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Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu

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Abstract

This paper presents a way of conceptualization of the Levinsonian Dream in relation to fatherhood and describes its shape in men at the novice phase in the following aspects: family planning, fatherhood valuing, one’s own preparation to fatherhood, taking part in a child’s life, and the relationship between fatherhood and other men activities. Research based on the author’s own survey concerning the Dream in relation to fatherhood was conducted on a sample of 33 male students aged 22–29. Qualitative and quantitative analysis has shown a substantial differentiation of men in terms of the extension, coherence, order, and realism of the Dream in relation to their future fatherhood. Rarely it constituted the main part of a holistic Dream describing the vision of their adult life, and in most cases it contained elements derived from both traditional and modern models of the father’s role.
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* 


 


 
 

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




Abstract. 



 


    



Keywords: 

WPROWADZENIE
   
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 
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 
Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
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F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera



  

-


-





ROZWOJOWE ZNACZENIE MARZENIA


-


-
-
-




 -


-

-

 
 



-
   
  -
-

  
 

 
-
-





-
 -


Dream
  


-

-
-


  






  
-

 

-

-
 

 



-

-


-
Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu



-
-

  
  

-
-
-


-

-
-




-



  


-

 


  -




 
-
 
 

-

  
-
-

  
 
 -


-


  -
 
responsible fathering-
positively involved
fatheringhands-
-on fathering
nurturant fathering-
generative fathering
-

-
-

 -

 
   

-




PROBLEM BADAWCZY
 
-

 
 
 

 -

-

-
 
 
Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera
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

-
-

 
  




-
    

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
  


-
 

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-
-
  
-



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




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

   
-

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  

-
  


-


 


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

 

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-
-

-



-


 -

M SD 

  
   -

  -
-
  

-


-

  
 


-

-

-


Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu

I PROCEDURA BADANIA

-
-






-

-

  


-
  -
 

-

-

-



   

-



-


  

 
  -
    
    


  








 
 
-




-
 


 
-


 

 
-


  

 

  
      
-






zawodowe    
 
 

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera

WYNIKI

 -


 
 
-
-


-
   -
  -


  
  


-




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
  -






-



 -





-

  


-

-

-


PLANOWANIE RODZINY

-



    
  
    
 
-
 

    

  

   


-


-
SD =
SD =

-




  

  
-
Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu
   
-
 -




   
-


-
-

-


-

-



-
   


-
 




  


i zawodowa
-
 
  








 
 

  
 









Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera


-




-



  

-


 
-


 
-


 


-
 




-


-


-


-
-


-

-





 


 
 
 
 
 

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu

  




-


  
-


-
-
-



-






-
endowe  







-



 
-

-






-



-
  
 

-
-

-



-


-

-
  

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera

-
-
 -
M = 
SD = 
M = SD = M
= SD = 
-
 




  
    

 




  

-

-
 

-


-

-




-
-


-
-



  

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu
  






-


-


-



-


-










-





  -
SD 

-



-

-






Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera

  

-



 
-
wanie

-

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
-

zasady

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
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-


-




-
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 
-

-

-
-


-


-




-

-
  

-
-


-




-


-


-






-


Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu
KONSEKWENCJE BYCIA OJCEM
-
-

  -
-
 -
   



   
 -
-


-
  




  

-













-


-


-




-

-
-






-







-

-
 
Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera

-
-

-

-
   
    -



-

 -


     



  

-
-





-



-









-

-


-







Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu



SD 

SD   -
-
SD
  in vitro
SD -


-
SD 
DYSKUSJA






-


-




  





 













-








-

 








  

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera
-

-
 







-


-
 
-
  

-



  -
 

-
  

-
-


-



 



   

-
-






  

-
   
 -





 
-
-



-


  
  


 
 
 


-
-


-


 



-
-






Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu


-


-

    
-



  
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
  
-





  

-
-

   


  


-


    
  
  


  
-


   
 -


-

-

 

  





-

 

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
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
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   
 
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
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  
-


  



Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera
-
-


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

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
   
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
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-




-



-



-

 
-


-


-


BIBLIOGRAFIA

Obraz mężczyzny w polskich mediach: prawda, fałsz, stereotyp.



