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Assessment Of Natural Lighting And Visual Comfort Of Library. (Case Study: Library Of Universitas Bandar Lampung And Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia)

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Abstract and Figures

Sunlight is a natural resource that as renewable energy. Exploiting sunlight as a natural lighting in the library can reduce the electrical energy in the library and can provide visual comfort of the library users. This study aims to: determine the effect of opening vast library to the library lighting quality, knowing the condition of natural lighting intensity in the room of the library, know the level of users comfort of the natural lighting; and know how to optimize natural lighting in the library. The research method used is descriptive qualitative. Performing two approaches, namely the study of literature and case studies. The study of literature includes a review of the theory of natural lighting, visual comfort theory and the theory of the campus library standards. The case study consists of two data, that is primary data and secondary data. Primary data is data from the measurement results on the two objects. Secondary data consists of literature, the Indonesian National Standard data and questionnaire results to the user. The result is that the size of the aperture affects the natural lighting in buildings, as happened in Universitas Bandar Lampung library, the library is located on the 2nd floor in the direction of many building facing east and west so that the sun in the morning and afternoon very high. Unlike the library, Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia although this library also has a large opening, but the design of window boxes with lines and coated wood material iron bars on the windows to reduce light entering the building. The intensity of natural light in the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampung better than Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. Because of the results of the data visible number of dots that already meet or approach the Indonesian national standards Daylighting. In addition to the openings possessed direction toward the building, the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampung intensity of light coming into the building lot. The comfort level of library users against natural lighting in the library of Universitas Bandar Lampung higher than at the library Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. The intensity of light in the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampung is better and the results of the measurement was up to standard. As for the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library user comfort at lower use of natural lighting for the room A does not get direct sunlight while room B is more convenient for getting direct sun light makes the room brighter. To optimize the light intensity at the Universitas Bandar Lampung library should use the furniture with bright colors and the walls a lighter color (yellow, lightgreen, pink, lightblue), which can reflect more light. Thus increasing the intensity of light in the room. Libraries should replace the main door leaves with transparent doors (glass). The reading room should use the furniture with a lighter color. With the limited size of the room that you should use a more minimalist furniture and colors are brighter and give a lot of openings to not obstruct Natural illuminatiom. To provide more convenience in library should provide more artificial lighting so that the light intensity in the room can meet the standards.
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Assessment Of Natural Lighting And Visual Comfort Of
Library. (Case Study: Library Of Universitas Bandar
Lampung And Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia)
M P Anugrah 1, A S Munawaroh2
1. Department of Architecture, Bandar Lampung University, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia.
mprastioanugrah@gmail.com
2. Department of Architecture, Bandar Lampung Univesity, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia.
aisiti.arch@ubl.ac.id
Abstract Sunlight is a natural resource that as renewable energy. Exploiting sunlight as a
natural lighting in the library can reduce the electrical energy in the library and can provide
visual comfort of the library users. This study aims to: determine the effect of opening vast
library to the library lighting quality, knowing the condition of natural lighting intensity in
the room of the library, know the level of users comfort of the natural lighting; and know
how to optimize natural lighting in the library. The research method used is descriptive
qualitative. Performing two approaches, namely the study of literature and case studies.
The study of literature includes a review of the theory of natural lighting, visual comfort
theory and the theory of the campus library standards. The case study consists of two data,
that is primary data and secondary data. Primary data is data from the measurement results
on the two objects. Secondary data consists of literature, the Indonesian National Standard
data and questionnaire results to the user. The result is that the size of the aperture affects
the natural lighting in buildings, as happened in Universitas Bandar Lampung library, the
library is located on the 2nd floor in the direction of many building facing east and west so
that the sun in the morning and afternoon very high. Unlike the library, Universitas
Teknokrat Indonesia although this library also has a large opening, but the design of
window boxes with lines and coated wood material iron bars on the windows to reduce
light entering the building. The intensity of natural light in the library of the Universitas
Bandar Lampung better than Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. Because of the results of the
data visible number of dots that already meet or approach the Indonesian national standards
Daylighting. In addition to the openings possessed direction toward the building, the library
of the Universitas Bandar Lampung intensity of light coming into the building lot. The
comfort level of library users against natural lighting in the library of Universitas Bandar
Lampung higher than at the library Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. The intensity of light
in the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampung is better and the results of the
measurement was up to standard. As for the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library user
comfort at lower use of natural lighting for the room A does not get direct sunlight while
room B is more convenient for getting direct sun light makes the room brighter. To
optimize the light intensity at the Universitas Bandar Lampung library should use the
furniture with bright colors and the walls a lighter color (yellow, lightgreen, pink,
lightblue), which can reflect more light. Thus increasing the intensity of light in the room.
