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Clinical aspects and health benefits of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in both traditional Chinese medicine and modern industry

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used as a spice and medicine for over 200 years in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is an important plant with several medicinal, and nutritional values used in Asian and Chinese Tradition medicine. Ginger and its general compounds such as Fe, Mg, Ca, vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolic compounds (gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols), sesquiterpenes, paradols has long been used as an herbal medicine to treat various symptoms including vomiting, pain, cold symptoms and it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumour activities, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-tumourigenic, anti-hyperglycaemic, antioxidant anti-diabetic, anti-clotting and analgesic properties, cardiotonic, cytotoxic. It has been widely used for arthritis,
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Clinical aspects and health benefits of ginger
(Zingiber officinale) in both traditional Chinese
medicine and modern industry
Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun & Qi Cheng
To cite this article: Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun & Qi Cheng (2019): Clinical
aspects and health benefits of ginger (Zingiber�officinale) in both traditional Chinese medicine
and modern industry, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil & Plant Science, DOI:
10.1080/09064710.2019.1606930
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2019.1606930
Published online: 24 Apr 2019.
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REVIEW
Clinical aspects and health benets of ginger (Zingiber ocinale) in both
traditional Chinese medicine and modern industry
Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian
a,b
, Wenli Sun
a,b
and Qi Cheng
a,b
a
Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China;
b
Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory,
Qi Institute, Jiaxing, Peoples Republic of China
ABSTRACT
Ginger (Zingiber ocinale) has been used as a spice and medicine for over 200 years in Traditional
Chinese Medicine. It is an important plant with several medicinal, and nutritional values used in
Asian and Chinese Tradition medicine. Ginger and its general compounds such as Fe, Mg, Ca,
vitamin C, avonoids, phenolic compounds (gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols),
sesquiterpenes, paradols has long been used as an herbal medicine to treat various symptoms
including vomiting, pain, cold symptoms and it has been shown to have anti-inammatory, anti-
apoptotic, anti-tumour activities, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-tumourigenic, anti-
hyperglycaemic, antioxidant anti-diabetic, anti-clotting and analgesic properties, cardiotonic,
cytotoxic. It has been widely used for arthritis, cramps, sprains, sore throats, rheumatism,
muscular aches, pains, vomiting, constipation, indigestion, hypertension, dementia, fever and
infectious diseases. Ginger leaves have also been used for food-avouring and Asian Traditional
Medicine especially in China. Ginger oil also used as food-avouring agent in soft drink, as spices
in bakery products, in confectionary items, pickles, sauces and as preservatives. Ginger is
available in three forms, namely fresh root ginger, preserved ginger and dried ginger. The
pharmacological activities of ginger were mainly attributed to its active phytocompounds 6-
gingerol, 6-shogaol, zingerone beside other phenolics and avonoids. Gingerol and shogaol in
particular, is known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inammatory properties. In both Traditional
Chinese Medicine, and modern China, Ginger is used in about half of all herbal prescriptions.
Traditional medicinal plants are often cheaper, locally available and easily consumable raw and
as simple medicinal preparations. The obtained ndings suggest potential of ginger extract as an
additive in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 28 January 2019
Accepted 9 April 2019
KEYWORDS
Superfood; superfruit;
traditional Asian medicine;
Western medicine;
pharmacological science
Introduction
Ginger occurrence and cultivation
Traditionally, Chinese medicine includes herbal medi-
cines and acupuncture (Akinyemi et al. 2016; Ogbaji
et al. 2018; Shahrajabian et al. 2018). Zingiber ocinale
is a member of the Zingiberaceae plant family, native to
East and southern Asia, consisting of 49 genera and
1300 species, 8090 of which are Zingiber. Its generic
name Zingiber is derived from the Greek zingiberis,
which comes from the Sanskrit name of the spice, singa-
bera; the Latin name, Zingiber, means shaped like a horn
and refers to the roots, which resemble a deer
,
s antlers.
The plant is known as Sringavera in Sanskrit (Vasala
2004). Ginger (Zingiber ocinale Roscoe.) has a long
history of being used as a medicine and herbal since
ancient time and had been used as an important
cooking spice throughout the world (Nour et al. 2017).
It is a plant that is used in folk medicine from south-
east Asia, and in Greco-Roman traditions, Brazil, Australia,
Africa, China, India, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Mexico, Japan,
Jamaica, the India, the middle east and parts of the
United States also cultivate the rhizomes for medicinal
purpose (Langner et al. 1998; Blumenthal et al. 2000;
Sekiwa et al. 2000; Yadav et al. 2016). El Sayed and Mous-
tafa (2016) reported that ginger rhizome is widely used
as a spice or condiment.
Ginger and the Silk Road
For centuries has been an important ingredient in Tra-
ditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurvedic, and Unani-Tibb
herbal medicines for the treatment of dierent diseases
(Willetts et al. 2003; Ali et al. 2008; Memudu et al.
2012). Zingiber ocinale was also one of the rst oriental
spices to be grown to the Europeans, it was introduced
to northern Europe by the Romans who got it from
Arab traders and was one of the most popular spices in
© 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
CONTACT Qi Cheng chengqi@caas.cn Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, Peoples Republic of
China; Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute, Building C4, No.555 Chuangye, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China
ACTA AGRICULTURAE SCANDINAVICA, SECTION B SOIL & PLANT SCIENCE
https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2019.1606930
the Middle Ages (Kala et al. 2016). Alakali et al. (2009) also
mentioned that ginger was one of the earliest oriental
species known in Europe in the ninth century, in the thir-
teenth century, it was introduced to East Africa by the
Arabs. In West African and other parts of the tropics, it
was introduced by the Portuguese in the sixteenth
century (Kochhar 1981). The spice was known in
Germany and France in the ninth century and in
England in the tenth century for its medicinal properties
(Yadav et al. 2016). Elzebroek and Wind (2008) found that
Marco Polo, introduced to ginger while visiting China
and Sumatra in the thirteenth century, transported
some to Europe. They have also discussed how the culti-
vation of ginger in Mexico was initiated by the Spaniard,
Francesco de Mendoza. In China, dried Ginger, known as
Gan-jiang is mentioned in the earliest of herbals, She
Nung Ben Cao Jing, attributed to Emperor Shen Nung
(almost 2000 BC). Chinese records dating from fourth
century BC indicate that Ginger was used to treat numer-
ous conditions including stomachache, diarrhoea,
nausea, cholera, haemorrhage, rheumatism, and tooth-
aches. Not only in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but
also in modern China, Ginger is used in about half of
all herbal prescriptions, because of its ability to act as
messenger, servant and guide herb that brings other
herbal medicines to the site where they are needed
(Afzal et al. 2001). Ginger cultivation back about 3000
years ago in India, and it remains an integral part of
Indian cuisine where it is commonly used in many
popular dishes (Daily et al. 2015). Lister (2003) revealed
that the ginger plant has a long history of cultivation
known to originate in China and it was one of the most
parts of Chinese Traditional Medicine, and then spread
to India, Southeast Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean.
In Korea, ginger has been used to season foods for the
last 1000 years approximately (Daily et al. 2015). Sliced
ginger with sugar added is used to make tea, pickled
ginger slices (Gari) are frequently used a condiment in
Japan, and ginger is commonly used to avour cookies
and cakes in Western countries.
Ginger classication and variation in species
Z. ocinale Roscoe classication is Kingdom: Plantae-
Plants, Subkingdom: Tracheobionta-Vascular plants,
Superdivision: Spermatophyta-Seed plants, Division:
Magnoliophyta-Flowering plants, Class: Liliopsida-Mono-
cotyledons, Subclass: Zingiberidae, Order: Zingiberales,
Family: Zingiberaceae Ginger family, Genus: Zingiber
P. Mill Ginger, Species: Zingiber ocinale Roscoe
Garden ginger.
