliability of electric networks. For instance, the increasing number of heat waves 8 [47] due to climate change may lead to the failures of network components, as this already happened with power transformers in the USA during the summer of 2006 [40], 2007 [48], 2018 [41]. Specifically, the heat wave of July 2006 caused more transformer failures (469) than for the rest year of 2006 (440) [48]. ...
... Suppose DSO can transfer the load to adjacent substations. In that case, the permissible loading of transformers can be increased 41 If bus is not connected at MV and LV voltage i.e. there is no circuit breaker or there is no transformer between 6 and 10 kV then DSO considers such two-transformer substation as two one-transformer substations. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis investigates a promising and mature technology: Dynamic Thermal Ratings (DTR) of mineral-oil-filled transformers. In short, DTR represents a thermal limit that varies in time as a function of external (ambient) and internal (winding, oil) temperatures of transformers. Considerations of the transformer’s thermal state may allow operating the transformers above their nameplate ratings and thus better utilizing their capacities. MATLAB code and the initial data used in this thesis are available in open access on GitHub: https://github.com/Ildar-Daminov
... Reduced power output: Direct damages to infrastructure: -decrease in efficiency due to high ambient temperature [27][28][29] -road ways: material fatigue due to thermal expansion [30] [31] Heat -the decrease in efficiency due to cooling system failures [7,28,32] -electricity transmission and distribution grids: efficiency losses, physical damage due to heat stress [27,29,30] -the decrease in PV efficiency due to high ambient temperature [29,30] -gas transmission grids [30] -high electricity demand for cooling (households, food industry) [30] Reduced power output: Strained navigation of river ways -hydropower [7,33,34] -delivery of goods: restriction of loading capacity [30] Drought -CCS (water intake and discharge for cooling) [25] -delivery of fuel (e.g. bulk ships for coal delivery) [30] -biofuel production -nuclear (regulation on water intake for cooling) [7,[35][36][37] -thermal power plants with water cooling systems -gas and hard coal [25,28,30,34,37] Recent findings suggest that drought and heat damages will jointly comprise 94% of all hazardous impacts on the European energy sector by the end of the 21 st century [38]. ...
... Reduced power output: Direct damages to infrastructure: -decrease in efficiency due to high ambient temperature [27][28][29] -road ways: material fatigue due to thermal expansion [30] [31] Heat -the decrease in efficiency due to cooling system failures [7,28,32] -electricity transmission and distribution grids: efficiency losses, physical damage due to heat stress [27,29,30] -the decrease in PV efficiency due to high ambient temperature [29,30] -gas transmission grids [30] -high electricity demand for cooling (households, food industry) [30] Reduced power output: Strained navigation of river ways -hydropower [7,33,34] -delivery of goods: restriction of loading capacity [30] Drought -CCS (water intake and discharge for cooling) [25] -delivery of fuel (e.g. bulk ships for coal delivery) [30] -biofuel production -nuclear (regulation on water intake for cooling) [7,[35][36][37] -thermal power plants with water cooling systems -gas and hard coal [25,28,30,34,37] Recent findings suggest that drought and heat damages will jointly comprise 94% of all hazardous impacts on the European energy sector by the end of the 21 st century [38]. ...
... Reduced power output: Direct damages to infrastructure: -decrease in efficiency due to high ambient temperature [27][28][29] -road ways: material fatigue due to thermal expansion [30] [31] Heat -the decrease in efficiency due to cooling system failures [7,28,32] -electricity transmission and distribution grids: efficiency losses, physical damage due to heat stress [27,29,30] -the decrease in PV efficiency due to high ambient temperature [29,30] -gas transmission grids [30] -high electricity demand for cooling (households, food industry) [30] Reduced power output: Strained navigation of river ways -hydropower [7,33,34] -delivery of goods: restriction of loading capacity [30] Drought -CCS (water intake and discharge for cooling) [25] -delivery of fuel (e.g. bulk ships for coal delivery) [30] -biofuel production -nuclear (regulation on water intake for cooling) [7,[35][36][37] -thermal power plants with water cooling systems -gas and hard coal [25,28,30,34,37] Recent findings suggest that drought and heat damages will jointly comprise 94% of all hazardous impacts on the European energy sector by the end of the 21 st century [38]. ...
... Although most high-rise buildings have air-conditioning to mitigate the impact of extreme heat, this is rendered ineffective if extreme heat causes power grid overload and supply is interrupted [63,64]. There is evidence to suggest that high-rise buildings contribute to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, a phenomena whereby urban environments comprised of large concrete and glass buildings retain heat throughout the day and release this heat at night [65,66]. ...
... Recent improvements in technology have mitigated the risk of living on an upper floor, enabling efficient cooling devices such as air-conditioning and fans to be incorporated into high-rise dwellings [92,93]. These devices rely on electricity to function and are therefore unreliable during extended periods of extreme heat, where power grids are likely to overload and malfunction [31,63,64]. It is in this scenario that the adverse impacts on health of the vulnerable are magnified, particularly for those who are unable to exit the building due to mobility constraints. ...
Article
Full-text available
High-density living and heatwaves are increasing, at the same time as the population is ageing. The aim of this literature review was to examine the intersection between older and/or vulnerable people, who live in high-density/high-rise situations, and their health during heatwaves. Using electronic databases, the literature was examined. Articles were included if they were: (1) published in English, (2) examined the relationship between building, health, and extreme heat, and (3) included older or vulnerable populations. A total of 241 articles were identified of which 15 were duplicates and 209 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies included in the review, 4 were conducted following heatwaves in Chicago and Europe. These identified a relationship between age, vulnerability, and floor of residence, in people who died because of the heatwave. High-rise living is increasing globally, and residents are getting older. This, in combination with increased heatwave intensity and frequency, highlights the risk of morbidity and mortality in this group, particularly where there is no access to air-conditioning because of power grid overload in the heat. This research benefits older and vulnerable people who live in high-rise buildings, the health professionals who care for them, architects, urban planners, and policy makers.
... Both the materials and operating efficiencies of ESI are temperature sensitive, so the temperature rise from climate change will affect the working performance of each ESI component, including the generators, Transmission and Distribution (T&D) lines and transformers (Burillo et al., 2016;Craig et al., 2018;van Vliet et al., 2012). To mitigate these impacts, additional infrastructure has to be built or abatement measures need to be taken to maintain safe planning reserve margins and to prevent electricity interruptions (Burillo et al., 2019). It is necessary to quantify the impacts of rising air temperatures on the ESI to support for the mitigation and adaptation actions (Martinich and Crimmins, 2019;Pryor and Barthelmie, 2010). ...
... This method is highly suitable for modeling the impacts on a specific technology or infrastructure. The second one directly uses the de-rating factors of ESI caused by climate change from synthesizing the previous estimated results (Bartos et al., 2016;Burillo et al., 2019;Sathaye et al., 2013). Although this is a simplification approach, this method is still effective because the detailed parameters of ESI are sometimes difficult to be obtained (Chandramowli and Felder, 2014;Sathaye et al., 2013). ...
Article
s Understanding the impacts of climate change on electricity supply infrastructure (ESI) is important to maintain a reliable power supply. Nonetheless, most existing studies focus on the physical impacts rather than the economic impacts, failing to provide references for the cost-benefit analysis of different abatement policies and measures. With this motivation, this study firstly employs a downscaled climate system model to project temperature paths in the future. Then, an integrated model is established to quantify both physical and economic impacts of long-term future temperature rise on the existing ESI components. Finally, the maximum climate-attributable impacts on China's ESI are assessed for the period from 2018 to 2099. Our major findings are that: (1) 10.2% of the generator ratings, 17.8% of the transmission and distribution line ratings and 10.0% of the transformer ratings are at risk of outage from expected climate change effects. (2) Around $258 billion of the existing ESI assets are at risk of outage due to the future surface temperature rise, representing 14.2% of the ESI assets in 2017. (3) The impacts of climate change on ESI vary substantially among different provinces and among different infrastructure components. These obtained results can provide important guidance for the mitigation and adaption strategies for the climate change impacts on the electricity sector.
