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Fatherhood as a Social Context for Reducing Men’s Health Disparities

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... One particularly promising program for African American youth is the Fathers and Sons program (Caldwell et al., 2019b), which seeks to promote African American fathers' racial socialization of their adolescent sons. While this program has not examined bullying outcomes per se, it has shown positive outcomes for communication and health (Caldwell et al., 2019a). This program is unique in that it is designed for African American adolescent sons and their fathers (Thomas et al., 2020). ...
Article
The present study explored racial and ethnic and sex differences in fathers’ awareness and perceived ease of communication with fathers and how they are related to adolescent bullying victimization and psychosomatic symptoms. Data were from the 2009 to 2010 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study in the United States. The sample consists of 5,121 White, 1,497African American, and 1,850 Hispanic adolescents in grades 5 to 10. For all three racial and ethnic groups, bullying victimization was positively associated with psychosomatic symptoms. A higher level of the child’s perception of their father’s awareness was found to be positively associated with lower levels of bullying victimization for White and Hispanic adolescents. African American, White, and Hispanic adolescents who perceived their fathers as easy to communicate with had a lower risk of bullying victimization. The child’s perception of their father’s awareness buffered the positive association between bullying victimization and psychosomatic symptoms for Hispanic adolescents. A higher child’s perception of their father’s awareness was related to lower bullying victimization for adolescents of both sexes. The child’s perception of their father’s awareness and their perceived ease of communication with their father was found to be associated with a decreased risk of psychosomatic symptoms for both sexes. Overall, the results support the importance of relationship quality with fathers as a protective factor against bullying victimization.
... Los padres que mantienen interacciones cercanas, comprometidas y no violentas con sus hijos/as en promedio viven más tiempo, tienen menos problemas de salud mental y/o de salud física, son menos propensos al abuso de alcohol y drogas, y son más productivos en el trabajo (Aguayo et al., 2017;UNICEF, 2020). De igual modo, se ha encontrado que padres que participan en programas de paternidad luego cuidan más su salud, consumen menos alcohol, presentan mejor salud mental y acuden más a los servicios de salud (Caldwell et al., 2019). ...
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Este documento es parte del Programa Regional Spotlight para América Latina. La investigación permitió identificar y sistematizar iniciativas en la región sobre paternidad activa y corresponsabilidad en el trabajo de cuidados. Equipo de redacción: Francisco Aguayo Douglas Mendoza Sebastián Bravo. Equipo UNFPA LACRO: Alejandra Alzérreca, Especialista en VBG Neus Bernabeu, Asesora en género y juventud. Revisión: Eduardo Kimelman Valentina Lastra José Roberto Luna Metzi Rosales Martel Allán Sánchez Osorio Diseño y diagramación: Pick-Nic Laboratorio Creativo SAC Lima, Perú Ilustración de portada:Pick-Nic Laboratorio Creativo SAC Lima, Perú Publicación de la Iniciativa Spotlight Copyright © Iniciativa Spotlight, 2021 https://serviciosesencialesviolencia.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/PaternidadActiva.pdf
... impacting the well-being of vulnerable men (Caldwell, Tsuchiya, Assari, & Thomas, 2019). As such, although the experience of homelessness may compromise a father's ability to engage with his children, receiving social services that prioritize a man's social identity as a father may positively impact his engagement in services and ultimately his ability to parent in a manner that is meaningful to him and his family. ...
Article
Rising attention has been given to the plight of low-income, nonresident fathers. Much of this work has focused on strategies to support increased and improved paternal engagement. Researchers have identified several barriers to engagement, recently finding that nearly a quarter of low-income nonresident fathers experience housing insecurity within the first 9 years of their children’s lives. Understanding the parenting experiences and service needs of nonresident fathers who are experiencing housing instability from the perspective of these men is important for decreasing noted barriers to engagement. The current study examines the issue of fathering while experiencing homelessness from the perspective of 25 fathers. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze individual interview and focus group data. Findings cluster about 3 themes related to paternal identity, participation in father-related programming, and additional service needs. These data highlight experiences with conflicting ideals as fathers take pride in their paternal roles while also being negatively impacted by their housing status and inability to provide financially for their children. Participants expressed a general interest in fatherhood programs, as they could be a source for peer support and parenting education. However, fathers also addressed needs for tangible supports to improve their capacity to effectively parent. Implications for future research and program development are discussed.