Red Ginger (Z. ocinale var. Rubra) is a variance of the
Z. Ocinale species cultivated in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Moreover, having gingerols and shogaols, it is loaded
with anthocyanin and tannin in its root bark. Tradition-
ally, it is used in species, syrup and as a remedy for rheu-
matism, osteoporosis, asthma and cough.
Some of the countries grow with variation in species
viz: Indian, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka ginger (Z.
ocinale), Jamaican ginger (Z. ocinale), Chinese
ginger (Asarum splendens), Australian ginger (Alpinia
caerulea), Nigerian ginger (Z. ocinale white and
yellow variety), Japanese ginger (Zingiber mioga), Indo-
nesian ginger (Alpinia galangal), and Hawaiian Island
(Zingiber zerumbet) (Sandeep 2017). Common names of
Ginger in dierent countries are, Chinese: Geung, Cook
Islands: Kopakai, English: Ginger, Fiji: Cagolaya ni vava-
lagi, Hawaiian: Awapuhi Pake, India: Adrak and Inchi,
Japan: Shoga, Java: San gurng, Gung Guung, San
geong, Atjuga, Niue: Poloi, Solomon Islands: Papasa,
Spanish: Jengibre, Thailand: Khing, Vietnamese: Gung.
Black ginger, the rhizome of Kaempferia parviora
(Zingiberaceae), has traditionally been used as food and
a folk medicine for one thousand year in Asian Tra-
ditional Medicine especially in Thailand. The dried
rhizome is pulverised and used as tea bags, while fresh
one is utilized to brew wine. As dietary supplements, it
has been made into various preparations such as medic-
inal liquor or liquor plus honey, pills, capsules and tablets.
It has been claimed that black ginger is appropriate to
cure allergy, asthma, impotence, gout, diarrhoea, dysen-
tery, peptic ulcer and diabetes (Toda et al. 2016). Other
notable member of this family (Zingiberacea) is turmeric
otherwise called red ginger (Curcuma longa) (Akinyemi
et al. 2015). It is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial
plant, in the ginger family, employed as a dye source
food colorant due to its characteristics yellow colour
(Chan et al. 2009). Ginger is a warm-season crop
adapted for growth in tropical and subtropical regions.
Best growth occurs under moist conditions and tempera-
tures of 2528°C. Growth eciency declines with temp-
eratures above 30°C and below 24°C. Ginger grows well
in full sun. Vegetative growth is promoted with long
day lengths, and rhizome enlargement is promoted
under shorter day lengths. Ideal pH is 5.56.5 and it
requires a deep (2540 cm), rock-free, sandy loam soil,
high in organic matter with adequate drainage that
allows for proper hilling of the crop. Ginger is usually
available in three dierent forms: (1) Fresh (green) root
ginger, (2) Preserved ginger in brine or syrup, (3) Dried
ginger spice. Fresh ginger is usually consumed in the
area where it is produced, although it is possible to trans-
port fresh roots internationally. Both mature and imma-
ture rhizomes are consumed as a fresh vegetable.
Preserved ginger is only made from immature rhizomes.
Most preserved ginger is exported, Hong Kong, China
2M. H. SHAHRAJABIAN ET AL.
and Australia are the major producers of preserved
ginger and dominate the world market. Dried ginger
spice is produced from the mature rhizome. As the
rhizome matures the avour and aroma become much
stronger. Dried ginger is exported, usually in large
pieces which are ground into a spice in the country of
destination. Dried ginger can be ground and used
directly as a spice and also for the extraction of ginger
oil and ginger oleoresin.
Ginger nutritional composition and chemical
constituents
The main area under ginger covering is related to Nigeria
56.23% of the total global area followed by India (23.6%),
China (4.47%), Indonesia (3.37%), and Bangladesh (2.32%)
(Dhanik et al. 2017). Top ten Ginger producing country of
the world has been shown in Table 1. Nutritional compo-
sition of ginger is shown in Table 2. Nutritional prole of
Ginger (100 g) has been mentioned in Table 3.
Minerals content of ginger for ginger root (Ground)
consists of Calcium (114 mg per 100 g), Iron (19.8 mg
per 100 g), Magnesium (214 mg per 100 g), Manganese
(33.3 mg per 100 g), Phosphorus (168 mg per 100 g), Pot-
assium (1320 mg per 100 g), Sodium (27 mg per 100 g),
and Zink (3.64 mg per 100 g), and minerals contents
for ginger root (Raw) are Calcium (16 mg per 100 g),
Iron (0.6 mg per 100 g), Magnesium (43 mg per 100 g),
Phosphorus (34 mg per 100 g), Potassium (415 mg per
100 g), Sodium (13 mg per 100 g), and Zink (0.34 mg
per 100 g) (USDA 2013). It was found that ginger con-
tained 1.5%-3% essential oil, 212% xed oil, 4070%
starch, 620% protein, 38% bre, 8% ash, 912%
water, pungent principles, other saccharides, cellulose,
colouring matter and trace minerals (Chan et al. 2009).
Ginger is called by dierent names in dierent parts of
the world such as Zingiberis rhizome, Shen jiany, Cochin,
Asia ginger, Africa ginger and Jamaican ginger (Peter
2000). Kala et al. (2016) stated that ginger oil also used
as food-avouring agent in soft drink, as spices in
bakery products, in confectionary items, pickles, sauces
and as preservatives. There is variability in the com-
pounding of ginger products (Table 4). The relative com-
position in the extraction of ginger is determined by
species of ginger, maturity of the rhizome, climate in
which the plants are grown, when harvested, and prep-
aration method of the extract (Grzanna et al. 2005).
Gaur et al. (2016) also reported that agro-climatic con-
ditions are known to inuence the production of second-
ary metabolites in ginger rhizome when same cultivar is
grown in two dierent locations. Ginger is aected by
leaf spots, leaves may have small, whitish spots with
yellow edges; these get larger and spread, making the
leaf yellow then brown, killing it. Early in the crop, it
can cause severe losses. Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp.
and Pseudomonas solanacearum have been found in dis-
eased leaves. Ginger propagation is usually performed
with rhizome but has a lot of obstacles, the obstacles
among other is the availability of good quality seed
rhizome (Melati et al. 2016). Rhizome again, lled out,
no wrinkles, bright shiny skin colour, and free of pests
attacks is characteristics of high-quality seed (Hasanah
et al. 2004).
Medicinal uses and potential health benets
in traditional medicine
Ginger has direct anti-microbial activity and thus can be
used in the treatment of bacterial infections (Tan and
Vanitha 2004). In Traditional Chinese Medicine, it is
employed in colic and in atonic dyspepsia and used as
a stimulant (Keys 1985; Grant and Lutz 2000; Sharma
2017; Yilmaz et al. 2018). Ginger is regarded as a Yang
herb, which can decrease Yin and nourish the body (Jit-
tiwat and Wattanathorn 2012). Mishra et al. (2012) also
revealed that ginger in Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Table 1. Top ten ginger producing country of the world (Dhanik
et al. 2017).
No. Country Production (Tonnes)
1 India 683,000
2 China 425,000
3 Nepal 235,033
4 Indonesia 232,669
5 Nigeria 160,000
6 Thailand 140,000
7 Bangladesh 69,000
8 Japan 57,835
9 Cameroon 46,350
10 Philippines 28,216
Table 2. Nutritional composition of ginger (per 100 g) (Sandeep
2017).
