Classification and Application of Plain Carbon Steels

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Steel is the most important structural material for humankind which is used in every sphere of daily life as well as in the industrialized world. Being a ubiquitous material, it gained importance over years and regarded as irreplaceable until now. For its abundance in nature, ease of fabrication, numerous engineering properties upon processing, easy availability and low cost have made it a prime material to be used for several engineering applications. For different purposes and needs, steel has been modified from past eras and thus plain carbon steel was invented over years, giving us a scope to use it for different purposes. A major portion of the daily day tools, drivers along with other applications in engineering structures, designs, and various products manufacturing are now made possible because of the invention of plain carbon steel. Here the classification of plain carbon steel has been given with proper definition along with its development history. Designation system and composition have also been discussed to know the system behind the naming of plain carbon steel in today’s world and to have a normal compositional range of it. Moreover, relevance with a phase diagram has also been given to get acquainted with the evolution of microstructures, phases, and microconstituents, at different typical compositions. At the end, description of different plain carbon steels has been shown with necessary features along with a wider range of mechanical properties and applications in order to have a comprehensive knowledge of this versatile metallic material.

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... Low carbon steel is one of the most important and widely used alloy in every engineering sector including automotive industries, construction, building sector, Chemical engineering field and also widely used in offshore oil plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical industries, gas plate forms, in pipelines and many more [1]. Low carbon steels are comparatively cheap and on the other side it has many fascinating mechanical properties including enormous strength, ductility, tractability to heat treatment and its weld ability [2]. ...
... K. V. Radha 1 · Deepanshu Patel 1 · Naveen Kumar 2 · Thiyagarajan Devasena 2 1 Bioproducts Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. Tech., Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025, India ...
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In this present study, Physalis minima were used to identify its potential as eco-friendly and non-toxic corrosion inhibitor with its action on low carbon steel. At an optimized concentration of 10% (v/v) of the inhibitor, maximum efficiency of 98% was attained at an optimal temperature of 298 K on low carbon steel in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid. Inhibition efficiency on low carbon steel decreased with increasing temperature which indicated physical adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicated that this extract performs as mixed type inhibitor with predominance in anodic effect. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed impedance response of mild steel increased by the addition of the inhibitor. Surface analysis using scanning electron microscope confirmed the smooth protective layer formation of inhibitor on low carbon surface. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that inhibitor molecule precludes the formation of iron oxides and inhibits the corrosion through its strong adsorption on the low carbon steel surface. Graphical Abstract
... These materials are widely used in machinery [36,37]. Particularly, steel AISI 1010 is used for designing bushings, screws, welding elements for tubular electric heaters and machine-building products, and cold-formed pipes for boilers and oil heaters. ...
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In intelligent manufacturing, the phase content and physical and mechanical properties of construction materials can vary due to different suppliers of blanks manufacturers. Therefore, evaluating the composition and properties for implementing a decision-making approach in material selection using up-to-date software is a topical problem in smart manufacturing. Therefore, the article aims to develop a comprehensive automated material selection approach. The proposed method is based on the comprehensive use of normalization and probability approaches and the linear regression procedure formulated in a matrix form. As a result of the study, analytical dependencies for automated material selection were developed. Based on the hypotheses about the impact of the phase composition on physical and mechanical properties, the proposed approach was proven qualitatively and quantitively for carbon steels from AISI 1010 to AISI 1060. The achieved results allowed evaluating the phase composition and physical properties for an arbitrary material from a particular group by its mechanical properties. Overall, an automated material selection approach based on decision-making criteria is helpful for mechanical engineering, smart manufacturing, and industrial engineering purposes.
... Steel is a unique versatile metallic material which can serve well in various engineering applications [1]. Plain carbon steels typically are iron-carbon alloys containing small amounts of manganese, silicon, phosphorus and sulphur in addition to iron and carbon. ...
