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NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics

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Xenarthrans—anteaters, sloths, and armadillos—have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13), Dasypodidae (7), Myrmecophagidae (3), Bradypodidae (4), and Megalonychidae (2). We have no occurrence data on Dasypus pilosus (Dasypodidae). Regarding Cyclopedidae, until recently, only one species was recognized, but new genetic studies have revealed that the group is represented by seven species. In this data paper, we compiled a total of 42,528 records of 31 species, represented by occurrence and quantitative data, totaling 24,847 unique georeferenced records. The geographic range is from the southern United States, Mexico, and Caribbean countries at the northern portion of the Neotropics, to the austral distribution in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. Regarding anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla has the most records (n = 5,941), and Cyclopes sp. have the fewest (n = 240). The armadillo species with the most data is Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 11,588), and the fewest data are recorded for Calyptophractus retusus (n = 33). With regard to sloth species, Bradypus variegatus has the most records (n = 962), and Bradypus pygmaeus has the fewest (n = 12). Our main objective with Neotropical Xenarthrans is to make occurrence and quantitative data available to facilitate more ecological research, particularly if we integrate the xenarthran data with other data sets of Neotropical Series that will become available very soon (i.e., Neotropical Carnivores, Neotropical Invasive Mammals, and Neotropical Hunters and Dogs). Therefore, studies on trophic cascades, hunting pressure, habitat loss, fragmentation effects, species invasion, and climate change effects will be possible with the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set. Please cite this data paper when using its data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using these data.
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... We downloaded species occurrence data with the aid of the spocc package in the R environment (Chamberlain, 2020) Endemic birds considered in this study are listed in Vale, Souza, et al. (2018) and Vale, Tourinho, et al. (2018), non-endemic ones in Hasui et al. (2018), primates (endemic and non-endemic) in Reis et al. (2015), and sloths in Santos, Bocchiglieri, et al. (2019). We only considered species that have forest as main habitat type according to IUCN (https://www.iucnr ...
... When considering models based on landscape predictors only, species richness was higher in regions where landscapes have higher amounts of forest (Figure 4; Figure S4). These results were expected as the studied taxa are forestdwelling species (Pizo & Tonetti, 2020;Reis et al., 2015;Santos, Bocchiglieri, et al., 2019). ...
... io.org). We also considered primates and sloths occurrences in datasets of the Atlantic Forest region(Culot et al., 2019;Santos, Bocchiglieri, et al., 2019). We only considered primate and sloth data locations assigned as 'precise' or with a geographic accuracy of 1 km according to the authors(Culot et al., 2019;Santos, Bocchiglieri, et al., 2019). ...
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Aim Evaluate how large‐scale forest regeneration based on a low‐cost restoration method may mitigate the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation associated to future climate changes on the distribution of birds and arboreal mammals in a tropical biodiversity hotspot; find areas with different current and future potential species richness and assess how passive restoration can reduce the risk of species extinction. Location Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). Methods We built a forest regeneration scenario via a model of seed dispersal based on the potential movement of frugivorous fauna and projected the potential distribution of 356 bird species and 21 arboreal mammals based on Species Distribution Models (SDM) which employed 79,462 occurrence records and four algorithms for different climate and landscape scenarios. SDM were based on climate and landscape predictors separately and the results were combined into maps of species richness. Finally, we assessed the species’ risk of extinction based on the species–area relationship. Results Without considering the effects of climate change, the potential distribution area for each species increases on average by 72.5% (SD = 8%) in the scenario of potential regeneration. Climate change decreases the area of potential occurrence of 252 species, which may suffer a mean reduction of 74.4% (SD = 9.3%) in their current potential distribution areas. BAF regions with the largest amounts of forest had the greatest potential richness of species. In future climate scenario, 3.4% of species may become extinct, but we show that large‐scale regeneration may prevent these extinctions. Main conclusions Despite the possible negative impacts of climate change on the distribution of 67% of the studied species, which would increase the risk of species extinction, our analysis indicated that promoting large‐scale BAF restoration based on natural regeneration may prevent biodiversity loss.
