ArticlePDF Available

Hazelnuts as Source of Bioactive Compounds and Health Value Underestimated Food

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Hazelnut (HN) has found its way into nontraditional foods due to the recognition of its nutritional and nutraceutical properties. Among nut species, hazelnut plays a major role in human nutrition and health because of its special composition of fat (mainly oleic acid), dietary fibre, vitamins (vitamin E), minerals, phytosterols (mainly Β-sitosterol), and antioxidant phenolics. In particular, lipids represent 60% of its dry weight and are mainly represented by triacylglycerols where the main fatty acids are oleic and linoleic acids. Furthermore, HN oil is an exceptional source of specific bioactive compounds as tocopherols, mainly a-tocopherol. Besides a favourable fatty acid profile and high tocopherols content, HNs are also a source of minerals and phytosterols, where potassium and Β-sitosterol are the major ones. In addition, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants such as mono- and oligomeric flavan 3-ols has been reported. HNs represent a very interesting food, and their nutritional and health value need to be further evidenced in intervention trials. In addition, the use of HN by-products as new functional ingredient represents an important challenge for the sector and the food industry.
Hazelnuts as Source of Bioactive Compounds and
Health Value Underestimated Food
MATTIA DI NUNZIO
Department of Agri-Food Sciences and Technologies (DISTAL),
University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy.
Abstract
Hazelnut (HN) has found its way into nontraditional foods due to the
recognition of its nutritional and nutraceutical properties. Among nut
species, hazelnut plays a major role in human nutrition and health
because of its special composition of fat (mainly oleic acid), dietary
fibre, vitamins (vitamin E), minerals, phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol),
and antioxidant phenolics.
In particular, lipids represent 60% of its dry weight and are mainly
represented by triacylglycerols where the main fatty acids are oleic
and linoleic acids. Furthermore, HN oil is an exceptional source of
specific bioactive compounds as tocopherols, mainly α-tocopherol.
Besides a favourable fatty acid profile and high tocopherols content,
HNs are also a source of minerals and phytosterols, where potassium
and β-sitosterol are the major ones. In addition, the presence of several
phenolic antioxidants such as mono- and oligomeric flavan 3-ols has
been reported.
HNs represent a very interesting food, and their nutritional and health
value need to be further evidenced in intervention trials. In addition,
the use of HN by-products as new functional ingredient represents an
important challenge for the sector and the food industry.
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science
www.foodandnutritionjournal.org
ISSN: 2347-467X, Vol. 07, No. (1) 2019, Pg. 17-28
CONTACT Mattia Di Nunzio mattia.dinunzio@unibo.it Department of Agri-Food Sciences and Technologies (DISTAL), University
of Bologna, Cesena, Italy.
© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Enviro Research Publishers.
This is an Open Access article licensed under a Creative Commons license: Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY).
Doi: doi.org/10.12944/CRNFSJ.7.1.03
Article History
Received: 04 March 2019
Accepted: 25 April 2019
Keywords
Hazelnut;
Lipids;
Dietary Fibre;
Minerals;
Tocols;
Squalene;
Phytosterols;
Phenols.
Introduction
Corylus avellana L., the European HN, is the second
most popular nut worldwide just after almonds and
production ranges from North Africa and Europe
to the Asia Minor and Caucasus region. Countries
around the Black Sea account for the majority
of production in the world: Turkey (610,264 tons,
average for the period 2009–2011), Azerbaijan
18NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
(28,564 tons), and Georgia (20,567 tons). Other
important producers are Italy (114,991 tons), the
USA (35,079 tons), and Spain (16,988 tons).1
In Turkey, the principal HN producer providing
around 72% of the HN production in the world, the
major HN cultivar is Tombul, followed by Çakıldak,
Mincane and İncekara, which are located mainly
in the provinces of Ordu and Giresun.2 Italy, the
world's second largest producer, possess numerous
traditional cultivars, which are mostly growth in the
regions Campania, Latium and Piedmont. Recently,
some of the major cultivars (Tonda Romana from
Latium, Tonda di Giffoni from Campania and Tonda
delle Langhe from Piedmont) obtained the European
Community quality stamp for their traditional
peculiarity.3 Today exists a variety of almost 400 HN
cultivars, but only about 20 of them represents the
basis of world production. Nut chemical, physical and
morphological characteristics are highly dependent
on interactions with the environment and genotype,
postharvest management and cultural techniques.4
Thanks to their sensory properties, HNs are
consumed not only as a ripe or “green” fruit but also
in a variety of manufactured food such as chocolate
spread, cereal bar, cookie, nougat, pastry, ice cream
and cooking oil production. HNs are consumed
roasted or raw, chopped, intact, or processed into a
praline paste; they are typically processed integrally
into food products, although HN oil is also frequently
used for cooking.5,6
Among nuts, HN plays a key role in human nutrition
and health because of its special content of
macronutrients (lipids and fibre), micronutrients
(minerals and vitamins), fat-soluble bioactives
(tocols, phytosterols, phytostanols and squalene)
and phytochemicals (flavonoids and phenolic and
hydroxycinnamic acids).7-9 A list of each class of
nutrients and their quantity is reported in table 1.
Lipids and Fatty Acids
The main nutrient of the HN kernel is the lipid portion,
which has the biggest impact on kernel flavour,
especially after roasting. For many years the edible
vegetable oils composition has been evaluated
with the objective to obtain knowledge to improve
product quality in terms of flavour, taste, nutrition,
storage stability and guaranteeing the legitimacy of
the material.10
Lipids may constitute more than 60% of the HN
kernel dry weight and are constituted of 98.8%
triacylglycerols (TAG) and 1.2% polar lipids (PL). Within
PL, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine
and phosphatidylinositol are present at 56.4%,
30.8% and 11.7%, respectively.11 Among fatty acids,
oleic acid (C18:1n9) is by far the most predominant
ranging from 76.7% to 82.8%, followed by linoleic
(C18:2n6), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and
vaccenic (C18:1n7) acids with mean values of
9.2%, 5.6%, 2.7% and 1.4%, respectively.12 This
is very similar in composition to fatty acids of olive
oil and generally recommended for a healthy diet.13
Moreover, due to the high level of mono-unsaturated
fatty acids (MUFA) and tocopherols/tocotrienols
content, HN oils have an oxidative stability similar
to the value of olive oil, and higher compared to
rapeseed oil.14 As consequence, it is present only
a minor increase of the possibly harmful trans fatty
acids during the thermal treatment of nuts (roasting)
and, although some minor changes occurred in the
TAG and fatty acid compositions, the corresponding
profiles basically remained identical to that of raw
HNs.12
Moreover, various studies reported as lipids content
increased continuously during the development of
the kernel, from 6.38 g/100g dry matter to 68 g/100g
dry matter.13,14 Regarding fatty acids, from early to
harvest stage a reducing and an increasing trend in
the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (from 31
to 10.3 g/100g of oil) and MUFA (from 22 g/100g oil
to 79.2 g/100g oil) was detected, respectively. No
significant changes were observed in total saturated
fatty acids at different maturation stage.14,15
From the nutritional viewpoint, various studies have
confirmed that a diet with a low amount of saturated
fatty acids and high content of MUFA can effectively
reduce the risk of coronary heart disease amending
blood lipid levels and blood pressure ameliorating
metabolic syndrome and insulin sensitivity.18-21
Dietary Fibre
In the simple terms, dietary fibre can be considered as
a ‘roughage’ material of carbohydrates (beta-glucans,
19NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
lignin, cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose) resistant
to small intestine digestion, requiring microbiota
fermentation situated in the large intestine.22,23 Types
of dietary fibre may be categorized according to
their sources, solubility, fermentability, physiological
effects, and they can be obtained from cereals,
legumes, fruit and vegetables.24-25
After cereals, nuts are the vegetables most reach in
fibre. Among tree nuts, the highest content in dietary
fibre were measured in almonds (9.2%), followed by
HNs (8.7%), walnuts (6.8%), macadamia nuts (5.5%)
and pistachios (4.2%).26 Moreover, Silva et al.27
compared the fibre in six cultivars of HNs harvested
in Portugal. The fibre content, expressed as g/100g,
ranged from 12.07 to 8.05 for Butler and Merveille de
Bollwille varieties respectively, indicating consistent
variations of dietary fibre among HN cultivars.
