Nutritional Assessment of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Flower, Formulation and Popularization of Hibiscus Flower Based Products

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Crude preparations of the different parts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis have been traditionally used in folk medicine for various purposes. In the present study, we have evaluated the antibacterial activity of the extracts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves and flowers against some clinical isolates of bacteria by simple agar-well diffusion and bacteriological enumeration method. In the preliminary screening experiment, all of the bacterial isolates showed varying degrees of sensitivity to the flower extracts excluding Klebsiella pneumoniae. We found Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium as the most sensitive to the extracts of flowers at the applied doses of 50 and 100 mg/well. On the other hand, most of the tested bacterial isolates were resistant to the extracts of leaves excluding S. aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. In bacteriological enumeration study, all of the bacterial isolates showed substantial extent of sensitivity to the different extracts used. Our findings clearly demonstrate that the flower extracts of H. rosa-sinensis had stronger antibacterial effects than that of leaves and raises the possibility of using the extracts as antibacterial agents in treating pathological conditions caused by S. aureus and S. typhimurium infection. Although the effect of the H. rosa-sinensis flowers and leaves against some pathogenic bacteria in vitro is promising, further microbiological and pharmacological studies will be required before starting clinical trials.
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The aqueous-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) was studied for the possible presence of spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents to rationalize its traditional use in gastrointestinal disorders. The crude extract (Hr.Cr) caused a concentration-dependent (1-10mg/mL) spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum, which was blocked in the presence of atropine (0.1 microM). In spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum, the plant extract exhibited a weak stimulatory effect at lower doses (0.03-0.30 mg/mL) followed by an inhibitory effect at higher doses (1.0-3.0mg/mL). Pretreatment of the tissues with atropine blocked the stimulatory effect resulting in the potentiation of the spasmolytic effect. Hr.Cr (0.03-1.0mg/mL) also showed an inhibitory effect on K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions. The calcium channel blocking activity was confirmed when Hr.Cr shifted the Ca(2+) concentration-response curves to the right, similar to verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the ethyl acetate, while the spasmogenic in the petroleum ether fraction. The aqueous fraction exhibited a combination of weak spasmogenic and spasmolytic effects. These data indicate that the crude extract contains spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents mediating their effect through cholinergic receptors activation and blockade of Ca(2+) influx, respectively, which may explain its traditional use in constipation and diarrhoea.
Population control is the need of the hour to stabilise the world population growth and to decrease economic burden for almost all the nations on this globe. There are well established contraceptive drugs and measures have been evaluated in existing modern system of medicine. But hormonal contraceptives can not be used for long duration due to their severe side effects. Available local contraceptive measures do not give 100% surety of prevention of conception. Permanent measures are surgical therapies only. Hence, there is a need to evaluate alternate and safe formulations from indigenous systems of medicine for temporary as well as permanent sterilization. Hence in this present article, an attempt has been made to review formulations described in Ayurvedic classics and to throw light on scientific validity of the same.
Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and flowers of H. arnottianus, H. surattensis, H. acetosella and H. rosa-sinensis are described. The anisocytic stomata was the commonest followed by brachyparacytic, anomocytic, staurocytic stomata and laterocytic stomatas respectively. H. acetosella are distinguished on other species by having laterocytic stomata on both surfaces of leaves and parallel contiguous stomata are found on abaxial surface while in H. rosa-sinensis laterocytic is found only on adaxial surface. There are five different types of abnormal stomata, unopened stomatal pore, two stomata sharing one subsidiary cell, parallel contiguous stomata and aborted guard cell found in all the surfaces of the leaves and flowers. In addition parallel contiguous stomata are found on adaxial surface of H. rosa-sinensis and abaxial surface of H. arnottianus flower. H. rosa-sinensis had five-armed trichome on the abaxial surface that helps in distinguishing it from other species studied. Crystal druses are only present on both adaxial surface of H. arnottianus and H. rosa-sinensis leaf and on the abaxial surface of H. acetosella flower. The shape of epidermal cells, anticlinal cell walls, guard cell areas, stomatal index and trichomes varied. The results obtained could be used as diagnostic tool for plant identification and preparation of monograph on the species.
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis linn and phytochemicals
  • Z Begum
  • I Younus
  • S M Ali
Begum Z, Younus I, Ali SM. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis linn and phytochemicals. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 4(12): 116-23