... The number of cold days is projected to decrease but will still be problematic for medium to high elevations. The capacity of transmission and distribution lines is reduced during extreme heat events, and subsequent higher demand, by up to 20% (Burillo et al., 2018). Load rebalancing to other transmission lines is then necessary, and the increased power loads can cause these to heat faster in extreme events and also droop, leading to cascading loss of transmission and distribution. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
ODI’s new set of reports focuses on the risks and opportunities of transition to net-zero in three Central Asian countries: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The expansion of renewables and transitions to net-zero carbon economies are necessary to avoid catastrophic climate change, and the renewables infrastructure investments need to be resilient to rapidly changing threats related to climate change, environmental degradation and cyber-attacks. Low-carbon energy systems also need to meet the opportunities of diversifying economies and new technologies, such as widespread use of electric vehicles. Yet, planning for the long time horizons of climate change is novel for many energy policy-makers and energy companies around the world. Infrastructure built now or before 2030 will have to contend with projected changes in the 2050s; hydropower and thermal power plants have longer lifetimes and must be prepared to handle the climate of 2100. Given regional interconnectedness, damage or disruption to generation or transmission at one point due to a climate hazard event can cascade risks throughout the regional power distribution system. Resilience in the energy system requires anticipation of future risks and demand. Proactive risk management should deploy full semi-quantitative to quantitative climate change and disaster risk (inclding cybersecurity) assessments as part of environmental impact assessments for planned energy infrastructure in each country. This report's recommendations offer starting points towards proactive risk management to protect net-zero energy investments, national economies and regional economic development goals.
... Alternatively, dry cooling is of particular interest since it can be utilized at low water availability. However, as this method uses ambient air to cool exhaust steam, it is exposed to the risk of high temperatures in summer seasons (DOE/NETL 2008, Burillo et al. 2019. Table 4 displays the cost assumptions of several studies, differentiating between power plant technologies and cooling technologies. ...
... Other modeling tools may prioritize maintaining flexibility throughout a given timeline, for example, by selecting scenarios that maintain flexibility towards long-term uncertainties (see stochastic programming with recourse in Heinrich et al 2007) or by incorporating feedback signals for real-time adaptability (Hung and Chang 2017). Other authors discuss adaptation options but do not explicitly incorporate them into analyses (Nierop 2014, Burillo et al 2019. ...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change poses significant risks to large-scale infrastructure systems and brings considerable uncertainties that challenge historical planning approaches. Here we focus on how climate awareness might be better incorporated into planning and decision-making in the electric power sector. To do so, we consider lessons from decision science literature where researchers have specifically focused on how to make better decisions under uncertainty. We perform a three-part review: of decision science literature on best practices for decision-making under uncertainty, of industry practice documents to understand how new uncertainties may affect the types of decisions electric utilities are making today, and of literature on electricity sector planning under climate change to assess how lessons from decision science might fit into sector-specific analyses. We discuss how characterizations of uncertainty from the decision science literature might guide approaches in the electricity sector to appropriately capture climate-related uncertainties. We also distill three key ideas from the decision science literature that can be incorporated into electricity sector planning to manage these new uncertainties: robustness, adaptive planning, and multi-stakeholder engagement. We offer example recommendations for how these key ideas might be incorporated into one essential type of planning activity, capacity expansion.
... Higher temperatures also impact the performance of electric transformers and substations (Burillo et al., 2019); electricity losses from transmission and distribution cables increase as it gets hotter; sea level rise threatens substations near the coast 9 ; and climate change is expected to cause disruptions to and the need for repair of fossil gas infrastructure. ...
Article
Full-text available
This Policy Brief provides lessons learned from regulation of climate adaptation by energy utilities. The regulatory bodies responsible for oversight of investor-owned energy utilities are ill-equipped to regulate climate adaptation in the energy sector; but they may be the only institutions with authority to do so. In 2018, the California Public Utilities Commission initiated the first quasi-legislative procedure to regulate investor owned energy utilities' climate adaptation activities. The Commission's new rules for climate adaptation offer some general guidance on climate adaptation, and require investor owned utilities to conduct and submit climate vulnerability studies. Structural limitations, including conflicting interest, capacity of staff, and scope of the problem hampered the success of adaptation regulation, which failed to address fundamental questions about what constitutes adaptive measures.
... Physiologically fit humans can tolerate higher dry-air temperatures, but such temperatures can still lead to high mortalities (Diniz et al., 2020;Varghese et al., 2020). These conditions also cause damage to critical infrastructure on which humans rely, such as electricity (Burillo et al., 2019), transportation (Villalba Sanchis et al., 2020), and agriculture (Anderson et al., 2020;Mehrabi, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activity is changing Earth's climate and ecosystems in ways that are potentially dangerous and disruptive to humans. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere continue to rise, ensuring that these changes will be felt for centuries beyond 2100, the current benchmark for projection. Estimating the effects of past, current, and potential future emissions to only 2100 is therefore short-sighted. Critical problems for food production and climate-forced human migration are projected to arise well before 2100, raising questions regarding the habitability of some regions of the Earth after the turn of the century. To highlight the need for more distant horizon scanning, we model climate change to 2500 under a suite of emission scenarios and quantify associated projections of crop viability and heat stress. Together, our pro- jections show global climate impacts increase significantly after 2100 without rapid mitigation. As a result, we argue that projections of climate and its effects on human well-being and associated governance and policy must be framed beyond 2100.
... Los impactos del cambio climático sobre el sector energía respecto de amenazas tales como los cambios en los perfiles de temperaturas, precipitaciones, caudales de los ríos, recursos solar y eólico, y la ocurrencia de eventos extremos como marejadas, aluviones, incendios forestales, temperaturas extremas, vientos extremos, y sequías, presentan un extenso rango de sensibilidades, dependiendo del tipo de infraestructura y de su ubicación (Ministerio de Energía, 2018). Estos impactos podrían provocar la disminución de la operatividad de los sistemas energéticos encareciendo el costo de la energía, o cortes de suministro (Burillo et al., 2019;Rübbelke y Vögele, 2013). ...
Book
Full-text available
En los últimos años se han realizado importantes avances en la generación de evidencia científica sobre el fenómeno del cambio climático. Se ha mejorado el conocimiento respecto de impactos de extrema severidad para Chile, tales como la mega-sequía, los mega-incendios y las inundaciones, y en general respecto de la vulnerabilidad y riesgos del país. En el capítulo 3 se presenta el análisis de los impactos del cambio climático en las zonas costeras de Chile.
... In the concept of resilient cooling, the building and its systems are mainly challenged by extreme heat events (heatwaves) and power outages. High power demand from air-conditioning during a heatwave strains and destabilizes the electrical grid [25]. Extreme heat can also impede power generation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The global effects of climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heatwaves and power outages, which have consequences for buildings and their cooling systems. Buildings and their cooling systems should be designed and operated to be resilient under such events to protect occupants from potentially dangerous indoor thermal conditions. This study performed a critical review on the state-of-the-art of cooling strategies, with special attention to their performance under heatwaves and power outages. We proposed a definition of resilient cooling and described four criteria for resilience—absorptive capacity, adaptive capacity, restorative capacity, and recovery speed —and used them to qualitatively evaluate the resilience of each strategy. The literature review and qualitative analyses show that to attain resilient cooling, the four resilience criteria should be considered in the design phase of a building or during the planning of retrofits. The building and relevant cooling system characteristics should be considered simultaneously to withstand extreme events. A combination of strategies with different resilience capacities, such as a passive envelope strategy coupled with a low-energy space-cooling solution, may be needed to obtain resilient cooling. Finally, a further direction for a quantitative assessment approach has been pointed out.
... Further, there is no discussion of increased heat impacts on the grid, nor on additional electricity use for the additional very hot days in this part of Los Angeles County. Although electricity utilities are under increasingly stringent state renewable portfolio standards such that the share of renewably generated electricity is growing, non-fossil fuel generated electric transmission will still be impacted by high heat (Burillo et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
California is widely seen as a climate and environmental policy leader in the U.S. and beyond. However, allowing local land use decisions to proceed as usual represents a major gap in the state’s climate policy framework. Climate mitigation rules and formulae are utilized to claim zero net emissions for large-scale land development at the urban fringe. Such developments continue to destroy habitats and radically transform landscapes. Newhall Ranch, a subdevelopment at the edge of urbanized Los Angeles County, has claimed emissions offsets such that the development of 60,000 homes will have less than zero greenhouse gas emissions. Offsets largely rely on using disadvantaged communities, and significant threats to endangered species on site are compensated by payments to the project's environmental opponents. The net result is land development as usual, with a veneer of solarization and investments in GHG mitigation projects with poor quantification and verification. This situation demonstrates the enduring structures of land use development that drive GHG emissions and environmental change, and calls for stronger requirements for local compliance with state emissions-reductions targets.