Today, recent and persuasive evidences confirmed
that high dietary fibre intake promotes overall
health and associates with lower mortality through
preventing and mitigating of cardiovascular disease,
colon cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus,28
suggesting an adequate intake for the Italian adult in
the amount of 25 g/day.29 Although the mechanisms
that underline the described effects of dietary fibre
on health are not well-known, it is supposed to be
a consequence of changes in nutrient absorption,
production of short chain fatty acids, gut hormones
secretion and intestinal viscosity.30-32
Minerals
Minerals are normally divided into macro-minerals
and micro-minerals. Major minerals include Ca, Mg,
K, Na, Cl, P and S; while trace minerals are I, Zn,
Se, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, Mo, F, Cr and B. Different plant
and animal sources can be consumed to obtain a
number of essential minerals for a healthy nutrition.33
In HN, at least a total of 24 minerals have been stated
so far with an extremely high variability depending on
genotypes, geographical origin, year of harvesting,
climate, soil composition, irrigation, use of fertilizer
and method of cultivation.34,35 Generally, K is the most
present mineral with a concentration ranging from
147 mg/100g to 761 mg/100g, followed by P (from
256 mg/100g to 458 mg/100g), Ca (from 65 mg/100g
to 328 mg/100g) and Mg (from 34 mg/100g to 335
mg/100g). HNs serve also as an excellent source
of trace minerals as Cu (from 0.94 mg/100g to 3.47
mg/100g), Mn (from 1.4 mg/100g to 19 mg/100g),
and Se (from 5.5 μg/100g to 60 μg/100g).35-40 With
regard to the trace minerals, a standard portion of
HN (30g) supplies, as percentage of the Population
Reference Intake (PRI) or Adequate Intake (AI) for
Italian adult males (aged 30-59 years), 31-116% of
Cu, 16-211% of Mn, and 3-33% of Se.29
Even though each essential mineral has its own
health benefits, Se in particular is an essential trace
mineral of central importance to human health. As
part of L-selenocysteine, selenium is needed for the
Fig. 1: Natural forms of vitamin E.44
20NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
synthesis of selenoproteins, a class of proteins with
important functions including skeletal and cardiac
muscle function, T-cell immunity, thyroid hormone
metabolism and antioxidant defense.41
Tocols
Tocopherols and tocotrienols are monophenols
having the identical main chemical structure
constituted by a long chain attached at 2-position
of a chromane ring. Tocotrienols diverge from
tocopherols because they have a farnesyl rather than
a saturated isoprenoid C16 side chain42 and exist as
four homologues (α, β, γ, δ) which differ from each
other by the number and location of methyl groups
in their chemical structures.43
Various nuts have been reported to show significant
tocopherols and tocotrienols differences, ranging
from approximately 1.6 mg/100g of kernel for
macadamia to 32 mg/100g of kernel for black walnut.
Among them, α- and γ-tocopherol are the most
represented isoforms.45 HN oil is an exceptional
source of vitamin E, where α-tocopherol being the
dominant form with a content up to 41.9 mg/100g
extracted oil,8,34 corresponding at 96% of total
tocols.46 Differences in vitamin E content in HN
oil depend on the variety and geographical origin,
where the Tombul variety grown in Turkey seems to
have the highest tocols content.41 Moreover, roasting
and removal of the pellicle (peeling) have shown to
reduce considerably tocopherol content.46
The high α-tocopherol content represents a peculiar
characteristic, since of the eight naturally occurring
forms, α-tocopherol is the most active homologues
retained in human plasma with the highest antioxidant
activity.47 In addition to its activity as an antioxidant
in the prevention of potentially harmful phospholipid
oxidation events at plasma membrane,48 vitamin E is
also involved in various metabolic processes such
as regulation of gene expression, cell signalling
and immune function.49 Moreover, vitamin E
forms suppress pro-inflammatory signalling such
as STAT3/6 and NF-κB and inhibit eicosanoids
catalysed by cyclooxygenase- and 5-lipoxygenase.44
Consistent with mechanistic findings, assumption
of vitamin E contributes to the prevention of various
diseases as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative,
non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and some kind of
cancer.50
Phytosterols and Phytostanols
HNs are also rich in plant sterols (phytosterols
and phytostanols). Phytosterols are comparable in
structure to cholesterol, possessing the same basic
cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring structure
but differentiating in the side chain at C24 and/or
the position and configuration of unsaturated double
bonds and the optical rotation at chiral carbons.51,52
Phytostanols are produced by hydrogenating
phytosterols.
Sterols include a major percentage of the unsaponi-
fiable matter of most vegetable oils and they exist as
free sterols and sterol esters of fatty acids.
In HN, the total phytosterols content ranges from
133.8 mg/100g to 263 mg/100g of oil. Among them,
Fig. 2: Structures of common dietary phytosterols and cholesterol.53
21NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
β-sitosterol is the major one with a mean percentage
of 83.6%, while 5-avenasterol and campesterol
are the second and the third components of
the group with mean values of 6.1% and 5.8%,
respectively.12 Other minor phytosterol/phytostanol
found in HN are sitostanol, stigmasterol, cholestenol,
campestanol, 7-campesterol, 5,23-stigmastadienol,
5,24-stigmastadienol, clerosterol, 7-stigmastenol,
and 7-avenasterol.10 The HN oil sterol composition
is influenced by agronomic and environmental
conditions, crop season, cultivar as well as storage
conditions and oil extraction methods.2 In particular,
the percentage of sterol esters ranged from 11% to
75%, mainly depending on the refined process and
geographical origin. It is remarkable that sterol esters
of Turkish HN oils (either crude or refined) included
more than 40%, while they were less than 35% in
HN oils from Franch, Italy and Spain, the lowest
values being for roasted crude HN oils (11–16%).16
Phytosterols are well-known for their ability of
reducing blood cholesterol. In fact, many studies
have demonstrated that phytosterols induce clinically
significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) levels.54 In particular, daily
dose of 1.5 g - 3 g of phytosterols, phytostanols
and their esters have been suggested for lowering
total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C concentration
significantly.34 One of the most suggested
mechanisms of action of phytosterols in lowering
plasma cholesterol concentration is their capacity
to reduce cholesterol absorption at intestinal
level. In fact, phytosterols are structurally similar
to cholesterol and are assimilated into micelles in
the intestinal tract. Since plant sterols are more
hydrophobic than cholesterol, they possess a higher
inclination for micelles than they have for cholesterol.
Consequently, they displace cholesterol from mixed
micelles and determine a reduction in the duodenal
cholesterol absorption and a higher fecal excretion
of cholesterol.55 Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo
studies suggest that phytosterols content in diet
promotes a decrease in various cancers including
colon, breast and prostate cancer by slowing cell
cycle progression, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting
tumor metastasis.53,56-58
Squalene
Squalene is a highly unsaturated all-trans linear
terpenoid hydrocarbon which comports as the
biochemical precursor of terpenoids and sterols
with their central role in human, animal and plant
functions.59,60
It is extensively present in nature, and considerable
quantities are found in oil from shark and whale liver,
wheat-germ, palm, rice bran, olive and amaranth.61
Among nuts, squalene content was higher in HN >
macadamia > peanuts > almonds > walnut,62 with
a value in HN ranging from 93 mg/kg to 885 mg/kg
oil, depending by cultivar, environmental conditions,
geographical origin, fruit development and the
method of squalene extraction.2,63-65 In particular for
the latter, squalene contents appeared higher in HN
oil extracted with solvent compared to cold pressed
one, probably due to higher squalene solubility in
hexane.2
From a nutritional perspective, squalene has
important beneficial effects on health, mainly
related to its hypolipidemic, anticancer, antioxidant
and detoxifying activity.66 Enriched squalene diet
significantly increased paraoxonase 1and high-
density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and reduced
oxidative damage in animals.67
In parallel to its plasma lipids lowering effect,
experimental studies have revealed that squalene
may efficiently prevent chemically-induced skin, lung
Fig. 3: Structure of squalene in coiled form.60
22NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
and colon tumorigenesis in rats. The mechanisms
implicated for the chemopreventive action of
squalene can comprise modulation of carcinogen
activation, anti-oxidative activities and inhibition
of Ras farnesylation.68,69 Furthermore, various in
vivo and in vitro studies suggested that squalene
possesses an antioxidant activity, principally acting
as radical scavenger, and may protect different
biological molecules as DNA, lipids and protein
against oxidative stress.70-74
Phenols
The health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables
are due not only to minerals, vitamins and fibre but
also to a variety of plant secondary metabolites
referred collectively as polyphenols,75 to which
many biological effects have been attributed.76-78
The preponderance of polyphenols in plants exist
as glycosides with diverse sugar units at different
positions of the polyphenol skeletons and have
been categorized by their biological function, source
of origin and chemical structure.79-80 According to
the chemical structures of aglycones, polyphenols
may be classified in flavonoids, stilbenes, lignans,
flavonoids, hydrobenzoic and hydroxycinnamic
acids.81
The presence of several phenolic and hydroxycinnamic
acids (sinapic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid,
caffeic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic
acid,), and flavonoids (catechin, quercetin, myricetin,
kaempferol) have been reported in HNs. In particular,
the main polyphenolic subclass comprises of mono-
and oligomeric flavan 3-ols, which accounts between
34.2 and 58.3% in HN kernels, with a total phenolic
content ranging from 491.2 to 1700.4 mg of gallic
acids equivalent/kg.82
Moreover, roasting increase the phenolic content
in a time and temperature dependent manner
compared to raw HNs.83 Numerous epidemiological
and nutritional evidences suggest that natural
polyphenols play a key role in prevention of cancer,84
and in particular Li & Parry have shown that extract
of HN roasted skin cultivated in Oregon significantly
reduce the proliferation of a human colon cancer
cell line.85
Table 1. HS Nutrient Composition
Total lipids > 60% d.w.
