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A PROBLEM ORIENTED APPROACH TO IMPLEMENTING AN INVENTORY AND POINT-OF-SALE SYSTEM FOR COMPANY KCP

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In an observation concerning a school cafeteria operation, we discovered that the cafeteria was prone to human errors due to the inefficient Point-of-Sale system, lack of a refund feature in the system, lack of proper and informative inventory system, and the unfriendly main user interface for transactions. These main problems led to the occurrence of more problems like slow transaction time, product shortage, product overstocking leading to product spoilage, the loss of data integrity, data redundancy, and the occurrence of inaccurate information due to manual transactions to record the refunded items, and an overall inefficient and ineffective system. This paper proposes a software design for an automated point-of-sale and inventory management system that aims to reduce the amount of data redundancy and the loss of data integrity within the system in order to attain a better business process. The development of a prototype that encompasses solutions to solve the aforementioned problems was used to validate the design and initial results showed that the client supports the relevance of the design.
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A PROBLEM ORIENTED APPROACH TO IMPLEMENTING AN INVENTORY
AND POINT-OF-SALE SYSTEM FOR COMPANY KCP
Patricia Denisse T. Sison
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, School of Sciences and Engineering,
University of Asia and the Pacific, Pasig City, 1605, Philippines
patriciadenisse.sison@uap.asia
Karla P. Oreiro
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, School of Sciences and Engineering,
University of Asia and the Pacific, Pasig City, 1605, Philippines
karla.oreiro@uap.asia
John Cedric Z. Camalit
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, School of Sciences and Engineering,
University of Asia and the Pacific, Pasig City, 1605, Philippines
johncedric.camalit@uap.asia
Giuseppe C. Ng
Department of Information Science and Technology, School of Science and Engineering,
University of Asia and the Pacific, Pasig City, 1605, Philippines
giuseppe.ng@uap.asia
ABSTRACT
In an observation concerning a school cafeteria operation, we discovered that the cafeteria was prone to human errors
due to the inefficient Point-of-Sale system, lack of a refund feature in the system, lack of proper and informative
inventory system, and the unfriendly main user interface for transactions. These main problems led to the occurrence
of more problems like slow transaction time, product shortage, product overstocking leading to product spoilage, the
loss of data integrity, data redundancy, and the occurrence of inaccurate information due to manual transactions to
record the refunded items, and an overall inefficient and ineffective system. This paper proposes a software design for
an automated point-of-sale and inventory management system that aims to reduce the amount of data redundancy and
the loss of data integrity within the system in order to attain a better business process. The development of a prototype
that encompasses solutions to solve the aforementioned problems was used to validate the design and initial results
showed that the client supports the relevance of the design.
KEYWORDS - Point-of-Sale, Inventory Management, Inbound Logistics, Outbound Logistics, Stock Keeping Unit
(S.K.U), Agile, Transactions
INTRODUCTION
Company KCP runs a school cafeteria that experiences problems in their day-to-day business operations. The
inefficient Point-of-Sale system that lacks of a refund feature in the system and a proper and informative inventory
system, and the tedious main user interface of the system for transactions. These problems led to the occurrence of
more problems like slow transaction time, product shortage, product overstocking leading to product spoilage, and the
loss of data integrity due to manual transactions to record the refunded items. After several investigations and
interviews, a point-of-sale and inventory management system prototype was proposed and developed in order to
validate the design and solve the problems that occurred within the cafeteria. The prototype aimed to address the
aforementioned problems encountered by the client with their current system inside the cafeteria. The new automated
system will enable the client to manage new and existing users as well as record, monitor, and track inbound and
outbound transactions happening in the cafeteria. Additionally, the system will show a list of products below its
threshold every login so as to prevent product shortage and product overstock. Through the improved reports
generator, the company will be able to maintain integrity in their data and efficiently reduce the time spent in double
checking the inventory records per day. After several meetings with the client, the prototype was presented and
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evaluated. The client was pleased with the current stand of the system and is able to see the purpose of the system.