... Euphractus sexcinctus is distributed in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Suriname, and Uruguay (Abba et al. 2014). In Brazil it can be found in all biomes (Paglia et al. 2012) and is the armadillo species with the largest geographic distribution (Santos et al. 2019). Several records have extended the known distribution of this species (e.g., Andrade et al. 2006;Lima et al. 2010), indicating a disjunct geographical distribution, especially in the northwestern of its distribution in the Brazilian Amazon (Silva Júnior and Nunes 2001). ...
... The two new records from the central region of Rondônia state extend the distribution of E. sexcinctus westward by approximately 70 km. Published studies indicate that there is a large void of information on the distribution of mammals in the Amazon (Santos et al. 2019;Nagy-Reis et al. 2020), and this suggests that the species' disrupted distribution is more likely due to a lack of surveys than environmental preference, a possibility reinforced by a record in the central Amazon region (Santos et al. 2019). ...
... The two new records from the central region of Rondônia state extend the distribution of E. sexcinctus westward by approximately 70 km. Published studies indicate that there is a large void of information on the distribution of mammals in the Amazon (Santos et al. 2019;Nagy-Reis et al. 2020), and this suggests that the species' disrupted distribution is more likely due to a lack of surveys than environmental preference, a possibility reinforced by a record in the central Amazon region (Santos et al. 2019). ...
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We report two new records of occurrence of Six-banded Armadillo, Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, based on roadkills. These new records extend the geographic distribution of this species by 70 km. The records are from the region with a high deforestation rate called the "Arc of Deforestation", which includes the state of Rondônia. Euphractus sexcinctus was recorded in an area with a high loss of vegetation cover, where the forest is being converted to pasture. Citation: Barbosa RAP, Oliveira MA (2022) New records and range extension of Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cingulata, Chla my-phoridae) in Rondônia state, Brazil.
... Collection records were retrieved from the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set that includes 42,528 records derived from studies based on camera trapping, roadkill surveys, active searches, live trapping, museums, among others (see Santos et al., 2019). This data set represents the most comprehensive assemblage of Xenarthra records K E Y W O R D S Amazon, anteaters, armadillos, coldspots, collection bias, dry Chaco, hotspots, sloths to date, including studies developed in the whole Neotropical region, and it was thoroughly revised by experts. ...
... To reduce spatial correlation and sampling bias (Feeley & Silman, 2011), we excluded duplicated localities within 2.5° arc-min grid resolution, the same spatial resolution of the environmental layers used. This more coarse resolution was preferred given the variety of methods used to record species occurrence (Santos et al., 2019). Models vary in complexity and include regularization multipliers ranging from 1 to 5 with five combinations of feature classes (L, LQ, LQH and H; where L = linear, Q = quadratic, H = hinge). ...
... Xenarthra distributional records are highly skewed towards access routes. This is not surprising given about a quarter of the records were derived from opportunistic encounters and roadkilled animals (Santos et al., 2019) and similar biases are commonly recovered from diverse animal and plant occurrence databases (Hughes, Orr, Ma, et al., 2021;Kadmon et al., 2004;Oliveira et al., 2016). However, factors driving spatial bias varied among biomes. ...