Constituent Value
Moisture 15.02 ± 0.04
Protein (g) 5.087 ± 0.09 (5.98)
Fat (g) 3.72 ± 0.03 (4.37)
Insoluble bre (%) 23.5 ± 0.04 (30.0)
Soluble bre (%) 25.5 ± 0.04 (30.0)
Carbohydrate (g) 38.35 ± 0.1
Vitamin C (mg) 9.33 ± 0.08 (10.97)
Total carotenoids (mg) 79 ± 0.2 (92.96)
Ash (g) 3.85 ± 0.61 (4.53)
Calcium (mg) 88.4 ± 0.97 (104.02)
Phosphorous (mg) 174 ± 1.2 (204.75)
Iron (mg) 8.0 ± 0.2 (9.41)
Zinc (mg) 0.92 ± 0 (1.08)
Copper (mg) 0.545 ± 0.002 (0.641)
Manganese (mg) 9.13 ± 0.01(10.74)
Chromium (µg) 70 ± 0 (83.37)
All value in this table represent the mean ± SD (n= 4).
Figures in the parenthesis represent the dry weight values (Shirin Adel and
Prakash 2010).
ACTA AGRICULTURAE SCANDINAVICA, SECTION B SOIL & PLANT SCIENCE 3
characterised as spicy and hot, and it is claimed to warm
the body and treat cold extremities, improves a weak
and tardy pulse, address a pale complexion, and
strengthen the body after blood loss. In Traditional
Chinese Medicine as herbal therapy against several cardi-
ovascular diseases (Wynn et al. 2001).
Based on the historical usage of ginger as an antie-
metic agent in the East Traditional Medicine. The antie-
metic eect of ginger has been known as a treatment
method in traditional medicine especially the Chinese
and Iranian Medicine (Eric Chan et al. 2011; Palatty
et al. 2013; Naderi et al. 2016; Soltani et al. 2018).
Sharma (2017) explained that many of herbs and plant
extracts such as ginger are based on what has been
used as part of Traditional Medicine Systems and there
is a large body of anecdotal evidence supporting their
use and ecacy. Some other researchers emphasised
that ginger plays an important role in Ayurvedic,
Chinese, Arabic and African traditional medicines used
to treat headaches, nausea, colds, arthritis, rheumatism,
muscular discomfort and inammation (Baliga et al.
2011; Dehghani et al. 2011). Recently, ginger rhizomes
are used in Traditional Medicine as therapy against
several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension
(Ghayur et al. 2005). Niksokhan et al. (2014) reported
that ginger has been used in Traditional Medicine of
Iran as an anti-edema drug and is used for the treatment
of various diseases including nausea, gastrointestinal dis-
orders, respiratory disorders, athero-sclerosis, migraine,
depression, gastric ulcer, cholesterol; and other benets
of giner are reducing pain, rheumatoid arthritis, anti-
inammatory, and antioxidant eects. Surh et al.
(1998), and Manju and Nalini (2010) mentioned that
ginger is one of the most widely used spices in India
and has been utilised frequently in traditional oriental
medicine for common cold, digestive disorders and
rheumatism. Ursell (2000) and Oludoyin and Adegoke
(2014) reported that ginger is a perennial plant with
narrow, bright green, grass-like leaves, and it is cultivated
in the tropics for its edible rhizomes and has been found
to be useful for both culinary and medicinal purposes.
Schwertner and Rios (2007) reported that the main com-
ponents of ginger are 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol,
and 10-gingerol and these constituents have previously
been shown to exhibit strong antioxidant activity. 6-gin-
gerol was reported as the most abundant bioactive com-
pound in ginger with various pharmacological eects
including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inammatory and
antipyretic properties (Kundu and Surh 2009;Dugasani
et al. 2010). The shogaols can be partially transformed
to paradols upon cooking or metabolised to paradols in
the animals
,
body after being consumed and absorbed
by digestive system (Wei et al. 2017). Gingerol and
shogaol in particular, is known to have anti-oxidant and
anti-inammatory properties (Kim et al. 2005)(Figure 1).
Medicinal uses and potential health benets
in modern medicine industry
Ginger extract can remove disorders caused by oxidative
stresses as a strong anti-oxidant. Studies have shown
that extant phenolic compounds and anthocyanins
including gingerols and the sugevals had many neuro
protective eects such as analgesic eects, memory
improvement, and learning caused by the aging
process (Fadaki et al. 2017). For culinary purposes
ginger is suitable for all dished both sweet such as
drinks, puddings, apple pie, cakes, breads, candies, etc;
and savoury such as soups, sauces, stews, savoury
Table 3. Nutritional prole of ginger (100 g) (Singh et al. 2017).
Types of nutrient Examples of nutrient Amount
Protein 1.8 g
Water 78.9 g
Phyto-sterols 15 mg
Total carbohydrate 18 g
Carbohydrates Dietary bre 2 g
Sugar 1.7 g
Total fat 750 mg
Saturated fat 203 mg
Fats and Fatty acids Monounsaturated fat 154 mg
Polyunsaturated fat 154 mg
Omega-3 fatty acids 34 mg
Omega-6 fatty acids 120 mg
Vitamin C 5 mg
Vitamin E 260 mcg
Vitamin K 0.1 mcg
Thiamin 25 mcg
Vitamins Riboavin 34 mcg
Niacin 750 mcg
Vitamin B6 160 mcg
Folic acid 11 mcg
Pantothenic acid 203 mcg
Choline 28.8 mg
Calcium 16 mg
Iron 600 mcg
Magnesium 43 mg
Phosphorous 34 mg
Minerals Potassium 415 mg
Sodium 13 mg
Zink 340 mcg
Copper 226 mcg
Manganese 229 mcg
Selenium 0.7 mcg
Table 4. Active chemical constituents of ginger (Kathi 1999).
Phenols
Volatile
Sesquiterpenes Others
Gingerols and
Shogoals
Bisapolene,
Zingiberene,
Zingiberol,
Sesquiphellandrene,
Curcurmene
6-dehydrogingerdione,
Galanolactone,
Gingesulfonic acid,
Zingerone,
Geraniol,
Neral,
Monoacyldigalactosylglycerols,
Gingerglycolipids
4M. H. SHAHRAJABIAN ET AL.
puddings, grills, roasts, etc. (Oludoyin and Adegoke
2014). Oludoyin and Adegoke (2014) stated that the
active hypoglycaemic component of ginger was not
aected by heat, hence, the consumption of ginger in
raw and cooked forms in dierent cuisines maybe an
eective regimen in the management of diabetes. Simi-
larly, the medicinal uses of ginger are enormous such as
exert anti-microbial, anti nausea (Portnoi et al. 2003), anti
pyretic (Suekawa et al. 1984), analgesic, anti-inamma-
tory, hypoglycaemic (Ojewole 2006; Young et al. 2005),
anti ulcer, antiemetic (Mascolo et al. 1989), cardio tonic,
anti-hypertensive (Ghayur and Gilani 2005), hypolipi-
demic (Al-Amin et al. 2006), anti-platelet aggregation
(Bordia et al. 1997)eects in both laboratory animals
and human subjects. Turmeric is one of the main ingre-
dients for curry powder, and used as an alternative to
medicine and can be made into a drink to treat colds
and stomach complaints (Chan et al. 2009). In folk medi-
cine, turmeric has been used in lowering blood pressure
and as tonic and blood purier (The Wealth of India
2001). Phytochemical investigation of several types of
ginger rhizomes has indicated the presence of bioactive
compounds, such as gingerols, which are antibacterial
agents and shogaols, phenylbutenoids, diarylheptanoids,
avanoids, diterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids (Siva-
sothy et al. 2011; El Makawy et al. 2019). It has been
proved in some researches that ginger leaves has great
potential to be developed into functional foods and
other health products, because it has higher antioxidant
activity than rhizomes and owers (Park et al. 2014).
When compared to the Indian varieties, the Chinese
ginger is low in pungency and is principally exported
as preserves in sugar syrup or as sugar candy (Govindar-
ajan 1982). Semwal et al. (2015) reported that an infusion
of ginger rhizomes with brown sugar is administered to
relieve common colds, while scrambled eggs with pow-
dered ginger is taken as a home remedy to reduce
coughing in China. While, ginger is used in the United
States as a remedy to alleviate motion sickness and
morning sickness during pregnancy and to reduce hear
cramps (Semwal et al. 2015). Furthermore, there are
many studies that proved their benecial eects
against the symptoms of diseases, acting as anti-inam-
matory, anti-tumour, anodyne, neuronal cell protective,
anti-fungal and anti-bacterial agent (Mesomo et al.