Libraries should replace the main door leaves with transparent doors (glass). The reading
room should use the furniture with a lighter color. With the limited size of the room that
you should use a more minimalist furniture and colors are brighter and give a lot of
openings to not obstruct Natural illuminatiom. To provide more convenience in library
should provide more artificial lighting so that the light intensity in the room can meet the
standards. Keywordslighting; natural; visual; comfort
1. Introduction
To design the lighting is well to note from a larger scale that takes into account the design of the
building, and then leads to a smaller scale, such as elements of the building. Before designing a
building a designer must learn the natural state in the site, such as the angle of movement of the sun,
sky conditions, wind direction, climate, and the nature of the site. After understanding the state of the
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site, the design of the building can be done with syncing between nature and the building. If the
building has been designed and created in line with nature, the elements such as aeration and lighting
will flow and run well. Therefore, it should be studied factors in the building need to be tailored to the
nature [1].
1.1 Openings in Space
There are three basic forms of openings to allow light into the space, sidelighting, toplighting and
atria.
1) Sidelighting
Aperturethe side of the room, the most common was a window. Planning a window needs to be done
with caution, due to improper planning can cause glare and heat tends room temperature, especially in
tropical countries such as Indonesia.
There are a few strategies to keep in mind when designing a window in a room, namely:
a. Placement of windows should be located on the floor and spread evenly (not just on one wall)
in order to distribute the light evenly. Avoid lighting unilateral (only window on one wall) and
use bilateral lighting (windows on two sides of the wall) to allow a better distribution of light
throughout the room and can prevent glare. Placement of openings along the edge of the wall
or in a corner of a room will be able to increase the level of light in the room, because light
would enter the adjoining wall surface and the light bounces off the walls.
b. The windows were too broad often inappropriately used in tropical countries, because of the
heat and glare of too much radiation into the room.
c. Protection against sunlight can be done in two ways:
- Shadowing sunlight
Shadowing can be done using the meeting roofs, eaves, awning windows, papa, or field that can be
mounted vertically. This type of protection can be adjusted based on the direction of the fall of the
image produced. On the north and south sides can use horizontal perindungan because sunlight dating
from the front, so that the image produced this protector can protect from glare [2].
- Filtering sunlight
Filteringsunlight dapatdilakukan by using blinds, kerepyak (jalousie), grilles, pergolas and so on.
Things to consider in putting these tools, which must be outside the window, not inside. Fitting in will
cause the radiation to the grille which will become a source of heat and pans would be reduced
between the grille and glass. This can cause the convection process and can increase the temperature in
the room [2]. Visual comfort is associated with the human senses of vision, that eye. The human eye is
a sensitive sensing tool. The eye is able to see the light only in a very narrow part of the whole
spectrum eleknomagnetik, called the visible spectrum but in the narrow lanes. The human eye can
absorb small variations in both color and relative intensity of the light. The human eye is composed of
individual parts -masing be some special functions with regard to acceptance and responsiveness /
light perception [3]. Visual comfort associated with standard lighting conditions and glare allowable
standards. Factors affecting visual activities eg lighting effect in the lighting activities in teaching and
learning activities in classrooms [4]. Superior visual comfort in the room is set on SNI 03-6197-2000
with a level of visual comfort and activities tailored to the needs of the building [5]. The minimum
light level and color renderisasi recommended for indoor function Institutions are as follows;
1. Classroom : 250 lux
2. Library : 300 lux
3. Laboratory : 500 lux
4. Room Picture : 750 lux
5. Diner : 200 lux
Lighting contain aspects of quantity (light intensity) and quality (color glare). Glare can occur directly
(highlighted light) or indirect (reflected light). Too much light in the room will cause the pupils to
shrink too long, so that the eyes tired.
