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Experiencing Craft and Culture: An Emerging Cultural Sustainable Tourism Model in India

Authors:

Abstract

The cultural heritage of India lies in the intangible knowledge embodied in the people and community who are its key stakeholders. For any cultural heritage to sustain and grow, it is imperative to have a multifaceted approach ensuring the value and transfer of this knowledge. The traditional Indian societies are embedded with a craft culture of its own depicting the contextual understanding of the people who lived in them. Such cultural heritage in India has continued with an unbroken lineage and it is constantly evolving. Though many efforts are being done to preserve the tangible resources of the craft culture, the intangible knowledge needs closer attention. This paper discusses the holistic approach towards tapping the intangible knowledge using experiential tourism as a tool. It examines the craft experiential tourism models developed by Design Innovation and Craft Resource Centre (DICRC), CEPT University, India, and suggests how such models can be the forerunners to promote craft and cultural tourism in India. It discusses at length multiple activities like mapping craftspeople, developing connections, conducting contextual programmes (craft-design innovation and community participation), knowledge dissemination (through craft awareness programmes and exhibitions), developing infrastructure: with a core vision of sustaining the intangible knowledge for future generations. Through this paper, the intent is to emphasize the importance of intangible knowledge and how the craft culture of a place can enhance culturally sustainable tourism. Taking case studies of various projects conducted, it concludes with the possibilities of the impact of such models and its implementation at various scales.
Experiencing Craft and Culture: an emerging
cultural sustainable tourism model in India
Rishav Jain *
Jay Thakkar **
* Assistant Professor, Faculty of Design;
Research Expert, Design Innovation and Craft Resource Centre (DICRC),
CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India
** Associate Professor, Faculty of Design;
Director, Design Innovation and Craft Resource Centre (DICRC),
CEPT University, Ahmedabad, India
Abstract
The cultural heritage of India lies in the intangible knowledge embodied in the people and community who are
its key stakeholders. For any cultural heritage to sustain and grow, it is imperative to have a multifaceted
approach ensuring the value and transfer of this knowledge. The traditional Indian societies are embedded with a
craft culture of its own depicting the contextual understanding of the people who lived in them. Such cultural
heritage in India has continued with an unbroken lineage and it is constantly evolving. Though many efforts are
being done to preserve the tangible resources of the craft culture, the intangible knowledge needs closer
attention. This paper discusses the holistic approach towards tapping the intangible knowledge using
experiential tourism as a tool.
It examines the Craft Experiential Tourism Models developed by Design Innovation and Craft Resource Centre
(DICRC), CEPT University, India and suggests how such models can be the forerunners to promote craft and
cultural tourism in India. It discusses at length multiple activities like mapping craftspeople, developing
connections, conducting contextual programs (craft design innovation and community participation), knowledge
dissemination (through craft awareness programs and exhibitions), developing infrastructure: with a core vision
of sustaining the intangible knowledge for future generations. Through this paper, the intent is to emphasize the
importance of intangible knowledge and how the craft culture of a place can enhance the culturally sustainable
tourism. Taking case studies of various projects conducted, it concludes with the possibilities of the impact of
such models and its implementation at various scales.
1. Introduction
Crafts in India extend beyond the tangible boundaries of skill, workmanship, and other physical aspects. Indian
craft is a reflection of the immense creativity of ordinary people in the quest for self-expression and
contentment. India has been known as a land of crafts and craftsmen (Chattopadhyay, 1980). The crafts and
craftspeople of India are an integral part of vernacular traditions and historical assimilations which has spanned
over many millennia. Though there are growing interests and awareness in the craft related activities, with
massive impact of industrial production, the skill-based knowledge is reducing, indicating an enormous loss to
the society, culture, and life of craftspeople. Even due to lack of exposure, low economic conditions, and less
client coverage, the artisans practicing craft have been struggling constantly in this sector.
There are many government initiatives and schemes like Marketing Development Assistance scheme, National
Handicraft Development programmes (Srivastav & Rawat, 2016)1 in India to revive the crafts and craft
products. Almost all of them focus on either development of new products or marketing and exporting of goods.