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Aim Limited funds for conservation and research require the development of prioritization schemes. Traditionally, biodiversity metrics were used to delineate priority areas; however, a growing realization emphasizes that logistic factors should be also considered. Here, we combine species richness, past collection efforts, degree of habitat loss and accessibility to define priority areas and spatially orient fieldwork in a cost-effective manner for xenarthrans. Location Neotropics. Methods We assessed spatial patterns of species richness in Xenarthra and identified diversity hotspots based on species distribution models. Spatial patterns and biases in the Xenarthra past collection efforts were analysed using a comprehensive database including 33,464 individual records for 34 species of Xenarthra. Finally, we produced priority area indices relating species richness and collection efforts with levels of habitat loss and accessibility (roads and rivers network) to highlight important but neglected areas. Results Collection efforts were concentrated to a small portion of the Neotropics (central-western Brazil, eastern Bolivia and north-western Argentina) and were biased towards access routes. Only 4% of the Neotropics can be considered well sampled. Major xenarthran diversity hotspots include the Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia and the dry Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina. Priority areas for research varied depending on the metric analysed. Amazon holds a high diversity that remains poorly explored. Central Argentina and eastern Brazil are priority areas for research and conservation given the low sampling efforts, high diversity and endemic species, high levels of habitat loss and a dense road network. Main conclusions Most areas of the Neotropics lack a proper assessment of the xenarthran assemblage, reflecting extensive knowledge shortfalls. Sites close to roads tend to be better sampled, but many areas with a dense road network are undersampled, being good candidates for low-cost studies. Xenarthra diversity hotspots facing the highest levels of habitat alteration are the least protected and are priority for both research and conservation. Simultaneous efforts of data collection and conservation actions across most of the xenarthran range should be stimulated.
... In association with its cryptic coloration Edentata 22 (2021): 52-57 DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2021.Edentata-22-1.8.en Electronic version: ISSN 1852-9208 Print version: ISSN 1413 these characteristics make field detection difficult and contribute to the lack of knowledge about this taxon (Feijó & Langguth, 2013;Miranda et al., 2015). The largest database on the abundance and occurrence of neotropical xenarthrans shows that Cyclopes sp. has the smallest number of records among the studied taxa (n = 240, Santos et al., 2019). Cyclopes sp. ...
... Only one documented record existed for Rio Grande do Norte, but the exact origin of that animal, which had been seized by the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Renováveis (IBAMA) (Miranda & Superina, 2010), was unknown. Our record is 40 km from the closest record of the species with documented location, a museum specimen collected at Mamanguape in Paraíba (Feijó & Langguth, 2013;Santos et al., 2019; Fig. 1, Table 1). Reports obtained from interviews point to the presence of the species in Mataraca, Paraíba, a municipality bordering Baía Formosa (Campos et al., 2018), 10 km from Mata Estrela Private Reserve (Fig. 1, Table 1). ...
... A. Location of Pernambuco Endemism Center in northeastern Brazil; B. Cyclopes didactylus records in the Pernambuco Endemism Center obtained through different survey methods, including primary and secondary data, and highlighting the new record presented here; C. location of Mata Estrela Private Reserve (RPPN) in Rio Grande do Norte state, near the place where the animal was found being kept by a fisherman. Literature records with geographic coordinates: 1, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19:Miranda & Superina (2010); 9, 10:Santos et al. (2019); 5, 6, 7, 14, 17, 20:Feijó & Langguth (2013); 4:Gonçalves et al. (2018); 3:Campos et al. (2018); 13:Silva & Mendes Pontes (2008). ...
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Information on the distribution of the silky anteater (Cyclopes didactylus) is scarce, especially in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, where the species is considered Data Deficient (DD) by the IUCN. We present the first georeferenced record of C. didactylus for the Atlantic Forest of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. A resident found the animal in 2008 near a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage in the municipality of Baía Formosa, in the surroundings of the largest Atlantic Forest fragment of the state. Our record represents the northernmost known location of the Atlantic Forest for C. didactylus. Given the likely importance of the registration site for the conservation of this species, future research should investigate the current state of the population and distribution of C. didactylus in the region to support conservation actions that guarantee its persistence in a landscape under intense anthropogenic pressure.
... Concordantly, Anacleto et al. (2014) and Gonzalez and Abba (2014) described a more restricted distribution map for the species, suggesting Goiás and Bahia as the northernmost states where C. tatouay is present. However, other studies have recorded the species in Paraíba, Ceará, and the states of Pernambuco (Feijó & Langguth 2013;Santos et al. 2019;Feijó & Anacleto 2021), especially in montane forest enclaves (brejos de altitude). Regarding Brazilian ecosystems, C. tatouay occupies the Atlantic Rain Forest, Cerrado, and Pampas, apparently preferring forested habitats; its presence in the Amazon Rain Forest, Caatinga, and Pantanal is unclear (Anacleto et al. 2014;Santos et al. 2019;Feijó & Anacleto 2021). ...