1.2 Factors visual comfort
Factor forming visual comfort [6], namely:
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1. The quantity of light or the light of the strong level (lighting level)
2. or the turning light density distribution (luminance distribution)
3. Limitation of glare (limitation of glare)
4. Directions form shadow and the scattering of light (shadows and light directionality)
5. and climatic conditions in the room
6. a light color and reflection color (light color and color rendering)
2. Method
The method used is descriptive and qualitative research. Qualitative research is to understand
phenomenon or a social phenomenon with more emphasis on a complete picture of the phenomenon
under study rather than develop them into variables are interrelated [7]. Meanwhile, according [8]
research is descriptive research that aims to explain or describe a situation, event, object , people, or
anything related to the variables that better explained premises jackfruit biased numbers or words.
Descriptive qualitative study sought to describe a social phenomenon. In other words, this study aims to
describe the nature of some thing that is ongoing at the time of learning. This qualitative methods to
provide complete information to benefit the development of science and more can be applied to various
problems. Visual comfort on library research carried out by the measurement and distribution of
questionnaires. The results of the measurements and questionnaires will be explained descriptively to
determine the level of visual comfort of Universitas Bandar Lampung and Universitas Teknokrat
Indonesia library. The research was conducted in March 2017 to June 2017. Measurements were made
for ± 1 week more precisely on 11 July 2017-17 July 2017. Depending on weather condition that bright
and not cloudy or rainy. Table 1. Schedule measurement
Date
Time
Lecture Time
measuring method
Tuesday, July 11, 2017
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
8:00 to 09:00
am
13:00 to 14:00
pm
16:00 to 15:00
pm
Opened Window and
Switch off Lamp
Wednesday, July 12,
2017
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
8:00 to 09:00
pm
13:00 to 14:00
am
16:00 to 15:00
pm
Opened Window and
Switch off Lamp
Thursday, July 13,
2017
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
8:00 to 09:00
am
13:00 to 14:00
pm
16:00 to 15:00
pm
Opened Window and
Switch off Lamp
Friday, July 14, 2017
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
8:00 to 09:00
am
13:00 to 14:00
pm
16:00 to 15:00
pm
Opened Window and
Switch off Lamp
Monday, June 17,
2017
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
8:00 to 09:00
pm
13:00 to 14:00
Opened Window and
Switch off Lamp
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am
16:00 to 15:00
pm
Source: Author Documentation
Assessment natural lighting and visual comfort of campus library at Universitas Bandar Lampung jl.
ZA Pagar Alam No. 26 Kedaton, Bandar Lampung and Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia on Jl. Pagar
Alam No. 09 Kedaton Bandar Lampung.
Figure 1. Map Lampung. Source: Google
map, 2017
Figure 2. maps Bandar Lampung. Source:
Google map, 2017
Figure 3. The research (Red mark on the
picture). University Bandar Lampung.
Source: Google map, 2017
Figure 4. The research (Red mark on the
picture). KampusUniversitasTeknokrat
Indonesia. Source: Google map, 2017
2.1 Population and Sampel
Population of this research taken is the campus of the Universities of Lampung, namely:
1. Universitas Lampung
2. Universitas Bandar Lampung
3. Universitas Malayahati
4. Universitas Muhammadiyah Lampung
5. Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro
6. Universitas Saburai
7. Universitas Tulang Bawang
8. Universitas Megow Tulang Bawang
9. Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia
In this study, the author took a sample with purposive sampling method Universitas Bandar Lampung
and Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia. Two campus is the largest and best campus in Bandar Lampung,
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and the many achievements obtained. Universitas Bandar Lampung campus and the Universitas
Teknokrat Indonesia has a campus library with an area of space, the same window openings and has the
use of natural light in the library that can be used as comparison of the intensity of natural light. The
existence of many library users can be used as a reference for measuring the level of visual comfort of
the library.