... In this dimension, Arica and Parinacota Region (Arica) have a dependency of −67% of its total electricity consumption, meaning that the 60 GWh produced locally are not sufficient to meet the 185 GWh required to its domestic demand. Even though this city is connected to the National Electric System, given the large distance between cities (for example, between Arica and Los Andes there are ∼2,000 km by road) the operational cost of electric grids could increase if no local generation is secured, moreover, given the greater temperatures projected under climate change scenarios the efficiency of these transmission lines could be dramatically decreased (Burillo et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy poverty is a crucial concept in current global energy policy, both for the importance of securing equitable access to high-quality energy services to all human populations and to advance toward a just energy transition to a decarbonized economy. Nonetheless, one of the limitations of this concept due to its focus at the household scale, it has tended to omit relevant energy conditions at a territorial scale, which can also be a dimension of significant deprivation (e.g., transportation, schools, hospitals, public services, industrial uses among others.). On the other hand, energy services are highly dependent on context: on the geographic, ecological, technical, economic, and sociocultural conditions. This context-dependency determines the range of energy and technological alternatives available in a territory. Hence, a conceptual framework is required to better understand the starting point to a just energy transition, capable of integrating the complexity of socio-techno-ecological systems. To fill this gap, we present a framework based on the concept of Territorial Energy Vulnerability (TEV), defined as the propensity of a territory to not guarantee equitable access—in quantity and quality—to resilient energy services that allow the sustainable human and economic development of its population. That is a greater probability of inequity in access to energy services or a significant impacts derived from socio-natural risks that make it incapable of guaranteeing a sustainable and resilient provision of these services. Built on state-of-the-art conceptualizations of risk, we develop an indicator-based framework on vulnerability understood as the combination of sensitivity and resilience characteristics of socio-techno-ecological systems. Sensitivity relates to economic, demographic, infrastructure, technology, culture, and knowledge characteristics of socio-techno-ecological components. Meanwhile, resilience is presented in a three-dimensional framework based on flexibility, register, and self-transformation capacity of socio-techno-ecological systems. An application of this framework is developed using three case studies: Arica, Los Andes and Coyhaique, all Chilean cities with diverse ecological, technical, economic, and sociocultural conditions that shape territorial vulnerability. Using this framework as a diagnostic tool, the development of a just energy transition could adapt existing concepts of energy poverty and decarbonization pathways into context-specific guidelines and policies.
... From a technology development point of view, it is promising for UHI mitigation in hot regions to design HVAC systems that are more efficient under hot conditions to mitigate peak load during extreme heatwaves (Burillo et al., 2019). The current standards EER (energy efficiency ratio) and SEER (seasonal energy efficiency ratio) are primarily for air temperatures at or below 35 • C. Another important aspect is waste heat from HVAC systems, which requires technological upgrades for the waste heat collection through improved insulation and tightness to limit heat loss (He, 2019). ...
Article
Policy and technology responses to increased temperatures in urban heat islands (UHIs) are discussed in a variety of research; however, their interaction is overlooked and understudied. This is an important oversight because policy and technology are often developed in isolation of each other and not in conjunction. Therefore, they have limited synergistic effects when aimed at solving global issues. To examine this aspect, we conducted a systematic literature review and synthesised 97 articles to create a conceptual structuring of the topic. We identified the following categories: (a) evidence base for policymaking including timescale analysis, effective policymaking instruments as well as decision support and scenario planning; (b) policy responses including landscape and urban form, green and blue area ratio, albedo enhancement policies, transport modal split as well as public health and participation; (c) passive technologies including green building envelopes and development of cool surfaces; and (d) active technologies including sustainable transport as well as energy consumption, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and waste heat. Based on the findings, we present a framework to guide future research in analysing UHI policy and technology responses more effectively in conjunction with each other.
... These conditions also cause damage to critical infrastructure on which humans rely, such as electricity 39 , transportation 40 , and agriculture 41,42 . Although regional projections of heat stress exist on human comfort [43][44][45] , this body of research does not typically envision thermal conditions beyond 2100. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activity is changing Earth’s climate and ecosystems in ways that are potentially dangerous and disruptive to humans . Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere continue to rise, ensuring these changes will be felt for centuries beyond 2100, the current benchmark for prediction emissions to only 2100 is therefore shortsighted. Critical problems for food production climate-forced ‘survival’ migration are projected to arise well before 2100 raising questions regarding the habitability of some regions of the Earth after the turn of the century. To highlight the need for more distant horizon scanning, we model climate change to 2500 under a suite of emission scenarios and quantify associated projections of crop viability and heat stress. Together, our projections show global climate impacts significantly increase after 2100 without rapid mitigation. As a result, projections of climate and its effects on human well-being and associated governance and policy must be framed beyond 2100.
... Also, the EV charging demand holds spatial variability. EVs traveling along specific evacuation corridors may demand more electricity from the local network, possibly exceeding the local capacity (Burillo et al., 2019;Hoehne and Chester, 2016). Also, possible catastrophic failure of the power network is not accounted for in the analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing usage of electrical vehicles (EVs) might not meet the safety requirement of massive hurricane evacuations, which may happen more frequently in the future climate. Here we investigate the challenge of widely using EVs for hurricane evacuation through analyzing the power demand during the vast historical evacuation before Hurricane Irma (2017). We find that, if the majority of the evacuating vehicles were EVs, Florida would face a serious challenge in power supply, with its six out of nine main power authorities, especially those in the mid-Florida, being short of power during the evacuation process. Also, the power outage in mid-Florida could induce cascading failure of the entire power network throughout Florida. We argue that policymakers need to consider the evacuation problem as EVs are increasingly adopted in disaster-prone regions. Potential solutions include developing centralized charging strategies, improving battery technology, and adopting hybrid vehicles in addition to EVs.
... Electricity infrastructure vulnerabilities because of extreme heat and long-term growth in Los Angeles County were examined on a study in 2019. The study was also geographically quantified the vulnerabilities on a map [28]. In another study for Los Angeles, peak electricity energy demand was examined with rising air temperatures [29]. ...
Article
To mitigate the temperature increase in urban environments and reduce its impact on energy consumption and the quality of the environment, urban retrofitting technologies have been developed and applied worldwide. High albedo in urban surfaces and additional vegetation are the most efficient strategies to accomplish these goals. The objective of this study is to estimate the weight of these strategies, both individually and integrated, on the cooling potential of two Latin American cities. To do this, 36 low and high urban density scenarios were simulated with the ENVI-Met software. The simulation models were calibrated using air temperature curves which were monitored during the summer periods from 2010 to 2013. A Principal Components Analysis was carried out to establish possible associations between the proposed mitigation strategies and then the weight of anthropogenic heat was evaluated according to the configuration. The results show that the integrated mitigation strategies in urban areas -i. e. increase vegetation and albedo on horizontal surfaces- has a great potential to mitigate urban warming, showing a more significant impact on low-density urban configuration. The contribution of anthropogenic heat mainly produced by motorized transport and air conditioning systems, is a crucial input data for the urban microclimate simulations. Its impact on the urban densification processes may cancel out the benefits derived by the application of the mitigation strategies considered.
Article
California is one of the most climate-challenged regions of North America and is considered the vanguard of climate action in the United States. California's climate policy framework has strongly promoted the expansion of renewable energy infrastructure, and the state generates more solar energy than any other in the nation. Using the case of Lancaster, a city of 170,000 residents in northern Los Angeles County seeking to position itself as the “alternative energy capital of the world,” this article examines private investments in solar energy infrastructure as a response to California's entwined economic and ecological crises. Drawing on recent scholarship on socioecological fix, we argue that private accumulation through renewable energy infrastructures in California has required both the presence of crisis conditions and innovations in financial risk mitigation that manage tensions between mobility and fixity inherent in the formation of fixed capital. However, a narrow focus on short-term financial risk obviates other forms of risk, including future impacts of extreme weather on grid infrastructure and electricity supply. While this does not foreclose opportunities for solar energy infrastructure to support positive social and ecological transformation, we argue that such opportunities may be constrained under a mode of energy transition predicated on private accumulation.