Dyskursy o płci i rodzinie w polskich telesagach. Analiza seriali obyczajowych naj-
popularniejszych na początku XXI wieku

  
Psychologia Rozwo-
jowa
,

 
Zaangażowane rodzicielstwo a autokreacyjny aspekt rozwoju dorosłych.




On bez tajemnic. Problemy, analizy, perspek-
tywy
,


Leksykon psychologii rozwoju człowieka


InterAlia.
Pismo poświęcone studiom queer
,




Studia Socjologiczne
,


Historia ojców i ojcostwa

Psychologia Rozwojowa


Scandinavian Journal of Caring
Sciences



Roczniki Socjologii Rodziny
,

-
  
Dziecko Krzywdzone. Teoria, badania,
praktyka
,


Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W

Levinsonowskie Marzenie w odniesieniu do ojcostwa. Badanie studentów w fazie nowicjatu

Post-
awy rodzicielskie współczesnych ojców
,


 
Dorosłość jako spełnienie. Drogi i zagrożenia rozwoju człowieka w okresie
dorosłości.


Journal of Family Psychol-
ogy
,


 
Wizja własnego ojcostwa u mężczyzn w późnej adolescencji i wczesnej dorosłości.

   

Kobiety i mężczyźni. Różnice, podobieństwa
,

.

   

On bez tajemnic. Problemy, analizy, perspektywy
,


Psychologiczny obraz ojca w biegu życia.


A  American Psycholo-
gist,  

  
Human Reproduc-
tion
,



The Seasons of a Man’s Life


American Psychologist
,


Perspektywy temporalne młodzieży. Wybrane uwarunkowania



What Women (and Men) Wants: Births, Policies and
Choices.

    

On bez tajemnic. Problemy, analizy, perspektywy
,


Father-
ing
,



Family Relations
,


So-
ciology
,


Zeszyty Naukowe. Instytut Statystyki i Demograi SGH
,


 
Involved Fathering and Men’s Adult Development: Provisional Balances.



Młodzi Polacy u progu nadchodzącego wieku,



Roczniki Socjologii Rodziny
,


Marzenia dzienne



Gender Medicine
,


    
Sexual & Reproductive
Healthcare
,


Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing,

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
F I R S T V I E W
 Kamil Janowicz, Lucyna Bakiera