There are hardly any initiatives which aim to preserve and transfer the craft knowledge. This empirical
knowledge transfers only through the experience and the process of making and creating. Hence, to really value
the crafts, it is important to be part of them and experience them through all the senses. Thus in order to sustain,
revive and explore the full potential of the crafts sector, a new ecosystem of experiential engagement with crafts
needs to be created.
Craft Tourism is one of the industries, which can also help in harnessing the true potential of the craft
ecosystem. It is a subset of tourism that is concerned with experiencing a region's indigenous way of living in its
local built and natural environment. The people who travel engage into such tourism are looking to enrich
themselves with a new set of experiences through a different culture, crafts and various forms of interaction with
local people and knowledge. According to Richards (2005), Co-ordinator of the European Association for
Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), "Culture, crafts, and tourism are rapidly becoming inseparable
partners. Local crafts are important elements of culture, and people travel to see and experience other cultures,
traditions, and ways of living." In India, tourism and crafts are highly interlinked. A tourist is always seeking an
experience that is memorable and enriching and along with it, a tourist wishes to carry craft souvenirs as a
memoir of their travel. According to the UNEP and UNTWO (2005), it is estimated that tourists spend around
40 percent of their budget on souvenir purchases and other craft products. Recent trends show that tourism
earnings have come to rely more and more on the craft component (UNWTO, 2001). Henceforth, it becomes
important to develop systems to systemize the production value chain along with engaging craft experience for
the tourist. This has lately been a very popular trend. “However, understanding tourism experiences is difficult
because of their existential nature; experiences are embodied in people, felt personally and can only be
expressed to and not felt by other people. Experiences are also multi-faceted; they arise from activities, the
environment, as well as the social contexts embedded in the activities” (Ooi Seng, 2003)
There is a great amount of research done on the tourism experience and its effects on the tourists. Various
researchers2 have talked about various approaches to the tourism experiences, but very few have been able to
link tourism with the concept of craft experience. The National Productivity Council was directed by the
Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India to conduct an extensive survey of the expenditure on
handicrafts by foreign tourists in India. This was largely to understand the craft/tourism index for India as per
the guidelines by UNESCO(Thalialth & K.J, 2014). This survey was also limited to merely derive at the tourism
index.
This paper is an attempt to discuss and initiate development of the emerging tourism concept: Craft Experience
Tourism which has not been discussed in any previous works of literature. One of the key components of the
craft tourism is to engage the tourist with the local craftspeople and production process. This not only increases
the consciousness of the tourist about the craftspeople and craft processes but also makes the tourist aware about
the social, cultural and environmental challenges associated to craft sector. Craft objects have been regarded as
the carrier of local culture and history. A tourist buying these craft items means he/ she is knowingly or
unknowingly buying a message to be taken home. (Baruah & Sarma, 2016). The craft experience tourism allows
tourists to engage directly with the supply chain which provides not only an opportunity to share knowledge and
raise awareness of the creative process, but also help in deeper understanding and value-building of crafts.
Hence, tourism can be a considerable force for the conservation of historic and cultural heritage and can
stimulate arts, crafts, and other creative activities within communities (UNEP & UNTWO, 2005).
In order to generate the craft experience tourism, Design Innovation and Craft Resource Centre (DICRC), CEPT
University, India has developed a "Craft Experiential Tourism Model" which uses a methodological framework
to develop a traditional craft cluster into a Craft Experiential Hub. The core intention of this is not only to
preserve traditional crafts, strengthen the sector, improve the incomes, and create exposure opportunities for
artisans but also to create awareness of the contextual influences that help shape both the craft and craft
enterprises.
Craft Experience Tourism Model has eight stages. First is to identify the village or a town that has established
craft cluster, which has the potential to be converted into a tourist hub for craft experience. The second stage is
to initiate the dialogue with the stakeholders and craftspeople to develop a long-term association and understand
the receptiveness towards the tourism. The third stage is to map the existing resources and craft practices to
know the value of the cluster. The fourth stage is to conduct contextual programs to strengthen the craft
practices and its value chain and also to expose craftspeople towards possible tourism impacts. The fifth stage is
pivotal as it connects craftspeople to a larger consumer community who can be the potential buyer/consumer or
the employer of their services. The sixth stage involves assessment of the infrastructure for conducting various
touristic activities like - guided production tours, home-stays, craft-design innovation workshops, design
residencies, craft classes, retail experiences and more. The seventh stage is an analytical stage where various
strategies need to be planned and worked out based on not only the sustainability of these creative tourist
activities but also a long-term impact. The eighth stage is to empower the stakeholders and enterprise to conduct
various craft-experience tourist activities.