2012; Yassen and Ibrahim 2016). Various ginger com-
pounds and extracts have been tested as anti-inamma-
tory agents, where the length of the side chains
determines the level of the eectiveness (Bartels et al.
2015). But, a combination of ginger extracts is more
eective in decreasing inammatory mediators than an
individual compound (Lantz et al. 2007). The active ingre-
dients in ginger are thought to reside in its volatile oils
(Aldhebiani et al. 2017). The major ingredients in
ginger oil are bisabolene, zingiberene, and zingiberol
(Moghaddasi and Kashani 2012). Some other scientists
noted that the interest in ginger is endorsed to its
several biologically active compounds content such as
gingerol, shogaols, gingerdiol, gingerdione, α-zingiber-
ene, curcumin, and β-sesqui-phellandrene (Zhao et al.
2011). Ginger has been part of the folk medicine and
popular nutraceuticals (Bartels et al. 2015). Ginger con-
sists of a complex combination of biologically active con-
stituents, of which compounds gingerols, shogoals and
paradols reportedly account for the majority of its anti-
cancer inammatory properties (Tjendraputra et al.
2001). 6-paradol was suggested as a therapeutic agent
to eectively protect the brain after cerebral ischemia,
likely by attenuating neuroinammation in microglia
(Gaire et al. 2015). Zinger ocinale used as a condiment
in several countries but also it acts as a treatment for ail-
ments; for instance, gastrointestinal disorders, colds,
arthritis, hypertension and migraines (White 2007; Hos-
seini and Mirazi 2015). Maghbooli et al. (2014)
Figure 1. Structure of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol (Zick et al. 2010).
ACTA AGRICULTURAE SCANDINAVICA, SECTION B SOIL & PLANT SCIENCE 5
conrmed the eciency of ginger powder in the therapy
of common migraine attacks and its similarity to the anti-
epileptic drug. Many studies have reported that Ginger
has useful eects to cancer prevention (Lee et al. 2008),
also the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to preg-
nancy and chemotherapy (Pongrojpaw et al. 2007; Ryan
et al. 2012). The anti-spasmodic eect of Ginger is due to
the blocked of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (Van
Breemen et al. 2011). Also, It has been reported that
ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of
voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ghayur and
Gilani 2005). Khaki et al. (2012) reported that ginger
has a protective eect against DNA damage induced
by H
2
O
2
and maybe promising in enhancing healthy
sperm parameters. In Iran, traditionally ginger rhizome
was used for enhancing male sexuality, regulating
female menstrual cycle, and also reducing painful men-
strual periods (Hafez 2010). Adib Rad et al. (2018)
reported that ginger as well as Novafen is eective in
relieving pain in girls with primary dysmenorrhoea, and
treatment with natural herbal medicine, non-synthetic
drug, is recommended to reduce primary dysmenor-
rhoea. Karangiya et al. (2016) concluded that the sup-
plementation of garlic improves the performance of
broilers when added at the rate of 1% of broiler and
can be a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter
in the feeding of broiler chicken. Manju and Nalini (2010)
found that ginger supplementation to 1,2-dimethyl
hydrazine (DMH) treated rats inhibited colon carcinogen-
esis, as evidenced by the signicantly decreased number
and incidence of tumours; in addition ginger optimised
tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in DMH
treated rats. Dinesh et al. (2015) suggested that for
growth promotion and management of soft rot disease
in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68
S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical
measures; they also recommend the use of
B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and
disease management schedules for ginger cultivation.
Mahassni and Bukhari (2019) found that the extract of
ginger rhizome have dierent eects on cells and anti-
bodies of the immune system in smokers and non-
smokers, although both beneted from enhancement
of the thyroid gland. In their research, it has been
found that ginger maybe benecial for smokers with
anaemia, while for non-smokers, it may lead to a stronger
antibody response or humoral immunity against infec-
tions. Vemuri et al. (2017) found that aqueous natural
extracts mixtures (NE mix) prepared from common
spice like ginger is a potential alternative therapeutic
approach in certain types of cancer. Bartels et al. (2015)
concluded that ginger maybe considered as a part of
the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis (OA),
where the patient is motivated for trying this nutraceuti-
cal. Schnitzer (2002) mentioned that evidences is now
provided suggesting that it may have a place in the man-
agement of OA of the knee, and coated ginger extract
maybe considered for this purpose in the future. Adib
Rad et al. (2018) found that Ginger reduced menstrual
pain, and it is eective in relieving pain in girls with
primary dysmenorrhoea; moreover, Drozdov et al.
(2012) mentioned that Ginger is a safe drug with
minimal side eects. Sinagra et al. (2017) reported that
ginger is an eective non-pharmacological option for
treating hyperemesis gravidarum with respect to the
inherent heterogeneity of the available studies. Gholam-
pour et al. (2017) found that ginger extract appears to
exert protective eects against ferrous sulphate-
induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid
peroxidation and chelating iron. Atashak et al. (2014)
mentioned that 10 weeks of either ginger supplemen-
tation or progressive resistance training (PRT) protects
against oxidative stress and therefore both of these inter-
ventions can be benecial for obese individuals. Jittiwat
and Wattanathorn (2012) demonstrated that ginger
pharmacopuncture at GV20 can improve memory
impairment following cerebal ischemia more rapidly
than acupuncture, and one probable mechanism under-
lying this eect is improved oxidative stress. Yilmaz et al.
(2018) found the positive eects of ginger in folliculo-
genesis and implantation. They have also found that
ginger may enhance implantation in rats in the long
term with low dose. In other studies, the favourable out-
comes have been reported on the positive eects of
ginger on male infertility and sperm indices (Khaki
et al. 2012; Ghlissi et al. 2013). Akinyemi et al. (2016)
described that dietary supplementation with both
types of rhizomes, namely ginger and turmeric, inhibited
arginase activity and prevented hypercholesterolaemia
in rats that received a high-cholesterol diet. In con-
clusion, these activities of ginger represent possible
mechanisms underlying its use in herbal medicine to
treat several cardiovascular diseases. Amri and Touil-
Boukoa(2016) concluded that Ginger has an important
anti-hydatic eect in vitro, and this herbal product may
protect against host
,
s cell death by reducing the high
levels of nitric oxide (NO). They nally suggest the prom-
ising use of ginger in the treatment of Echinococcus
granulosus infection. Soltani et al. (2018) recommend
administration of oral ginger one hour before operation
to control the severity of postoperative nausea and
vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing laparoscopic
cholecystetcomy. Daily et al. (2015) claimed that ginger
root supplementation signicantly lowers blood
glucose and HbA1c levels, and when combined with
dietary and lifestyle interventions, it maybe an eective
6M. H. SHAHRAJABIAN ET AL.
intervention for managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Islam et al. (2014) boiled ginger extracts can be used in
food preparation as well as against pathogenic bacteria
during active infection. Viljoen et al. (2014) suggested
potential benets of ginger in reducing nausea symp-
toms in pregnancy. They have found that ginger could
be considered a harmless and possibly eective alterna-
tive option for women suering from nausea and vomit-
ing during pregnancy (NVP). Zaman et al. (2014)
mentioned that ginger root extract signicantly inhibited
the gastric damage and ginger root showed signicant
anti-ulcerogenic activity in the model studied, it can
be a promising gastro-protective agent. Willetts et al.