The present study has been undertaken to compare the microstructure of the plain carbon steel, containing 0.65 carbon, which was formed during varying isothermal and continuous cooling conditions following austenitisation at the same temperature and soaking time. After austenitisation, one set of samples was subjected to isothermal treatment which was carried out at a temperature varying in the range of 650–400 °C, and the other one was continuously cooled to ambient temperature using different cooling rates ranging from 500 to 1.4 °Cs –1 . The metallographic examination of the samples was fulfilled using light and TEM microscopy. Additionally, Vickers hardness measurements were performed.
... Plain carbon steels have been widely used in engineering structural materials owing to their low cost, easy processing, and good mechanical properties [1]. In order to fulfill the increasingly stringent design requirements, the mechanical properties of carbon steels need to be continuously improved [2]. ...
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The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of medium carbon martensitic steel during the warm rolling and annealing process were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD), and electronic universal testing machine. The results showed that the microstructure of ferrite matrix with mass dispersive cementite particles was obtained by decomposition of martensitic in medium-carbon martensitic steel after warm rolling. The grain size of ferrite was ~ 0.53 μm, the yield strength and tensile strength were 951 MPa and 968 MPa, respectively, and the total elongation rate was 11.5% after warm rolling at 600 °C. Additionally, after the next 4 h of annealing, the grain size of ferrite and particle size of cementite increased to ~1.35 μm and ~360 nm and the yield strength and tensile strength decreased to 600 MPa and 645 MPa, respectively, with a total elongation increases of 20.9%. The strength of the material increased with increasing strain rate in tension, and the yield-to-tensile strength ratio increased from 0.92 to 0.94 and maintained good plasticity.
... Carbon steel is the most often constructional material used for marine environmental applications, such as ships and oil platforms, and will be for the foreseeable future, particularly on account of costeffectiveness aspects, besides the high level of toughness, higher strength, and operating efficiency [1]. Nevertheless, carbon steel has relatively limited resistance to corrosion, the main cause of failures and huge economic losses [2][3][4]. ...
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... In automotive industry and construction sectors, low-carbon steels are generally used in forms of strip steels and structural steels. About 50-60% weight of the vehicles was constituted by low-carbon steel [26]. Recently, WAAM technologies were also used to fabricate lightweight lowcarbon/austenite stainless steel components composed of thin-walled features, for example the arm of excavators [27] ( Fig. 1a), tubular components ( Fig. 1b) [28], the footbridge ( Fig. 1c) [29], and so on. ...
Among metal-based additive manufacturing, wire and arc additive manufacturing is receiving increasing attention for the production of components with medium to large dimensions. In the current research, the production of low-carbon steel thin-walled components by wire and arc additive manufacturing was addressed. Firstly, the influence of two depositing direction strategies on the wall shape was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of heat input on the shape stability and the microstructure evolution of the walls was studied. The results indicated that the alternating depositing direction strategy was more suited to build thin walls with relatively regular height. The heat input significantly influenced the shape stability, but had slight effects on the microstructure evolution. The microstructure of the walls varied from the top to the bottom regions, leading to a variation in hardness from 157 ± 3.11 to 192 ± 4.30 (HV5). The microstructure of the built thin walls can be distinguished in three regions: The upper region exhibited lamellar structures; the middle region dominantly featured granular structures of ferrites with a small proportion of pearlites, which appear in the boundaries of grains; and the lower region showed a mix of lamellar and equiaxed structures of ferrites. The tensile properties of the built material also exhibited anisotropic characteristics: The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength vary from 320 ± 6 to 362 ± 8 MPa and from 429 ± 8 to 479 ± 7 MPa, respectively.