The paper is divided into two major sections; the first section explains the ‘Craft Experience Tourism Model’
and the later part focus of a case study where the model has been implemented. The initial part explains the
stage-wise working of the model listing the intent of each stage. It also discusses various methodological
frameworks which could be employed while the implementation process. This model has been further explained
through a case study of the specific village of Gundiyali in Mandvi Taluka in Kutch district of Gujarat State,
India. This village has an established terracotta craft cluster. It is located 60 KMs towards South from district
headquarters Bhuj, 6 KMs from Mandvi and is located close to the Arabian Sea.
The following section explains the “Craft Experience Tourism Model” which uses a methodological framework
to develop a traditional craft cluster into a Creative Craft Experience Hub
2. Craft Experience Tourism Model (CETm):
The CET model is explained here as a step by step guide for developing a craft village into an emerging craft
experience tourist hub. In India, there are many such villages with an emerging or established craft clusters and
the idea of developing such model by DICRC is to help communities and organizations develop a strategic plan
to identify and evolve these craft clusters into a creative touristic hub. The model is dynamic and can be
replicated, if needed, by various organizations at various scales for different craft clusters. Its objective is to
provide a framework for meaningful inquiry, creative ideation, quality delivery and finally effective reflection.
Following are various stages of the CET model and it can be followed as it is or it can be modified in order to
adapt to different context and objectives.
2.1. Identify a potential craft cluster village
The primary objective of this stage is to conduct streamlined research, fieldwork and identify possible sites
(craft villages and towns) that could be a potential craft experience tourism hub in the near future. One of the
criteria is to select the village, which has an established typology of craft cluster. The identification of the site
will also be based on the contextual references like historical significance, surrounding villages as well as
natural and manmade resources.
2.2. Initiate the Dialogue
The idea of this stage is to start a conversation about the intentions of the project and discuss the facets and
impacts of craft experience tourism hub. The core aspect is to identify the key stakeholders in the craft clusters
and associated communities. This stage usually involves doing multiple presentations about the craft experience
tourism project and ensuring maximum participation from the community and developing a degree of trust. This
process gives an indicative picture number of people interested in the participation in this project. It also aids to
develop a long-term association and understand the receptiveness towards the tourism.
2.3. Map the site, its resources, and the stakeholders
The mapping stage is an approach towards identifying, understanding and developing a detailed inventory of the
people, community, craft practices and key built and natural resources of the selected site. It involves traveling
extensively through craft clusters, towns, and villages to collect data using the mobile application. The process
is significant as it provides with accurate information about the craftspeople, house forms and potential sites
which could be used for the craft experience tourism activities.
2.4. Conduct Contextual Programs
This stage focuses on co-creation and involves the equal participation of craft community as well as the
stakeholders involved in the project. After establishing a relationship with the local community and initiating a
dialogue, the aim of this stage is to trigger new ideas and thoughts in the craft community as well as its
acceptance among the key stakeholders. The intention is to expose the concerned stakeholders to a newer
method of working and not only strengthen the craft practices and the value chain but also to expose them
towards possible tourism impacts. This stage tries to generate, gather, activate and catalyze new concepts of
thinking and working in a team. This is done through various workshops, studio sessions, community
development programs, craft awareness activities and informal discussions over tea. Quite rigorous in nature,
this stage equips the community for upgrading the craft village/town to a Craft Experiential Tourism hub.
2.5. Connect craftspeople to craft and design fraternity
The intent is to connect the craft community to varied experts ranging from fellow craftspeople, designers,
industry experts, entrepreneurs, potential buyers and employers related to craft and design field. The intention is
to expose the craftspeople towards emerging markets as well as developing products those are in line with the
objective of making the village as a tourist hub with experiencing craft being the central theme. It is also a stage
where networking develops between the organizers, community participants and the larger craft-design
fraternity, which will serve as a valuable resource for the development of future craft tourism sites.