(2003) concluded that ginger extract is a more eective
treatment than placebo for nausea and retching during
pregnancy. Yadav et al. (2016) demonstrated that
ginger is one of the most commonly used spices and
medicinal plants, and it is eective to improve diet-
induced metabolic abnormalities, however the ecacy
of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated
kidney injury remains unknown. Naderi et al. (2016)
stated that ginger powder supplementation at a dose
of 1 g/d can reduce inammatory markers in patients
with knee osteoarthritis, and it thus can be rec-
ommended as a suitable supplement for these patients.
Mahmoud and Elnour (2013) discovered that ginger has
a great ability to reduce body weight without inhibiting
pancreatic lipase level, or aecting bilirubin concen-
tration, with positive eect on increasing peroxisomal
catalase level and HDL-cholesterol. Ebrahimzadeh Attari
et al. (2015) revealed a minor benecial eect of ginger
powder supplementation on serum glucose and a mod-
erate, signicant eect on total cholesterol, as compared
to the placebo. Malhotra and Singh (2003)also
mentioned the eect of ginger on lowering cholesterol,
and anti-hyperlipidemic agent, the role of ginger in the
treatment of nausea and vomiting (anti-emetic), ginger
possesses anti-skin tumour promoting eects, and that
the mechanism of such eects may involve inhibition
of tumour promoter-caused cellular, biochemical, and
molecular changes (Chemo-protective), anti-viral activity,
anti-motion and anti-nauseant eects, anti-inamma-
tory, diminishing or eliminating the symptoms of hyper-
emesis gravidarum, ginger inuence on exert abortive
and prophylactic eects in migraine headache without
any side eects and anti-ulcerogenic, Ginger and its con-
stituent play pharmacological eects in cancer manage-
ment via modulation of molecular mechanism, and the
mechanism consist of Inhibition of VEGF, Activation
of Bax, Inhibition of Lypoxygenase, Activation o P53,
Inhibition of Interlukin, Inhibition of Bcl2 & Survivin, Inhi-
bition of Cycloxygenase, Inhibition of IFN-γ, Suppression
of TNF & NF-kB and Activation of G0/G1 phase (Rahmani
et al. 2014). Accumulating evidence suggests that many
dietary factors maybe used alone or in combination with
traditional chemotherapeutic agents to prevent or treat
disease, and ginger is example of medicinal plants
which is gaining popularity amongst modern physicians
(Sakr and Badawy 2011). Gagnier et al. (2006) provide an
excellent framework for the development of future trials
that focus on providing satisfactory answers to issues
relating to the ecacy of Z. ocinale to ameliorate
dierent types of pain, as well as, dosing strategies, treat-
ment duration, safety, and cost eectiveness. The most
important health benets of ginger are shown in Table 5.
Conclusion
Ginger is used worldwide as a cooking spice, condiment
and herbal remedy, and it is also extensively consumed
as a avouring agent. Ginger, a plant in the Zingiberaceae
family, is a culinary spice that has been as an important
herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many centuries.
More than 60 active constituents are known to be
present in ginger, which have been broadly divided
into volatile and non-volatile compounds. Hydrocarbons
mostly monoterpenoid hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene
include the volatile component of ginger and impart dis-
tinct aroma and taste to ginger. Nonvolatile compounds
include gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and also zinger-
one. The active ingredients like gingerols, shogaols, zin-
gerone, and so forth present in ginger exhibit
antioxidant activity. Among gingerols and shogaol the
major pungent components in the rhizome are 6-gin-
gerol and 6-shogaol. Gingerol, the active constituent of
ginger has been isolated and studied for pharmacologi-
cal and toxic eects. Fresh ginger has been used for
Table 5. The most important benets of ginger.
Relieves nausea
Treats cold and u
Removes excess gas
Aids in proper digestion
Reduces arthritis pain
Stomach ulcers
Liver protection
Relives asthma
Prevents obesity
Improves cognition
Prevents cancer
Relieves muscle pain
Prevents menstrual cramps
Controls diabetes
Boosts heart health
Prevents infection
Detoxies the body
Skin care
Treats diarrhoea
Increases sexual activity
Improves brain function
Regulates blood sugar
ACTA AGRICULTURAE SCANDINAVICA, SECTION B SOIL & PLANT SCIENCE 7
the treatment of nausea, cold-induced disease, colic,
asthma, cough, heart palpitation, swellings, dyspepsia,
loss of appetency and rheumatism. Medicinal properties
associated with ginger are anti-inammatory properties,
anti-thrombotic properties, cholesterol-lowering proper-
ties, blood pressure-lowering properties, anti-microbial
properties, anti-oxidant properties, anti-tumour proper-
ties, and hypoglycaemic properties. Consumption of
ginger also has benecial eects on heart disease,
cancer, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, osteoarthritis,
and bacterial infections. Ginger is an herbal, easily avail-
able, low price medication which is associated with low
risk can be substituted for a chemical, scarce and expens-
ive drugs. Based on other scientic literature, ginger
demonstrates some promising health benets, and more
information gleaned from additional clinical studies will
help conrm whether ginger
,
s multiple health benets
can be signicantly realised in humans. Herbal remedies
and other nutraceuticals are increasingly and extensively
used by a substantial part of the population. To sum up,
treatment with natural herbal medicine especially
ginger, non-synthetic drug, is recommended.
Disclosure statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.
Notes on contributors
Dr. Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Senior Researcher at Bio-
technology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural
Sciences, Beijing 100081, People s Republic of China. Senior
Researcher at Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute, Build-
ing C4, No. 555 Chuangye, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, Peoples
Republic of China. Email: Hesamshahrajabian@gmail.com
Dr. Wenli Sun, Research Assistant at Biotechnology Research
Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing
100081, Peoples Republic of China. Senior Researcher at Nitro-
gen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute, Building C4, No. 555
Chuangye, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of
China. Email: sunwenli@caas.cn
Prof. Dr. Qi Cheng, Full Professor at Biotechnology Research
Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing
100081, Peoples Republic of China. Senior Researcher at Nitro-
gen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute, Building C4, No. 555
Chuangye, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of
China. Email: chengqi@caas.cn
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ACTA AGRICULTURAE SCANDINAVICA, SECTION B SOIL & PLANT SCIENCE 11
... The Z. officinale root is traditionally used for gastrointestinal motility. The Z. officinale, when eated, enhances efficient digestion [9,10]. Traditional medicine also indicated that Z. officinale is used in the treatment of headaches, nausea, vomiting, hypertension, hyperuricemia, hypercholesteremia, and cancer [9,11]. ...
... The Z. officinale, when eated, enhances efficient digestion [9,10]. Traditional medicine also indicated that Z. officinale is used in the treatment of headaches, nausea, vomiting, hypertension, hyperuricemia, hypercholesteremia, and cancer [9,11]. Moringa oleifera is grown in many parts of the world [12,13]. ...
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This work investigated the development of instant tea formulated using Cymbopogon citrates, Zingiber officinale and Moringa oleifera extracts. Fresh leaves of C. citrates and M. oleifera, and rhizopus of Z. officinale were processed into lyophilized extracts and ultimately developed into instant tea with the aid of simplex centroid mixture design. The results showed optimal extracts mixture of C. citrates (52.32%), M. oleifera (18%), and Z. officinale (29.68%) as most suitable. Prominent bio-compounds included 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(29.54%), Ricinoleic acid (7.49%), 2-Propen-1-amine (7.29%), Z-(13,14-Epoxy)tetradec-11-en-1-ol acetate (7.19%), 9-Octadecenal, (Z)-(7.15%), and 1-Butoxy-1-isobutoxy-butane (4.20%). Antioxidants showed total phenolic (23.80 mgGAE/g), alkaloids (13.61 mg/100 g), total flavonoids (91.24 mg RE/100 g), DPPH (74.16 µmolTEAC/100 g). Phenolic profile showed epicatechin (108.2 6 mg/100 g), ferulic acid (23.41 mg/100 g), pyrogallol (30.02 mg/100 g) and quercetin (38.62 mg/100 g). Physicochemical showed packed bulk density (0.591 g/ml), pH (5.28), *L (69.25), *a (13.61) and *b (28.40). Sensory scores showed taste (90.87%), aroma (86.45%), and general acceptability index (89.84%). Fourier transformed infrared showed carbamyl (amide), cyano (nitrile), formyl (alkaynal), and aryl halides. The formulated instant tea possessed some health promoting bioactive compounds.