Oleic acid 76.7% - 82.8%
Linoleic acid 9.2%
Palmitic acid 5.6%
Stearic acid 2.7%
Vaccenic acid 1.4%
Fibre 8.05 g/100g - 12.07 g/100g
K 147 mg/100 – 761 mg/100mg
P 256 mg/100g – 458 mg/100g
Ca 65 mg/100g – 328 mg/100g
Mg 34 mg/100g – 335 mg/100g
Cu 0.94 mg/100g – 3.47 mg/100g
Mn 1.4 mg/100g – 19 mg/100g
Se 5.5 μg/100 – 60 μg/100
Tocols 41.9 mg/100g extracted oil
Total phytosterols 133.8 mg/100g – 263 mg/100g
Total sterol esters 11% - 75%
β-Sitosterol 83.6%
5-Avenasterol 6.1%
Campesterol 5.8%
Squalene 93 mg/kg oil – 885 mg/kg oil
Total polyphenols 0.491 g/kg oil – 1.7 g of gallic acid equivalent/kg
Flavan 3-ols 34.2% - 58.3%
23NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
Health Effects of HNs Consumption
Even though a significant number of clinical
studies on various tree nuts have been realized,
only few studies specifically related to HN have
been conducted. In a recent systematic review and
bayesian meta-analysis, Perna et al. evidenced that
HN-enriched diet is associated with a decrease of
LDL-C and TC equal to -0.150 mmol/L and -0.127
mmol/L, respectively, in favour of a HN-enriched
diet.86 More recently, this trend was also confirmed
by Deon et al., who reported in adolescents with
primary hyperlipidemia a significant effect on serum
LDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and non-HDL-C.87 Similar
results in the reduction of serum LDL-C were also
observed by Santi et al. in healthy volunteers.88 At the
same time, HN consumption was able to decrease
LDL oxidation (-15.7%) in normolipidemic healthy
volunteers89 and plasma inflammatory markers
such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-35.9%),
soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (-10.6%)
and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1
(-8.08%) in hypercholesterolemic subjects, compared
to a control diet.90
Future Directions
At present, considering the world production of HNs,
another relevant challenge for the sector could be
to turn food processing by-products and wastes
into new ingredients. In fact, during processing of
HN, by-products arise as waste materials. Among
them, none has any commercial value except
the HN hard shell, which is currently used as a
heating source upon burning. HN wastes could
represent functional ingredients to take advantage
of to improve nutritional and health value of foods.
To do it, comprehensive studies of their chemical
composition, physical structure, sensorial properties
and nutritional characteristics are necessary.
Conclusion
The expansion of studies and investigations intended
to exam the effectiveness of functional nutrients
and food components has illuminated many parts
of the multifaceted connection between nutrition
and health. Despite, we have to take in mind that
our diet is based on foods and not on individual
compounds. Consequently, it is fundamental to
demonstrate that certain nutrients have a positive
effect in the prevention of a disease, and to
recognize which foods possess them at relevant
concentration.91 Moreover, foods are complex
matrices in which those components could have
synergistic effects, and bioaccessibility may be
influenced by both gastrointestinal conditions and
chemical characteristics of the food matrix.92-97
HN is an example of synergism among nutrients that
can be transformed into a large variety of products
consumed by a wide range of population every day.
Studies reported in this review underscore the health-
promoting effects of HN nutrients and consumption.
At present, more scientific confirmations are needed
to regard HNs as functional food, but results are
auspicious and there are various elements of great
attention that push the researchers to expand the
scientific acquaintance about nuts in general and
HNs in particular.
Conflict of Interest
The Author reports no potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgement
This work was partially supported by a Grant of
Italian MIUR (RFO M.D.N.)
References
1. Boccacci P., Aramini M., Valentini N.,
Bacchetta L., Rovira M., Drogoudi P., Silva
A.P., Solar A., Calizzano F., Erdoğan V.,
Cristofori V., Ciarmiello L.F., Contessa C.,
Ferreira J.J. Marra F.P., Botta R. Molecular
and morphological diversity of on-farm
HN (Corylus avellana L.) landraces from
southern Europe and their role in the origin
and diffusion of cultivated germplasm. Tree
Genet Genomes. 2013; 9:1465-1480.
2. Gumus C.E., Yorulmaz A.; Tekin A.
Differentiation of Mechanically and Chemically
Extracted HN Oils Based on their Sterol and
Wax Profiles. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2016
93:1625-1635.
3. Bacchetta L., Aramini M., Bernardini C., Rugini
24NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
E. In Vitro Propagation of Traditional Italian
HN Cultivars as a Tool for the Valorization and
Conservation of Local Genetic Resources.
HortScience. 2008; 43(2):562-566.
4. Cristofori V., Ferramondo S., Bertazza G.,
Bignami C. Nut and kernel traits and chemical
composition of HN (Corylus avellana L.)
cultivars. J Sci Food Agric. 2008;88:1091-
1098.
5. Platteau C., De Loose M., De Meulenaer
B., Taverniers I. Quantitative detection of
HN (Corylus avellana) in cookies: ELISA
versus real-time PCR. J Agric Food Chem.
2011;59(21):11395-11402.
6. Moscetti R., Frangipane M.T., Monarca D.,
Cecchini M., Massantini R. Maintaining the
quality of unripe, fresh hazelnuts through
storage under modified atmospheres.
Postharvest Biol Technol. 2012;65:33-38.
7. Oliveira I., Sousa A., Morais J.S., Ferreira
I.C., Bento A., Estevinho L., Pereira J.A.
Chemical composition, and antioxidant and
antimicrobial activities of three HN (Corylus
avellana L.) cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol.
2008;46(5):1801-1807.
8. Alasalvar C., Bolling B.W. Review of nut
phytochemicals, fat-soluble bioactives,
antioxidant components and health effects.
Br J Nutr. 2015;113 Suppl 2:S68-78.
9. Glei M., Fischer S., Lamberty J., Ludwig D.,
Lorkowski S., Schlörmann W. Chemopreventive
Potential of In Vitro Fermented Raw and
Roasted HNs in LT97 Colon Adenoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018;38(1):83-93.
10. Crews C., Hough P., Godward J., Brereton P.,
Lees M., Guiet S., Winkelmann W. Study of
the main constituents of some authentic HN
oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(12):4843-
4852.
11. Miraliakbari H., Shahidi F. Oxidative stability
of tree nut oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56
(12):4751-4759.
12. Amaral J.S., Casal S., Citová I., Santos A.,
Seabra R.M., Oliveira B.P.P. Characterization
of several HN (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars
based in chemical, fatty acid and sterol
composition. Eur Food Res Technol.
2006;222:274-280.
13. Cristofori V., Bertazza G., Bignami C. Chang-
es in kernel chemical composition during
nut development of three Italian hazelnut
cultivars. Fruits. 2015;70:(5):311-322.
14. Ciemniewska-Zytkiewicz H., Pasini F.,
Verardo V., Bryś J., Koczoń P., Caboni M.F.
Changes of the lipid fraction during fruit
development in hazelnuts (Corylus avellana
L.) grown in Poland. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.
2015:117;710–717.
15. Seyhan F., Ozay G., SaklarS., Ertaş E., Satır
G., Alasalvar C. Chemical changes of three
native Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus
avellana L.) during fruit development. Food
Chem. 2007;105:590-596.
16. Benitez-Sánchez P.L., León-Camacho M.,
Aparicio R. A comprehensive study of HN
oil composition with comparisons to other
vegetable oils, particularly olive oil. Eur Food
Res Technol. 2003;218:13–19.
17. Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz H., Verardo V.,
Pasini F., Bryś J., Koczoń P., Caboni M.F.
Determination of lipid and phenolic fraction in
two HN (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars grown
in Poland. Food Chem. 2015;168:615-622.
18. Bos M.B., de Vries J.H., Feskens E.J.,
van Dijk S.J., Hoelen D.W., Siebelink E.,
Heijligenberg R., de Groot L.C. Effect of
a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet
and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids
and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild
abdominal obesity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc
Dis. 2010;20(8):591-598.
19. Gillingham L.G., Harris-Janz S., Jones P.J.
Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are
protective against metabolic syndrome and
cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lipids.
2011;46(3):209-228.
20. Finucane O.M., Lyons C.L., Murphy A.M.,
Reynolds C.M., Klinger R., Healy N.P., Cooke
A.A., Coll R.C., McAllan L., Nilaweera K.N.,
O'Reilly M.E., Tierney A.C., Morine M.J.,
Alcala-Diaz J.F., Lopez-Miranda J., O'Connor
D.P., O'Neill L.A., McGillicuddy F.C., Roche
H.M. Monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched
high-fat diets impede adipose NLRP3
inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion and
insulin resistance despite obesity. Diabetes.
2015;64(6):2116-2128.
21. Shatwan I.M., Weech M., Jackson K.G.,
Lovegrove J.A., Vimaleswaran K.S.
Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism modifies
25NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
fasting total cholesterol concentrations in
response to replacement of dietary saturated
with monounsaturated fatty acids in adults at
moderate cardiovascular disease risk. Lipids
Health Dis. 2017;16(1):222.
22. Lattimer J.M., Haub M.D. Effects of Dietary
Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic
Health. Nutrients. 2010;2(12):1266-1289.
23. Stephen A.M., Champ M.M., Cloran S.J.,
Fleith M., van Lieshout L., Mejborn H.,
Burley V.J. Dietary fibre in Europe: current
state of knowledge on definitions, sources,
recommendations, intakes and relationships
to health. Nutr Res Rev. 2017;30(2):149-190.
24. Mudgil D., Barak S. Composition, properties
and health benefits of indigestible
carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a
review. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;61:1-6.
25. Dreher M.L. Whole Fruits and Fruit Fiber
Emerging Health Effects. Nutrients.
2018;10(12):E1833.
26. Schlörmann W., Birringer M., Böhm V., Löber
K., Jahreis G., Lorkowski S., Müller A.K.,
Schöne F., Glei M. Influence of roasting
conditions on health-related compounds in
different nuts. Food Chem. 2015;180:77-85.
27. Silva, A.P., Santos A., Cavalheiro J., Ribeiro
C., Santos F., Gonçalves B. Fruit chemical
composition of HN cultivars grown in
Portugal. Journal of Applied Horticulture,
2007;9(2):157-161.
28. Liu L., Wang S, Liu J. Fiber consumption
and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer
mortalities: a systematic review and meta-
analysis of cohort studies. Mol Nutr Food Res.
2015;59(1):139-46.
29. Società Italiana di Nutrizione Umana,
SINU. Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento
di Nutrienti ed energia per la popolazione
italiana, IV revision. Milan: SICS Editore,
2014.
30. Grundy M.M., Edwards C.H., Mackie A.R.,
Gidley M.J., Butterworth P.J., Ellis P.R. Re-
evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary
fibre and implications for macronutrient
bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial
metabolism. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(5):816-833.
31. Koh A., De Vadder F., Kovatcheva-Datchary
P., Bäckhed F. From Dietary Fiber to Host
Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key
Bacterial Metabolites. Cell. 2016;165(6):1332-
1345.
32. Nilsson A.C., Johansson-Boll E.V., Björck I.M.
Increased gut hormones and insulin sensitivity
index following a 3-d intervention with a barley
kernel-based product: a randomised cross-
over study in healthy middle-aged subjects.
Br J Nutr. 2015;114(6):899-907.
33. Gharibzahedi S.M.T., Jafari S.M. The
importance of minerals in human nutrition:
Bioavailability, food fortification, processing
effects and nanoencapsulation. Trends Food
Sci Technol. 2017;62:119-132.
34. Alasalvar C., Shahidi F., Amaral J.S., Oliveira
B.P.P. Compositional Characteristics and
Health Effects of HN (Corylus avellana L.):
An Overview. In: Alasalvar C., Shahidi F. Tree
Nuts. Composition, Phytochemicals, and
Health Effects. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC
Press; 2009:340.
35. Alasalvar C., Amaral J.S., Satir G., Shahidi F.
Lipid characteristics and essential minerals of
native Turkish HN varieties (Corylus avellana
L.). Food Chem. 2009;113(4):919-925.
36. Alasalvar C., Shahidi F., Liyanapathirana
C.M., Ohshima T. Turkish Tombul HN (Cor ylus
avellana L.). 1. Compositional characteristics.
J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(13):3790-3796.
37. Ozdemir F., Akinci I. Physical and nutritional
properties of four major commercial Turkish
HN varieties. J Food Eng. 2004;63(3):341-
347.
38. Cosmulescu S., Botu M., Trandafir I. The
mineral source for human nutrition of nuts in
different HN (corylus avellana L.) cultivars.
Not Bot Horti Agrobo. 2013;41(1):250-254.
39. Özdemir M., Açkurt F., Kaplan M., Yildiz M.,
Löker M., Gürcan T., Biringen G., Okay A.,
Seyhan F.G. Evaluation of new Turkish hybrid
HN (Corylus avellana L.) varieties: Fatty acid
composition, α-tocopherol content, mineral
composition and stability. Food Chem.
2001;73(4):411-415.
40. Köksal A.I., Artik N., Şimşek A., Güneş N.
Nutrient composition of HN (Corylus avellana
L.) varieties cultivated in Turkey. Food Chem.
2006;99:509-515.
41. Di Nunzio M., Bordoni A., Aureli F., Cubadda F.,
Gianotti A. Sourdough Fermentation Favorably
Influences Selenium Biotransformation and
26NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
the Biological Effects of Flatbread. Nutrients.
2018;10(12):E1898.
42. Colombo M.L. An update on vitamin E,
tocopherol and tocotrienol-perspectives.
Molecules. 2010;15(4):2103-2113.
43. Azzi A. Many tocopherols, one vitamin E. Mol
Aspects Med. 2018;61:92-103.
44. Jiang Q. Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism,
antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities
and their role in disease prevention and
therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;72:76-90.
45. Robbins K.S., Shin E.C., Shewfelt R.L.,
Eitenmiller R.R., Pegg R.B. Update on the
healthful lipid constituents of commercially
important tree nuts. J Agric Food Chem.
2011;59(22):12083-12092.
46. Lucchetti S., Ambra R., Pastore G. Effects of
peeling and/or toasting on the presence of
tocopherols and phenolic compounds in four
Italian HN cultivars. Eur Food Res Technol.
2018;244(6):1057-1064.
47. Péter S., Friedel A., Roos F.F., Wyss A.,
Eggersdorfer M., Hoffmann K., Weber P. A
Systematic Review of Global Alpha-Tocopher-
ol Status as Assessed by Nutritional Intake
Levels and Blood Serum Concentrations. Int
J Vitam Nutr Res. 2015;85(5-6):261-281.
48. Howard A.C., McNeil A.K., McNeil P.L.
Promotion of plasma membrane repair by
vitamin E. Nat Commun. 2011;2:597.
49. Galli F., Azzi A., Birringer M., Cook-Mills
J.M., Eggersdorfer M., Frank J., Cruciani G.,
Lorkowski S., Özer N.K. Vitamin E: Emerging
aspects and new directions. Free Radic Biol
Med. 2017;102:16-36.
50. Shahidi F., de Camargo A.C. Tocopherols
and Tocotrienols in Common and Emerging
Dietary Sources: Occurrence, Applications,
and Health Benefits. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17
(10):E1745.
51. Phillips K.M., Ruggio D.M., Ashraf-Khorassani
M. Phytosterol composition of nuts and seeds
commonly consumed in the United States. J
Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(24):9436-9445.
52. Moreau R.A., Nyström L., Whitaker B.D.,
Winkler-Moser J.K., Baer D.J., Gebauer S.K.,
Hicks K.B. Phytosterols and their derivatives:
Structural diversity, distribution, metabolism,
analysis, and health-promoting uses. Prog
Lipid Res. 2018;70:35-61.