Ojcostwo dzisiaj,


Psychologia

-

International Journal of Mens’ Health
,



The European Journal of
Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
,



Journal of Marriage and Family

,


Dziecko krzywdzone. Teoria, badania, prak-
tyka

Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable.
The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in future
... Ukierunkowują one działanie jednostki i nie są pozbawione realizmu, w przeciwieństwie do mrzonek, które dotyczą zamiarów mało realnych lub nawet niemożliwych do realizacji (Janowicz i Bakiera, 2018b). W tym drugim ujęciu, można by utożsamić marzenia z celami życiowymi i uznać, że mogą one posiadać istotną wartość motywacyjną, nadając kierunek aktywności jednostki. ...
Thesis
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1) Aim of the research. The research problem was related to the role of prospective thinking for emerging adults’ development. The main subject of the study was the vision of one’s adult life, defined as the anticipation (Katra, 2008a), and, to be more precise, non-specific simulation of one’s future (Szpunar et al., 2014b). The main goals of the study were: a) explore the vision of one’s adult life in emerging adults, including describing its content, and structure and changes in this vision over time; b) investigating relations between the chosen factors and the vision of one’s adult life in emerging adults; c) verifying if these factors are predictors of changes in the vision on one’s adult life; d) analyzing relations between the characteristic of the vision of one’s adult life and identity development, and meaning in life; e) verifying if changes in this vision are related to changes in identity and meaning in life. 2) Material and method. This study was longitudinal. The second measurement was conducted 9-10 months after the first one. In the first measurement, 299 emerging adults aged 17 to 27 were recruited, and 177 of them also took part in the second part of the study. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, data were gathered via the internet. Participants were asked to write about their predictions about their future, adult life. The adequately prepared judges coded these written answers. Data were gathered through standardized questionnaires (Dimension of Identity Development Scale [DIDS], Meaning in Life Questionnaire [MLQ], Portrait Values Questionnaire [PVQ-RR], Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI], Future Time Perspective Questionnaire [FTPQ]) and extended sociodemographic survey. 3) Results. Results of the study indicate that emerging adults have moderately extended and detailed vision of their adult life. The most frequently represented (and mostly detailed described) aspects of life are work, intimate relationships, residence, and parenthood. The vision of one’s adult life seems to be stable over the last year of education in high school/ at university. The conducted analyses have revealed that vision of one’s adult life is at most moderately related to time perspective and life values. Additionally, various factors analyzed in this study seem not to be strong predictors of changes in the vision of one’s adult life. Another finding of this study is that forming a more extended and detailed vision of one’s adult life, stronger ease in recalling and describing it, and having a more positive emotional attitude toward it are related to having a more matured identity and higher meaning in life. Finally, it was observed that changes in the vision of one’s adult life (especially in the subjective attitude toward it) are related to changes in identity and meaning in life. 4) Conclusions. Many emerging adults can not predict their future, adult life, and developing its simulation. The vision of one’s adult life in emerging adults seems to be weakly related to life values, but in some aspects, it reflects stereotypes of gender roles. According to the findings of this study, it may be claimed that difficulties in developing the vision of one’s adult life may be the effect of poorly extended future time perspective, excessive focus on the present, and lack of engagement in identity development. Difficulties in achieving a matured identity may also 8 result from difficulties in developing the vision of one’s adult life. Gathered data indicate mutual relationships between the process of identity development and forming the vision of one’s adult life. The findings of this study shed light on the topic which was rarely explored before, which is forming the vision of one’s adult life—also concerning factors related to its development and the role of this vision for identity development and meaning in life. Results of this study may be applied to the youth’s mental health prevention, especially in the area of identity development.
Chapter
The article presents theoretical considerations on the development of childhood memory among adults. It was assumed that a personal picture of past experiences cannot be regarded as a collection of single memories (Fivush, 2011), and one's own childhood is constructed using narrative schemes in relation to life story and current development (Bluck, Habermas, 2001). Following the concepts of autobiographical memory (Conway, Singer, Tagini, 2004) and narrative identity (McAdams, McLean, 2013), possible directions of hypotheses have been defined, to be verified in empirical research, whereas two basic characteristics of childhood memory have been selected: significance and coherence of the image of the period of life. Processes of forgetting as well as gaining new experiences in adulthood suggests that once experienced, childhood becomes a less important part of life. However, research on the reminiscence effect shows that the importance of early experiences is shaped by the time they are remembered and remains in the course of life, therefore