... It contains several bioactive compounds, including shogaols, gingerol, gingerdiol, zingerone, and gingerdione, recognized as effective ROS scavengers. It has been proved that ginger extract is associated with good efficacy on aging-related functions by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant levels [35,50,51]. Several studies have reported the impact of ginger as an antioxidant source on delaying the aging progression of several organs. ...
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Aging is a natural process coupled with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, gradually associated with losing organ function over time. Therefore, the objective of the current work was to peruse the protective effects of 8-week moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT) and ginger extract supplementation on some biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid metabolism in the liver of elderly males Wistar rats (animal study with ethical code IR.BMSU.REC.1401.015). A total of thirty-two 22-month-aged male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) control, (2) MIIT, (3) ginger, and (4) MIIT + ginger. After 8 weeks of treadmill training and ginger extract supplementation, the biochemical parameters (liver enzyme and lipid profile), inflammatory mediators (leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein 1 (LRG1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6), pro-oxidant (malondialdehyde), antioxidant biomarkers (catalase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity), some lipid metabolism regulators (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, adipose triglyceride lipase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, CD36, and AMP-activated protein kinase), and liver histopathological changes were appraised. The acquired findings pointed out that MIIT combined with ginger extract appreciably diminished the serum levels of LRG1, liver enzymes, and lipid profile relative to the other groups after 8 weeks of intervention. Furthermore, ginger + MIIT caused a great improvement in the liver levels of antioxidant biomarkers, pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, lipid metabolism regulators, and liver tissue impairment compared to the other groups. The findings suggested that MIIT + ginger was more effective in improving examined indices relative to the other groups.
... Tomado de Gowrishankar et al. (2021) El jengibre (Zingiber officinale) se ha utilizado como especia y medicina por más de 200 años. Es una planta con una diversidad de propiedades antiinflamatorias, antiapoptóticas, antitumorales, antipiréticas, antiplaquetarias, antitumorales, antihiperglucémicas, antioxidantes, antidiabéticas, anticoagulantes, analgésicas y citotóxico, gracias a los compuestos generales como Fe, Mg, Ca, vitamina C, flavonoides y compuestos fenólicos (Mao et al., 2019;Shahrajabian et al., 2019). ...
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A la fecha se han reportado 1400 especies de plantas de uso medicinal, que, a pesar del tiempo, mantienen su efectividad y son aceptadas por el 80 % de la población. Frente a la pandemia, se ha recurrido al uso de diferentes tipos de plantas con potencial antiviral con el propósito de proteger y estimular el sistema inmune. A pesar de que la medicina convencional presenta grandes avances, aún hay una gran parte de la población que emplea las plantas medicinales, hecho que se ha evidenciado más en estos dos últimos años. Se han reportado diferentes estudios de acoplamiento molecular de especies de plantas medicinales, como el Allium sativum, que tienen gran potencial para inhibir el SARS-CoV-2; sin embargo, es necesario realizar mayores ensayos in vitro e in vivo para determinar su potencialidad. En ese contexto, la presente investigación busca explorar las potencialidades de las denominadas plantas medicinales con respecto a las enfermedades respiratorias virales; y se toma como caso de estudio a la COVID-19. Para ello, se realizó una revisión bibliométrica en las bases de datos Scopus, PudMed, Scielo, Sciencedirect y Web of Science, empleando palabras clave como herbal medicine, COVID-19, ethnobotany y traditional medicine.
... Nutraceutical compounds of Z. ofcinale claimed to have medicinal value include gingerols and zingerone. Of these, gingerols are thought to be the most pharmacologically active components [34]. It has been reported as an active inhibitor of Mycobacterium avium [35] and shows antibacterial efects on S. aureus, which is a causative agent for respiratory disorders [36]. ...
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Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) refer to infections in any part of the respiratory tract, which are common, with most of the world's population contracting at least one infection annually. Tese infections are becoming important causes of death and morbidity due to the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance that has resulted in reduced efcacy of existing drugs. Diferent local societies residing in Ethiopia have been reported to use traditional medicinal plants to treat RTIs. Nevertheless, up-to-date summarized data on the diversity of plants used in the traditional medicine system to treat RTIs in Ethiopia are lacking. Te purpose of this review was to assess plant species used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory tract infections in Ethiopia. It attempts to compile available data required for undertaking further scientifc investigations. Te data were collected by searching for published scientifc articles and other grey literature. Following this, medicinal plant (MP) diversity, growth forms, plant parts used, modes of remedy preparation and application, sources and distributions, and frequently treated respiratory disorders were examined. An Excel spreadsheet and SigmaPlot software were used to summarize and present the data. Two hundred twenty-nine (229) plant species that have been used to treat respiratory disorders in Ethiopia were documented. Lamiaceae was the most cited family (27 species), followed by Asteraceae (23 species), and Fabaceae (18 species), whereas cough was primarily cited as being treated by MPs and scored the highest frequency of citation (FOC � 243), followed by the common cold (FOC � 151) and asthma (FOC � 63). Te top-cited plant species used in the treatment of RTIs were Eucalyptus globulus (6.8%), Allium sativum (5.5%), Zingiber ofcinale (4.2%), Ruta chalepensis (3.8%), and Ocimum lamiifolium (2.8%). Herbs were the dominant plant growth form (46%) used to treat respiratory diseases, and the most commonly used MP parts were leaves (37%). Te leading traditional method used for preparation was decoction (25.5%), and the remedies were usually administered orally (64.6%). Te MP origin reported was mainly from the wild (59%). High diversity of medicinal plants was reported as being used to treat various RTIs in Ethiopia. Information obtained from this review could be used as a reference for the selection of plants for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and toxicological investigations for their possible therapeutic applications and the development of new plant-based drugs.
... This herb is abundantly cultivated for commercial purposes in India, Indochina, West Indies, Mexico, Southeast Asia, and other countries as well (Banerjee et al., 2011). Ginger has been traditionally used to reduce the symptoms of headaches, colds, nausea, pain, and emesis (Mao et al., 2019;Mohamad et al., 2019). In India, the preparation of fresh ginger juice mixed with fresh garlic juice and honey is a common practice for cough and asthma (Awang, 1992). ...
... The species Z. officinale (Fig 4C), popularly known as "gengibre", is reported in traditional Chinese medicine to provide numerous health benefits (Shahrajabian et al., 2019a(Shahrajabian et al., , 2019b. Its rhizomes are also commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine, including for the treatment of asthma, through the consumption of products as the oil, tea, decoction, infusion, maceration or syrup (Boscolo, 2013;Ribeiro et al., 2017;Gabriel Neto and Gomes, 2018;. ...
