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Strategic Planning of Industrial Heritage Conservation in Yazd with Tourism Approach (Case Study: Textile Factories)

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Yazd city has long been one of the most important producers of handmade textiles in Iran. In the early of twentieth century, textile transformed to industrial setting. With the establishment of large factories, Yazd was recognized as one of the main hubs of textiles production in Iran. Unfortunately, this industry has been declining for decades since, most textile factories have been shut down. The heritage of those days is abandoned valuable buildings in terms of architectural style. This study proposes a strategic plan for conservation of the industrial heritage of Yazd textile factories with the aim of tourism development. The research method is qualitative-quantitative and in terms of purpose is applied. In this study, survey method and SWOT technique were used to collect data and analyze the current situation. Then, the internal factor evaluation matrix including strengths and weaknesses (IFE) and the external factor evaluation matrix including opportunities and threats (EFE) were calculated and based on them, the aggressive, conservative, competitive and defensive strategies were presented. In addition, by analyzing the findings of internal and external evaluation matrix (IE), it became clear that the priority is with aggressive strategies and Yazd textile factories in terms of capacity and potential for tourism development are faced with strength in the internal environment and with opportunity in the external environment. Based on the results, the strategies should be considered, such as holding tours to get acquainted with the industrial heritage, especially the textile industry in Yazd; considering Yazd textile factories as a place for seasonal and regional exhibitions; providing a master plan for the restoration and rehabilitation of textile factories; promoting industrial tourism attractions in Yazd on national and international levels, and conducting conferences to introduce successful experiences in the field of industrial heritage.
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Strategic Planning of Industrial Heritage Conservation in Yazd with
Tourism Approach (Case Study: Textile Factories)
Authors:
MohammadhosseinDehghan Pour Farashah1, Ehsan Aslani2, Mohammad Hosseini3
1Department of Architectural Conservation of Historical Buildings and Urban Areas, School of
Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Art and Architecture, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Tehran, Iran
3Department of Architectural Conservation of Historical Buildings and Urban Areas, School of
Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
hosein66.dehghanpour@gmail.com
ehsan_aslani88@yahoo.com
mohammad3477@gmail.com
Abstract:
Yazd city has long been one of the most importantproducers of handmade textiles in Iran. In the early
of twentieth century, textile transformed to industrial setting. With the establishment of large
factories, Yazd was recognized as one of the main hubs of textiles production in Iran. Unfortunately,
this industry has been declining for decades since, most textile factories have been shut down.The
heritage of those days is abandoned valuable buildings in terms of architectural style.This study
proposes a strategic plan for conservation of the industrial heritage of Yazd textile factories with the
aim of tourism development. The research method is qualitative-quantitative and in terms of purpose
is applied. In this study, survey method and SWOT technique were used to collect data and analyze
the current situation. Then, the internal factor evaluation matrix including strengths and weaknesses
(IFE) and the external factor evaluation matrix including opportunities and threats (EFE) were
calculated and based on them, the aggressive, conservative, competitive and defensive strategies were
presented. In addition, by analyzing the findings of internal and external evaluation matrix (IE), it
became clear that the priority is with aggressive strategiesand Yazd textile factories in terms of
capacity and potential for tourism developmentare faced with strength in the internal environment and
with opportunity in the external environment. Based on the results, the strategies should be
considered, such as holding tours to get acquainted with the industrial heritage, especially the textile
industry in Yazd; considering Yazd textile factories as a place for seasonal and regional exhibitions;
providing a master plan for the restoration and rehabilitation of textile factories; promoting industrial
tourism attractions in Yazd on national and international levels, and conducting conferences to
introduce successful experiences in the field of industrial heritage.
Keywords.Strategic Planning,Industrial Heritage,Conservation,Yazd,Tourism,Textile Factory.