Article
Full-text available
Extreme heat events impact people and ecosystems across the globe, and they are becoming more frequent and intense in a warming climate. Responses to heat span sectors and geographic boundaries. Prior research has documented technologies or options that can be deployed to manage extreme heat and examples of how individuals, communities, governments, and other stakeholder groups are adapting to heat. However, a comprehensive understanding of the current state of implemented heat adaptations—where, why, how, and to what extent they are occurring—has not been established. Here, we combine data from the Global Adaptation Mapping Initiative with a heat-specific systematic review to analyze the global extent and diversity of documented heat adaptation actions (n = 301 peer-reviewed articles). Data from 98 countries suggest that documented heat adaptations fundamentally differ by geographic region and national income. In high-income, developed countries, heat is overwhelmingly treated as a health issue, particularly in urban areas. However, in low and middle income, developing countries, heat adaptations focus on agricultural and livelihood-based impacts, primarily considering heat as a compound hazard with drought and other hydrological hazards. 63% of the heat-adaptation articles feature individuals or communities autonomously adapting, highlighting how responses to date have largely consisted of coping strategies. The current global status of responses to intensifying extreme heat, largely autonomous and incremental yet widespread, establishes a foundation for informed decision making as heat impacts around the world continue to increase.
Article
Full-text available
The present work introduces a case study on the climate resilience of interconnected critical infrastructures to forest fires, that was performed within the framework on H2020 EU-CIRCLE project (GA 653824). It was conducted in South France, one of the most touristic European regions, and also one of the regions at the highest forest fire risk that is projected to be amplified under future climate conditions. The case study has been implemented through a co-creation framework with local stakeholders, which is critical in moving beyond physical damages to the infrastructures, introducing the elements of infrastructure business continuity and societal resilience. Future forest fires extremes are anticipated to impact the interconnections of electricity and transportation networks that could further cascade to communities throughout South France. The work highlighted the benefits of enhancing co-operation between academia, emergency responders, and infrastructure operators as a critical element in enhancing resilience through increased awareness of climate impacts, new generated knowledge on fire extremes and better cooperation between involved agencies.
Chapter
Cities are now the primary habitat for human beings. For the first time in our history, most humans live in these areas across the globe, and cities are increasingly being recognized as important venues within which to pursue the reduction of humanity’s impacts on the environment (Evans 2019). Cities are accumulations of many of the Earth’s rarest materials. Often mined and processed in distant places; these materials are assembled and embedded in city systems so that their unique physical and chemical properties can be leveraged to provide shelter, jobs, and enable the operation of many types of infrastructure. Cities rely on continuous input flows of energy: electricity, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons, which enable the heating and cooling of buildings, propulsion of vehicles, and functioning of machinery. As humanity has become increasingly urbanized and reliant on infrastructural systems, concomitant advances in computational technology now promise tantalizing solutions to previously intractable infrastructural management problems.
Chapter
The Atlas and its underlying data support a multitude of applications and projects that address previously unanswerable questions. Using consumption data at the billing address level, correlated with an array of spatial attributes, we are able to perform spatial, temporal, sociodemographic, and building attribute-based queries. Below we present a number of case studies illustrating the use of the Energy Atlas for applied research projects. First, we describe four state-funded research grants which were made possible by the power of the Atlas’ dataset. Next, we discuss how the Atlas was used to develop a GHG emissions inventory and business-as-usual scenarios for a county-scale sustainability plan. This is followed by a description of another energy consumption database we are creating, modeled on the Atlas, that comprises nine counties in Northern California. We end with a discussion of our participation in an international research collaboration around building energy data, which serves to demonstrate the Atlas’ unique standing on a global scale.
Chapter
This final chapter discusses the policy insights and implications derived from the Energy Atlas and the research projects it has enabled, as well as directions for future research that are supportive of a just energy transition. The Energy Atlas was created in response to the urgent need for cities to curb their consumption of energy and GHG emissions to achieve greater sustainability, and, increasingly, to become more resilient in the face of climate change impacts. Information about building energy use, coupled with additional data on material flows, life cycle costs, and social life cycle analysis can yield insights into the tradeoffs between various energy system investments and transformation pathways. It can also help connect issues such as affluence and consumption levels to Earth systems impacts, such as those of rare Earth mineral extraction for smart systems, air pollution and GHG emissions impacts of fossil fuel energy, and more. The Energy Atlas, we hope, provides an additional set of empirical data to help understand how cities work and their impacts on both people and planetary resources.
Article
Full-text available
Extreme climatic events are likely to become more frequent owing to global warming. This may put additional stress on critical infrastructures with typically long life spans. However, little is known about the risks of multiple climate extremes on critical infrastructures at regional to continental scales. Here we show how single- and multi-hazard damage to energy, transport, industrial, and social critical infrastructures in Europe are likely to develop until the year 2100 under the influence of climate change. We combine a set of high-resolution climate hazard projections, a detailed representation of physical assets in various sectors and their sensitivity to the hazards, and more than 1100 records of losses from climate extremes in a prognostic modelling framework. We find that damages could triple by the 2020s, multiply six-fold by mid-century, and amount to more than 10 times present damage of €3.4 billion per year by the end of the century due only to climate change. Damage from heatwaves, droughts in southern Europe, and coastal floods shows the most dramatic rise, but the risks of inland flooding, windstorms, and forest fires will also increase in Europe, with varying degrees of change across regions. Economic losses are highest for the industry, transport, and energy sectors. Future losses will not be incurred equally across Europe. Southern and south-eastern European countries will be most affected and, as a result, will probably require higher costs of adaptation. The findings of this study could aid in prioritizing regional investments to address the unequal burden of impacts and differences in adaptation capacities across Europe.
Article
Full-text available
Extreme climatic events are likely to become more frequent owing to global warming. This may put additional stress on critical infrastructures with typically long life spans. However, little is known about the risks of multiple climate extremes on critical infrastructures at regional to continental scales. Here we show how single- and multi-hazard damage to energy, transport, industrial, and social critical infrastructures in Europe are likely to develop until the year 2100 under the influence of climate change. We combine a set of high-resolution climate hazard projections, a detailed representation of physical assets in various sectors and their sensitivity to the hazards, and more than 1100 records of losses from climate extremes in a prognostic modelling framework. We find that damages could triple by the 2020s, multiply six-fold by mid-century, and amount to more than 10 times present damage of €3.4 billion per year by the end of the century due only to climate change. Damage from heatwaves, droughts in southern Europe, and coastal floods shows the most dramatic rise, but the risks of inland flooding, windstorms, and forest fires will also increase in Europe, with varying degrees of change across regions. Economic losses are highest for the industry, transport, and energy sectors. Future losses will not be incurred equally across Europe. Southern and south-eastern European countries will be most affected and, as a result, will probably require higher costs of adaptation. The findings of this study could aid in prioritizing regional investments to address the unequal burden of impacts and differences in adaptation capacities across Europe.
Article
Full-text available
Power plants that require cooling currently (2015) provide 85% of electricity generation in the United States1,2. These facilities need large volumes of water and sufficiently cool temperatures for optimal operations, and projected climate conditions may lower their potential power output and affect reliability3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. We evaluate the performance of 1,080 thermoelectric plants across the contiguous US under future climates (2035–2064) and their collective performance at 19 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) sub-regions12. Joint consideration of engineering interactions with climate, hydrology and environmental regulations reveals the region-specific performance of energy systems and the need for regional energy security and climate–water adaptation strategies. Despite climate–water constraints on individual plants, the current power supply infrastructure shows potential for adaptation to future climates by capitalizing on the size of regional power systems, grid configuration and improvements in thermal efficiencies. Without placing climate–water impacts on individual plants in a broader power systems context, vulnerability assessments that aim to support adaptation and resilience strategies misgauge the extent to which regional energy systems are vulnerable. Climate–water impacts can lower thermoelectric reserve margins, a measure of systems-level reliability, highlighting the need to integrate climate–water constraints on thermoelectric power supply into energy planning, risk assessments, and system reliability management.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41–87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.
Article
Full-text available
The electricity infrastructure is a critical lifeline system and of utmost importance to our daily lives. Power system resilience characterizes the ability to resist, adapt to, and timely recover from disruptions. The resilient power system is intended to cope with low probability, high risk extreme events including extreme natural disasters and man-made attacks. With an increasing awareness of such threats, the resilience of power systems has become a top priority for many countries. Facing the pressing urgency for resilience studies, the objective of this paper is to investigate the resilience of power systems. It summarizes practices taken by governments, utilities, and researchers to increase power system resilience. Based on a thorough review on the existing metrics system and evaluation methodologies, we present the concept, metrics, and a quantitative framework for power system resilience evaluation. Then, system hardening strategies and smart grid technologies as means to increase system resilience are discussed, with an emphasis on the new technologies such as topology reconfiguration, microgrids, and distribution automation; to illustrate how to increase system resilience against extreme events, we propose a load restoration framework based on smart distribution technology. The proposed method is applied on two test systems to validify its effectiveness. In the end, challenges to the power system resilience are discussed, including extreme event modeling, practical barriers, interdependence with other critical infrastructures, etc.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040–2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%–5.8% relative to the 1990–2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%–15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.