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide a conclusion for the book, highlighting some overarching themes across the chapters and implications for social work education, research, practice, and policy. We highlight the importance of working effectively with fathers and how this relates to the social justice focus of social work. We identify gaps as well as opportunities to improve social work with fathers through advancing theory, research, and social work education. We connect the book to important organizations and initiatives in social work, including the National Association of Social Workers’ (NASW) Code of Ethics, the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS), and the Social Work Grand Challenges.KeywordsCode of ethicsNational Association of Social WorkersCouncil on Social Work EducationSocial Work Grand ChallengesFather involvement theoryFather engagement theory
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Children and families of color in the United States (U.S.) have long had to battle to develop a positive identity in the face of discrimination based upon race, ethnicity, immigration status, and gender. Historically, racial-ethnic minorities have experienced various types of trauma exposures in the U.S., including enslavement, family separation, deportation, colonization, discrimination, ridicule, and stereotyping that permeate U.S. society. Yet, they still have managed within their families to advance some sense of shared within-group identities, values, beliefs, and practices that have fostered child and family development. This paper focuses on the experiences of African American and Latinx families who, though distinct in historical and cultural experiences, have some similarities in social disparities that should inform parenting programs. Prevention and intervention that seeks to engage families of color should be sensitive to centuries of racism and structural inequalities that have contributed to their unique socio-cultural contexts (Bernal et al., 2009; Spencer et al., 1997). We first explore the historical context of racial-ethnic trauma among children of color in the U.S. Second, we build upon the work in traumatic stress as a rationale for examining culturally relevant and responsive adaptations that address linguistics, worldviews, and contexts, describing the ways in which these concepts are evidenced in programming and effects upon family processes, and youth socio-emotional development. We discuss the implications for multi-group intervention, homogenous and heterogeneous group composition, underscoring the value of critical frameworks attuned to psychological trauma that draw upon a strengths-based perspective of culture for African American and Latinx children and families.
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African American male youth experience disproportionately higher levels of violence. We examined parental depression among African American mothers and nonresident fathers on parenting stress and school involvement in their adolescent sons' school connectedness and violent behaviors. Using a longitudinal study design, parent factors were assessed when sons were 9 years old on youth outcomes at age 15. We found that maternal depression was associated with maternal stress, and maternal stress was indirectly associated with sons' violent behaviors through school connectedness. School involvement among nonresident fathers was positively associated with sons' school connectedness, which was linked to less youth violent behaviors. Maternal stress and nonresident fathers' school involvement are influential for understanding youth violence. Future interventions should incorporate a more nuanced approach when including family factors.
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Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.
Chapter
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For a variety of sociopolitical, economic, scientific, and clinical reasons, considerable interest in the study of father-child relationships has emerged in the last decade. In the last few years, the focus has narrowed to concern about the effects of increased paternal involvement. Interest in, and concern about, the latter seems to be especially prominent among social service providers and clinicians. For this reason, and also because the voluminous literature on paternal influences has been scrutinized quite extensively, we will focus in this chapter on evidence concerning the effects of increased involvement. Much less will be said, mostly in summary fashion, about paternal influences more generally, although readers will be referred to recent reviews for further discussions of the literature.
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Objective: To consider how manhood is a key social determinant of minority men’s health. Design: This commentary explicates how manhood intersects with other determinants of health to shape minority men’s stress responses, health behaviors and health outcomes across the life course. Results: Manhood, which perpetu­ally needs to be proven, is an aspirational identity that is defined by the intersection of age, race/ethnicity and other identities. Mi­nority men seek to and successfully embody US-cultural and ethnic-specific aspects of manhood in their daily lives by engaging in behaviors that constantly reaffirm their gen­der identity through a complex internal and social calculus that varies by intra-personal characteristics and context. Manhood and health are relational constructs that highlight how the salience of masculinities are shaped by perceived and actual social norms and expectations. A life course perspective adds a framework for considering how some gendered beliefs, goals and behaviors change over time while others remain static. Three life course frameworks highlight dif­ferent mechanisms through which minority men’s life experiences and physiological and behavioral responses to gendered social norms, beliefs and expectations become embodied as premature mortality and other health outcomes over the life course. Conclusion: Manhood represents an impor­tant lens to understand how minority men’s identities, goals and priorities affect their health, yet the role of manhood in minority men’s health is understudied and under­developed. To achieve health equity, it is critical to consider how manhood shapes minority men’s lives and health across the life course, and to address how man­hood affects gendered and non-gendered mechanisms and pathways that explain minority men’s health over time.
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Aim: To review and meta-analyse Mellow Parenting interventions for parent-child dyads at high risk of adverse developmental outcomes. Method: Using Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we extracted all published evaluations of Mellow Parenting and Mellow Babies programmes. We identified published studies with randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental or within-subject pre-post designs. We incorporated 'grey literature' for unpublished publicly available evaluations. Effect sizes were calculated for impact of Mellow Parenting on parental mental health and child behaviour. Data were extracted on demographics, age of participants, country, and potential sources of bias. Results: We identified eight papers, representing nine data sets, from five of which we calculated effect sizes. There was evidence of a medium treatment effect of Mellow Parenting compared with comparison groups on maternal well-being and child problems. Drop-out from treatment was variable. However, data were heterogeneous and there was evidence of methodological bias. Interpretation: Our data give some support to claims for effectiveness of Mellow Parenting as a group intervention for families with multiple indices of developmental adversity. Given the methodological weaknesses of literature in the area, novel approaches are needed in future trials of low-budget complex interventions in non-commercial settings.