2.2 Data Collection Technique
Data collection techniques used in this study is the observation and measurement. Data in the form of
charts and situation of the library, the data of lighting intensity of library as well as data from the
questionnaire. With the collection of the following data:
1. Floor plan of Universitas Bandar Lampung and Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library.
2. Measurement Lighting Meters used Lux TASI-3720.
3. Measurements window and spacious room in the library is measured with a meter.
2.3 Research Instrument
Research Tool
1. Personal computer (PC) which eqquipped program:
a. AutoCAD 2010, is used to create two-dimensional images.
b. Microsoft Word 2013, used to write the report.
c. Microsoft Excel 2013 is used to compile research data in tabular form.
2. Digital cameras, used to take visualization during the field survey.
3. Luxmeter TASI-3720 was used to measure the intensity of light at the time of the survey, in
which the results will be used as a result of light intensity.
The tool ways:
1) Press the power button to turn on the appliance.
2) Photo cell leads to the light source.
3) Press record button to record data and then let sit for a few minutes to obtain the data range.
4) Read result on display (level meter).
2.4 Analisys Data Technique
Analysis data teqchnique in this study is to compare visual comfort level data library with visual
comfort standard base on National Indonesia Standard [5]. The measurement results will be juxtaposed
with the questionnaire results filled by library users:
Table 2. Measurement Time of Natural Lighting
MORNING
Universitas Bandar Lampung
Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia
DAY
Universitas Bandar Lampung
Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia
AFTERNOON
Universitas Bandar Lampung
Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia
Source: Author Documentation
The way of collecting data by comparing the visual comfort of the morning, afternoon and evening with
natural lighting.
2.5 Technical Sampling
The sample should be as big as possible Opinions assumes that the more samples taken the more
representative and the results can be digenelisir. But the size of the sample received will depend on the
type of research [9].
1. If the research is descriptive, then minimum sample is 10% of the population.
2. If penelitianya correlational minimum sample was 30 subjects.
3. If the causal comparative study, a sample of 30 subjects per group.
4. If the experimental research, the minimum sample was 15 subjects per group.
Not much different from the [9] also gave some guidelines for determining the sample size are:
1. The sample size of more than 30 and less than 500 is appropriate for most research.
2. If the sample is split into subsamples (male / female, junior / senior, etc.), the minimum sample size
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of 30 for each category is appropriate.
3. Inresearch mutivariate (including regression analysis), the sample size should be 10 times greater
than the number of variables in the study.
4. For a simple experimental study with rigorous control experiments, the research that success is
possible with a small sample size of between 10 and 20.
Determining the sample size of a population with the following formula [10]:
n = N / N (d)2 + 1
n = sample; N = population; d = the value of 95% or sig precision. = 0.05.
For example, the number of population is 125, and the desired level of error is 5%, then the number of
samples used is:
N = 125/125 (0.05)2 + 1 = 95.23, rounded so 95.
Frankel and Wallen (1993 : 92), suggesting a minimum sample size for
1. researchdescriptiveas 100.
2. correlational study as many50.
3. causal-comparative study as much as 30 per group.
4. The experimental research as much as 30 or 15 per group.
For the factor analysis, the recommended sample size is not less than 50 observations, and suggested a
sample size of 100 or more. As a general rule, some researchers recommend a ratio of 10: 1 or 20: 1
case for every variable [11]. This question is if the item questionnaire was designed as many as 20
items, then the minimum sample size is 20 x 10 = 200. For regression analysis, it is recommended is
15-20 observations per independent variable [11] further explained that the measure samples can reduce
acceptance limit loading factor on the item. For example, for the 100 respondents, the loading factor of
0:55 or more can be considered significant. 0:30 As for the loading factor can be significant for a
sample size of 350 or more. For discriminant analysis, many researchers suggest using a ratio of 20x the
number of predictor variables [11].