Further, the needs of the client are met and the problems previously encountered are addressed.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Inventory System
An inventory is a stock of items kept by an organization to meet internal or external customer demand and is considered
to be the final product holding up to be sold to a client [2]. According to [3], an inventory system is a software-based
business solution used to simultaneously track activity and inventory. Manufacturers and trade resellers can both
benefit from a thorough solution, where single transaction entry records necessary details on the customer, products
purchased, price and date while also updating the inventory. Using a computerized inventory system enables the user
to have an accurate product management and encourages the ease of interaction between employees and shoppers as
transactions are processed and items move from the business to the consumer. Lastly, inventory systems save time for
businesses by speeding up transactions while raising accurate data which allows for confidence in accountability
among employees as it is easy to verify how much money was earned and what time did the transaction took place.
Point-of-Sale System
According to [1], a point-of-sale system conducts payment transactions which include a card reader, for payment cards
and a cash drawer. It has two payment methods: Credit and Cash. If the customer pays by credit, the personnel enters
the amount and the customer will swipe the credit card in the reader. However, if the customer pays by cash, the
cashier will receive and deposit the cash into the cash drawer and prints a receipt with a detailed transaction.
Agile Methodology
The agile methods are iterative development methods in which are done in increments and involve the client during
the development to receive instant feedback. The method includes a Scrum approach which focuses on managing
iterative development. The Scrum approach has a fundamental feature called the sprint cycles which is a planning
system where the tasks and the features are evaluated and selected for development. Then, the completed feature is
presented to the client at the end of the sprint [5].
Good Software Attributes
The essential attributes of good software are (1) maintainability: software must evolve to meet changing needs, (2)
dependability & security: software must be trustworthy, (3) efficiency: software should not make wasteful use of
system resources, and (4) acceptability: software must be understood and accepted by the users. These attributes
should deliver the required functionality and performance to the user and should be maintainable, dependable and
acceptable [5].
METHODOLOGY
The paper adopts a problem-oriented research method wherein, according to [4], the objective is to define the problem
and formulate a solution that would solve the client's predicaments. The methods used in the process of solving the
problem is a combination of research and qualitative approach. The research portion allowed us to view other existing
systems with similar difficulties to allow us to formulate an idea on how to tackle the problems.
We used the qualitative approach in collecting data for the client’s predicaments. Hence, the methods to gather the
data will further focus on the client’s anecdotes rather than their numerical data. The initial data gathering phase entails
Interviews and Observations. Interviews with stakeholders were done to enhance our knowledge of the root cause of
the problem. Observations require onsite visitations to fully understand the business process and the effect of the
problem to their business process. Comments and anecdotes were transcribed by journals and analyzed to identify the
focus of the proposed system.
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After identifying the data, we then created a prototype system for the company by utilizing the Agile Methodology
with Scrum. This methodology was a necessary and logical approach for solving the client’s problems because it
permitted the involvement of the client in the development of the system. Thus, the development of a prototype of
the system is essential and required to prove that the design works for the client given the necessary software
requirements specifications. After every sprint, a meeting with the client was held to present the updates and changes
to the system. We then receive feedback and comments from the client on the presented prototype. The client evaluated
our progress on the system after every sprint. The evaluation was done using a survey to evaluate the system based on
the good software attributes namely usability, dependability & security, efficiency, and acceptability. Each of the
criteria was rated using the Likert Rating Scale, with 1 being the lowest score and 5 being the highest score and then
using the mean score to determine the overall score. If the score is 3 and above, then the proposed prototype is
acceptable for the client’s needs.
RESULTS
Table 1.0 presents the observations that were made during the company visit and the problems that were discovered
and how we decided to solve them.