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Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for 'severe attachment problems' (disorganised attachment patterns and attachment disorders). Several government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at-risk groups. This report was commissioned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems (the main review). One supplementary review explored the evaluation of assessment tools and a second reviewed 10-year outcome data to better inform health economic aspects of the main review. A total of 29 electronic databases were searched with additional mechanisms for identifying a wide pool of references using the Cochrane methodology. Examples of databases searched include PsycINFO (1806 to January week 1, 2012), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1946 to December week 4, 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to week 1, 2012). Searches were carried out between 6 and 12 January 2012. Papers identified were screened and data were extracted by two independent reviewers, with disagreements arbitrated by a third independent reviewer. Quality assessment tools were used, including quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies - version 2 and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting interventions was undertaken. A health economics analysis was conducted. The initial search returned 10,167 citations. This yielded 29 RCTs in the main review of parenting interventions to improve attachment patterns, and one involving children with reactive attachment disorder. A meta-analysis of eight studies seeking to improve outcome in at-risk populations showed statistically significant improvement in disorganised attachment. The interventions saw less disorganised attachment at outcome than the control (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.65; p < 0.00001). Much of this focused around interventions improving maternal sensitivity, with or without video feedback. In our first supplementary review, 35 papers evaluated an attachment assessment tool demonstrating validity or psychometric data. Only five reported test-retest data. Twenty-six studies reported inter-rater reliability, with 24 reporting a level of 0.7 or above. Cronbach's alphas were reported in 12 studies for the comparative tests (11 with α > 0.7) and four studies for the reference tests (four with α > 0.7). Three carried out concurrent validity comparing the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) with another assessment tool. These had good sensitivity but poor specificity. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview had good sensitivity and specificity with the research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for attachment disorders. In our supplementary review of 10-year outcomes in cohorts using a baseline reference standard, two studies were found with disorganised attachment at baseline, with one finding raised psychopathology in adolescence. Budget impact analysis of costs was estimated because a decision model could not be justifiably populated. This, alongside other findings, informed research priorities. There are relatively few UK-based clinical trials. A 10-year follow-up, while necessary for our health economists for long-term sequelae, yielded a limited number of papers. Maternal sensitivity interventions show good outcomes in at-risk populations, but require further research with complex children. The SSP and RDC for attachment disorders remain the reference standards for identification until more concurrent and predictive validity research is conducted. A birth cohort with sequential attachment measures and outcomes across different domains is recommended with further, methodologically sound randomised controlled intervention trials. The main area identified for future work was a need for good-quality RCTs in at-risk groups such as those entering foster care or adoption. This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42011001395. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
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A sample of U.S. urban fathers was studied using in-depth qualitative interviews to better understand how having children might influence the fathers' health and health behaviors. Over three-quarters of the men reported positive changes to their health behaviors since becoming fathers. The specific examples cited as positive changes by fathers included; positive changes in diet, increased frequency of exercise and physical activity, taking better care of themselves in general, decreased alcohol use, and less risk-taking behavior. A key shift is also identified in men's perspectives around the transition to fatherhood. Recommendations are provided to clinicians who seek to design interventions that reengage men in the health care system and caring for their health.
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Very little is known about the economic consequences of men’s health disparities. Using data from the 2006 through 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the National Vital Statistics Reports, we estimated the potential cost savings of eliminating health disparities for racial/ethnic minority men. The total direct medical care expenditures for African American men were $447.6 billion of which $24.2 billion was excess medical care expenditures. With regard to indirect costs to the economy, African American and Hispanic men incurred $317.6 and $115.0 billion respectively. These findings indicate that we cannot afford to overlook the disparities that exist, particularly among African American and Hispanic men. Failure to do so is both socially and morally wrong and carries huge economic consequences.
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Behavioural parent training programs have been developed to address child be-haviour problems through improvement in parenting practices. Ideally, programswould demonstrate effectiveness with all parents. The Triple P-Positive ParentingProgram is widely reported as an effective, evidence-based program for parents. However, in this meta-analysis we demonstrate that there are significant differencesin program effectiveness for mothers and fathers. We show that while Triple P hasa large positive effect on mothers’ parenting practices, it has a smaller effect on fa-thers’ parenting practices. Considering that fathers make a significant and uniquecontribution to child development, we argue that it is important for parenting pro-grams to assess their effectiveness with fathers as well as mothers.