53. Bradford P.G., Awad A.B. Phytosterols as
anticancer compounds. Mol Nutr Food Res.
2007;51(2):161-170.
54. AbuMweis S.S., Marinangeli C.P., Frohlich
J., Jones P.J. Implementing phytosterols into
medical practice as a cholesterol-lowering
strategy: overview of efficacy, effectiveness,
and safety. Can J Cardiol. 2014;30(10):1225-
1232.
55. Plat J., Mensink R.P. Plant stanol and sterol
esters in the control of blood cholesterol
levels: mechanism and safety aspects. Am J
Cardiol. 2005;96(1A):15D-22D.
56. Shahzad N., Khan W., Md S., Ali A., Saluja
S.S., Sharma S., Al-Allaf F.A., Abduljaleel
Z., Ibrahim I.A.A., Abdel-Wahab A.F., Afify
M.A., Al-Ghamdi S.S. Phytosterols as a
natural anticancer agent: Current status and
future perspective. Biomed Pharmacother.
2017;88:786-794.
57. Danesi F., Ferioli F., Caboni M.F., Boschetti
E., Di Nunzio M., Verardo V., Valli V., Astolfi
A., Pession A., Bordoni A. Phytosterol
supplementation reduces metabolic activity
and slows cell growth in cultured rat
cardiomyocytes. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(4):540-
548.
58. López-García G., Cilla A., Barberá R., Alegría
A. Antiproliferative effect of plant sterols at
colonic concentrations on Caco-2 cells. J
Funct Foods. 2017;39:84-90.
59. Naziri E., Mantzouridou F., Tsimidou M.Z.
Squalene resources and uses point to the
potential of biotechnology. Lipid Technol.
2011;23(12):270-273.
60. Ghimire G.P., Thuan N.H., Koirala N., Sohng
J.K. Advances in Biochemistry and Microbial
Production of Squalene and Its Derivatives.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;26(3):441-451.
61. Spanova M., Daum G. Squalene –
biochemistry, molecular biology, process
biotechnology, and applications. Eur. J. Lipid
Sci. Technol. 2011;113:1299-1320.
62. Maguire L.S., O'Sullivan S.M., Galvin K.,
O'Connor T.P., O'Brien N.M. Fatty acid
profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol
content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, HNs
and the macadamia nut. Int J Food Sci Nutr.
2004;55(3):171-178.
63. Bada J.C., León-Camacho M., Prieto M.,
27NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
Alonso L. Characterization of oils of HNs from
Asturias, Spain. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol.
2004;106:294-300.
64. Vujević P., Petrović M., Vahčić N., Milinović
B., Čmelik Z. Lipids and minerals of the most
represented HN varieties cultivated in Croatia.
Ital J Food Sci. 2014;26(1):24-30.
65. Fernandes G.D., Gómez-Coca R.B., Pérez-
Camino M.D.C., Moreda W., Barrera-Arellano
D. Chemical Characterization of Major and
Minor Compounds of Nut Oils: Almond, HN,
and Pecan Nut. J Chem. 2017; 2609549.
66. Vadalà M., Laurino C., Palmieri L., Palmieri B.
Shark derivatives (Alkylglycerols, Squalene,
Cartilage) as putative nutraceuticals in
oncology. Eur J Oncol. 2017;22(1):5-20.
67. Gabás-Rivera C., Barranquero C., Martínez-
Beamonte R., Navarro M.A., Surra J.C.,
Osada, J. Dietary Squalene Increases
High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and
Paraoxonase 1 and Decreases Oxidative
Stress in Mice. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e104224.
68. Kim .SK., Karadeniz F. Biological importance
and applications of squalene and squalane.
Adv Food Nutr Res. 2012;65:223-233.
69. Smith T.J. Squalene: potential
chemopreventive agent. Expert Opin Investig
Drugs. 2000;9(8):1841-1848.
70. Dessì M.A., Deiana M., Day B.W., Rosa A.,
Banni S., Corongiu F.P. Oxidative stability of
polyunsaturated fatty acids: Effect of squalene.
Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2002;104(8):506-512.
71. Warleta F., Campos M., Allouche Y., Sánchez-
Quesada C., Ruiz-Mora J., Beltrán G., Gaforio
J.J. Squalene protects against oxidative
DNA damage in MCF10A human mammary
epithelial cells but not in MCF7 and MDA-
MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Food
Chem Toxicol. 2010;48(4):1092-1100.
72. Narayan B.H., Tatewaki N., Giridharan
V.V., Nishida H., Konishi T. Modulation of
doxorubicin-induced genotoxicity by squalene
in Balb/c mice. Food Funct. 2010;1(2):174-
179.
73. Wang H., Wang H., Yang L., Zu Y.-G., Liu F.,
Liu T.-T. Comparative effect of carnosic acid,
BHT and α-tocopherol on the stability of
squalene under heating and UV irradiation.
Food Res Int. 2011; 44(9),2730-2734.
74. Lou-Bonafonte J.M., Martínez-Beamonte
R., Sanclemente T., Surra J.C., Herrera-
Marcos L.V., Sanchez-Marco J., Arnal C.,
Osada J. Current Insights into the Biological
Action of Squalene. Mol Nutr Food Res.
2018;e1800136.
75. Kay C.D., Pereira-Caro G., Ludwig I.A.,
Clifford M.N., Crozier A. Anthocyanins and
Flavanones Are More Bioavailable than
Previously Perceived: A Review of Recent
Evidence. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol.
2017;8:155-180.
76. Di Nunzio M., Toselli M., Verardo V., Caboni
M.F., Bordoni A. Counteraction of oxidative
damage by pomegranate juice: influence of the
cultivar. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(14):3565-
73.
77. Di Nunzio M., Valli V., Tomás-Cobos L.,
Tomás-Chisbert T., Murgui-Bosch L., Danesi
F., Bordoni A. Is cytotoxicity a determinant
of the different in vitro and in vivo effects of
bioactives? BMC Complement Altern Med.
2017;17(1):453.
78. Di Nunzio M., Picone G., Pasini F., Caboni
M.F., Gianotti A., Bordoni A., Capozzi F.
Olive oil industry by-products. Effects of a
polyphenol-rich extract on the metabolome
and response to inflammation in cultured
intestinal cell. Food Res Int. 2018;113:392-
400.
79. Tsao R. Chemistry and biochemistry of dietary
polyphenols. Nutrients. 2010;2(12):1231-
1246.
80. Tresserra-Rimbau A., Lamuela-Raventos
R.M., Moreno J.J. Polyphenols, food and
pharma. Current knowledge and directions
for future research. Biochem Pharmacol.
2018;156:186-195.
81. Bulgakov V.P., Vereshchagina Y.V.,
Veremeichik G.N. Anticancer Polyphenols
from Cultured Plant Cells: Production and
New Bioengineering Strategies. Curr Med
Chem. 2018;25(36):4671-4692.
82. Slatnar A., Mikulic-Petkovsek M., Stampar F.,
Veberic R., Solar A. HPLC-MSn identification
and quantification of phenolic compounds in
HN kernels, oil and bagasse pellets. Food
Res Int. 2014;64:783-789.
83. Marzocchi S., Pasini F., Verardo V.,
Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz H, Caboni M.F.,
Romani S. Effects of different roasting
28NUNZIO, Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 7(1), 17-28 (2019)
conditions on physical-chemical properties
of Polish HNs (Corylus avellana L. var.
Kataloński). LWT-Food Sci Technol.
2017;77:440-448.
84. Zhou Y., Zheng J., Li Y., Xu D.P., Li S.,
Chen Y.M., Li H.B. Natural Polyphenols
for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer.
Nutrients. 2016;8(8):E515.
85. Li H., Parry J.W. Phytochemical Compositions,
Antioxidant Properties, and Colon Cancer
Antiproliferation Effects of Turkish and Oregon
HN. Food Nutr Sci. 2011;2:1142-1149.
86. Perna S., Giacosa A., Bonitta G., Bologna
C., Isu A., Guido D., Rondanelli M. Effects of
HN Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body
Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian
Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2016;8(12):E747.
87. Deon V., Del Bo' C., Guaraldi F., Abello F.,
Belviso S., Porrini M., Riso P., Guardamagna
O. Effect of HN on serum lipid profile and fatty
acid composition of erythrocyte phospholipids
in children and adolescents with primary
hyperlipidemia: A randomized controlled trial.
Clin Nutr. 2018;37(4):1193-1201.
88. Santi C., Giorni A., Terenzi C.T., Altavista P.,
Bacchetta L. Daily HN Intake Exerts Multiple
Reversible Effects on Plasma Profile of
Healthy Subjects. Food Nutr Sci. 2017;8:633-
646.