3. Result
3.1 Library Bandar Lampung University
Figure 5. The light intensity of Bandar
Lampung University Library. Source: Analysis
of 2017
Figure 6. Titik measuring light intensity
library Bandar Lampung University.
Source: Personal Documentation
In the diagram above shows the average value of the light intensity at points A and C higher than the
average value B. highest lux is the measurement day 4 at the point C4 is 1368.3 lux with the laying of
a point is next to the window and got direct sunlight. With sunny weather conditions. While the
average value of the lowest lux is in the first day of the measurement at the point B3 is 88.0 lux with
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the laying of a point in the middle of the room so just get the reflection of light from the left or right of
the building with sunny weather conditions. point B only get the reflection of light in the room, but it
pelekaan furniture in the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampungmake shadows and reduce the
intensity of light at some point. Distance comfortable in reading a book in the library in sitting is 70-
80 cm distance from the floor.
Table 3. Value University library light intensity is Bandar Lampung below the standard value
7/12/2017 7/13/2017
7/14/2017
7/11/2017
7/17 /
2017
A1
693.3 1208.01045.3
691.0
749.7
A2
975.7 998.0 940.0 994.7
859.3
A3
508.3 1043.3 977.0 505.0
672.0
A4
772.3 1040.7 754.0 766.7
633.0
A5
788.0296.0
220.0
223.7
199.3
A6
579.3 239.0 251.3 272.7
276.3
A7
636.7255.3
256.0
239.3
237.3
B1
225.7432.7
200.0
110.3
345.7
B2
498.0 269.0 308.7 248.7
455.7
B3
459.0 374.3 373.3 272.3
88.0
B4
263.7 385.7 444.7 314.0
187.3
B5
400.0 610.3 363.3 572.0
160.0
B6
383.7 473.7
222.0
230.7
237.3
B7
455.7 325.0 265.7 566.3
171.7
C1
675.0 525.0 788.7 762.7
285.0
C2
402.0 762.3 625.0 648.0
494.3
C3
246.7
423.0
1304.7 691.3
943.3
C4
470.3 1059.0 1368.3 688.3
394.0
C5
900.0 596.3 671.3 1339.3
446.0
C6
795.7 508.7 544.7 1110.3
374.3
C7
792.3 500.3 533.0 1032.3
305.7
Note:
Values below the standards lux
Source: Analysis s 2017
Judging from the standard light intensity at the library, the average was approaching and exceeding the
average value. The average lux value that has not yet reached the standard is A5, A6, A7, B1.
Although the point A is located next to the east window of the building, but the average value does not
meet the standards, at that point there is furniture with dark colors and Bayanga wall. While B1 is
located at the midpoint and flanked by bookshelves measuring 1.8m high. As happened on July 14,
2017 at point B1 at 110.3 lux intensity value (lowest) in cloudy weather and on July 11, 2017 at point
B1 at 432.7 lux intensity value (highest) in cloudy weather.
3.2 Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia Library
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Figure 7. The light intensity library
technocrat Universtas Indonesia. Source:
Analysis of 2017
Figure 8. The measuring light intensity
Universtas technocrat Indonesia. Source:
Personal Documentation
In the diagram above shows the average value of the light intensity at points A and B is lower than in
C. The average value is the highest lux day 5 at the measurement point C1 is 554.3 lux, with the laying
of a point is next to the window and gets direct sunlight from the east and sunny weather conditions.
While the average value of the lowest lux is the point B3 and occurs throughout the measurement at
the point of measurement on a first value that is 88.0 lux B3 ttik with the laying of a point in the
middle of the room is blocked by a wall and use groundbreaking kayu.Selain door furniture that affect
the intensity of the light on room, the weather outside is also memikiki high influence on the level of
intensity of natural light.