it should be expected that the personal image of childhood remains unchanged, revealing the perspective of the child. On the other hand, concepts of narrative identity indicate that childhood memories are constantly being reworked in the global pattern of autobiography during the adult development, making them an increasingly important and cognitively better elaborated part of life story (McAdams, 2006; Pennebaker, 2000; Rubin, Dennis, Beckham, 2011), however, there are also arguments indicating that differentiation of themes in autobiography and their qualitative changes are more typical (e.g. Crossley, 2003; Woods, 2011). In conclusion, the discussion has shown that the current state of theoretical knowledge does not provide a clear answer to the question about the direction of development of childhood memory during adulthood, therefore further exploration and investigations from the narrative perspective are needed. Przedmiotem tekstu są rozważania teoretyczne dotyczące rozwoju pamięci własnego dzieciństwa u osób dorosłych. Założono, że osobisty obraz przeszłych doświadczeń nie może być traktowany jako zbiór pojedynczych wspomnień (Fivush, 2011), a własne dzieciństwo jest konstruowane za pomocą schematów narracyjnych w odniesieniu do historii życia i bieżącego rozwoju (Bluck, Habermas, 2001). Na podstawie koncepcji pamięci autobiograficznej (Conway, Singer, Tagini, 2004) i tożsamości narracyjnej (McAdams, McLean, 2013) określono możliwe kierunki hipotez, które powinny zostać zweryfikowane w badaniach empirycznych, przy czym ograniczono się do dwóch podstawowych charakterystyk pamięci dzieciństwa: istotności i spójności obrazu okresu życia. Procesy zapominania i zyskiwanie nowych doświadczeń w dorosłości, sugerują, że przeżyte dzieciństwo staje się mniej istotną częścią życia. Badania nad efektem reminiscencji pokazują z kolei, że znaczenie wczesnych doświadczeń kształtowane jest w czasie ich zapamiętywania i utrzymuje się w biegu życia, stąd należałoby się spodziewać, że osobisty obraz dzieciństwa pozostaje niezmienny ujawniając perspektywę dziecka. Z kolei koncepcje tożsamości narracyjnej wskazują, że doświadczenia dziecięce są wraz z rozwojem w dorosłości wciąż na nowo opracowywane w globalnym wzorcu autobiografii, przez co mogą stawać się coraz istotniejszą i lepiej opracowaną poznawczo częścią historii życia. W podejściu narracyjnym w psychologii dotychczas zakładano, że wyrazem tych zmian i pożądanym kierunkiem rozwoju jest większa spójność historii życia (McAdams, 2006; Pennebaker, 2000; Rubin, Dennis, Beckham, 2011), jednakże istnieją również argumenty, wskazujące, że rozwojowe jest różnicowanie się wątków w autobiografii i ich jakościowe zmiany (np. Crossley, 2003; Woods, 2011). Przeprowadzone rozważania ukazały, że obecny stan wiedzy teoretycznej nie daje jednoznacznej odpowiedzi na pytanie o kierunek rozwoju pamięci dzieciństwa w dorosłości i konieczna jest dalsza eksploracja i badania w nurcie narracyjnym.
Article
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The text describes the question of gender roles individualisation and their redefinition in relation to the notion of family. The analysis focuses on a new vision of fatherhood, i.e. a model that allows male care and sensitivity, which translates into active and committed child care (“caring masculinity”). The article is the analysis of selected Internet blogs and portals edited by men – source that will serve as material for reflection on both the condition of the father in contemporary Poland and dilemmas related to this.
Article
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[Scroll down for English version] Podstawowym celem niniejszego artykułu jest pogłębienie wiedzy na temat opóźniania rodzicielstwa w Polsce po 1990 roku. W literaturze socjologicznej, demograficznej i ekonomicznej zostało wymienionych wiele czynników, potencjalnie odpowiedzialnych za ten proces. Jednak nadal brakuje nam wiedzy na temat znaczenia tych czynników i ich roli w indywidualnym procesie podejmowania decyzji o momencie urodzenia dziecka. W prezentowanych badaniach podjęta została próba wypełnienia tej luki poprzez analizę jakościową 48 wywiadów pogłębionych, przeprowadzonych w Warszawie, w latach 2004-2005. W prezentowanych wynikach, aspekty materialne, silnie związane z pracą zawodową, jawią się jako kluczowe czynniki odpowiedzialne za opóźnianie rodzicielstwa. Według respondentów, nie są to jednak czynniki, które mogłyby prowadzić do bezdzietności. Wiek kobiety wyznacza granicę odkładania w czasie decyzji o rodzicielstwie oraz jest ważnym moderatorem, wpływającym na ocenę pozostałych czynników. The main goal of the article is to extend our knowledge on the postponement of childbearing in Poland after 1990. In sociological, demographic or economic literature there are listed numerous factors which could be responsible for this process. Nonetheless, we still lack understanding of what is the meaning of the various factors for young people and how they influence their decision-making on timing of childbearing. An attempt was made to fill this gap by qualitative analyses of 48 in-depth interviews, conducted in Warsaw, in 2004-2005. The results show that it is mainly the material aspects, closely linked to employment, that are responsible for postponement of childbearing. Nevertheless, in the respondents’ opinion, these factors are not likely to lead to ultimate childlessness. Woman’s age sets a limit to the postponement and acts as an important moderator. It modifies evaluations of other factors important for childbearing.