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1. Introduction
Heritage is a key element and an important factor in attracting tourists, and heritage-based tourism has
been eagerly accepted around the world as a way of creating unique experiences for visitors. In this
framework, industrial heritage which is seen as having a significant weight in the construction and
maintenance of a national or local identity like other types of heritage (Palmer, 1999). Industrial
heritage subjects include the material remains of industry such as sites, buildings and architecture,
plants, machinery and equipment. Industrial heritage also consists housing, industrial settlements,
industrial landscapes, products, processes and documentation of the industrial society (Xie, 2006).
The concept of industrial heritage was introduced in the mid-20th century in England in the period
when several industrial buildings and urban landscapes were destroyed.Since then, many efforts have
been made to identify the effects of industrial heritage.Industrial sites are a turning point in human
history.They contain memories of the days that have brought about both progress and annoyance, and
at the same time are a symbol of better life expectancy.Industrial buildings show the technological
development of countries through their architecture and reveal the social and cultural values of their
time.These complexes are quickly demolished due to the loss of industrial use in cities and their social
failure. Transmission of functional spirit and architectural style that belong to global experiences
emphasizes the need to preserve and study these cases. Then it is important, how to conserve the
buildings which are no longer able to adapt to new use (Hanachi and Taymourtash, 2017).
Traditional industry, including many underground sites (such as mines) or on the surface of the earth
(such as factories), offers visitors nostalgic and new experiences. In addition, with the emphasis on
the value of the local industrial past, the transition to tourism may also enhance the identity of the
residents and encourage localization in an exceedingly globalized world. Although there are many
ways to develop regional economics, industrial heritage tourism could be an interesting “new
combination” (Hospers, 2002). Cities and regions with a rich industrial base are the most important
industrial tourism destinations. Industrial tourism is a potential growth sector that matches with their
identity. This section offers opportunities to strengthen their characteristics and image, especially by
organizing their existing assets (Otgaar et al., 2016).
Over the centuries, women with spinning wheels and men in traditional workshops produced diverse
and beautiful textiles from ordinary fabrics such as “Karbas” and “Jim” to fine fabrics like samite and
“Termeh” for courtiers and governors in Yazd city.Furthermore, a variety of rugs and “Zylous” for
mosques and homes were another product of this city which in addition to fulfilling local needs, a
large part of them were exported throughout the country. In the early of twentieth century, by
importation of industrial machinery from Europe and the United States, industrial form dominate at
textile. With the establishment of large factories, Yazd was recognized as one of the main centres of
textiles producers in Iran, and for more than half a century was a major part of the urban economy.
Unfortunately, this industry has been declining for decades since reasons such as wasteful textile
imports and lack of competitiveness, and most textile factories have been shut down.The heritage of
those days is valuable buildings in terms of architectural style, which has been declined by lack of
use.The purpose of this research is to propose a strategic plan for the conservation of the industrial
heritage of Yazd textile factories with the aim of tourism development.2. Type Area, Margins and
Page Numbers
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multiple columns.
2. Literature Review
2.1.Strategic Planning
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In tourism, there are many influential trends that local authorities should be aware of (Zargham
Boroujeni, 2010), because these trends determine the extent of tourism development in each
region.Therefore, it is necessary to seek full cognition of the current situation so that, in addition to
preserving current benefits, the disadvantages of negative drivers will also be reduced and the
conditions for sustainable tourism development will be provided. This requires identifying the internal
and external influential factors. In other words, identifying and analyzing strengths and weaknesses,
opportunities and threats. Consequently, strategic planning will provide practical approaches for
managers and decision makers. These approaches would be able to deal with very complex, uncertain
and unpredictable environments, because strategic planning could play as an effective process in the
context of tourism, taking into account decision-making fields, expressing the reasons for decision-
making and providing executive suggestions (Zamanian et al., 2010). Strategy is the basic pattern of
present and planned objectives (Sarfaraz et al., 2013).
Strategic planning refers to the process of establishing long-term coordination between managerial
goals and changing market opportunities.All practices and operations related to tourism should be
based on a strategic plan. Strategic planning of tourism industry makes governments able to identify
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and use these findings to improve and enhance the
benefits of tourism. Strategic planning of tourism is essential for conservation of attractions and
sustainable development (Asadi, 2011).