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This study examined relationships between masculinity ideologies, perceived discrimination, and parenting behaviors on depressive symptoms and drinking behavior among 332 nonresident African-American fathers. Masculinity ideologies also were examined as moderators of perceived discrimination and parenting behaviors on outcomes. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that culturally based traditional masculinity was associated with less depressive symptoms. Perceived discrimination was linked to more depressive symptoms; however, positive relationships with sons were associated with less depressive symptoms and drinking behavior among fathers. Parenting behaviors explained additional variance in depressive symptoms and drinking behavior after controlling for masculinity ideologies, perceived discrimination, and sociodemographics. More cooperative parenting behaviors between fathers and mothers were associated with more depressive symptoms among fathers with high interconnected masculinity beliefs. Strategies for incorporating masculinity ideologies and the fatherhood role into interventions, clinical practice, and policies to improve the mental health and health behaviors of nonresident African-American fathers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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An evaluation study was conducted to examine the effects of participation in a Head Start-based father involvement intervention program for fathers and their children. The study used a quasi-experimental research design that compared pretest and post-test measures for participants in four intervention sites against nonparticipants in geographically and demographically matched comparison (control) sites. The treatment and comparison groups were further divided into dosage groups based on the amount of time that fathers were involved in the program. The results suggest a positive association between high dosage participation in the intervention and increased father involvement with children at post-treatment. The children of high dosage intervention fathers also showed higher mathematics readiness change scores. Children in the low dosage comparison group showed a significant increase in behavior problems.
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Objective: Though sparse in previous years, research on the mental health of Black men has recently experienced a gradual increase in social work journals. This article systematically organizes and critically examines peer-reviewed, social work evidence on the mental health of Black men. Methods: Twenty-two peer-reviewed articles from social work journals were examined based on their contribution to social work research and practice on the mental health of Black men. Results: The social work evidence on Black men's mental health can be grouped into one of four categories: psychosocial factors; mental health care and the role of clinicians; fatherhood; and sexual orientation, HIV status, and sexual practices. Conclusions: This representation of the social work literature on Black men's mental health neglects critical areas germane to social work research and practice with this population. Implications include ways to extend current social work research and practice to improve the health for Black men.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of African American nonresident fathers who engaged in parental monitoring and to assess the relationship between engaging in monitoring and race-related socialization with their preadolescent sons on their psychological well-being. We also examined the moderating influences of demographic factors on the effects of a parenting skills intervention for fathers. Methods: Data from the Fathers and Sons Program were used to examine the parenting behaviors and psychological well-being of 287 nonresident African American fathers of 8- to 12-year-old boys. Results: Fathers who were younger, had more education, engaged in race-related socialization, and were less depressed monitored their sons more. Parental monitoring explained additional variance in depressive symptoms, while race socialization was important for understanding personal mastery among fathers in unanticipated ways. Older fathers increased their race socialization behaviors most in the parenting skills intervention, while all fathers enhanced their monitoring ability. Applications: The findings suggest the significance of involving nonresident African American fathers more fully in their children’s lives as a way to not only protect their children but also improve men’s emotional well-being. The applications of our findings for social work and public health practice are discussed.
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Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men’s lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men’s daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men’s aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.
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The father-child relationship and father’s parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship predicts a reduced risk of engagement in multiple first risky behaviors. Having a father with an authoritarian parenting style is associated with an increased risk of engaging in delinquent activity and substance use. Two-way interaction models further indicate that the negative effect of authoritarian parenting is reduced when fathers have a positive relationship with their adolescent. Permissive parenting also predicts less risky behavior when the father-child relationship is positive. The positive influence of the father-child relationship on risk behaviors is stronger for male than for female adolescents.
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Few programs to enhance fathers' engagement with children have been systematically evaluated, especially for low-income minority populations. In this study, 289 couples from primarily low-income Mexican American and European American families were randomly assigned to one of three conditions and followed for 18 months: 16-week groups for fathers, 16-week groups for couples, or a 1-time informational meeting. Compared with families in the low-dose comparison condition, intervention families showed positive effects on fathers' engagement with their children, couple relationship quality, and children's problem behaviors. Participants in couples' groups showed more consistent, longer term positive effects than those in fathers-only groups. Intervention effects were similar across family structures, income levels, and ethnicities. Implications of the results for current family policy debates are discussed.
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This study examines the paternal identity conjointness of seventeen residential and fourteen non-residential fathers within five, normative healthcare decisions. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology to investigate fathers’ usage of parenting voice (I or We), we examined how paternal identity conjointness was similar and different between residential and non-residential fathers in each healthcare decision. Results revealed two new paternal identities, “self-as-detached” and “mixed.” Residential fathers expressed a self-as-co-parental identity in three of the five healthcare decisions, but shifted to a self-as-solo identity when deciding if their child would be circumcised. Non-residential fathers constructed a self-as-co-parental identity in two healthcare decisions while also expressing a self-as-detached identity and mixed identity in other healthcare decisions. Contextual and relational influences on paternal identity conjointness are identified. Implications of our findings for future research and practice are discussed.