89. Yücesan F.B., Orem A., Kural B.V., Orem
C., Turan I. HN consumption decreases the
susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, plasma
oxidized LDL level and increases the
ratio of large/small LDL in normolipidemic
healthy subjects. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg.
2010;10(1):28-35.
90. Orem A., Yucesan F.B., Orem C., Akcan
B., Kural B.V., Alasalvar C., Shahidi F. HN-
enriched diet improves cardiovascular risk
biomarkers beyond a lipid-lowering effect in
hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Clin Lipidol.
2013;7(2):123-131.
91. Bordoni A., Danesi F., Di Nunzio M., Taccari
A., Valli V. Ancient wheat and health: a legend
or the reality? A review on KAMUT khorasan
wheat. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2017;68(3):278-
286.
92. Bordoni A., Picone G., Babini E., Vignali
M., Danesi F., Valli V., Di Nunzio M., Laghi
L., Capozzi F. NMR comparison of in vitro
digestion of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
aged 15 and 30 months. Magn Reson Chem.
2011;49 Suppl 1:S61-70.
93. Ferranti P., Nitride C., Nicolai M.A., Mamone
G., Picariello G., Bordoni A., Valli V., Di Nunzio
M., Babini E., Marcolini E., Capozzi F. In vitro
digestion of Bresaola proteins and release
of potential bioactive peptides. Food Res Int.
2014;63:157-169.
94. Bordoni A., Laghi L., Babini E., Di Nunzio
M., Picone G., Ciampa A., Valli V., Danesi
F., Capozzi F. The foodomics approach for
the evaluation of protein bioaccessibility
in processed meat upon in vitro digestion.
Electrophoresis. 2014;35(11):1607-1614.
95. Marcolini E., Babini E., Bordoni A., Di Nunzio
M., Laghi L., Maczó A., Picone G., Szerdahelyi
E., Valli V., Capozzi F. Bioaccessibility of the
Bioactive Peptide Carnosine during in Vitro
Digestion of Cured Beef Meat. J Agric Food
Chem. 2015;63(20):4973-4978.
96. Valli V., Danesi F., Gianotti A., Di Nunzio M.,
Taneyo Saa D.L., Bordoni A. Antioxidative and
anti-inflammatory effect of in vitro digested
cookies baked using different types of flours
and fermentation methods. Food Res Int.
2016; 88(Part B):256-262.
97. Antognoni F., Mandrioli R., Bordoni A., Di
Nunzio M., Viadel B., Gallego E., Villalba MP.,
Tomás-Cobos L., Taneyo Saa D.L., Gianotti A.
Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health
Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads. Nutrients
2017;9(11):E1232.
... They constitute over 60% of the kernel dry weight. Among fatty acids, specifically, oleic acid is the predominant one reaching up to 82.8%, followed by linoleic, palmitic, stearic, and vaccenic acids [85][86][87][88]. A high content in monounsaturated fatty acids makes hazelnut oil very much similar to olive oil, mainly contributing to reducing the risk of coronary heart diseases. ...
... Besides fatty acids, in fact, tocopherols and tocotrienols contained contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Phytosterols can induce significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, phenols can play a key role in cancers prevention, and dietary fibres contained can prevent and mitigate cardiovascular diseases and colon cancer [88]. Hazelnut oil composition makes it extremely suitable for cosmetic uses as well. ...
... Beside the multiple hazelnut skins' utilizations deriving from high phenolics contents, the dietary fibres contained make them useful for pathologies associated with body weight control, for example high cholesterol, and for promoting the in vitro fermentation growth of Lactobacillus plantarum P17630 and Lactobacillus crispatus P17631, which exert a strong prebiotic like effect [168]. Furthermore, extracts of hazelnut roasted skins could significantly decrease the proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line [88]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Corylus avellana L. is one of the most cultivated species in the world. Mainly utilized with the purpose of obtaining food material, hazel trees cannot guarantee constant kernels productions given the threats related to pathogens and to adverse conditions, especially in a globalisation and global changes scenarios. This matter led us to consider the opportunity of using hazel tree in all its parts and for several purposes, due to its multifunctional characteristics. As a pioneer species, it is a precious plant useful for forest restoration purposes and for forest successions/wildlife facilitation. Its roots enter into symbiosis with truffles making this species exploitable for hazelnuts and truffles production. The precious elements contained in what is considered “waste” deriving from hazel crops (i.e., leaves, skins, shells, husks and pruning material), could be reused and valorised in the perspective of a circular economy that is opposed to a linear one. In particular, a list of several phenolic compounds detected in hazelnut shells has been reported in literature to prevent and delay many human diseases due to their antioxidant properties and to free radical scavenging activities, with implications potentially useful even in the fight against COVID-19. All this makes hazel crop by-products interesting to be valorised as a chemical compound source for human health, even more than a biomass fuel or for bio-char applications. The multiple possible uses of the hazel tree would lead to alternative productions than the only nut productions, avoiding significant economic losses, would decrease the cost of disposal of crops residues and would increase the sustainability of agro-ecosystems by reducing, among other things, the production of wastes and of greenhouse gases deriving from the usual burning of residues which often happens directly in fields.
... Hazelnut plays an important role in terms of nutrition and human health due to their content in proteins, fats (mainly oleic and linoleic acids), dietary fiber, vitamins (especially vitamin E), minerals, phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol), and phenolic compounds with antioxidants properties (detailed in Figure 3). Hazelnuts typically consists of 62% fat, 16% protein, and 11% carbohydrate, and its composition can change depending on variety [93,94]. ...
... Hazelnut plays an important role in terms of nutrition and human health due to their content in proteins, fats (mainly oleic and linoleic acids), dietary fiber, vitamins (especially vitamin E), minerals, phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol), and phenolic compounds with antioxidants properties (detailed in Figure 3). Hazelnuts typically consists of 62% fat, 16% protein, and 11% carbohydrate, and its composition can change depending on variety [93,94]. In the group of tree nuts, hazelnut has often been reported as causing allergic reactions [95] with symptoms ranging from mild oral to severe systemic reactions [96]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumption of tree nuts and peanuts has considerably increased over the last decades due to their nutritional composition and the content of beneficial compounds. On the other hand, such widespread consumption worldwide has also generated a growing incidence of allergy in the sensitive population. Allergy to nuts and peanuts represents a global relevant problem, especially due to the risk of the ingestion of hidden allergens as a result of cross-contamination between production lines at industrial level occurring during food manufacturing. The present review provides insights on peanuts, almonds, and four nut allergens—namely hazelnuts, walnuts, cashew, and pistachios—that are likely to cross-contaminate different food commodities. The paper aims at covering both the biochemical aspect linked to the identified allergenic proteins for each allergen category and the different methodological approaches developed for allergens detection and identification. Attention has been also paid to mass spectrometry methods and to current efforts of the scientific community to identify a harmonized approach for allergens quantification through the detection of allergen markers.
... Traditionally, due to the presence of a high quantity of fats, hazelnuts have been prescribed by the general public, but recent epidemiologic and clinical studies have concluded that frequent consumption of nuts has nutritional and health benefits, especially in the reduction of coronary heart diseases (Alphan et al., 1996;Durak et al., 1999;Elvevoll et al., 1990;Garcia et al., 1994). Various research has confirmed the benefits of introducing hazelnuts in human diets due to the presence of fat (around 60%), most of which are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (primarily oleic acid), tocopherol (α-tocopherol), phytosterols (β-sitosterols), polyphenols, and squalene (Di Nunzio, 2019;Mercanligil et al., 2007). Besides the nutritional activities, these hazelnuts are also used as a unique and good flavor ingredient in various foods (Alasalvar et al., 2003(Alasalvar et al., , 2004. ...
Article
Full-text available
Corylus jacquemontii (Decne.) is an important aromatic plant possessing nutritional and various therapeutic properties. This plant has got wide abundance in the Kashmir region with very low care cost. In this study, Soxhlet extraction was used to obtain different seed extracts. The highest yield observed was 32.25% and 30.27% in petroleum ether and acetone extracts, respectively. Gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector was used to determine the fatty acid profile of petroleum ether extract. Unsaturated fatty acids were found in the dominant amount, notably 79.33% oleic acid. The antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigates, and Penicillium marneffei and antioxidant assays such as CAT, APx, SOD, DPPH were observed in petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts. The dominant inhibition against A. niger and A. fumigates was displayed by methanol extract with 16.78 mm and 19.23 mm inhibition zone, respectively, while P. marneffei methanol (20.98 mm) acetone (20.27 mm) extracts were most effective. Moreover, all extracts displayed good antioxidant activities. These results increased the attention towards the importance of the present study.