2.2.Conservation of Industrial Heritages
Conservation means to maintain and preserve (Petzet, 2004). Conservation of cultural heritage in all
its forms and contexts seeks values that are dependent on heritage features (ICOMOS, 1994). The
purpose of conserving, preserving the authenticity and integrity of the cultural heritage (ICOMOS,
1964).
Managing Resources and Uses, interpret industrial heritage for educational or archaeological purposes
that protects and takes care of the irreplaceable elements of the site, assumes restoration of buildings,
lands, machinery and processes and finds new uses for the elements that are without the industrial
landscape (Alfrey and Putnam, 1992). Stratton (2000) describes the success of the development of the
industrial heritage as follows: “regeneration works best if it is based on broad principles of
conservation, building incrementally on surviving resources in terms of buildings, landscape, and
people”.
By the middle of the twentieth century, historic urban quarters, including industrial sites, were often
considered, and the theme of proposals for clearance and comprehensive redevelopment. However,
the preservation movement in the 1960s also brought a series of problems, most importantly,
limitations on what could be dealt with culturally significant building areas. The movement perceived
that all such spaces could not be considered as museums, so the aim of conservation must adopt with
the need for a healthy socio-economic base in the community. Since the motivations of those who
invest and revitalize historic places are probably different from those initial preservationists who refer
these areas into public awareness (Tiesdell and Oc, 1996), the potential conflicts between different
stakeholders must be regarded (Xie, 2006). Industrial heritage tourism is based on the importance of
creating a sense of place strongly (Gunn and Var, 2002), in which unique, imaginative, authentic,
sustainable, and participative are indispensable (Xie, 2006).
2.3.Industrial Heritage Tourism
Industrial heritage tourism widely includes visiting industrial centres (old places or actually the
current industry which has a history in that place) to expand the cultural experiences of tourists in
learning about the economic activity of other peoples, past and present. This sector is partly related to
a type of visitors who are looking for a new type of experiences or emotions and have a special
interest in the technology on show and the socio-economic history of the places being visited (Vargas-
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Sánchez et al., 2007).
Industrial heritage tourism refers to the development of touristic activities and industries on man-
made sites, buildings and landscapes that emanated from the industrial processes of early periods. The
emergence of industrial tourism has been assumed by many people to be a mixed blessing for the host
community, because the benefits and costs are consistent in practice. Industrial tourism is often noted
as a means by which urban areas can compensate the effects of economic reconstruction (Harris,
1989, Oglethorpe, 1987), increase the tourists presence in cities and regions (Kerstetter et al., 1998)
and improve the image of the region and to act as a public relations tool to nullify public biases
towards industrial areas in decline (Goodey, 1994, Harris, 1989).
2.4.Implication of SWOT Analyses
On the issue of industrial heritage and the use of tourism using the SWOT approach, there are two
main researchs in Iran that include:
Pahlevanzadeh et al. (2018) in an article using a strategic planning approach (Internal Factor
Evaluation Matrix, External Factor Evaluation Matrix and SWOT model) and using SPSS software,
through library method and field studies (Panel of Experts), have developed and prioritized the most
important strategies of tourism development in the Isfahan Risbaf Factory. The results of this study
indicate that considering the tourism situation in the Isfahan Risbaf Factory, its extraction strategy is
growth and construction strategy and focus strategies include market penetration, market development
and service development should be implemented.
Ayenehchi and Qasemi (2015) have reviewed contemporary industrial complexes, factories and
workshops in Iran, which are currently only a few and are facing serious destruction. In this research,
the current status of contemporary factories of Tehran has been analysed by identifying internal and
external factors using the SWOT method. And finally, by understanding the effect of each effective
factor, using their analysis appropriate strategies are presented.Finally, it is concluded that in Iran, the
revival of the industrial heritage and that part of the monuments with a rich history of contemporary
architecture which are facing destruction can be used to prevent abandonment and to regulate the
existing status of industrial complexes for the development of tourism industry.