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Background: Medicinal plants can be important allies in improving the quality of life of asthmatic patients, providing a natural alternative to synthetic drugs that have various side effects. In this context, several species found in Brazil have been indicated for the treatment of asthma in ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys. Purpose: Gather, for the first time, information from the literature on the Brazilian flora used for the treatment of asthma and identify the species that have already been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. Study design: A comprehensive review of the literature on medicinal plants used in the treatment of asthma in different regions of Brazil. Methods: Literature was retrieved from Google Scholar, PubMed®, SciELO and ScienceDirect® databases, since the first report on the traditional use of plants with medicinal properties for the treatment of asthma in Brazil in 1983. The scientific names of the species were checked in The Plant List©. Results: According to the scientific documents analyzed, a total of 188 species distributed in 63 families are used for the treatment of asthma by traditional communities in Brazil. The states with the highest number of indications for use were Piauí (11.01%) and Ceará (9.17%). The most representative families in number of species were Fabaceae (24 spp.), Lamiaceae (23 spp.) and Asteraceae (19 spp.). In general, the leaves (37%) were the parts most used in traditional preparations. It was observed that 31 species had their in vivo antiasthmatic activity reported in the literature, while only 11 were evaluated in randomized clinical trials with asthmatic patients. Coumarin, bixin, mangiferin, rosmarinic acid, anthraquinone, 6-shogaol, oroboside, demethylwedelolactone, wedelolactone, stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol, umbelliferone and quercetin were effective in different experimental models of asthma. In a clinical trial, 1,8-cineol showed clinically relevant anti-inflammatory activity and offers new perspectives for its long-term therapeutic use in airway diseases, such as asthma. Conclusions: Altogether, herbal preparations made from medicinal plants have strategic importance for the development of new drugs aimed at the treatment of asthma, but it is important to consider the need to identify the molecular targets of action and toxicological aspects.
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Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have become a major health concern worldwide. The global death percentage caused by NCDs is reported to be 70% of the total deaths. Currently, there is a significant concern about herbal applications in improving people's lifestyles to mitigate the risk of NCDs, and food product development with an herbal context is considered more impactful. Plant/herbal materials have been used in traditional medicine since ancient times due to the nutraceutical properties of secondary plant metabolites. These are known to exert several health-promoting effects such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-lipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic, etc. properties. Therefore, modern society is concerned more about adopting to pharmaceuticals and diet interventions of natural-origin to mitigate health conditions associated with NCDs. Those interventions are, in most cases, termed functional foods and/or nutraceuticals. Thus, a substantial global market opportunity has been relieved for herbal functional foods and nutraceuticals, recently. Therefore, this paper provides a narrative review on the global burden caused by the NCDs, and the deviation of consumer trends towards more natural and herbal oriented functional foods in overcoming those risks. Furthermore, such trends are predicted to rise drastically in upcoming years in the regions around the globe with significant generation of revenue. This review further elaborates on pharmacological and health benefits of herbal materials that could be used in developing functional foods and/or nutraceuticals. In addition, current and prospective functional foods and nutraceuticals that have been developed with herbal origins in recent research across the globe are presented here with their respective health-promoting effects. The food categories currently being developed into functional foods are mostly being, but not limited to, functional beverages, functional teas, functional snacks/starchy foods, and functional confectioneries. The physiological benefits expected by these functional foods and nutraceuticals include, prevention of hyperglycaemia, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancers, hypercholesterolemia, etc. This review would provide a brief but informative background for future researchers, who would carry out research on New Product Development (NPD) on functional foods and nutraceuticals of herbal origin.
Chapter
In the Peruvian Amazon, the Awajun indigenous populations have treated diseases traditionally through the consumption of medicinal plants and consultations with healers. Even though these traditional medicinal treatments are declining since the introduction of modern medicine into the Awajun ambit, the use of traditional medicinal plants is still applied by these populations, and Awajun women, especially the elderly, are playing a vital role in preserving and transferring the remaining ecological traditional knowledge to the coming generation. Among all the medicinal plants still applied by these populations, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has played an important role in the health of these Awajun groups since its introduction (eighteenth century), leading even to replace native plants due to its effectiveness, and becoming the most recognized medicinal plant in the Awajun culture so far. Among all its benefits, various authors converge that ginger is considered the medicinal plant most used in childbirth and post-childbirth, or in regulating fertility in these indigenous groups. This chapter makes a compilation of different traditional uses of ginger in Awajun communities, where some of them are validated with current and promising scientific findings such as the ginger variety, Bukuchap ajeg, to reduce the menstrual flow ceases during dysmenorrhea or Akap ajeg to alleviate the different types of colic, including menstrual pain. In addition, we introduce Elsa Wajai Ampush, an Awajun traditional knowledge holder, who explains to us her interaction with this plant and its applications in different medicinal purposes besides fertility matters. Therefore, we propose to explain how this introduced plant species, ginger, has been rooted culturally in the Awajun populations so far due to its importance in health purposes that science is advancing in proving.
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Background: Throughout the classical era, medicinal plants have already been employed as a resource for medicine and in the healing of wounds. Chronic wounds are linked to significant healthcare and socioeconomic consequences despite standard medication. The development of effective wound‐healing therapies with improved wound repair mechanisms may result from the emergence of innovative wound‐healing techniques utilizing medicinal plants in combination with nanotechnology. This review combines herbal formulations like biodegradable nanoparticles, films, fibres, hydrogels, and ointments with antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti‐inflammatory characteristics with herbal medicines to promote wound healing. Objective: This article aims to provide an overview of the numerous cellular and molecular elements involved in skin healing. Findings: This article overviews the numerous cellular and molecular elements involved in skin healing. Following the commencement of a tissue lesion, a series of molecular and cellular actions take place to restore the injured tissue. This process is known as regeneration and tissue repair. Sequential events involving the integration of dynamic processes involving soluble mediators, blood cells, and parenchymal cells result in the exudative, proliferative, and extracellular matrix remodelling stages. Conclusion: The development of tissue edema is aided by exudative processes after damage. By recruiting myofibroblasts and fibroplasia, the proliferative stage aims to decrease the area of tissue damage. The mechanisms of angiogenesis and re‐ epithelialization are still observed at this point.
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Consumer demand for ginger beer has grown within the last few years due to health benefits associated with ginger consumption identified in recent studies and its low‐calorie content. However, non‐alcoholic ginger beer, like other non‐alcoholic beverages, does not possess the same mouthfeel as its alcoholic counterparts. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the addition of guar gum impacted the sensory perception, spiciness, and consumer acceptability of non‐alcoholic ginger beer. Two different formulations of ginger beer were created, one without the addition of guar gum (control) and the other with 1.9g/L guar gum added. Samples, along with carbonated water, were presented in pairs with a 20‐second wait and no‐rinse in between to observe sensitization and desensitization. The participants (n=103) evaluated each sample for spiciness, burning or stinging sensation, along with bitterness, sweetness, sourness, overall flavour intensity, liking of flavour and mouthfeel, and overall liking. The addition of guar gum significantly impacted the perception of spiciness, burning, and stinging sensation in addition to the overall flavour intensity. The guar gum addition also negatively impacted the acceptability of the ginger beer.
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Objective: Menstrual pain is a periodic pain which happens during the days of menses. The menstrual disturbances as a health problem among young girls affect not only reproductive, but also psychical health and quality of life. This study was done with the goal of comparing the effect of Ginger and Novafen on the menstrual pain. Materials and methods: This crossover clinical trial study was done in Iran on 168 single girl students 18 e26 years old in Babol University of Medical Sciences with primary menstrual pain. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups receiving the drugs Novafen and Ginger. At the beginning of pain, in the two groups 200 mg capsule was given every 6 h for two serial cycles. Pain severity was measured by the visual scale before treatment, 1 h after consuming the drug (for 24 h) and 48 h after the onset of drug. Results: The mean age of participants was 21.83 ± 2.07 years. It has been reported that the intensity of pain from dysmenorrhea decreased in the Novafen and Ginger groups. Before treatment, the average pain intensity in Novafen and Ginger users were 7.12 ± 2.32 and 7.60 ± 1.84, respectively and after treatment pain intensity decreased to 3.10 ± 2.69 and 2.97 ± 2.69, respectively. Differences between two groups each time showed no statistical significance (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Both drugs reduced menstrual pain. Ginger as well as Novafen is effective in relieving pain in girls with primary dysmenorrhea . Therefore, treatment with natural herbal medicine, non-synthetic drug, to reduce primary dysmenorrhea is recommended.