... The highest content of tocopherols found in HNP concentrate (Table 1) could explain a higher content of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in HNP cheese. Di Nunzio [38] and Lucchetti et al. [39] also found hazelnut peel rich in tocopherols. As expected in dairy products, α-tocopherol was the main isomer of vitamin E in both cheese groups, but the diet also affected α-and γ-tocopherol proportions, in favor of γ-isomer in HNP cheeses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hazelnut peel (HNP), a by-product from the chocolate industry, is considered to be a suitable ingredient to be included in the diet of ruminants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding dairy ewes with a diet containing HNP on ripened cheese quality, including fatty acid (FA) profile, cholesterol, and tocopherol content, as well as stability during storage under commercial conditions. In total, 10 experimental cheeses were produced with bulk milk obtained from ewes fed a commercial concentrate (C group; n = 5) or a concentrate containing 36% HNP in dry matter (HNP group; n = 5). After 40 days of aging, each cheese was sub-sampled into three slices: one was analyzed immediately (C0 and HNP0), and the other two were refrigerated and analyzed after seven days (C7 and HNP7) and 14 days (C14 and HNP14), respectively. Compared to C, HNP cheese had more than twice as many tocopherols and mono-unsaturated FA and respectively 38% and 24% less of cholesterol and saturated FA. Tocopherols and cholesterol levels remained rather stable up to 14 days of storage regardless of the experimental group, suggesting no cholesterol oxidation. Therefore, the inclusion of HNP in ewe diets could be a valid resource to produce cheese with a healthier lipid profile and higher tocopherols content.
... Against the background of a stable tendency to reduce the level of consumption of animal protein, protein-containing byproducts of processing plant materials have been recently considered as promising raw materials for the production of food products of various compositions. To date, with respect to these purposes, soybean processing byproducts have remained the world leader, but potential sources of protein, such as secondary products of processing sesame seeds [3], melon [4], amaranth [5], [6,7], nuts and other non-traditional oilseeds [8][9][10][11][12][13] are also being studied as possible solutions to the raw material issue identified. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite being rich sources of monounsaturated fat and a number of vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients, hazelnuts have received less attention than some other nut types. A qualitative systematic review was carried out to determine the effects of hazelnut consumption on acceptance and markers of cardiometabolic health, including blood lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoproteins A1 and B100, body weight and composition, blood pressure, glycemia, antioxidant status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial function. In total, 22 intervention studies (25 publications) met our inclusion criteria. The findings indicate some improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors; however, limitations in study design mean interpretation is problematic. The inclusion of hazelnuts in the diet did not adversely affect body weight and composition. Acceptance of hazelnuts remained stable over time confirming nut consumption guidelines are feasible and sustainable. Future studies using more robust study designs in a variety of populations are required to draw more definitive conclusions on the health benefits of hazelnut consumption.
Chapter
Hazelnut (Corylusavellana L.) is a very important shelled nut in Turkey as well as in Italy, Azerbaijan, and the USA. It is one of the most widely used nuts worldwide due to its nutritional and taste properties. Because of its health-beneficial properties, it has been designated as a functional food. Hazelnut oil comprises well-proportioned aroma, fatty acid, phenolic, and antioxidant profile are responsible for the protection against detrimental elements particularly the free radicals. This chapter gives an outline of the scientific works available on the biochemical (fatty acids, aroma, key odorants, phenolics), antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of hazelnut oil. Owing to its unique health-beneficial, nutritional, and bioactive properties, hazelnut oil has recently found its place on the vastly competitive global edible oil market.
Article
Full-text available
Tocols are present in various foods, mostly in fruits and in plant seeds. Edible oils are the most important natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are considered beneficial for their antioxidant effect which impacts on prevention of different health conditions. This perspective is addressed to give an updated picture of the tocol occurrence in foods. Moreover, the current state of the art of tocols in updated databases is explored and commented outlining their importance and future trends. 1. Introduction Tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), as shown in Figure 1, are monophenols obtained from 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-phytylchroman, which are applied as food additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries [1]. Some of the chemical characteristics of the tocols include their solubility in polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, chloroform, acetone, surfactants, oils, and ethanol. They are not water soluble, while they are resistant to heat, and acid-stable, although they are instable when exposed to alkali, light, and oxygen [2].
Article
Hazelnut contaminated with aflatoxin (5,10, 25 and 50 ppb) were treated ozone at three different doses and two exposure time (5,10 and 20 ppm with 10 and 20 min) on aflatoxin degradation. The highest peroxide value was reached (12.89 meqO2/kg) 20ppm/20minutes, and the lowest was 5 ppm/20 minutes (3.20 meqO2/kg). The reductions of α‐tocopherol were 15.38‐28.87%, when control 19.14%, and highest reduction were ozone concentration had adverse effect on α‐tocopherol (24.96% 20ppm/10min), 28.87% (20ppm/20 min). Ozonation was not lead to significant changes in color (L*,a*,and b*) and textures. Decrease in aflatoxin B1(AFB1) contents was dependent on increasing ozone concentration, the highest degradation for AFB1(38.96 %) and total aflatoxins(31.35%) were obtained with use of 20 ppm/20 min ozonation. At 5 µg/kg contaminated group AFB1 reduction rate was 19.88% in 5.min. and 32.23% in 20 min. Ozonation, especially 5‐ppm is a innovative for reducing aflatoxin, while maintaining the quality.
Article
European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is the major species of interest for nutritional uses within the Betulaceae family and its nuts are widely used throughout the world in the chocolate, confectionery and bakery industries. Recently his cultivation has been expanded in traditional producer countries as well as established in new places in the Southern Hemisphere, including Chile, South Africa and Australia. Introducing hazelnut in new environments could reduce its productivity, lead the trees to eco‐physiological disorders and exposes the crop to high pressure of common and new pests and diseases. Thus, new approaches in cultivar choice guidance, in the sustainable orchard management and even in nuts storage and kernel quality evaluation are highly required for improving the hazelnut producing and processing chain. The main objective of this study was to systematize the published information regarding the recent findings of the cultural operations that directly influence the nut and kernel quality, support the varietal choice for new plantations and list the recent advances in nut storage and in its quality and safety evaluation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Although selenium is of great importance for the human body, in several world regions the intake of this essential trace element does not meet the dietary reference values. To achieve optimal intake, fortification of bread by using selenium-enriched flour has been put forward. Less is known on the potential effect of sourdough fermentation, which might be worth exploring as the biological effects of selenium strongly depend on its chemical form and sourdough fermentation is known to cause transformations of nutrients and phytochemicals, including the conversion of inorganic selenium into organic selenocompounds. Here we investigated the bio transformation of selenium by sourdough fermentation in a typical Italian flatbread (piadina) made with standard (control) or selenium-enriched flour. The different piadina were submitted to in vitro digestion, and the biological activity of the resulting hydrolysates was tested by means of cultured human liver cells exposed to an exogenous oxidative stress. The use of selenium-enriched flour and sourdough fermentation increased the total content of bioaccessible selenium in organic form, compared to conventional fermentation, and led to protective effects counteracting oxidative damage in cultured cells. The present study suggests that selenium-rich, sourdough-fermented bakery products show promise for improving human selenium nutrition whenever necessary.
Article
Full-text available
Less than 10% of most Western populations consume adequate levels of whole fruits and dietary fiber with typical intake being about half of the recommended levels. Evidence of the beneficial health effects of consuming adequate levels of whole fruits has been steadily growing, especially regarding their bioactive fiber prebiotic effects and role in improved weight control, wellness and healthy aging. The primary aim of this narrative review article is to examine the increasing number of health benefits which are associated with the adequate intake of whole fruits, especially fruit fiber, throughout the human lifecycle. These potential health benefits include: protecting colonic gastrointestinal health (e.g., constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diverticular disease); promoting long-term weight management; reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; defending against colorectal and lung cancers; improving odds of successful aging; reducing the severity of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; enhancing psychological well-being and lowering the risk of depression; contributing to higher bone mineral density in children and adults; reducing risk of seborrheic dermatitis; and helping to attenuate autism spectrum disorder severity. Low whole fruit intake represents a potentially more serious global population health threat than previously recognized, especially in light of the emerging research on whole fruit and fruit fiber health benefits.