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This article reviews wide-ranging literature with professional and theoretical perspectives. The methods included case studies, qualitative interviews, surveys of selected clinic populations, prospective epidemiological studies, and analyses of nationally representative databases. The review is organized by the stage in the paternal lifecycle: pregnancy, labor and delivery, postpartum period, parenthood, and child custody with the following key findings: Pregnancy: recent research reveals that pregnancy induces detectable physiological changes in male partners. Case studies indicate that some fathers-to-be experience a variety of physical symptoms that mimic their partner's health changes, a phenomenon referred to as couvade. But empirical research does not establish the existence of couvade on a wide-scale basis. Labor and delivery: research reveals that the labor and delivery experience is often a difficult time for the father. Substantial percentages of men felt coerced, ill-prepared, ineffective, and/or psychologically excluded from the event. Postpartum period: case studies and qualitative research indicate that the first year after childbirth is a time of emotional upheaval for first-time fathers, who must adapt to the presence of an infant who commands priority from his partner. Parenthood: in the long term, the weight of evidence indicates that fatherhood is beneficial to a man's health. The health effects of fatherhood are probably mediated by a variety of other variables, including number of children, role competency, and lifestyle. Child custody: fathers who lose custody were consistently found to be at greater risk for chronic health conditions, psychological impairment, and death. Of particular concern is the suicide risk of divorced men who become legally disenfranchised from their children.
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In spite of widespread concern that children living with substance-misusing caregivers are experiencing greater risk for maltreatment, little research examines the direct effects of caregiver substance use on child outcomes. This systematic review investigates the work done within and across disciplines of adult substance abuse, child welfare, and child mental health, including the measurement of key terms, conceptualization of primary variables, and suggested implications for translational science to practice. The findings of the review show considerable shortcomings for examining this complex problem. To move research forward, we suggest ways to improve measures and methods to provide more robust support for inferences about child maltreatment and mental health outcomes.
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This chapter is an introduction to the book. There are four prominent areas of research dominate the contributions to this volume and thus frame this chapter: (a) discourse on the nature of father involvement, (b) research on fathers' influences, (c) studies focused on the determinants of father involvement, and (d) interest in the synergy between basic research and relevant social policies. Accordingly, current appreciation of the complex, multidimensional roles that fathers play in family life today are explored in the first section. Studies that have helped researchers understand the direct and indirect influences of fathers on children's development are then discussed. The third section examines research on the factors that affect the nature and extent of paternal involvement. Because social constructions of fatherhood vary across historical epochs and subcultural contexts, the behaviors and experiences of fathers are viewed within nested ecological contexts in this analysis. The growing need to bridge research and policies in the fatherhood arena is then discussed in the fourth section. Now that researchers have amassed a solid body of evidence regarding the benefits of positive father involvement for children's well-being, researchers, practitioners, and policy makers are eager to link scientific findings to initiatives and programs designed to enhance and support the commitment of fathers to their young children. The final section outlines the book and indicate how the component chapters address the broad themes introduced in the four preceding sections. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The family unit carries with it a responsibility of possibly being the most important predictor of positive child development. This research study aims to describe the best models used in family intervention development. The following databases were included in the review: PsychArticles, Academic Search Complete, ERIC, SocIndex, Sage, Sabinet, Pubmed. Peer-reviewed, English language, qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods in nature conducted within the last ten years. Interventions were required to include families as part of the programme as well as describe the model or process used in intervention development. Two self-developed data extraction tables were developed for the study. The articles included for review were heterogeneous in terms of the outcomes and so a narrative synthesis was used. After yielding an initial search of 400 studies, a total of 28 articles were finally included for extraction and analysis with varying levels of intervention strength. Interventions are further described in terms of reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance dimensions. A feasible intervention appears to be one that is flexible, engages processes to recruit those who are most at-risk and is facilitated by someone known to or from the same community as the participants, can retain its participants and can be evaluated with the same participants at a minimum of six months later.
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African American men continue to suffer from poor health outcomes when compared to men of other racial/ethnic groups and to women. Because health is often influenced by family members, it is critical to determine which family members should be involved in efforts to develop appropriate physical and mental health care utilization initiatives, health promotion interventions, and policies designed to reduce disparities in men’s health. We review empirical evidence on family relationships and African American men’s physical and mental health in this chapter, highlighting findings from the Fathers and Sons Program as one family-based approach to address the physical and mental health of African American men. We offer an integrative theoretical framework for research and practice on parenting and African American men’s health. We also suggest future research and family-based policies to support family involvement as a way to improve the health of African American men.
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Over the past decade there has been an explosion of research focusing on men’s health globally. This is largely due to men experiencing premature mortality and engaging in high risk taking behaviors relative to women. This is paradoxical given that men compared to women have historically had social and economic advantages that are often associated better health outcomes. Little is known about the challenges that hinder our understanding of research, practice, and policies of men’s health. In this chapter we define men’s health, describe the health profile of men, discuss challenges of providing adequate men’s health, discuss the impact of the Affordable Care Act on preventive healthcare for men, and provide future directions for improving men’s health worldwide.