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Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years by different generations in China and other Asian countries as foods to promote good health and as drugs to treat disease. Goji berry (Lycium barbarum), as a Chinese traditional herb and food supplement, contains many nutrients and phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides, scopoletin, the glucosylated precursor, amino acids, flaconoids, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. It has positive effects on anitcancer, antioxidant activities, retinal function preservation, anti-diabetes, immune function and anti-fatigue. Widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, Goji berries can be sold as a dietary supplement or classified as nutraceutical food due to their long and safe traditional use. Modern Goji pharmacological actions are improving function, enhances the body ,s ability to adapt to a variety of noxious stimuli; it significantly inhibits the generation and spread of cancer cells and can improve eyesight and increase reserves of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen which may increase human energy and has anti-fatigue effect. Goji berries may improve brain function and enhances learning and memory. It may boost the body ,s adaptive defences, and significantly reduce the levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride, it may help weight loss and obesity and treats chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Today they are considered functional food with many beneficial effects, which is why they have become more popular recently, especially in Europe, North America and Australia, as they are considered as superfood with highly nutritive and antioxidant properties. Geographical origin of Goji berries are one of the most important quality parameters in TCM since the differences in climate, soil, and cultivation methods cause differences in the chemical composition of the plants. Goji berry has huge health benefits that attract good international markets. Goji berry which is as knows as the super fruit and super food in TCM for the claimed health benefits and it should be part of daily diet.
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Sexual dysfunction in the epileptic patient is difficult to confirm whether it is ailment or therapy related. Antiepileptic drugs often use in reproductive age, through reproductive progress and maturation. On the other side, cold-pressed oils are rich in bioactive phytochemicals with health-promoting traits. The target of this work was to appraise the sexual dysfunction of antiepileptic Topiramate (TPM) and cold pressed ginger oil (CPGO) as antiepileptic alternative medicine in male mice. Fifty-four adult male albino mice were divided into nine groups (n = 6 mice). One group given saline and used as negative control; another one was given corn oil as vehicle. Six groups administered orally with TPM or CPGO at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Moreover, group of animals co-administrated orally CPGO with TPM (400 mg/kg) to study their interaction. Fatty acid profile and tocols composition of CPGO were determined. in vitro assays were undertaken to evaluate radical scavenging traits of CPGO utilizing sable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and galvinoxyl radicals. The study investigated antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, sexual hormones levels, mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa), synaptonemal complex protein (Sycp3), Wilms tumor gene (Wt1) as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Strong radical scavenging potential of CPGO against stable DPPH· and galvinoxyl radicals was recorded. The results revealed that TPM caused a dose-dependent reduction in the an-tioxidant activities and testosterone content, while, malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) as oxidative stress markers were elevated. Vegfa and Sycp3 mRNA expression down-regulated at all Topiramate tested doses, but Wt1 up-regulated at 400 mg/kg. TPM (400 mg/kg) revealed histological alterations associated with strong positive Bax immune reactive spermatogoneal and Leydig cells. Ginger oil elevated the CAT and SOD (anti-oxidant enzymes), serum testosterone and diminished the oxidative stress, up regulated the expression of Vegfa and Sycp3 and down-regulated the Wt1 expression. Meanwhile, CPGO revealed no histopathological alterations and no Bax immune-reactive cells. CPGO co-administration with TPM (400 mg/kg) attenuated the TPM toxicity. High doses of TPM may exhibit sexual dysfunction but CPGO is safe and has androgenic property. CPGO co-administration could protect the antiepileptic patient from the TPM sexual dysfunction.
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Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well known and extensively used antioxidant in traditional remedies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ginger powder on ovarian folliculogenesis and implantation in rats. Methods: There were two study groups. In the 5-day treatment group (one estrous cycle), 100 mg ginger powder, 200 mg ginger powder or distilled water was given for 5 days to the three subgroups each containing seven rats. In the 10-day treatment group, same doses were given for 10 days (two estrous cycle) to the three subgroups each containing seven rats. At the end of the 5th and 10th days, ovarian volumes, ovarian weights, primordial follicles, antral follicles, atretic follicles, and corpus luteum counts were assessed. To evaluate the angiogenic effects of ginger, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and for the antioxidant effects of ginger endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were examined in the ovaries and in the endometrium immunohistochemically. Results: In the 5-day treatment group, antral follicle count and ovarian stromal VEGF were significantly high in the 100 mg ginger subgroup in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). In the 10-day treatment group, endometrial VEGF and ovarian stromal eNOS were significantly high in the 100 mg ginger subgroup in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference at 200 mg ginger dose both in 5-day and 10-day treatment groups. Conclusion: The increases in the antral follicle count and ovarian stromal VEGF in the 100 mg/5-day treatment subgroup indicate that ginger have positive effects on folliculogenesis in short term with low dose. Additionally, ginger may enhance implantation in rats in long term with low dose.
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A study was conducted to assess the effects of a bio-fertilizer and an inorganic fertilizer on growth, yield of spinach vegetable, on four cultivated soils, representing different agro-ecological zones of Chengdu, Hunan, Xiaotangshan and Shaanxi. Three replicates soil samples mixed with bio-fertilizer 100 g per pot and nutrient solution (MgSO 4 , Ca(NO) 2 , KNO 3 ) 633 ml based on container volume. Spinach seeded directly ten per pot, thinned to five watered to plant water requirement until maturity. RCBD of three replication used, data for growth, yield and other agronomic characters and soil physicochemical properties evaluated. Soil results showed substantial differences in physicochemical properties from the four agro-ecological zones (Ferrod Arenosol, Entisol, Aridisol and Vertisol). Plant emergence percent were Xiaotangshan (74.8%), Chengdu (74.5%), Hunan (72.4%) and Shaanxi (70.7%), plant height at six week, Xiaotangshan (17.8 cm), Hunan (17.1 cm), Shaanxi (16.8 cm) and Chengdu (16.1 cm) the least, number of leaves at six weeks were Xiaotangshan (21), Hunan (19) and (16) Shaanxi, leaf area Hunan (89.5 cm ² ), Shaanxi (83.7 cm ² ), Chengdu (79.4 cm ² ) and Xiaotangshan (78.1 cm ² ), dry biomass of 4.88, 4.35, 3.83 and 3.03 g obtained for Hunan, Chengdu, Shaanxi and Xiaotangshan, respectively. Percentage plant emergence based on soil layers were 0-25 cm (75.8%), 25-50 cm (75.3%), 50-75 cm (71.6%) and 75-100 cm (69.6%), respectively; highest plant emergence percentage were obtained from top soil layer of Hunan, treated with biofertilizer. Substantial differences were observed for plant height, biomass and other agronomic characters in all the soils. The results show that Hunan soil is the most suitable for cultivation of spinach under biofertilizer treatment, compared to other types. The study underpins the importance soil types and fertilizer evaluation for a sustainable vegetable production in China.
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Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, is widely used and is most popular as a culinary spice and in Traditional medicines to add flavor for more than thousands of years. It is also used in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and in cosmetics. Ginger contains a fusion of an aroma oils both volatile (zingiberene) and non-volatile (oleoresin) oils and phenolic compounds (gingerol and shogaol, zingerone and paradol). In ginger rhizomes, also contains starch, saccharides, proteins, colouring matter and trace minerals that plays a huge role as a spice ingredient. In ginger, starch comprises of 40 - 60 % w/w, protein is 6.2 - 19.8 %, wax or lipid is 5.7 - 14.5 % and crude fiber is 1.1 - 7.0 % and oleoresin approximately 4 - 7.5 %. Ginger is available in fresh, dried, pickled, preserved, crystallized, candied and powdered or ground form. It is unstable due to acidic environment or as a result of the increase in temperature; presence of light, air, heat and long term storage but it can be enhanced by Nano emulsion formulation. Ginger has shown various pharmacological effects such antioxidant, anti – inflammatory, gastro protective, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic etc.