Article
Full-text available
Hazelnuts are a well-known source of different healthy molecules. However, only few studies have investigated deeply their amounts considering simultaneously the contribution of the cultivar, the pellicle and the effect of roasting. For such purpose, peeled/unpeeled and raw/toasted samples of “Nocchione”, “Tonda di Giffoni”, “Tonda Gentile delle Langhe” and “Tonda Gentile Romana” hazelnuts were investigated as regards to their fatty acid composition, tocopherols and total phenolic compounds. Our results indicate that all four cultivars contain a high fraction of mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, about 110–210 mg/kg of tocopherols and, when unpeeled, 1250–2100 mg/kg of phenolic compounds. In particular, unpeeled and toasted “Tonda Gentile delle Langhe” hazelnuts contain more than 2 g/kg dry weight of hydrophilic phenolics and more than 200 mg/kg dry weight of tocopherols. The study confirms that the highest concentration of bioactive compounds is contained in hazelnut’s pellicle. Accordingly, a principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that removal of the pellicle is associated with reduced amounts of phenolic compounds and α- and γ-tocopherols. The PCA also indicates that β-tocopherol, together with total fat, are the variables that most characterize the cultivar. Toasting, on the other hand, induces the oxidation of monounsaturated fatty acids, but does not influence the presence of tocopherols and has a positive impact on the presence of phenolic compounds whose concentration significantly increased regardless of kernel’s pellicle.
Article
For many years, anticancer polyphenols have attracted significant attention as substances that prevent tumor growth and progression. These compounds are simple phenolic acids; complex phenolic acids, such as caffeoylquinic acids, rosmarinic acid and its derivatives; stilbenes (resveratrol and piceatannol); flavones; isoflavones (genistein and tectorigenin); and anthocyanins. Some compounds, such as tea and coffee polyphenols, can be produced in large quantities by traditional methods, while many others cannot. Here, we focus on the biotechnological aspects of polyphenol production by cultured plant cells and describe approaches that have been used to obtain high levels of anticancer polyphenols (resveratrol, podophyllotoxin, genistein, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid B, dicaffeoylquinic acids, daidzin, and others). Additionally, we provide our view on bioengineering strategies that could be important for the further improvement of cell biosynthetic characteristics. The main trend is the activation of entire biosynthetic pathways based on a comprehensive knowledge of protein-protein interaction networks involved in the regulation of polyphenol biosynthesis. As an example, we consider the jasmonate subnetwork, which will be increasingly used by plant biotechnologists. The next-generation technologies to sustained polyphenol production are likely to involve manipulations with microRNAs and reproduction of rol-gene effects.
Article
Polyphenols are a large family of phytochemicals with great chemical diversity, known to be bioactive compounds of foods, species, medicinal plants and nutraceuticals. These compounds are ingested through the diet in significant amounts, around 1 g per day, an amount that be may be increased through supplements. The in vitro action of many representative polyphenols has been reported. However, their beneficial effects and their role in modulating the risk of high-prevalence diseases are difficult to demonstrate due to the wide variability of polyphenol structures and bioactive actions; the complexity of estimating the polyphenol content of food as a result of their variability in foods and cooked dishes; the potential modulation of the effects of polyphenols by food matrices; the addition of polyphenols and their synergistic interactions with each other and with other dietary bioactive components; the modulation of polyphenol bioavailability as a consequence of food composition and culinary techniques; their metabolism by the human body and the polyphenol gut microbiota metabolism in each metabotypes. Computational strategies, including virtual screening, shape-similarity-screening and molecular docking, were recently used to identify potential targets of polyphenols and thus gain a better understanding of the therapeutic effects exerted of polyphenols and modify natural polyphenol structures to potentiate specific activities. Here, we present the most relevant current knowledge and propose directions for future research in these fields, from the culinary world to the clinical setting. We hope this commentary will prompt scientists and clinicians to consider the therapeutic value of bioactive polyphenols and help shed some light on how much scientific truth lies in Hippocrates' famous quote: "Let your food be your medicine".
Article
Over the past years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in olive polyphenols due to the recognition of their biological properties and probable role in the prevention of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, the aqueous extract of olive pomace was characterized and used to supplement human intestinal cell in culture (Caco-2). The effect on the cell metabolome and the anti-inflammatory potential were then evaluated. Modification in the metabolome induced by supplementation clearly evidenced a metabolic shift toward a “glucose saving/accumulation” strategy that could have a role in maintaining anorexigenic hormone secretion and could explain the reported appetite-suppressing effect of the administration of polyphenol-rich food. In both basal and inflamed condition, supplementation significantly reduced the secretion of the main pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8. Thus, our data confirm the therapeutic potential of polyphenols, and specifically of olive pomace in intestinal bowel diseases. Although intervention studies are needed to confirm the clinical significance of our findings, the herein reported results pave the road for exploitation of olive pomace in the formulation of new, value-added foods. In addition, the application of a foodomics approach allowed observing a not hypothesized modulation of glucose metabolism.
Article
Squalene is a triterpenic compound found in a large number of plants and other sources with a long tradition of research since it was first reported in 1926. Herein we present a systematic review of studies concerning squalene published in the last eight years. These studies have provided further support for its antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory and anti‐atherosclerotic properties in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, an anti‐neoplastic effect in nutrigenetic‐type treatments, which depend on the failing metabolic pathway of tumors, has also been reported. The bioavailability of squalene in cell cultures, animal models and in humans has been well established, and further progress has been made as regards the intracellular transport of this lipophilic molecule. Squalene accumulates in the liver and decreases hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides, with these actions being exerted via a complex network of changes in gene expression at both transcriptional and post‐transcriptional levels. Its presence in different biological fluids has also been studied. The combination of squalene with other bioactive compounds has been shown to enhance its pleiotropic properties and might lead to the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals to control oxidative stress and, therefore, numerous age‐related diseases in human and veterinary medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Phytosterols (plant sterols) occur in the cells of all plants. They are important structural components that stabilize the biological membranes of plants. Sterols can occur in the "free" unbound form or they can be covalently bound via an ester or glycosidic bond. Since our previous 2002 review on phytosterols and phytosterol conjugates, phytosterol glucosides have been found to be important structural components in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of plant cells, where they are thought to be essential to the function of plasma membrane enzymes and perhaps other proteins. Phytosterols also serve as precursors in the synthesis of important bioactive compounds such as steroidal saponins, steroidal glycoalkaloids, phytoecdysteroids, and brassinosteroids. Methods for the analysis of phytosterols range from traditional gas chromatography of free phytosterols to modern sophisticated forms of mass spectrometry which have been used for the new field of sterol lipidomics, sometimes called "sterolomics." Phytosterol-enriched functional foods first appeared about twenty years ago and many clinical studies have confirmed the low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering properties of various types of phytosterols. In recent years additional clinical studies and more than ten important meta-analyses have provided insights to better understand the cholesterol-lowering and other biological effects of plant sterols.
Article
Background/aim: Due to their unique composition of health-promoting compounds, the consumption of hazelnuts may contribute to the prevention of colon cancer. Materials and methods: Since hazelnuts are often consumed roasted, the impact of different roasting conditions (RC1=140.6°C/25 min, RC2=155.1°C/20 min and RC3=180.4°C/21 min) on chemopreventive effects of in vitro fermented hazelnuts was analyzed in LT97 colon adenoma cells. Results: FS (2.5%) of raw and roasted hazelnuts reduced H2O2-induced DNA damage while 5% FS significantly induced gene expression of SOD2 (3.0-fold) and GSTP1 (2.1-fold). GPx1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (0.6-fold) by FS (2.5%). The growth of LT97 cells was significantly reduced by hazelnut FS in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Hazelnut FS (5%) increased the numbers of early apoptotic cells (9.6% on average) and caspase-3 activities (6.4-fold on average). Conclusion: These results indicate a chemopreventive potential of in vitro fermented hazelnuts which is largely unaffected by the roasting process.
Article
Plant sterols (PS) have been incorporated to foods due to their cholesterol-lowering effect. Because of their low intestinal absorption (0.5–2%), they can reach the colon and exert local actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of individual (β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol) and combined PS in colon cancer cells (Caco-2) at human colonic concentrations after simulated gastrointestinal digestion of a PS enriched milk-based fruit beverage. β-Sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol induced significant cell viability reduction (13–59% vs control), but only stigmasterol produced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (92% vs control). Individual PS induced reversible arrest in phase G0/G1 of the cell cycle, suggesting that they act as cytostatic agents. Combined PS showed a greater effect than individual PS, inducing also cell necrosis and irreversible cell cycle arrest (G0/G1 phase). The consumption of PS-enriched foods therefore could exert a potential preventive effect against colon cancer.