Table 1.0 Business Environment Observations, Problems and Resolutions
Business Environment
and Processes
Observations
Problems
Resolutions
1. Unknowing Staff
Slow with fulfilling
customer orders
1. Manual Sales
and Refund
Transaction
Recording
Automated transaction
recording
2. Manual Sale
Transaction
Recording
Took a long time to
calculate and tally their
weekly sales
1. Unreliable
Inventory
Control
Batch processing
3. Manual
Inventory Listing
Time consuming tallying
the inventory
Long hours of calculating
the business sales
Newly functional reports
Figure 1. Software Context of Company KCP
Figure 1 shows the primary actors that are able to interact with the system in the client’s company. Included are the
Inventory Officer, Cashier, and Administrator and each has different restrictions respective to their roles. In this way,
we would be able to develop a better functionality for each user of the designed prototype.
Actor
Inventory Officer
Actor
Cashier
Actor
Administrator
System
Company KCP
Inventory and Point-
of-Sale
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jQuery
JSP + JSTL
Inbound Transaction
Outbound Transaction
Suppliers
Supplier Reports
Products
Product Reports
User
Servlet
Filter
IO
Bean
Database (SQL)
Figure 2. Layered Architecture Diagram for the prototype
Figure 2 displays the layered architecture diagram for Company KCP that served as a basis for the design of the
prototype. While on the Table 2.0 shows the client's requested modifications and additional functions on the system
every after sprint evaluation.
Table 2.0 Client Requests
Sprint #
Additions and Modifications
1
Redirect Button
2
Change Status Type
Add Date Range
Add User Type
Expense and Income Report
Add Email Address
Visible CSS
Generate Grocery List
3
Add Month and Year filter
Free Meals Expense Report
Table 3.0 presents the client's overall evaluation of the system.
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Table 3.0 Customer Evaluation of the System
USABILITY
EFFICIENCY
Easy to learn and use
5
The system performs its functions swiftly
and efficiently
4.33
Appearance is pleasant
4.33
DEPENDABILITY & SECURITY
ACCEPTABILITY
The system works reliably without major
issues
4
Presented functionality is complete and
according to the client’s request
5
The client is confident that the system is
secure
4
The system has all the features that the
client needs
5
The client is convinced that the system can
be deployed in the company
4.33
DISCUSSION
We gathered all of the client’s comments and suggestions during the evaluation and created solutions that would cater
the problems such as the manual sales and refund transaction recording, an unreliable inventory control, and long
hours of calculating the business sales. The interviews and meetings helped us and the client identify the root cause
of the issues occurring in the cafeteria. In addition to that, this allowed us to create and design a suitable prototype for
the problems that were addressed in table 1.0. In Figure 2, we designed an architectural diagram where each of the
layers in the architectural diagram has a specific role and responsibility for the P.O.S. and Inventory functionality that
is needed to satisfy the client’s requests.
In each sprint, we had to demonstrate to the client company the work that we have done so far in the form of prototypes.
Table 2 presents the feedback that the client provided. Based on the feedback there were changes on the usability of
the prototype in terms of accessibility, features added such as new user data fields to fix the unreliable inventory
management, and a functional reports generator to solve the long hours of calculating business sales.
Upon evaluation of the client, we scored 5 and 4.33 on the usability of our system for its interface and its appearance,
respectively, which reflects that our system is easy to learn and easy to navigate. Dependability and security scored 4
which signifies that the client is confident in the security of the system. The client gave the system’s efficiency a score
of 4.33 to say that system performs its functions swiftly and efficiently. Finally, acceptability score is 5 to prove that
the client sees the purpose of the system and the needs of the client are met.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
We were able to identify several issues of the company by conducting interviews with the head director and cafeteria
manager of the company and by firsthand observation in their business environment. These problems arose due to the
company’s old POS system which caused multiple functionality errors. The company often experienced mismatched
data in their inventory which led to slow updates of inventory records. By using the Agile Methodology, we were able
to adjust to the client’s demands. Hence, the client evaluation showed the effectiveness of the prototype on their
process.