3. Case Study
3.1.Genesis and Development of the Textile Industry in Yazd
“Marco Polo” writes in his travelogue: Yasdi also is properly in Persia; it is a good and noble
city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue
known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of(Yule, 1875).
Barbaro and Contarini (1873) write: “The people of this city are all engaged in textile and texture of
various fabrics. They import silk from Astarabad and Joghatai County and through Baku Sea (Caspian
Sea)”. Yazdi people, with their own effort, export a lot of these textiles to India, Iran, Joghatai, China,
part of the Khitan, Russia and Turkmenistan. Those who buy Syrian soft silk textiles, if visit Yazd,
will choose the Yazdi silk textiles... it is said that Yazd city needs 600 kilograms of silk every day (as
cited in Qalamsiah, 2000).
This industry, even during the Mongol invasion of Iran, did not decline. During this period, Yazd city
was considered as a medium-sized city where is the centre of producing silk goods and textiles for
exporting to major global markets (Ravandi, 1980).
Cotton cultivation and production of silk also were flourishing in the city with a good quality, and
many people worked on winding silk. In this city, sericulture (silkworm breeding) was also common;
but since this industry was not able to meet the needs of textile production in Yazd, a portion of the
silk needs was imported from the adjacent cities by the weavers. Nevertheless, silk could be
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considered as the major production of Yazd and the best silk in Iran; so that MacGregor (1879) writes
in this regard: “One of the major productions of Yazd is silk. Its raw materials are often brought from
Gilan. This silk is converted into various fabrics, the most beautiful of them, which is known as
Hossein GholiKhani. Its quality is excellent; the colour is mild and is very suitable for women's wear”
(as cited in Ramazankhani, 2008).
This situation continued for a long time, but with the advent and expansion of knitting machines in
Yazd province, the local textile handicrafts completely changed. The most hands knitting workshops
were shut down due to lack of competition and adequate support, and the number was minimized
since 1963 (Ramazankhani, 2008). Also the emergence and prevalence of wide single-phase
automatic machines for knitting in the province, had a significant influence on the textile production
especially in Termeh textile.Then the number of Termeh Weaving handy machines reduced from 300
to 80 in 1971 and it was completely vanished 5 years later, so this year can be considered the end of
life of handmade Termeh and other textiles in Yazd. At that time, the Yazd's capitalists thought about
establishing and developing modern textile industries and setting up factories .Eventually, they
managed to launch three big factories within a few years.If we added three other big factories which
were established between 1949 through 1955 in the total factories before that time and also consider
the increase of manual textile machinery in these few years; Yazd was the second-largest city of Iran
in the textile industry field (Ramazankhani, 2016).
3.2.Introduction of Yazd Textile Factories
The textile factories of Yazd (Table 1) using modern technology from the beginning of twentieth
century and based on traditional and historical experiences, were established in the form of buildings
which had a unique pattern and structure during its time.
Table 1: List of Textile Factories of Yazd (Ramazankhani, 2016)
Name of Factory
View
Establishment
Year
Current
Condition
1
Iqbal
1931
Reused
6
2
SaadatNasadjan
1934
Abandoned
3
Dorakhshan and
Herati
1935
Abandoned
4
SeyedMoahammad
Agha
1948
Abandoned
5
Dastbafan
1948
Abandoned
6
Yazdbaf
1956
Active
7
7
Jonub
1959
Abandoned
8
Afshar
1963
Active
Although the spatial organization of these buildings was influenced by the industrial production
method based on modern technology; traditional Iranian architecture could be recognized from their
forms and spaces. The signs of them are as follows:
Use of traditional spaces such as “Shabestan”, central courtyard, Portico and so on in a new
combination.
Implication of Iranian architectural elements such as Wind catcher, Minaret, “Iwan” and etc.
Of course, these elements have been often changed in industrial buildings from the term of
formal and functional details (for example, the minaret has transformed to the factory
chimney).
The use of traditional technology, such as vault system with specific structural elements,
including brick column, pillar, vault, arc and dome.
The use of traditional decorations on the facade of buildings, office spaces, entrances and etc.