Article
Full-text available
Thermal comfort standards such as ASHRAE 55-2013 defines comfort boundaries which are based on the experimental results conducted in climatic chambers and field studies. The current comfort standards do not reflect the cultural and climatic diversity of India. A thermal comfort field study was conducted in 32 naturally ventilated buildings, collecting a total of 2610 samples spread over a total period of four years, covering all seasons, wide age groups, clothing types, and building types. In the present study, ASHRAE comfort boundaries at three different air speeds - still air (up to 0.2 m/s), natural air flow (0.2 m/s–0.5 m/s) and forced air flow with ceiling fan assist (0.5 m/s–1.5 m/s) are investigated. The method of calculation suggested by the ASHRAE 55-2013 and ISO-7730 were followed to determine extended acceptable temperature ranges for comfort at elevated air speed. Comfort boundaries are defined based on climate specific adaptations, the role of air speed and thermal preferences. Results from this study indicate that subjects in naturally ventilated buildings of this region are comfortable at temperatures different from those suggested by ASHRAE 55 and ISO-7730 standards. New extended boundaries of comfort zones are proposed considering various adaptations specific to this region, including the role of air speed to offset the temperature. The proposed comfort zones show that subjects are comfortable up to 32 °C at still air condition (0 m/s–0.2 m/s) and up to 35 °C at higher speed (up to 1.5 m/s) in naturally ventilated buildings in the composite climate of India.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the impacts of climate variability and change (CV&C) on electricity systems is paramount for operators preparing for weather-related disruptions, policymakers deciding on future directions of energy policies and European decision makers shaping research programs. This study conducted a systematic literature review to collate consistent patterns of impacts of CV&C on electricity systems in Europe. We found that, in the absence of adaptation and for current capacity, thermal electricity generation will decrease for the near term to mid-21st century (NT-MC) and the end of the 21st century (EC). In contrast, renewable electricity generation will increase for hydroelectricity in Northern Europe (NT-MC and EC), for solar electricity in Germany (NT-MC) and the United Kingdom and Spain (NT-MC and EC) and for wind electricity in the Iberian Peninsula (NT-MC) and over the Baltic and Aegean Sea (NT-MC and EC). Although the knowledge frontier in this area has advanced, the evidence available remains patchy. Future assessments should not only address some of the gaps identified but also better contextualise their results against those of earlier assessments. This review could provide a starting point for doing so.
Article
Full-text available
A substation planning method that accounts for the widespread introduction of distributed generators (DGs) in a low-carbon economy is proposed. With the proliferation of DGs, the capacity that DGs contribute to the distribution network has become increasingly important. The capacity of a DG is expressed as a capacity credit (CC) that can be evaluated according to the principle that the reliability index is unchanged before and after the introduction of the DG. A method that employs a weighted Voronoi diagram is proposed for substation planning considering CC. A low-carbon evaluation objective function is added to the substation planning model to evaluate the contribution of DGs to a low-carbon economy. A case study is analyzed to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed method.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change may constrain future electricity generation capacity by increasing the incidence of extreme heat and drought events. We estimate reductions to generating capacity in the Western United States based on long-term changes in streamflow, air temperature, water temperature, humidity and air density. We simulate these key parameters over the next half-century by joining downscaled climate forcings with a hydrologic modelling system. For vulnerable power stations (46% of existing capacity), climate change may reduce average summertime generating capacity by 1.1-3.0%, with reductions of up to 7.2-8.8% under a ten-year drought. At present, power providers do not account for climate impacts in their development plans, meaning that they could be overestimating their ability to meet future electricity needs.
Article
Full-text available
Using the hybrid downscaling technique developed in part I of this study, temperature changes relative to a baseline period (1981-2000) in the greater Los Angeles region are downscaled for two future time slices: midcentury (2041-60) and end of century (2081-2100). Two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are considered, corresponding to greenhouse gas emission reductions over coming decades (RCP2.6) and to continued twenty-first-century emissions increases (RCP8.5). All available global climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are downscaled to provide likelihood and uncertainty estimates. By the end of century under RCP8.5, a distinctly new regional climate state emerges: average temperatures will almost certainly be outside the interannual variability range seen in the baseline. Except for the highest elevations and a narrow swath very near the coast, land locations will likely see 60-90 additional extremely hot days per year, effectively adding a new season of extreme heat. In mountainous areas, a majority of the many baseline days with freezing nighttime temperatures will most likely not occur. According to a similarity metric that measures daily temperature variability and the climate change signal, the RCP8.5 end-of-century climate will most likely be only about 50% similar to the baseline. For midcentury under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 and end of century under RCP2.6, these same measures also indicate a detectable though less significant climatic shift. Therefore, while measures reducing global emissions would not prevent climate change at this regional scale in the coming decades, their impact would be dramatic by the end of the twenty-first century.
Article
Full-text available
In this study (Part I), themid-twenty-first-century surface air temperature increase in the entire CMIP5 ensemble is downscaled to very high resolution (2 km) over the Los Angeles region, using a new hybrid dynamical-statistical technique. This technique combines the ability of dynamical downscaling to capture finescale dynamics with the computational savings of a statistical model to downscale multiple GCMs. First, dynamical downscaling is applied to five GCMs. Guided by an understanding of the underlying local dynamics, a simple statistical model is built relating the GCM input and the dynamically downscaled output. This statistical model is used to approximate the warming patterns of the remaining GCMs, as if they had been dynamically downscaled. The full 32-member ensemble allows for robust estimates of the most likely warming and uncertainty resulting from intermodel differences. The warming averaged over the region has an ensemble mean of 2.3°C, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.0° to 3.6°C. Inland and high elevation areas warm more than coastal areas year round, and by as much as 60% in the summermonths.Acomparison to other common statistical downscaling techniques shows that the hybrid method produces similar regional-mean warming outcomes but demonstrates considerable improvement in capturing the spatial details. Additionally, this hybrid technique incorporates an understanding of the physical mechanisms shaping the region's warming patterns, enhancing the credibility of the final results.
Article
Full-text available
Substation locating and sizing is an important component of urban power networks. In this paper, an improved method based on the weighted Voronoi diagram and transportation model for substation planning is proposed, which can optimize the location, capacity, and power supply range for each substation with the minimum investment which contains the cost of the lines, substations, and annual operation expense. The weighted Voronoi diagram (WVD) whose weights can be adaptively adjusted can calculate the location and the capacity for each substation with good performance of global convergence and better convergence speed. Transportation model can simulate the best correspondence relationship between the loads and substations. The impact of geographical factors is also considered in this paper. Large amount of experiments show that the improved method can get more reasonable and more optimized planning result within shorter time than the original WVD and other algorithms.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies program has set aggressive goals for energy efficiency improvements in buildings that will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. This report details the development of standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent reasonably realistic building characteristics and construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock. The reference buildings provide a common starting point to measure the progress of DOE energy efficiency goals for commercial buildings. The models of the reference buildings are used for DOE commercial buildings research to assess new technologies; optimize designs; analyze advanced controls; develop energy codes and standards; and to conduct lighting, daylighting, ventilation, and indoor air quality studies. The input parameters for the building models came from several sources. Some were determined from ASHRAE Standards 90.1-2004, 62.1-2004, and 62-1999 for new construction and Standard 90.1-1989 for post-1980 construction; others were determined from studies of data and standard practices. National weighting factors are needed for each model in each location, so the relative importance of each can be factored into nationwide analyses. These factors characterize the number of buildings that are similar to each reference building type in each location.