Table 4. Value Light intensity Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library below the standard value
7/12/2017
7/13/2017
7/14/2017
7/17/2017
7/11/2017
A1
6.0
5.7
4.3
2.3
7.0
A2
11.0
8.7
7.0
4.0
10.0
A3
15.0
15.7
13.0
8.3
15.0
A4
8.3
6.7
5.0
2.7
7.3
B1
7.0
7.7
7.0
6.3
9.0
B2
50.7
46.3
35.7
26.3
59.7
B3
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
2.7
C1
357.7 298.0 203.7
665.3
554.3
C2
306.0
266.7
201.7
157.7
352.7
C3
116.3
53.3
47.7
32.0
108.7
Note:
Values lux substandard
Source: Analysis of 2017
Judging from the standard light intensity at the library, the average value of the point layout measuring
not approach the standard value except at point C, since the point C can still get langung light of the
sun. Room A is in the west, but just getting light reflections from buildings and vegetation around the
building, while B is the room like a corridor with a divider wall so light that enters only the reflected
light from the room next to him. In addition to the laying of furniture that affect the intensity of light
in the room, the weather outside is also memikiki high influence on the level of intensity of natural
light. As happened on July 14, 2017 at point B3 with the intensity of 1.0 lux value (lowest) in cloudy
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weather and on July 11, 2017 at point B3 with the intensity of 3.0 lux value (highest) in cloudy
weather.
3.3 Leisure Natural Light of Library
Addition to using the data collection tool, the author uses perceptual assessment using natural lighting
comfort kuesioneir library.
a. Visitors libraries
Figure 9. Diagram library patrons. Source:
Analysis of 2017
Figure 10. Diagram opinion of lighting
intensity in the room is bright enough.
Source: Analysis of 2017
In the above diagram library visitors 77% Bandar Lampung University and the University of
technocrats Indonesia 73% more often come to the library with a friend. In addition to looking for
books also spend time with friends. In the lighting assessment in Bandar Lampung University Library
more 46% agreed and 29% indifferent. While the library of the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia 46%
disagree and 27% said they strongly disagree. Of the respondents judging proportional to the measured
data using the tool, the light intensity at the University library Bandar Lampung is good enough,
judging respondents Indonesian technocrats Library users also proportional to the measured data using
the tool, the intensity of light in the library that is not good enough.
Figure 11. Diagram of interest in natural
lighting Library. Source: Analysis of 2017
Figure 12. Diagram convenience of
reading on natural lighting in the library.
Source: Analysis of 2017
In the interest assessment natural lighting in the University library Bandar Lampung 31% more
disagree, 29% agree and 28% indifferent. While the library of the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia
55% disagree and 26% said they strongly disagree. Of the respondents above valuation Universitas
Bandar Lampung library users feel quite interested when using natural lighting, and the University
library technocrat Indonesia was not interested when using the library in the state do not use artificial
lighting. In the assessment in reading comfort in the use of natural light into the library of the
Universitas Bandar Lampungis 38% more normal states, 26% agreed and 25% disagreed. While the
library of the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia 35% strongly agree and 36% say they do not agree. Of
the respondents above valuation Universitas Bandar Lampung library users feel comfortable when
using natural lighting, and the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library feel uncomfortable when using
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natural light. Measurements made is 70-80cm from the floor, resulting in a measurement result was
reading in the library can be fairly uncomfortable, but unlike the Indonesian technocrats library, lux
values are less than the standard can reduce the value of comfort in reading in the library.
Figure 13. Diagram of the convenience of
visitors during didal am Library. Source:
Analysis of 2017
Figure 14. Diagram opinion on energy
efficient. Source: Analysis of 2017
In the assessment of comfort and feel at home with the use of natural lighting in the University library
Bandar Lampung 34% agree, 32% disagree and 28% indifferent. While the library of the Universitas
Teknokrat Indonesia 61% disagreed and 16% said they strongly disagree. Of the respondents above
valuation Bandar Lampung University library users feel comfortable and at ease when using natural
lighting, and the University library Indonesian technocrats feel as comfortable and welcome to linger
in the library when using natural light. In the assessment of energy saving programs by using natural
light into the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampung40% agree and 25% indifferent. While the
University Library technocrat Indonesia 35% agree and 16% say they do not agree. Of the respondents
above valuation Bandar Lampung University library users and library of Universitas Teknokrat
Indonesia, agreed in energy saving programs and agree to use natural lighting.