But over the years, the most beautiful industrial buildings which were created by skilled and local
architects who used traditional patterns in Yazd declined quickly and these heritages (except Iqbal
factory) were not protected (Ramazankhani, 2016).
4. Methodology
In this research, after field and survey studies and with the help of SWOT analysis method, the
internal and external factors affecting the conservation of Yazd textile factories with tourism approach
were identified. According to the severity of the effect, each of the factors were scored and
weighted.
The scores reflect the affect intensity of factors, thus scores 1 (low negative affect) and 2 (high
negative affect) were assigned to weaknesses and threats, and score 3 (low positive affect) and 4 (high
positive affect) were assigned to strengths and opportunities. For weighting each of the factors, the
weights were given from range 0 (no matter) to 1 (very important). Then the average of scores and
weights were calculated individually. Since the total average weights should be equal to 1, the
following equation was used for normalization:
𝑑𝑛𝑖 =𝑑𝑖
𝑑𝑖
𝑛
𝑖=1
Where 𝑑𝑖 is the initial weight-average (not normalised) of each of the internal or external factors,
𝑑𝑖
𝑛
𝑖=1 is the sum of the averages of the internal or external factors and 𝑑𝑛𝑖 is their final weight after
normalization. To determine the final score of each factor, the final weight was multiplied by the
average score of that factor.
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Then, the final scores of the internal factors in the internal factors evaluation matrix (IFE) and the
external factors in the external factors evaluation matrix (EFE) were individually summed up, which
these numbers indicate the current status of textile factories conservation in Yazd. In the next step, the
initial strategies were compiled using the SWOT matrix into four categories, including offensive,
conservative, competitive and defensive. Finally, according to the total final scores of the external and
internal factors in the IE matrix, it was specified which type of strategies have priority. The steps of
the study are shown in (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Research model of the study
5. Findings
5.1.Internal Factors Evaluation Matrix (IFE) and External Factors Evaluation Matrix (EFE)
All internal and external factors do not have the same importance, so all of these factors must be
evaluated and most important factors identified. Strategic planners can evaluate the economic, social,
cultural, ecological, environmental, political, and other factors using the External Factor Evaluation
matrix and also using Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix, they can identify and evaluate the
relationships between the different subjects and provide solutions for them (David, 2011).
The sum of the final scores of the factors in the IFE matrix is the total final scores of the internal
factors, and the sum of the final scores of the factors in the EFE matrix is the total final scores of the
external factors, which is a number in the range of 1 to 4 and the average is 2.5 as presented in (Tables
2 and 3).
Table 2: Internal factors evaluation matrix (IFE)
Average of
score
Weighted
average
Final
weight
Final
score
Strengths
S1
Dispersion of textile factories in the
city
3.333
0.400
0.041
0.136
S2
Broad yard of textile factories
3.666
0.533
0.055
0.201
S3
Unique style of industrial architecture
of textile factories
3.666
0.766
0.079
0.289
S4
Adaptive reuse experience in one of
the textile factories
3.666
0.566
0.058
0.212
S5
Alive retired staffs who were
3.666
0.500
0.051
0.186
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formerly employed in textile factories
S6
Convenient distance and access to
tourist attractions
3.666
0.333
0.034
0.124
S7
Capability for adapting all types of
tourism in terms of purpose
4
0.466
0.048
0.192
S8
Specific ownerships without
opponents
3
0.433
0.044
0.132
S9
Existence of appropriate urban
infrastructure within the textile
factories area
3.333
0.433
0.044
0.146
S10
Inscription of the historic city of
Yazd on UNESCO's World Heritage
List
4
0.833
0.086
0.344
S11
Private sector willingness for
investing on adaptive reuses
3.333
0.166
0.017
0.056
Weaknesses
W1
Large floor area of textile factories
1