Article
Full-text available
Solar cell performance decreases with increasing temperature, fundamentally owing to increased internal carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. The operating temperature plays a key role in the photovoltaic conversion process. Both the electrical efficiency and the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) module depend linearly on the operating temperature. The various correlations proposed in the literature represent simplified working equations which can be apply to PV modules or PV arrays mounted on free-standing frames, PV-Thermal collectors, and building integrated photovoltaic arrays, respectively. The electrical performance is primarily influenced by the material of PV used. Numerous correlations for cell temperature which have appeared in the literature involve basic environmental variables and numerical parameters which are material or system dependent. In this paper, a brief discussion is presented regarding the operating temperature of one-sun commercial grade silicon- based solar cells/modules and its effect upon the electrical performance of photovoltaic installations. Generally, the performance ratio decreases with latitude because of temperature. However, regions with high altitude have higher performance ratios due to low temperature, like, southern Andes, Himalaya region, and Antarctica. PV modules with less sensitivity to temperature are preferable for the high temperature regions and more responsive to temperature will be more effective in the low temperature regions. The geographical distribution of photovoltaic energy potential considering the effect of irradiation and ambient temperature on PV system performance is considered.
Article
Full-text available
This paper makes a case for examining energy transition as a geographical process, involving the reconfiguration of current patterns and scales of economic and social activity. The paper draws on a seminar series on the ‘Geographies of Energy Transition: security, climate, governance' hosted by the authors between 2009 and 2011, which initiated a dialogue between energy studies and the discipline of human geography. Focussing on the UK Government's policy for a low carbon transition, the paper provides a conceptual language with which to describe and assess the geographical implications of a transition towards low carbon energy. Six concepts are introduced and explained: location, landscape, territoriality, spatial differentiation, scaling, and spatial embeddedness. Examples illustrate how the geographies of a future low-carbon economy are not yet determined and that a range of divergent – and contending – potential geographical futures are in play. More attention to the spaces and places that transition to a low-carbon economy will produce can help better understand what living in a low-carbon economy will be like. It also provides a way to help evaluate the choices and pathways available.
Article
Full-text available
This report outlines the results of a study of the impact of climate change on the energy infrastructure of California and the San Francisco Bay region, including impacts on power plant generation; transmission line and substation capacity during heat spells; wildfires near transmission lines; sea level encroachment upon power plants, substations, and natural gas facilities; and peak electrical demand. Some end-of-century impacts were projected:Expected warming will decrease gas-fired generator efficiency. The maximum statewide coincident loss is projected at 10.3 gigawatts (with current power plant infrastructure and population), an increase of 6.2 percent over current temperature-induced losses. By the end of the century, electricity demand for almost all summer days is expected to exceed the current ninetieth percentile per-capita peak load. As much as 21 percent growth is expected in ninetieth percentile peak demand (per-capita, exclusive of population growth). When generator losses are included in the demand, the ninetieth percentile peaks may increase up to 25 percent. As the climate warms, California's peak supply capacity will need to grow faster than the population.Substation capacity is projected to decrease an average of 2.7 percent. A 5C (9F) air temperature increase (the average increase predicted for hot days in August) will diminish the capacity of a fully-loaded transmission line by an average of 7.5 percent.The potential exposure of transmission lines to wildfire is expected to increase with time. We have identified some lines whose probability of exposure to fire are expected to increase by as much as 40 percent. Up to 25 coastal power plants and 86 substations are at risk of flooding (or partial flooding) due to sea level rise.
Article
Full-text available
Cascading outages can cause large blackouts, and a variety of methods are emerging to study this challenging topic. The Task Force on Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation, and Restoration of Cascading Failures, under the IEEE PES Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS), seeks to consolidate and review the progress of the field towards methods and tools of assessing the risk of cascading failure. This paper discusses the challenges of cascading failure and summarizes a variety of state-of-the-art analysis and simulation methods, including analyzing observed data, and simulations relying on various probabilistic, deterministic, approximate, and heuristic approaches. Limitations to the interpretation and application of analytical results are highlighted, and directions and challenges for future developments are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is likely to pose considerable new challenges to California’s electricity sector. This paper primarily focuses on the adaptation challenges of an important component of the energy arena: electricity demand in the residential and commercial sectors and electricity supply. The primary challenge to California’s electricity sector will likely be the increase in demand for air conditioning as a result of rising temperatures. In addition, renewable energy sources, which are an increasing share of the electricity portfolio, are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Many of the key players have been actively considering the implications of climate change. Because electricity generation accounts for nearly 30% of greenhouse gas emissions, this sector has been a target of the state’s efforts to reduce emissions. Fortunately, many of the same tools can simultaneously improve the sector’s resilience to a changing climate. Demand management strategies and supply diversification are both important strategies. Local governments can play a central role in encouraging the adoption of more energy efficient building codes and the use of more renewable sources, such as solar energy. The positive steps taken by many local governments are encouraging. Steps to increase public awareness are an important, often missing component, however. Increases in research, development, and demonstration to improve system resiliency and develop new energy conservation tools are also needed.
Article
Full-text available
Power grids are complex dynamical systems, and because of this complexity it is unlikely that we will completely eliminate blackouts. However, there are things that can be done to reduce the average size and cost of these blackouts. In this article we described two strategies that hold substantial promise for reducing the size and cost of blackouts. Both "reciprocal altruism" and "survivability" respect the necessarily decentralized nature of power grids. Both strategies can be implemented within the context of the existing physical infrastructure of the power grids,which is important because dramatic changes to the physical infrastructure are prohibitively expensive. However, additional engineering and innovation will be needed to bring strategies such as these to implementation and to create power grids with smaller, less costly blackouts.
Article
Full-text available
The problem of minimizing losses in distribution networks has traditionally been investigated using a single, deterministic demand level. This has proved to be effective since most approaches are generally able to also result in minimum overall energy losses. However, the increasing penetration of (firm and variable) distributed generation (DG) raises concerns on the actual benefits of loss minimization studies that are limited to a single demand/generation scenario. Here, a multiperiod AC optimal power flow (OPF) is used to determine the optimal accommodation of (renewable) DG in a way that minimizes the system energy losses. In addition, control schemes expected to be part of the future Smart Grid, such as coordinated voltage control and dispatchable DG power factor, are embedded in the OPF formulation to explore the extra loss reduction benefits that can be harnessed with such technologies. The trade-off between energy losses and more generation capacity is also investigated. The methodology is applied to a generic U.K. distribution network and results demonstrate the significant impact that considering time-varying characteristics has on the energy loss minimization problem and highlight the gains that the flexibility provided by innovative control strategies can have on both loss minimization and generation capacity.
Article
Full-text available
A methodology has been developed for assessing the sensitivity of electricity and natural gas consumption to climate at regional scales. The approach involves a multiple-regression analysis of historical energy and climate data, and has been applied to eight of the most energy-intensive states, representing 42% of the total annual energy consumption in the United States. Statistical models were developed using two sets of independent variables—primitive variables such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, and derived variables including cooling degree days, heating degree days, and enthalpy latent days. The advantages and disadvantages of both modeling approaches are discussed in this paper, along with sample results for a combined analysis of residential and commercial consumption in eight states.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a climatic analysis of landscape strategies for outdoor cooling in a hot-arid region, considering the efficiency of water use. Six landscape strategies were studied, using different combinations of trees, lawn, and an overhead shade mesh. The effects of these treatments were tested during the summer season in two semi-enclosed courtyards located at an urban settlement in the arid Negev Highlands of southern Israel. Compared to a non-vegetated exposed courtyard, which on average reached a maximum air temperature of 34 °C in mid-afternoon, a similar courtyard treated with shade trees and grass yielded a daytime temperature depression of up to 2.5 K, while shading the courtyard with a fabric shading mesh, counter-intuitively, caused a relative increase of nearly 1 K. Unshaded grass was found to cause only a small air temperature depression and had the highest water requirement. However when the grass was shaded, either by the trees or by the shade mesh, a synergic effect produced greater cooling as well as a reduction of more than 50% in total water use. The “cooling efficiency” of these strategies was calculated as the ratio between the sensible heat removed from the space and the latent heat of evaporation, with the latter representing the amount of water required for landscape irrigation. This measure is proposed as a criterion for evaluating landscape strategies in arid regions, where water resources are scarce.