Corrosion behaviors, charge distribution, and oxide growth mechanisms of carbon steel have been studied by using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The corrosion kinetics of carbon steel with a carbon content of 0.1% has been investigated in the 35‰ salinity salt spray with different densities of 1.03, 0.52, and 0.10 g/ml at different temperatures, respectively. The results show that the corrosion is massive in normal density (1.03 g/ml) salt spray system and pitting in dilute density (0.52 g/ml and 0.10 g/ml) salt spray systems. Iron crystal lattice defects on the carbon steel surface will arouse O, H, and Cl particles in the salt spray to migrate inward, causing deep oxidation. The density of salt spray is found to take a dominant position in the carbon steel corrosion. Therefore, the influence of temperature on oxidation kinetics in normal density salt spray is much greater compared to dilute density. In addition, the “decarburization” phenomenon of carbon steel has been observed and verified that the carbon content in the decarburized layer continues to decrease as the oxidation deepens. In the long-term simulation of the 1.03 g/ml salt spray system, the oxide growth and corrosion behavior are found to occur mainly before 600 ps, and the corrosion rate at this time is determined by the chemical reaction rate. After 600 ps, the corrosion rate depends on the electron diffusion rate. Furthermore, the activation energy is calculated to estimate the oxidizing property of different salt spray systems by fitting the consumption rate of water molecules into Arrhenius equation. When the concentration of salt spray decreases, the activation barrier tends to increase and the oxidizing ability of salt spray becomes weaker.
The review is devoted to the state-of-the-art views on the microstructure evolution in structural and tool carbon steels during the surface severe plastic deformation (SPD). The main focus is on the effects of the nanocrystallization in the near-surface area of the low-carbon steel (C 0.05–0.2%), medium-carbon steel (C 0.35–0.65%), and high-carbon steel (C 1.0–1.5%). It is reviewed the following advanced surface SPD methods for the metal surfaces in recent years: an ultrasonic impact peening (UIP), high-frequency impact peening (HFIP), air blast shot peening (ABSP), surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), and laser shock peening (LSP). Microstructure evolution before and after SPD is studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the SPD parameters on the nanocrystalline modification of such main phase components of the carbon steels as ferrite, pearlite, and cementite are analysed. The atomic mechanism of the nanocrystallization is presented. The strain-hardening effect induced by SPD is demonstrated by the data of the near-surface microhardness profiles.
One of two self-contained volumes belonging to the newly revised Steel Heat Treatment Handbook, Second Edition, this book examines the behavior and processes involved in modern steel heat treatment applications. Steel Heat Treatment: Metallurgy and Technologies presents the principles that form the basis of heat treatment processes while incorporating detailed descriptions of advances emerging since the 1997 publication of the first edition. Revised, updated, and expanded, this book ensures up-to-date and thorough discussions of how specific heat treatment processes and different alloy elements affect the structure and the classification and mechanisms of steel transformation, distortion of properties of steel alloys. The book includes entirely new chapters on heat-treated components, and the treatment of tool steels, stainless steels, and powder metallurgy steel components. Steel Heat Treatment: Metallurgy and Technologies provides a focused resource for everyday use by advanced students and practitioners in metallurgy, process design, heat treatment, and mechanical and materials engineering.
The needs of today's advanced societies have moved well beyond the requirements for food and shelter, etc., and now are focused on such concerns as international peace and domestic security, affordable health care, the swift and secure transmission of information, the conservation of resources, and a clean environment. Progress in materials science and engineering is impacting each of these concerns. This article will present some examples of how this is occurring and then comment on ethical dilemmas that can arise as a consequence of technological advances. The need for engineers to participate more fully in the development of public policies that help resolve such dilemmas, and so promote the benefits of advancing technology to society, will be discussed.
Conference Paper
The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.
This book introduces the study of the interrelationships among phase diagram, free-energy-composition diagram, kinetics of phase transformation, microstructure, property, and processing for better understanding the behavior of metallic materials This text focuses on both the theoretical elements such as those dealing with deformation, annealing phenomenon, nucleation in solids, phase transformation in solids, and kinetics of phase transformations, and the processing elements such as those dealing with heat treatment operations. However, the concepts of phase diagram and free-energy-composition diagram are used repeatedly within the text, serving as essential tools in discussing the mode of phase transformations. Likewise, numerous empirical equations, based on structure-property relationships are employed in many chapters in the text to predict mechanical properties such as strength, which may prove beneficial in determining service performance of transformed ferrous alloys.
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