0.333
0.034
0.034
W2
Lack of old factories machineries
2
0.633
0.065
0.130
W3
Lack of proper maintenance of
existing factories buildings
2
0.700
0.072
0.144
W4
Lack of documentation and
compilation of relevant historical
documents
1.333
0.700
0.072
0.095
W5
Lack of public awareness about the
importance of industrial heritage in
Yazd
2
0.633
0.065
0.130
W6
Multiplicity of textile factories more
than Yazd city demands
1
0.266
0.027
0.027
W7
Lack of governmental supports in
helping the textile industry
2
0.933
0.096
0.192
Total
9.627
1
2.770
Table 3: External factors evaluation matrix (EFE)
Factors
Average
of score
Weighted
average
Final
weight
Final
score
Opportunities
O1
Reflects the industrial identity of the
historic city of Yazd
3.666
0.666
0.089
0.326
O2
Adaptation to the historical landscape of
Yazd
4
0.733
0.098
0.392
O3
Ability to allocate large-scale land use at
the regional level
3.666
0.400
0.053
0.194
O4
Acceptability of tourists, especially those
interested in industrial heritage on a
global scale
4
0.700
0.093
0.372
O5
Possibility of balancing tourism
development in Yazd city and reduction
of pressure in high season
3
0.600
0.080
0.240
O6
Ease in the process of planning and
implementing proposals
3.333
0.400
0.053
0.176
Threats
T1
Closure of existing textile factories
2
0.766
0.102
0.204
T2
Abandon and non-use of textile factories
for decades
2
0.666
0.089
0.178
10
T3
Lack of cooperation between
organizations and the lack of proper
planning for the conservation of textile
factories
1.666
0.766
0.102
0.169
T4
Possibility of forgetting collective
memories and creating a historic gap
1.333
0.866
0.115
0.153
T5
Destruction of buildings affiliated to
textile factories
1.333
0.900
0.120
0.159
Total
7.463
1
2.563
5.2.Compiling and Matching Strategies
At this step, initial strategies are compiled through the SWOT matrix (Table 4). Regarding the current
situation, four categories of strategy can be compiled:
Offensive strategies (SO) which utilize the external opportunities using the internal strengths.
Conservative strategies (WO) which improve the internal weaknesses using the external
opportunities.
Competitive strategies (ST) that reduce the effect of external threats using the internal
strengths.
Defensive strategies (WT) that direct at reducing the internal weaknesses and avoiding the
external threats (Golkar, 2005).
Table 4: Recommended strategies based on SWOT matrix
Internal environment
Strengths (S)
Weaknesses (W)
Offensive strategies (SO)
Conservative strategies (WO)
External environment
Opportunities (O)
- Holding tours to get acquainted with
the industrial heritage, especially the
textile industry in Yazd;
- Considering Yazd textile factories as a
place for seasonal and regional
exhibitions;
- Providing a master plan for the
restoration and rehabilitation of textile
factories;
- Promoting industrial tourism
attractions in Yazd on national and
international levels;
- Conducting conferences to introduce
successful experiences in the field of
industrial heritage.
- Holding workshops for local people to raise
public awareness about values of the industrial
heritage;
- Adapting valuable factories to memorial
museums of textile history;
- Announcing public calls for collection of
documents related to the textile industry in
Yazd;
- Providing financial facilities to the private
sector interested in investing in this sector.
Competitive strategies (ST)
Defensive strategies (WT)
Threats (T)
- Using retired textile workers in jobs
which are created after the regeneration
of the factories;
- Adapting textile factories to cheap
accommodations.
- Holding public competitions in textile
factories with the aim of keeping alive
memories of the industrial heritage in Yazd city;
- Establishing workgroup on conservation of the
industrial heritage in cooperation with the
involved organizations and departments.
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5.3.Internal-External matrix (IE)
The total final score of the internal factors and the total final score of the external factors are
transferred to the IE matrix (Figure 2). In this matrix, which is similar to a mathematical coordinate
system, IFE is the x-axis (horizontal axis) and EFE is the y-axis (vertical axis). The point of
intersection of the two-axes represents current strategic situation.