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Objectives-This report presents prelimina ry data for 2013 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthwe ight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.85% of 2013 births. Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2013. Comparisons are made with final 2012 data and earlier years. Results- The 2013 preliminary number of births for the United States was 3,957,577, slightly more births (4,736) than in 2012. The number of births increased or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2012 to 2013; however, the number of births for Asian or Pacific Islander women declined 2% in 2013. • The general fertility rate was 62.9 births per 1,000 women age 15-44 years, down slightly from 2012 and a record low. • The birth rate for teens aged 15-19 declined 10% in 2013 to 26.6 births per 1,000 women, yet another historic low for the nation, with rates declining for both younger and older teenagers to record lows. • The birth rate for women in their early twenties also declined in 2013, to a record low of 81.2 births per 1,000 women. • Birth rates for women in their thirties and forties rose in 2013. • The nonmarita l birth rate was down 1% in 2013 to 44.8 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44; the number of births to unmarried women declined slightly, as did the percentage of births to unmarr ied women (40.6% in 2013). • A small decline was seen in the cesarean delivery rate (32.7%). • The preterm birth rate fell for the seventh year in a row to 11.38% in 2013. • The low birthweight rate was essentially unchanged at 8.02%.
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The authors examined who 679 African American ninth-graders from urban environments look up to and how their role model choices relate to substance use, delinquency, academic engagement, and psychological well-being. Male adolescents without male role models and females identifying brothers as role models reported the most problem behavior. Adolescents with paternal male role models had the most positive school outcomes, no differences were found in psychological well-being among adolescents in terms of their male role models. The presence of female role models, in contrast, was associated with psychological well-being such that adolescents with maternal role models reported the least distress. Adolescents without female role models had the lowest grades and most negative school attitudes. These findings remained when parental support, family conflict, and father presence in the household were controlled, suggesting role model effects are separate from parenting effects. Our findings support and expand on the notion that having someone to look up to is critical for African American youths' development.
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AimThe prevention of mental disorders is a growing field and there are interventions that have been demonstrated to prevent some disorders, particularly depression, from developing. The aim of the current study is to update two existing reviews of the cost-effectiveness studies of preventive interventions for mental disorders in order to determine whether such interventions are good value-for-money.MethodsA search was undertaken in Medline, PsycInfo and Econlit. The search was limited to articles published in English covering the period from 2010 to September 2013. Inclusion criteria for the review comprised comparative economic evaluations of interventions designed to prevent mental disorders.ResultsTen new economic evaluations have been published since 2010, more than doubling the numbers of economic evaluations of preventive interventions for mental disorders published prior to 2010. Using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist, the majority of studies were of a good standard and used cost-utility frameworks.Conclusions Indicated types of interventions for the prevention of depression and anxiety appeared to be particularly good value-for-money and most of these studies were modelled evaluations. Unfortunately, many such interventions are still not routinely provided. Future trials of preventive interventions for mental disorders need to include robust economic evaluations so that the economic impact of such interventions from the individual study participant perspective can be determined.
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The benefits of high-quality father-child relationships for fathers and children alike are well documented. While evidence suggests parenting programs can improve the quality of father-child relationships, few fathers participate in such programs. This qualitative study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on best practices for recruiting urban African American fathers, a group of fathers with unique parenting challenges, to parenting programs. Focus groups were conducted with 29 fathers to gain their perspectives on recruitment strategies. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with a nationwide sample of 19 fatherhood program providers to learn about their most successful recruitment strategies. Recruitment strategies based on emergent themes from the focus groups and interviews are presented here. Themes included using word-of-mouth recruitment, increasing advertising, targeting advertising specifically to urban African American fathers, providing transportation and incentives, recruiting through the courts, collaborating with other community agencies, and offering parenting programming along with other programming valued by fathers such as employment assistance. Implications for developing strategies for recruiting urban African American fathers to parenting programs are discussed.
Article
The article presents an analysis of the relationship between young people and alcohol and drug use, examining both their attitudes and behaviors. The analysis is based on statistics collected through a structured-questionnaire survey of 1071 students from the secondary schools of Rome and the Province. The first part of the article examines patterns and levels of alcohol and drug use and typical places of use. The central part is dedicated to the perceptions and opinions on alcohol and drugs, with particular regard to the dimensions of risk and sociality, and to the different roles of school and family in raising risk awareness. Sociality appears as a crucial element in young people's tendency to associate alcohol and drugs with an effect of relaxation and disinhibition that makes social relations easier. The article finally examines the relationship between young people and social norms, identifying transgressive models and habits. On the whole, the study highlights a connection between alcohol and drug use and desire of sociality, which is experienced more as a situational and ever-changing practice than as a search for close friendships.
Article
Purpose To test the effects of a family-centered intervention for enhancing intentions to exercise among African-American boys with nonresident fathers. Design Quasi-experimental, intervention study. Setting Two Midwestern cities. Subjects A total of 287 nonresident African-American fathers and their 8- to 12-year-old sons (n = 158 intervention dyads; n = 129 comparison dyads). Intervention The Fathers and Sons Program is a 15-session family-based intervention focused on promoting the health of African-American boys by enhancing the parenting attitudes and behaviors of their nonresident fathers and positively influencing parent-child interactions. Measures Demographic information and intervention outcomes were assessed at baseline and follow-up via self-report. Analysis Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and structural equation modeling. Results The intervention was successful in improving the exercise intentions of boys (B = .246; p = .005; B = .210; p = .012). The effect was not direct; increasing contact between fathers and sons (B = .154; p = .001), enhancing the quality of their relationship (B = .366; p < .001), and improving fathers' own intentions to exercise (B = .265; p = .001) were mediating factors. Conclusion Interventions aimed at improving exercise intentions among African-American boys with nonresident fathers should focus on relational factors.