... However, other studies have recorded the species in Paraíba, Ceará, and the states of Pernambuco (Feijó & Langguth 2013;Santos et al. 2019;Feijó & Anacleto 2021), especially in montane forest enclaves (brejos de altitude). Regarding Brazilian ecosystems, C. tatouay occupies the Atlantic Rain Forest, Cerrado, and Pampas, apparently preferring forested habitats; its presence in the Amazon Rain Forest, Caatinga, and Pantanal is unclear (Anacleto et al. 2014;Santos et al. 2019;Feijó & Anacleto 2021). ...
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Cabassous tatouay occurs in moist forests, savannas, and grasslands of south, central, and northeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina, and Uruguay. Despite its wide distribution range, C. tatouay is scarcely recorded in some regions. This study aimed to: present new records of C. tatouay; compile the localities where the species was recorded according to published scientific accounts; and model its distribution range along South America. We present five new records of C. tatouay from Goiás and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. The review of published accounts resulted in 99 studies, which provided 279 occurrences of C. tatouay to Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The great majority of records are from Brazil, mainly from the Atlantic Forest (119), Cerrado (52), and Pampas (49) biomes. Most records from the Cerrado are placed close to or in transition zones with the Atlantic Forest. Five records are within the Caatinga, but restricted to humid montane forest enclaves. The species distribution models indicate that C. tatouay is probably absent to Amazonia and Pantanal. The higher suitability for the species occurs in eastern Paraguay, northeastern Argentina, and south central Brazil, specifically in the Pampas, Atlantic Forest, and the southern part of the Cerrado.
... Ainda assim são raros e fortuitos os registros mesmo em regiões onde sua presença é documentada, tornando novos registros uma importante fonte de dados para a compreensão da atual ocorrência dessa espécie. Santos et al. (2019) reuniu uma grande base de dados de M. tridactyla na região Neotropical de maneira a preencher as lacunas de informações sobre a ocorrência desta e de outras espécies de xenartros. Neste sentido, o objetivo desta nota é documentar o primeiro registro de M. tridactyla para a região norte do Estado do Paraná, destacando sua ocorrência em uma área urbanizada no município de Londrina. ...
... Estes movimentos de dispersão estão sendo descritos atualmente para a Mata Atlântica impulsionados pela fragmentação dos ecossistemas florestais do bioma (Passos et al., 2016;Dias et al., 2019). Atualmente, foram descritos pontos de ocorrência da espécie à leste deste registro, na divisa dos estados do Paraná e São Paulo, que sugerem a possibilidade de um fluxo atual de indivíduos em direção ao norte do Paraná (Santos et al., 2019). Os impactos sobre os ecossistemas de cerrado e no ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Mata Atlântica também podem influenciar estes eventos (Zimbres et al., 2012;Sales et al., 2020). ...
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This short communication presents the first record of Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater) for the northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, where the Atlantic Forest landscape is highly fragmented due to increasing urbanization and agricultural activity. The record was obtained in June 2021, in a northern urban zone of the municipality of Londrina. While we do not know the causes of this event, it may reflect a current flow towards the north of Paraná of individuals recently recorded to the east, perhaps facilitated by a permeable landscape for the displacement of terrestrial animals at the urban/rural interface, where disturbed natural environments are common.