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REFERENCES
[1] T. Edwards et al., “Point-of-Sale system”, 2013. [Online]. Available:
https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/59/f3/79/61ec5b859d5bb0/US9424721.pdf
[2] K. Hieema, “What is a POS System?”, 2015. [Online]. Available:
https://erply.com/pos-system/
[3] K. Santiago, “Sales and Inventory System Thesis Documentation”. [Online]. Available:
https://www.academia.edu/16863814/Sales_and_Inventory_System_Thesis_Documentation?autodownload
[4] A. Bhat, “What is Research - Definition, Types, Methods & Examples.”, November 11, 2018. [Online].
Available: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is-research/
[5] I. Sommerville, “Software Engineering 10th Edition”, 2016. RR Donnelly, USA
ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
John Cedric Z. Camalit, Karla P. Oreiro, and Patricia Denisse T. Sison are 4th year Bachelor of Science in Information
Technology students at University of Asia and the Pacific. They are currently officers of the Information Technology
Community (ITeC), the academic organization under the School of Sciences and Engineering at the University of Asia
and the Pacific. **
Giuseppe C. Ng is a faculty member of the Department of Information Science and Technology of the School of
Sciences and Engineering at University of Asia and the Pacific. He has 11 years of experience in the IT industry as a
Software Engineer and is currently a professor at University of Asia and the Pacific. He is also currently a Ph.D.
student in Computer Science at De La Salle University.
** All authors made equal contribution in this research
... The evaluation is based on ISO 25010. This shall help the client to stay away from their former data storing procedure and move on to the automated world (Miguel et al., 2019), The development of a prototype that encompasses solutions to solve the aforementioned problems was used to validate the design and initial results showed that the client supports the relevance of the design (Sison et al., 2019), The data analytics helps in analyzing the information access pattern of the users. The information access pattern can be helpful in identifying the learning behavior traits of an individual. ...
Article
Full-text available
The success of companies engaged in the field of distributors is not only from good and smart human resources, but how ready the company's way to provide tools or programs supporting the work of employees. Some of the problems are the administration system between the company's internal divisions, so there are restrictions on the processing of input data, processes, outputs that are still manual. Web Application is made to facilitate employees to conduct administrative activities with the access role of each user admin division, for example inventory data, creation of sales invoices, road letters, procurement forms and bookkeeping. In addition, The Web View application is already responsive in this sense can adjust the device PC / Tablet / Mobile, then for visualization of data calculation already using cart / data graphics in real time, and there is also a feature preview, download and print JPEG, PNG, PDF, Barcode and QR code. Web Testing This application with black box method and shows it is running well and no error method, so it can be declared passed. Web Creation This application involves the LTE 2.0 Admin Template with bootstrap CSS, for programmer frameworks using MVC model view controllers that exist in the Code Igniter 3.0 framework so that it is faster and easier to implement or developed in other field companies or in the manufacturing industry. Tests using lighthouse for perform by 94% showed that the application designed to have a good performance for display results, and its access value of 60%, indicating that the process related to responsiveness between users is appropriate both using PC / Tablet / Mobile INTRODUCTION Distribution a product is a very important party for manufacturers and consumers. Distributors are people who play a very role in the distribution of goods. The function of distributors is to create a smooth flow of marketing, in the era of globalization as it is today, the business world has grown very rapidly and become increasingly competitive. Along with the development of the business world, information technology is required to develop and innovate in order to keep pace with the progress of the business world, rapid data exchange is needed by a company. With this point of sale is made to facilitate employees to conduct administrative activities, Example: inventory data, creation of sales invoices, road letters, procurement forms and bookkeeping. A company that has a cooperative relationship with other parties, one of which is for companies that at any time have data in process, work for logging and making invoices can be done by several related divisions manually, but has many shortcomings. Human error factor is a factor that can cause many problems, such as data collection errors, lack of data input, invoice creation errors, miscalculations, expenses and so on, which causes loss of time and operational costs for the company. Web Application point of sale is made to minimize administrative activities and data logging manually, With the existence of this web application, then every invoicing and data logging can be done quickly by referring to the existing database in the company, so that this will make it easier for employees to do the job effectively and efficiently. Point of Sale POS) has an application system that is applied to distributor companies to handle data processing between divisions including procurement admins, warehouse admins and sales admins. This in general must be present and important in strategic decision making by business people, offices or large-scale industries. The purpose of creating a web application point of sale is research in this Final Task to design a data processing system between divisions with access role access of each user admin, and divide the system into 4 of them there are admin supervisor, procurement admin,
... The evaluation is based on ISO 25010. This shall help the client to stay away from their former data storing procedure and move on to the automated world (Miguel et al., 2019), The development of a prototype that encompasses solutions to solve the aforementioned problems was used to validate the design and initial results showed that the client supports the relevance of the design (Sison et al., 2019), The data analytics helps in analyzing the information access pattern of the users. The information access pattern can be helpful in identifying the learning behavior traits of an individual. ...