Article
Objective: This exploratory qualitative study examined factors contributing to expressive father role negotiation, salience, and commitment in a sample of nonresidential African American fathers (n = 18). Method: Two focus groups were conducted between 2000 and 2001 in a Midwestern city to understand factors that strengthen and diminish bonds between nonresidential African American fathers and their sons. Results: Results indicate that nonresidential fathers deepened their expressive role commitment by reflecting on socioemotional voids in their paternal relationships and negotiating role strains produced as they weighed giving time versus giving money. Conclusions: Findings support the need to foster expressive role commitment among nonresidential African American fathers as a strategy for enhancing child involvement. Social work research, interventions, and practice implications are discussed.
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Black men are disproportionately exposed to adverse social and economic factors that may be linked to depression. Little is known about depression among Black fathers, although depression is a significant health problem and detrimental to the instrumental and affective support of their families. The authors use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to estimate the prevalence, correlates, comorbidity, and course of depression among a national sample of urban Black fathers. The prevalence of 12-month major depressive episode (12%) is one and a half times higher among Black fathers than among men in the general population. Anxiety, substance dependence, and bad health are disproportionately concentrated in Black fathers with depression. The proportion of depression-free Black fathers and the proportion of Black fathers who recover from depression both decreased over a 4-year period. Implications include the need for culturally relevant male-specific tools to prevent and treat depression among Black fathers.
Article
Since Amato and Gilbreth's (1999) meta-analysis of nonresident father involvement and child well-being, nonmarital childbirths and nonresident father involvement both have increased. The unknown implications of such changes motivated the present study, a meta-analytic review of 52 studies of nonresident father involvement and child well-being. Consistent with Amato and Gilbreth, we found that positive forms of involvement were associated with benefits for children, with a small but statistically significant effect size. Amounts of father-child contact and financial provision, however, were not associated with child well-being. Going beyond Amato and Gilbreth, we analyzed the associations between different types of fathering and overall child well-being, and between overall father involvement and different types of child well-being. We found that nonresident father involvement was most strongly associated with children's social well-being and also was associated with children's emotional well-being, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment. The forms of father involvement most strongly associated with child well-being were involvement in child-related activities, having positive father-child relationships, and engaging in multiple forms of involvement. Moderator analyses demonstrated variation in effect sizes based on both study characteristics and demographic variables. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Behavioral parent training (BPT) is one of the most commonly utilized research treatments for young children with externalizing behaviors. Most BPT research, however, has been conducted with mothers. Thus, insufficient data exist as to the benefits of father participation in BPT. This paper provides rationales for why fathers should be included in BPT and an extension of previous critiques on father participation in BPT to critically evaluate recent research (1989–2003) in the same area. Several limitations of this body of research make it difficult to draw conclusions about the benefit of including fathers in BPT. Future research should be conducted with methodologically-sound designs to examine treatment outcome with fathers.
Article
Both wages and labor force participation have been declining for young, less-educated men since the mid-1970s. The purpose of this article is to examine how key income-security policy areas—including unemployment insurance, payroll taxes and the Earned Income Tax Credit, and child support enforcement—affect these men. The article concludes with policy recommendations to improve the impact of work-based subsidies on poverty among low-income men. Subsidized jobs in transitional job programs could play a critical role in helping these men to access these subsidies.
Article
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States and affects an estimated 17 million people each year. Projections about depression have generated concern on both the domestic and global levels because of its impact on health outcomes and quality of life. We examined and summarized published research focusing on depression among African American men with the goal of identifying prevalence of depression, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and treatment-seeking barriers. In the use of a systematic review, inclusion criteria were studies focused on depression among African American or Black men, separated analysis by race and gender, and conducted in the United States. Each study was critically reviewed to identify depression prevalence, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and barriers. Only 19 empirical studies focusing on depression among African American men were identified in a 25-year time span. Findings suggest the prevalence of depression among African American men ranges from 5% to 10%, they face a number of risk factors, yet evidence low use of mental health services. Consequently, depression among African American men needs to be at the forefront of our research, practice, and outreach agendas. A focus on this group has the potential to reduce mental health disparities experienced by African American men.
Article
To study changes in nonresident father contact since the 1970s, we pooled data from 4 national surveys: the National Survey of Children (1976), the National Survey of Families and Households (1987 – 1988), the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1996), and the National Survey of America’s Families (2002). On the basis of mothers’ reports, levels of contact rose significantly across surveys. Paying child support and having a nonmarital birth were strongly related to contact frequency. The increase in contact may be beneficial in general but problematic if it occurs within the context of hostile interparental relationships. Because nonresident fathers are having more contact with their children now than in the past, an increasing need exists for practitioners to help parents find ways to separate their former romantic roles from their ongoing parental roles and to develop at least minimally cooperative coparental relationships.