Article
Full-text available
The use of distributed energy resources is increasingly being pursued as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power stations. The specification of a power-electronic interface is subject to requirements related not only to the renewable energy source itself but also to its effects on the power-system operation, especially where the intermittent energy source constitutes a significant part of the total system capacity. In this paper, new trends in power electronics for the integration of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generators are presented. A review of the appropriate storage-system technology used for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources is also introduced. Discussions about common and future trends in renewable energy systems based on reliability and maturity of each technology are presented
Article
Full-text available
The notion that our nation's critical infrastructures are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies (so-called "cyberbased systems"), is more than an abstract, theoretical concept. As shown by the 1998 failure of the Galaxy 4 telecommunications satellite, the prolonged power crisis in California, and many other recent infrastructure disruptions, what happens to one infrastructure can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions and send ripples throughout the national a global economy. This article presents a conceptual framework for addressing infrastructure interdependencies that could serve as the basis for further understanding and scholarship in this important area. We use this framework to explore the challenges and complexities of interdependency. We set the stage for this discussion by explicitly defining the terms infrastructure, infrastructure dependencies, and infrastructure interdependencies and introducing the fundamental concept of infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. We then focus on the interrelated factors and system conditions that collectively define the six dimensions. Finally, we discuss some of the research challenges involved in developing, applying, and validating modeling and simulation methodologies and tools for infrastructure interdependency analysis
Article
Los Angeles County (LAC) is a large urbanized region with 9.7 million residents (as of 2010) and aging infrastructure. Population forecasts indicate that LAC will become home to an additional 1.2–3.1 million residents through 2060. Additionally, climate forecasts based upon representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 indicate that average air temperatures will increase by 1–4 °C (2–7 °F) in the region. Both of these factors are expected to result in higher summertime peak electricity demand due to growth in the number of buildings, the percentage of installed air conditioners (ACs), and the additional cooling load on those air conditioners. In order to understand potential power reliability issues, and support infrastructure planning efforts, a long-term peak demand forecast was developed using hourly residential and commercial (R&C) building energy models. Peak hour electricity demand was estimated to increase from 9.5 to 12.8 GW for R&C sectors, to 13.0–17.3 GW (2–36%) and 14.7–19.2 GW (16–51%) by 2060 for the population forecasts from the California Department of Finance and the Southern California Association of Governments respectively. While marginal increases in ambient air temperature due to climate change accounted for only 4–8% of future increases in peak demand, differences in annual maximum temperatures within the 20-year periods affected results by 40–66% indicating a high sensitivity to heat waves. Population growth of at least 1 million people is anticipated to occur mostly in the northern cities of Palmdale, Lancaster, and Santa Clarita, bringing an additional 0.4–1 GW of peak demand in those regions. Building and AC efficiency are anticipated to improve as national and state efficiency standards increase, and as older, less efficient units are replaced; this could offset some of the projected increases in peak demand. Additionally, development of shared wall, multi-family dwelling units could enable population growth of up to 3 million people without increasing peak demand.
Article
Climate non-stationarity is a challenge for electric power infrastructure reliability; recordbreaking heat waves significantly affect peak demand [1], lower contingency capacities, and expose cities to risk of blackouts due to component failures and security threats. The United States’ electric grid operates safely for a wide range of load, weather, and power quality conditions. Projected increases in ambient air temperatures could, however, create operating conditions that place the grid outside the boundaries of current reliability tolerances. Advancements in long-term forecasting, including projections of rising air temperatures and more severe heat waves, present opportunities to advance risk management methods for long-term infrastructure planning. This is particularly evident in the US Southwest—a relatively hot region expected to experience significant temperature increases affecting electric loads, generation, and delivery systems. Generation capacity is typically built to meet the 90th percentile (T90) hottest peak demand, plus an additional reserve margin of least 15%, but that may not be sufficient to ensure reliable power services if air temperatures are higher than expected. The problem with this T90 planning approach is that it requires a stationary climate to be completely effective. In reality, annual temperature differences can have more than a 15% effect on system performance. Current long-term infrastructure planning and risk management processes are biased climate data choices that can significantly underestimate peak demand, overestimate generation capacity, and result in major power outages during heat waves. This study used downscaled global climate models (GCMs) to evaluate the effects of non-stationarity on air temperature forecasts, and a new high-level statistical approach was developed to consider the subsequent effects on peak demand, power generation, and local reserve margins (LRMs) compared to previous forecasting methods. Air temperature projections in IPCC RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 are that increases up to 6 °C are possible by the end of century, with highs of 58 °C and 56 °C in Phoenix, Arizona and Los Angeles, California respectively. In the hottest scenarios, we estimated that LRMs for the two metro regions would be on average 30% less than at respective T90s, which in the case of Los Angeles (a net importer) would require 5 GW of additional power to meet electrical demand. We calculated these values by creating a structural equation model (SEM) for peak demand based on the physics of common AC units; physics-based models are necessary to predict demand under unprecedented conditions for which historical data do not exist. The SEM forecasts for peak demand were close to straight-line regression methods as in prior literature from 25–40 °C (104 °F), but diverged lower at higher temperatures. Power plant generation capacity derating factors were also modeled based on the electrical and thermal performance characteristics of different technologies. Lastly, we discussed several strategic options to reduce the risk of LRM shortages; including implementing technology, market incentives, and urban forms that reduce peak load and load variance per capita as well as their tradeoffs with several other stakeholder objectives.
Article
This study quantified the mitigation effect of urban greening on an urban heat island and its effects on energy consumption for air-conditioning and water heating. A scenario of urban greening was defined by assuming that the fractional vegetation cover in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area could be increased by 11.8%. Urban climate simulations were conducted using a mesoscale meteorological model and the energy consumption of air-conditioning and water heating was estimated based on the simulated air temperatures. The energy consumption decreased by 13.8TJ/day on a typical summer day, and increased by 6.7TJ/day on a typical winter day.
Article
Significance The existing empirical literature on the impacts of climate change on the electricity sector has focused on changing electricity consumption patterns. In this paper, we show that incorporating impacts on the frequency and intensity of peak load consumption during hot days implies sizable required investments in peak generating capacity (or major advances in storage technology or the structure of electricity prices), which results in substantially larger impacts than those from just changes in overall consumption.
Conference Paper
The characteristics of weighted Voronoi diagram and its application in power network planning introduced, according to target annual total load, existing substation capacity and candidate substation capacity type, determine the maximum and minimum number of the new substations, set loop variable, use integer programming optimization technique to obtain the combination of the a new station capacity. According to with or without the existing station, produce the initial location of the new substation respectively based on the regular Voronoi diagram method and the coordinate geometry method given the comprehensive consideration of planning region terrain features, regional area and load distribution; combine with the weighted Voronoi diagram and alternative location-allocation algorithm to determine the new substation site and the scope of power supply, find out the minimum annual cost correspondingly as the final plan.
Article
This paper reviews research traditions of vulnerability to environmental change and the challenges for present vulnerability research in integrating with the domains of resilience and adaptation. Vulnerability is the state of susceptibility to harm from exposure to stresses associated with environmental and social change and from the absence of capacity to adapt. Antecedent traditions include theories of vulnerability as entitlement failure and theories of hazard. Each of these areas has contributed to present formulations of vulnerability to environmental change as a characteristic of social-ecological systems linked to resilience. Research on vulnerability to the impacts of climate change spans all the antecedent and successor traditions. The challenges for vulnerability research are to develop robust and credible measures, to incorporate diverse methods that include perceptions of risk and vulnerability, and to incorporate governance research on the mechanisms that mediate vulnerability and promote adaptive action and resilience. These challenges are common to the domains of vulnerability, adaptation and resilience and form common ground for consilience and integration.
Article
Hydropower and thermoelectric power together contribute 98% of the worldâ €™ s electricity generation at present. These power-generating technologies both strongly depend on water availability, and water temperature for cooling also plays a critical role for thermoelectric power generation. Climate change and resulting changes in water resources will therefore affect power generation while energy demands continue to increase with economic development and a growing world population. Here we present a global assessment of the vulnerability of the worldâ €™ s current hydropower and thermoelectric power-generation system to changing climate and water resources, and test adaptation options for sustainable water-energy security during the twenty-first century. Using a coupled hydrological-electricity modelling framework with data on 24,515 hydropower and 1,427 thermoelectric power plants, we show reductions in usable capacity for 61-74% of the hydropower plants and 81-86% of the thermoelectric power plants worldwide for 2040-2069. However, adaptation options such as increased plant efficiencies, replacement of cooling system types and fuel switches are effective alternatives to reduce the assessed vulnerability to changing climate and freshwater resources. Transitions in the electricity sector with a stronger focus on adaptation, in addition to mitigation, are thus highly recommended to sustain water-energy security in the coming decades.