Figure 15. Diagram of time in the library
Users. Source: Analysis of 2017
Figure 16. Diagram visitors think about
natural lighting. Source: Analysis of 2017
In the respondents' assessment linger in the library when using natural light into the library of the
Universitas Bandar Lampung35% in favor and 53% 1-2 hours 30 minutes-1 hour can linger in the
library , While the University Library technocrat Indonesia 47% in favor of <30 minutes can linger in
the library. Of the respondents above valuation Bandar Lampung University library users can still
linger with the use of natural lighting while using natural lighting in the library of the University of
Indonesia technocrat visitors feel you can not linger in the library. In the assessment of respondents to
the library when using natural light into the library of the Universitas Bandar Lampung60% are
content with the intensity of light in the library. While the library of the Universitas Teknokrat
Indonesia 61% feel less light by using natural lighting. So is seen by the data obtained in a particular
room light intensity Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library did not go close to the standards set.
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3.4 Optimize Daylighting InLibrary
Figure 17. Furniture Layout of Bandar Lampung University Library. Source: Author Documentation
The area of the window opening in a library Bandar Lampung University has reached fairly well
because the standard is 72m2 and pass through 20% of the area of the room. When viewed from the
plan Figure 5.1 The natural lighting coming from the left and right of the room.
he use of window stickers on the windows gives the effect of light entering through the window,
propagated well. Although the incoming light is already well into the room, in Table 5.1 there is still a
value that has not met the standards according to the author at the point of measurement caused by
several factors. The first is the laying of furniture, judging by the lowest value of 88.0 lux (B3)
blocked by the bookshelf with a height of 1.8m. despite the prolonged placement of which permeates
the light from outside directly. This point only gets the reflection light around it. Second is the use of
color on every existing furniture. Using colors that do not reflect light much like dark gray (on wooden
bookcases) can absorb light so that the intensity of light around is reduced.
Gambar 18. Furniture Layout of Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia Library. Source: Author
Documentation
The window opening area in the library of Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia is good because it has
reached the standard of 97.2 m2 and passes 20% of the value of the room area. When viewed from the
floor plan Figure 5.3 natural lighting comes from the front, left, and right of the room. windows are
used like conventional windows with wooden frame frames with iron bars. the incoming light has been
well into the room, in Table 5.2 there are still many values that have not met the standards according
The 4th International Conference on Engineering and Technology Development (ICETD 2017)
474
12
to the author at the point of measurement caused by several factors. First is the wall boundary that
causes the value at the point B1-B3 natural lighting obtained at this point is not much because of
obstructed wall, second is the laying of furniture. The bookcase is placed near the window, reducing
the light entering the reading area. In addition, the use of color in furniture and size can be a factor of
reduced reflection and light intensity in the library. In room A only get a light intensity that is not
much from the outside caused by the dimming of light caused by vegetation and pavement around.
The state of a person reads in the library the distance between floors and books averages 70-80 cm
above the table. The reflections that exist in the room determine the value of comfort in reading a
library.
4. Conclusion
The result is that the size of the aperture affects the natural lighting in buildings, as happened in
Universitas Bandar Lampung library, the library is located on the 2nd floor in the direction of many
building facing east and west so that the sun in the morning and afternoon very high. Unlike the
library, Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia although this library also has a large opening, but the design
of window boxes with lines and coated wood material iron bars on the windows to reduce light
entering the building. The intensity of natural light in the library of the Universitas Bandar
Lampungbetter than Technocrats University of Indonesia. Because of the results of the data visible
number of dots that already meet or approach the Indonesian national standards Daylighting. In
addition to the openings possessed direction toward the building, the library of the Universitas Bandar
Lampungintensity of light coming into the building lot.