Article
Objective. The purpose of this study was to explicate the role of parenting qualities of acceptance, psychological autonomy, and firm control in the link between maternal and paternal psychological distress and youth adjustment problems. Design. A community sample of 277 families provided information about parental psychological distress, parenting qualities, and child adjustment via mother, father, and child questionnaire ratings. Results. Direct associations among the variables were consistent with predictions. Mediation processes were identified using structural equation modeling. Specifically, parental acceptance and psychological autonomy served as mediators of the association between parental psychological distress and child problems, whereas firm control did not mediate the direct associations. Conclusions. Drawing on a developmental psychopathology perspective, this study's results indicate that the link between mother and father psychological distress and child adjustment problems is accounted for, in part, by parental acceptance and psychological autonomy than by behavioral control. Alternative pathways among these family processes also received empirical support.
Article
Based on data from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the present study examined a sample of 129 nonresident fathers who had regular contact with their young children to determine how father involvement and father distress are related to children’s well-being. Results revealed a negative relationship between father distress and child well being, with, based on father reports, daughters being more affected than sons. A negative relationship was also found between inter-parent conflict and child w ell being. Further, there was a positive relationship between paternal warmth and child well-being and higher levels of father-child relationship quality were related to higher levels of child well-being. In terms of racial subgroup analyses, limit setting was a positive predictor of child wellbeing only among African-American children.
Article
In response to A. Anastasi's (1958) long-standing challenge, the authors propose an empirically testable theoretical model that (1) goes beyond and qualifies the established behavioral genetics paradigm by allowing for nonadditive synergistic effects, direct measures of the environment, and mechanisms of organism–environment interaction, called proximal processes, through which genotypes are transformed into phenotypes; (2) hypothesizes that estimates of heritability (e.g., h–2) increase markedly with the magnitude of proximal processes; (3) demonstrates that heritability measures the proportion of variation in individual differences attributable only to actualized genetic potential, with the degree of nonactualized potential remaining unknown; and (4) proposes that, by enhancing proximal processes and environments, it is possible to increase the extent of actualized genetic potentials for developmental competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Gender, the complex of social relations and practices attached to biological sex, is one of the most important socio-cultural factors influencing health and health-related behavior. Although a large body of health research suggests that men with similar social disadvantages as women experience poorer health outcomes in relation to disability, chronic illness, injury rates and mortality, men's health is rarely deconstructed through the lens of gender. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of the ways in which masculinities intersect with other social determinants of health creating health disparities among men, and to provide direction for masculine affirming health interventions aimed specifically at men. With the goal of promoting the health of men and decreasing health disparities, the authors have developed, within the Canadian context, an innovative theoretical framework for men's health, Health, Illness, Men and Masculinities (HIMM), based on the influence of masculinity throughout the lifecourse. We discuss three main phases of men's lifecourse showing how masculinity intersects with other social determinants of health differently during youth, middle-age and the older years. The HIMM Framework points to the need for research and theory development that moves us beyond a limited focus on any one individual man to consider men's health and illness practices in the larger social context within which masculinity is defined and produced. It can thus advance men's health research and theory development, and provide direction for policy, education, health care delivery and health promotion initiatives aimed specifically at men in many locales, contexts and countries.
Article
This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.
Article
The family support needs of parents with an intellectual disability (ID) are relatively unknown. This paper reviewed two types of intervention for parents with ID: those designed to strengthen social relationships and those teaching parenting skills. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a limited number of evaluative studies were found. The evidence for interventions aimed at strengthening social relationships was inconclusive; although positive changes were observed, there were limitations in study design which restricted the generalizability of the results. The evidence for parental skills teaching suggested that behavioural based interventions are more effective than less intensive forms such as lesson booklets and the provision of normal services, although these studies also had limitations. There is a need for further large scale controlled studies in this area to provide clearer evidence and to explore additional factors relating to child, parent and family which may impact on outcomes.
Article
Research on fatherhood has focused on the effects of father involvement on children. The authors instead examine the consequences of fatherhood for men's personal growth and identity, social relationships, health and well-being, and work and education. They argue that fatherhood is a critical but hidden variable beneath knowledge about men's lives. The authors highlight the growing groups of vulnerable fathers, but also suggest that these are, increasingly, every man. They discuss whether being a “good” father is becoming a new privilege, how social institutions and policies might be rearchitected to better support men and fathers, and new directions for scholarship.
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The use of group interventions with parents to prevent child maltreatment and to support positive parenting has been demonstrated to be effective. This article describes an experiential group approach to working with fathers in diverse settings. The format provides both content about parenting and a context for fathers to develop their own “voice” as parent through a combination of leader directed parenting education and opportunities for participant fathers to build positive supportive relationships with one another. In this article, the curriculum for this group approach is described, with specific examples of resources that are used in each stage of the group. In addition, findings from an evaluation conducted with fathers in a correctional setting who took part in the program are discussed.