Article
A key driver for developing more sustainable energy systems is to decrease the effects of climate change, which could include an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of severe weather events. Amongst others, extreme weather has a significant impact on critical infrastructures, and is considered one of the main causes of wide-area electrical disturbances worldwide. In fact, weather-related power interruptions often tend to be of high impact and sustained duration, ranging from hours to days, because of the large damage on transmission and distribution facilities. Hence, enhancing the grid resilience to such events is becoming of increasing interest. In this outlook, this paper first discusses the influence of weather and climate change on the reliability and operation of power system components. Since modelling the impact of weather is a difficult task because of its stochastic and unpredicted nature, a review of existing methodologies is provided in order to get an understanding of the key modelling approaches, challenges and requirements for assessing the effect of extreme weather on the frequency and duration of power system blackouts. Then, the emerging concept of resilience is discussed in the context of power systems as critical infrastructure, including several defense plans for boosting the resilience of power systems to extreme weather events. A comprehensive modelling research framework is finally outlined, which can help understand and model the impact of extreme weather on power systems and how this can be prevented or mitigated in the future.
Article
Urban heat island and global warming increase significantly the ambient temperature. Higher temperatures have a serious impact on the electricity consumption of the building sector increasing considerably the peak and the total electricity demand. The present paper aims to collect, analyze and present in a comparative way existing studies investigating the impact of ambient temperature increase on electricity consumption. Analysis of eleven studies dealing with the impact of the ambient temperature on the peak electricity demand showed that for each degree of temperature increase, the increase of the peak electricity load varies between 0.45% and 4.6%. This corresponds to an additional electricity penalty of about 21 (±10.4) W per degree of temperature increase and per person. In parallel, analysis of fifteen studies examining the impact of ambient temperature on the total electricity consumption, showed that the actual increase of the electricity demand per degree of temperature increase varies between 0.5% and 8.5%.
Article
This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the EIC (Eastern Interconnection) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered includes changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. Simulations were performed using the BEND (Building ENergy Demand) model which is a detailed building analysis platform utilizing EnergyPlus™ as the simulation engine. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and characteristics representing the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the three EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 target region locations, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for three years selected to be representative of the general climate trend over the century. This approach provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.
Article
Large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy (namely wind energy and solar PV) may entail new challenges in power systems and more volatility in power prices in liberalized electricity markets. Energy storage can diminish this imbalance, relieving the grid congestion, and promoting distributed generation. The economic implications of grid-scale electrical energy storage technologies are however obscure for the experts, power grid operators, regulators, and power producers. A meticulous techno-economic or cost-benefit analysis of electricity storage systems requires consistent, updated cost data and a holistic cost analysis framework. To this end, this study critically examines the existing literature in the analysis of life cycle costs of utility-scale electricity storage systems, providing an updated database for the cost elements (capital costs, operational and maintenance costs, and replacement costs). Moreover, life cycle costs and levelized cost of electricity delivered by electrical energy storage is analyzed, employing Monte Carlo method to consider uncertainties. The examined energy storage technologies include pumped hydropower storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheel, electrochemical batteries (e.g. lead–acid, NaS, Li-ion, and Ni–Cd), flow batteries (e.g. vanadium-redox), superconducting magnetic energy storage, supercapacitors, and hydrogen energy storage (power to gas technologies). The results illustrate the economy of different storage systems for three main applications: bulk energy storage, T&D support services, and frequency regulation.
Article
Several changes to the world’s electrical power systems and grids threaten to require massive infrastructure investment and cost to power utilities, especially increasing population and electrical energy demands, especially peak summertime air conditioning demands, and mismatches between timing of supply and demand due to increases in renewable energy and/or large demands from new technologies. Existing power grid systems are generally under-utilized with low load factors during most times of day and year, but demand strains capacity during peak hours. Brownouts and other grid failures are projected to become more common as peak demands approach grid capacities, with negative economic and public health consequences resulting. Meanwhile a financial barrier exists for the financing of grid improvements, because utility revenues are proportional to total power sales, whereas utility costs are driven largely by capital and maintenance for the fixed infrastructure.
Article
Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change.
Article
Thermal comfort has been discussed since 1930s. There have been two main approaches to thermal comfort: the steady-state model and the adaptive model. The adaptive model is mainly based on the theory of the human body's adapting to its outdoor and indoor climate. In this paper, besides the steady-state model, three adaptive thermal comfort standards are comprehensively reviewed: the American ASHRAE 55-2010 standard, the European EN15251 standard, and the Dutch ATG guideline. Through a case study from the Netherlands, these standards are compared. The main differences discussed between the standards are the equations for upper and lower limits, reference temperatures, acceptable temperature ranges and databases.
Article
Despite a clear need, little research has been carried out at the regional-level to quantify potential climate-related impacts to electricity production and delivery systems. This paper introduces a bottom-up study of climate change impacts on California's energy infrastructure, including high temperature effects on power plant capacity, transmission lines, substation capacity, and peak electricity demand. End-of-century impacts were projected using the A2 and B1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. The study quantifies the effect of high ambient temperatures on electricity generation, the capacity of substations and transmission lines, and the demand for peak power for a set of climate scenarios. Based on these scenarios, atmospheric warming and associated peak demand increases would necessitate up to 38% of additional peak generation capacity and up to 31% additional transmission capacity, assuming current infrastructure. These findings, although based on a limited number of scenarios, suggest that additional funding could be put to good use by supporting R&D into next generation cooling equipment technologies, diversifying the power generation mix without compromising the system's operational flexibility, and designing effective demand side management programs.
Article
The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a “cool” color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray.We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool colored prototype tiles and 24 cool colored prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L*=29) to 0.57 (light green; L*=76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L*=26) to 0.34 (light green; L*=68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.
Article
Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) has the potential to become a major source of renewable energy in the urban environment. BIPV has significant influence on the heat transfer through the building envelope because of the change of the thermal resistance by adding or replacing the building elements. Four different roofs are used to assess the impacts of BIPV on the building’s heating-and-cooling loads; namely ventilated air-gap BIPV, non-ventilated (closed) air-gap BIPV, closeroof mounted BIPV, and the conventional roof with no PV and no air gap. One-dimensional transient models of four cases are derived to evaluate the PV performances and building cooling-and-heating loads across the different roofs in order to select the appropriate PV building integration method in Tianjin, China. The simulation results show that the PV roof with ventilated air-gap is suitable for the application in summer because this integration leads to the low cooling load and high PV conversion efficiency. The PV roof with ventilation air-gap has a high time lag and small decrement factor in comparison with other three roofs and has the same heat gain as the cool roof of absorptance 0.4. In winter, BIPV of non-ventilated air gap is more appropriate due to the combination of the low heating-load through the PV roof and high PV electrical output.
Article
A methodology for relating climate parameters to electricity consumption at regional scales has been applied to eight states resulting in predictive models of per capita residential and commercial electricity consumption. In isolating residential and commercial consumption these models allow for detailed analyses of urban electricity demand and its vulnerabilities to climate change at regional scales. Model sensitivities to climate perturbations and specific climate change scenarios have been investigated providing first-order estimates of how electricity demand may respond to climatic changes. The results indicate a wide range of electricity demand impacts, with one state experiencing decreased loads associated with climate warming, but the others experiencing a significant increase in annual per capita residential and commercial electricity consumption. The results indicate significantly different sensitivities for neighboring states, suggesting the inability to generalize results. In the long run the non-climatic factors responsible for these differences must be incorporated into the model structure, and assessments of changes in market saturation and related factors need to be included to make it amenable to long range forecasting.
Article
Renewable-energy sources often are regarded as dispersed and difficult to collect, thus requiring substantial land resources in comparison to conventional energy sources. In this review, we present the normalized land requirements during the life cycles of conventional- and renewable-energy options, covering coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric, photovoltaics, wind, and biomass. We compared the land transformation and occupation matrices within a life-cycle framework across those fuel cycles. Although the estimates vary with regional and technological conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) cycle requires the least amount of land among renewable-energy options, while the biomass cycle requires the largest amount. Moreover, we determined that, in most cases, ground-mount PV systems in areas of high insolation transform less land than the coal-fuel cycle coupled with surface mining. In terms of land occupation, the biomass-fuel cycle requires the greatest amount, followed by the nuclear-fuel cycle. Although not detailed in this review, conventional electricity-generation technologies also pose secondary effects on land use, including contamination and disruptions of the ecosystems of adjacent lands, and land disruptions by fuel-cycle-related accidents.
California's Zero Net Energy Action Plan|Latest on ZNE
BluePoint Planning, 2018. California's Zero Net Energy Action Plan|Latest on ZNE [WWW Document]. URL 〈https://www.capath2zne.org/latest-on-zne〉 (Accessed 26 February 2018).