Figure 2: Internal-External matrix (IE)
6. Conclusion
In this study, textile factories of Yazd city were evaluated by the SWOT method. For this purpose, a
list containing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats was prepared in order to obtain the
impact of each of the internal and external factors. Then, the final scores of the internal factors in the
IFE matrix and the external factors in the EFE matrix were calculated to conserve the textile factories
in Yazd city in direction of tourism. In the next step, 13 initial strategies were compiled into four
categories, including SO strategy for turning opportunities into strengths, WO for converting
weaknesses into opportunities, ST for turning threats into opportunities, and WT strategies to
eliminate weaknesses and threats. According to the results of the IE matrix, Yazd textile factories in
terms of capacity and potential for tourism developmentare faced with strength in the internal
environment and with opportunity in the external environment, and offensive strategies include
“holding tours to get acquainted with the industrial heritage, especially the textile industry in Yazd”,
“considering Yazd textile factories as a place for seasonal and regional exhibitions”, “providing a
master plan for the restoration and rehabilitation of textile factories”, “promoting industrial tourism
attractions in Yazd on national and international levels”, and “conducting conferences to introduce
successful experiences in the field of industrial heritage” have priority. Also, the values of IFE= 2.770
and EFE= 2.563 in the IE matrix indicate that the internal factors are in a better situation than the
average and the external factors are in a situation close to the average. Hence, competitive strategies
include “using retired textile workers in jobs which are created after the regeneration of the factories”
and “adapting textile factories to cheap accommodations” are at the second level of priority. It is
suggested that in the future researches, the internal strengths and weaknesses factors and the external
opportunities and threats affecting the conservation of textile factories in Yazd should be evaluated by
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more experts and proper strategies should be compiled according to the new requirements. Other
researchers can extend the effective factors, and use methods such as the quantitative strategic
planning matrix (QSPM) to evaluate alternative set of strategies and select the best strategy from
among them. The findings and results of this research can be considered as a basis for local policy
makers, especially government organizations such as the Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism
Organization and Yazd Municipality within the desired range.
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8. Biography
MohammadhosseinDehghan Pour Farashah received his M.A. in Preservation and Restoration of
Urban Heritage from the University of Tehran, Iran, in 2016. He has worked previously as a
cooperator in proposal projects of the Historic City of Yazd and Qanat for inscription in UNESCO's
World Heritage List. Also, he has experience and knowledge in the field of education of tourism and
tourism services. His main research interest includes cultural tourism in the context of historical
buildings and fabrics.
Ehsan Aslani is currently a Ph.D. Candidate at the Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic
Azad University, Iran. He has interest in urban management and planning, especially with regard to
tourism development.
Mohammad Hosseinireceived his M.A. in Preservation and Restoration of Urban Heritage from the
University of Tehran, Iran, in 2017.He has worked previously as a cooperator in proposal projects of
the Historic City of Yazd for inscription in UNESCO's World Heritage Listand now he is the cultural
and tourism advisor of the Islamic Council of Yazd.
... The large-scale factories that began to arise in Yazd in the early part of the 20th century were contextualized and adapted to incorporate social-cultural forms and functions ( Table 2). The Yazdi karkhanehs, known as large-scale factories, were able to maintain their existing vernacular architecture almost through to the 1970s [46]. Eventually, however, as state-of-the-art industrial technologies increasingly entered the city, factories lost their identity and harmony along with the existing historic urban texture. ...
... Many other new buildings and architectures were affected by these modernizing technologies as well. New textile manufacturing machineries and industrial forms began to be increasingly imported from Europe and the United States as the 20th century progressed [46]. With the introduction of these new western technologies in Yazd, textile manufacturing expanded into a commercial industry, and newer, more modern factories appeared. ...
... With the introduction of these new western technologies in Yazd, textile manufacturing expanded into a commercial industry, and newer, more modern factories appeared. The first new industrial buildings built close to the end of old historic residential neighborhoods retained some vernacular accents, for example, the use of a central courtyard, portico, badgir or wind-catcher, as well as traditional techniques such as brick columns, vaults, and domes [46] (Table 2). These early factories reveal an industrial process incorporating vernacular urban texture with vernacular architecture and hired local weavers. ...
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