The comfort level of library users against natural lighting in the library of the Universitas Bandar
Lampunghigher than at the library UniversitasTeknokrat Indonesia. The intensity of light in the library
of the Universitas Bandar Lampungis better and the results of the measurement was up to standard. As
for the Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia library library user comfort at lower use of natural lighting for
the room A does not get direct sunlight while room B is more convenient for getting direct sun light
makes the room brighter. To optimize the light intensity at the Universitas Bandar
Lampungperpusakaan should use the furniture with bright colors and the walls a lighter color (yellow,
hijaumuda, merahmuda, birumuda), which can reflect more light. Thus increasing the intensity of light
in the room. Libraries should replace the main door leaves with transparent doors (glass). The reading
room should use the furniture with a lighter color. With the limited size of the room that you should
use a more minimalist furniture and colors are brighter and give a lot of openings to not obstruct
illumination alami.Untuk provide more convenience in perpusatkaan should provide more artificial
lighting so that the light intensity in the room can meet the standards.
References
[1] Guzowski, Mary. 2000. Daylighting For Sustainable Design. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[2] Mangunwijaya, Y. B. 1994. Sastra dan Religiositas. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.
[3] Anthony J, Snyder James C. 1997. Jakarta : Erlangga.
[4] Lechner, Norbert. 2007. Heating, Cooling, Lightning: Metode Desain untuk Arsitektur. P.T. Raja
Grafindo Persada, Jakarta.
[5] SNI 03-6197-2000. Konversi Energi pada Sistem Pencahayaan.
[6] Darmasetiawan. 1991. Teknik Pencahayaan dan Tata Letak Lampu. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo.
[7] Rahardjo, Mudjia. 2010. Triangulasi dalam Penelitian Kualitatif. Melalui:
http://www.mudjiarahardjo. com/artikel/270.html?task=view [diakses 12 November 2016
Pukul 16:17].
[8] Setyosari. Punaji 2010. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pengembangan. Jakarta: Kencana.
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[10] Slovin, M. J., 1960, Sampling, Simon and Schuster Inc., New York.
[11] Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, R.E. Anderson, R.L.Tatham, (2006). Multivariate Data
Analysis, 6 Ed., New Jersey : Prentice Hall.
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... Some researches on libraries have been carried out, including on visual comfort [5,6] and thermal comfort [7,8]. But no one has researched the circulation yet. ...
Article
Full-text available
University of Lampung (Unila) is the first and oldest public university in Lampung Province, having a Library Technical Implementation Unit (UPT) with a centralized library system. As one type of public space, UPT Unila library is the most widely visited place as a place to find references or others. The number of library visitors who carry out activities will affect the comfort of each user's circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the user's circulation in the library reading room. The method used is descriptive qualitative. Data obtained through the depiction of a floor plan, measurement of the distance between furniture and the area of the room using a meter. The analysis is done by comparing the measurement results with the standard of circulation. The results showed that the circulation in the library reading room of the University of Lampung has not approached the distance in accordance with the standards. The distance between the reading tables in the reading room is less than the standard, while the distance of traffic between the bookshelf and the reading table exceeds the recommended standard.
Daylighting For Sustainable Design
  • Mary Guzowski
Guzowski, Mary. 2000. Daylighting For Sustainable Design. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • J Anthony
  • Snyder James
Anthony J, Snyder James C. 1997. Jakarta : Erlangga.
Heating, Cooling, Lightning: Metode Desain untuk Arsitektur
  • Norbert Lechner
Lechner, Norbert. 2007. Heating, Cooling, Lightning: Metode Desain untuk Arsitektur. P.T. Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta.
Teknik Pencahayaan dan Tata Letak Lampu
  • Darmasetiawan
Darmasetiawan. 1991. Teknik Pencahayaan dan Tata Letak Lampu. Jakarta: PT. Grasindo.
Triangulasi dalam Penelitian Kualitatif
  • Mudjia Rahardjo
Rahardjo, Mudjia. 2010. Triangulasi dalam Penelitian Kualitatif. Melalui: http://www.mudjiarahardjo. com/artikel/270.html?task=view [diakses 12 November 2016 Pukul 16:17].
Metode Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pengembangan
  • Setyosari
  • Punaji
Setyosari. Punaji 2010. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pengembangan. Jakarta: Kencana.