... Embora a maior parte do acervo da Coleção Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira seja regional (Figura 2), inclui material oriundo de outras porções do estado da Bahia, inclusive de outros estados. Apresenta mastofauna representativa de floresta ombrófila densa (Esbérard et al., 2007;Faria, 2006;Faria et al., 2006;Velez-Garcia, 2016), sistema agroflorestal de plantações de cacau sombreadas por árvores nativas ("cabrucas" - Faria & Baumgarten, 2007;Rios, 2018;Silva et al., 2020), áreas de floresta montana (Oliveira, 2014;Ribeiro et al., 2013;Velez-Garcia, 2012), floresta estacional semidecidual (Rosa, 2020), floresta estacional decidual (Mata de Cipó) e áreas de transição entre a Mata Atlântica e a Caatinga (Amorim, 2021;Cláudio et al., 2018;Falcão, 2005;Falcão et al., 2005), e outros ambientes do estado da Bahia que foram base para diversos estudos (Dalapicolla et al., 2021;Figueiredo et al., 2017;Gonçalves et al., 2018;Muylaert et al., 2017;Santos et al., 2019 A coleção está em processo avançado de informatização dos registros, no intuito de ser incluída em bases nacionais, como o Sistema de Informações sobre a Biodiversidade Brasileira (SIBBr -https://www.sibbr.gov. br) e o SpeciesLink (http://splink.cria.org.br). ...
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... To delimit the geographic range of each species, we used the polygons provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN 2021), in addition to information provided by the 'NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS' data set (Santos et al. 2019) to improve knowledge of the natural distribution of xenarthran species. Subsequently, we carefully examined each polygon, and whenever an incongruence in the geographic range was found, we amended the polygons. ...
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The field of movement ecology has rapidly grown during the last decade, with important advancements in tracking devices and analytical tools that have provided unprecedented insights into where, when, and why species move across a landscape. Although there has been an increasing emphasis on making animal movement data publicly available, there has also been a conspicuous dearth in the availability of such data on large carnivores. Globally, large predators are of conservation concern. However , due to their secretive behavior and low densities, obtaining movement data on apex predators is expensive and logistically challenging. Consequently, the relatively small sample sizes typical of large car-nivore movement studies may limit insights into the ecology and behavior of these elusive predators. The aim of this initiative is to make available to the conservation-scientific community a dataset of 134,690 locations of jaguars (Panthera onca) collected from 117 individuals (54 males and 63 females) tracked by GPS technology. Individual jaguars were monitored in five different range countries representing a large portion of the species' distribution. This dataset may be used to answer a variety of ecological questions including but not limited to: improved models of connectivity from local to continental scales; the use of natural or human-modified landscapes by jaguars; movement behavior of jaguars in regions not represented in this dataset; intraspecific interactions; and predator-prey interactions. In making our dataset publicly available, we hope to motivate other research groups to do the same in the near future. Specifically , we aim to help inform a better understanding of jaguar movement ecology with applications towards effective decision making and maximizing long-term conservation efforts for this ecologically important species. There are no costs, copyright, or proprietary restrictions associated with this data set. When using this data set, please cite this article to recognize the effort involved in gathering and collating the data and the willingness of the authors to make it publicly available.
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Studies on threatened species in highly modified and unprotected landscapes are necessary for the development of appropriate conservation policies. This is particularly important for species with large home ranges, such as the giant armadillo Priodontes maximus , whose occurrence in anthropogenic landscapes is poorly known despite its categorization as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. We searched and surveyed for the giant armadillo within human-modified areas in central Brazil using direct and indirect methods across a wide region dominated by diverse farming environments and scattered remnants of natural vegetation. During a 14-year period (2003–2016), we located 54 records of the species, including three road-kills and two instances of poaching. Most of the occurrence points (83%) were in native vegetation, with 17% in anthropogenic environments (pastures and roads). We confirmed the presence of the giant armadillo within a wide, intensely human-altered region. These findings indicate that Cerrado and Atlantic Forest remnants in modified landscapes in central Brazil play an important role as refuges for this armadillo species. In addition to habitat loss, road-kills and poaching persist as threats to the giant armadillo. Conservation actions are necessary to minimize human impacts and facilitate the persistence of the giant armadillo in this region. Policies that both deter illegal deforestation and strengthen incentives for the protection of natural vegetation remnants and restoration of biological corridors such as gallery forests would aid conservation of the giant armadillo in this area.