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In order to examine the influence of the father's personality, the infant's temperament, the marital relationship, and the work-family interface on observed father-infant interaction and reports of paternal responsibility during the infancy period, 54 dual-earner and 65 single-earner families were studied. A major goal was to explore whether specific determinants were more successful in predicting fathering in dual-earner as opposed to single-earner families (i.e., contextual specificity) and whether the prediction of fathering differed as a function of developmental period (i.e., developmental specificity). Results indicated that personality characteristics of the father were important in predicting the father's responsibility for child care in single-earner families but not in dual-earner families. The contextual factors of marriage and work were influential in predicting fathering in both dual- and single-earner households. There was no indication that the determinants differentially predicted fathering across the 3-month and 9-month measurement occasions. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of demonstrating empirically that the prediction of fathering may differ as a function of family context or developmental period.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This article explores men’s articulations and practices of gender through transition to first-time fatherhood. Using qualitative longitudinal data, men’s antenatal intentions and postnatal practices are explored in this study which replicates earlier research on motherhood. The contemporary context in the UK is one where paternity leave, discourses of caring masculinities and more public displays of fathering involvement appear to offer new possibilities for men. But data analysis shows that whilst opportunities to disrupt gender norms are initially imagined, longer term practices can confirm ‘patriarchal habits’. The findings illuminate gender being done and undone, at times simultaneously, as the exhaustion and hard work of new parenting is encountered. A retreat into normative behaviours can be a path of least resistance as experiences unfold in an arena where men are found to have available to them a wider repertoire of discursive storylines. Optimistically, some changes in fathering involvement are discernible.
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Cultural norms that view men as peripheral to family life and to decision-making about parenthood have shaped mainstream research agendas and underlie the relative lack of research on men's perspectives on fatherhood. This semi-structured interview study explored the subjective meaning of having children and being a father in the imagined future lives of 16 male university students in Australia. The men generally had well-considered preferences, attitudes and aspirations about fatherhood and shared them readily and articulately, challenging persisting gender stereotypes. We identified four themes in their talk. Fulfilment and contentment dealt with positively looking forward to an adult life encompassing satisfying work, marriage, and children. Traditional and new fatherhood described talk that simultaneously valued a traditional 'breadwinner' role and close, involved fatherhood, and generally failed to address the inherent contradictions in managing these two models of fatherhood. Time of preparation encompassed talk about the perceived necessity of finishing education, establishing a stable, financially rewarding career, and developing personal maturity as preconditions to fatherhood. Models of family and fatherhood referred to the men's frequent reference to their own families as models that they wished to replicate or, at times, correct in their own fatherhood. Altogether, this study provides a justification for systematic and comprehensive research on men's perspectives, preferences and attitudes regarding fatherhood and family.
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Sixty-nine maritally intact, middle-class Caucasian families rearing their 15-month-old firstborn male child participated in a study of fathering. Two 1-hr naturalistic home observations per family were conducted near dinnertime to record father-child interactions, which were then used to rate father involvement. Cluster analysis of fathering ratings revealed 4 groups of dads: caretakers, playmates-teachers, disciplinarians, and disengaged fathers. Information on demographics, personality, marital quality, relatedness, moods and hassles, and infant emotionality was gathered via parental reports. Analysis of antecedent variables indicated that the caretaker and playmate-teacher fathers were more educated, had more prestigious occupations, were less neurotic, had more confidence in the dependability of others, and experienced fewer daily hassles than the disciplinarian and disengaged fathers. Discriminant analysis demonstrated the collective ability of the antecedent variables to distinguish the 4 groups of fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses formulations of life course, life cycle, life structure, and the adult development of the life structure in early and middle adulthood that originated in the author's (see record 1980-20834-001) initial study of men's lives and continues in his (in press) study of women's lives. Nine developmental periods from ages 17–22 yrs to ages 60–65 yrs are outlined; the sequence consists of structure-building and structure-changing (transitional) periods. Six major issues in a structural approach to adult development are discussed. What are the alternative ways of defining a structural stage or period? What relative emphasis is given to the structures as compared to the transitional periods? How can the best use be made of the distinction between hierarchical levels and seasons of development? Are there age-linked developmental periods in adulthood? What are the relative merits and limitations of various research methods? How can the developmental perspective and the socialization perspective be brought together? (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)