Article
The success of companies engaged in the field of distributors is not only from good and smart human resources, but how ready the company's way to provide tools or programs supporting the work of employees. Some of the problems are the administration system between the company's internal divisions, so there are restrictions on the processing of input data, processes, outputs that are still manual. Web Application is made to facilitate employees to conduct administrative activities with the access role of each user admin division, for example inventory data, creation of sales invoices, road letters, procurement forms and bookkeeping. In addition, The Web View application is already responsive in this sense can adjust the device PC / Tablet / Mobile, then for visualization of data calculation already using cart / data graphics in real time, and there is also a feature preview, download and print JPEG, PNG, PDF, Barcode and QR code. Web Testing This application with black box method and shows it is running well and no error method, so it can be declared passed. Web Creation This application involves the LTE 2.0 Admin Template with bootstrap CSS, for programmer frameworks using MVC model view controllers that exist in the Code Igniter 3.0 framework so that it is faster and easier to implement or developed in other field companies or in the manufacturing industry. Tests using lighthouse for perform by 94% showed that the application designed to have a good performance for display results, and its access value of 60%, indicating that the process related to responsiveness between users is appropriate both using PC / Tablet / Mobile
Point-of-Sale system
  • T Edwards
T. Edwards et al., "Point-of-Sale system", 2013. [Online]. Available: https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/59/f3/79/61ec5b859d5bb0/US9424721.pdf
What is a POS System?
  • K Hieema
K. Hieema, "What is a POS System?", 2015. [Online]. Available: https://erply.com/pos-system/
Sales and Inventory System Thesis Documentation
  • K Santiago
K. Santiago, "Sales and Inventory System Thesis Documentation". [Online]. Available: https://www.academia.edu/16863814/Sales_and_Inventory_System_Thesis_Documentation?autodownload
What is Research -Definition, Types, Methods & Examples
  • A Bhat
A. Bhat, "What is Research -Definition, Types, Methods & Examples.", November 11, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is-research/
Sison are 4th year Bachelor of Science in Information Technology students at University of Asia and the Pacific. They are currently officers of the Information Technology Community (ITeC), the academic organization under the School of
  • John Cedric
  • Z Camalit
  • Karla P Oreiro
  • Patricia Denisse
John Cedric Z. Camalit, Karla P. Oreiro, and Patricia Denisse T. Sison are 4th year Bachelor of Science in Information Technology students at University of Asia and the Pacific. They are currently officers of the Information Technology Community (ITeC), the academic organization under the School of Sciences and Engineering at the University of Asia and the Pacific. **
He has 11 years of experience in the IT industry as a Software Engineer and is currently a professor at University of Asia and the Pacific. He is also currently a Ph
  • C Giuseppe
Giuseppe C. Ng is a faculty member of the Department of Information Science and Technology of the School of Sciences and Engineering at University of Asia and the Pacific. He has 11 years of experience in the IT industry as a Software Engineer and is currently a professor at University of Asia and the Pacific. He is also currently a Ph.D. student in Computer Science at De La Salle University.