2.6. Assess the Infrastructure
In order to equip a village or town to host tourists for various activities, it will need a certain amount of base
infrastructure as well as services. In order to create possible avenues for conducting various tourist activities, it
is imperative that the spaces are dynamic and equipped to host multiple events. This stage assesses the existing
infrastructure available with the community built environment and suggests possible expansions and
upgradation plans. The process is an all-inclusive and participatory process where craft community in
consultation with design experts identifies the key physical resources and strategizes its development. Based on
the initial mapping and assessment of the existing infrastructure available within the community, the stage ends
with suggestive measures and plans for expansion.
2.7. Propose strategies
This stage, analytical in nature, builds upon the work done during the previous stages to arrive at strategies and
implementation plans. The proposed strategies are centered on the viability of the craft tourist activities and its
long-term socio-cultural and economic impacts. A detailed strategy is developed encompassing various
activities (and its intentions and impacts), sustainable business and revenue model, marketing and promotions
and collaborative funding plan. The strategies are developed in consultation with the key stakeholders of the
community.
2.8. Empower the stakeholders
This stage equips and engages the stakeholders and the community to conduct various craft experience tourist
activities. Its core intention is to empower all the stakeholders in the decision-making process and ensuring their
support in implementing and managing the mammoth task of creating an active craft tourist hub.
3. Case study: Gundiyali Village, Kutch, Gujarat, India
The following section explains the working of the Craft Experience Tourism model through Terracotta craft
cluster of Gundiyali village as a case study. It discusses various activities conducted in the craft village of
Gundiyali over the period of 3 years and ends with reflections and way forward. The project was initiated in
early 2015 with support from Manthan Educational Programme Society. A series of activities and events have
been conducted in the rural and urban settings since its inception in 2015. The project is still ongoing and
therefore few of the stages mentioned here discuss the plan of action and work in progress.
Gundiyali is located near Mandvi which was once a major port of the region and has a 400-year-old shipbuilding
industry, which is practiced by the Kharva community that still builds small wooden ships. The proximity of
Gundiyali to the shore and a major trade route enabled export of the clay products in earlier times. The village is
divided into various community zones. There are around 1248 houses out of which 160 houses are of Kumbhars
i.e. potters. The craft cluster of Gundiyali holds an immense historical, religious, and economic significance. At
present, the terracotta cluster of Gundiyali can be defined as an 'established cluster' and can be further worked
upon to develop it into a 'mature cluster'. With Kutch established as one of the biggest tourist destinations, there
is already an ample amount of tourist that visit the district. But the tourism activities are limited to the Bhuj and
the popular Kutch Festival. Gundiyali, with an established cluster, has the potential to develop into a craft tourist
hub due to its location, the established craft cluster, its historical significance and more importantly the
willingness of the people and stakeholders to develop it as a creative craft experience tourist hub.
After the initial discussions on the project, and interacting with the community members of the cluster, a
detailed mapping was conducted by the researchers of DICRC in collaboration with the local community. This
process had two parts; mapping physical infrastructure and mapping the craft community. Mapping of physical
infrastructure included detailed documentation of roads, transportation facilities, public spaces, tourist spots,
architectural elements, the spatial configuration of the workspaces, route to the terracotta craft cluster, etc. It was
done in the form of measured drawings, sketches, charts, and figures. Whereas the mapping of craftspeople
included the detailed information about the artisans and their family, products, techniques, and tools, historical
significance, cultural stories, key experiences and their involvement in the craft process. This mapping was
conducted through a Real-Time Visual Mapping (RTVM)3 application form using ODK Platform developed by
DICRC. The data collected through mapping was uploaded to the Building Craft Lab (an online portal
developed by DICRC) which could be accessed by anyone from anywhere around the globe. The mapping
produced comprehensive information. It was a participatory process, which helped researchers, craftspeople and
the key organisations to understand the key resources available to them and use it to develop the village as a
Craft Experiential Tourism hub. The mapping revealed that there are around 72 Muslim potter families; of
which 25 families are engaged in the craft at presently at Gundiyali. These potters belong to the Brar Muslim
Community and are believed to be direct descendants of Mohammad Paigamber's foster mother who is believed
to have migrated from Arab countries to Sindh and further to Kutch.
To further engage the community and trigger new ideas and thoughts, various contextual programs were
conducted. These were Craft Innovation Training Program (April 2015), Craft Exposure Sessions in
Ahmedabad (August 2015), International Exchange workshop as part of International Master of Interior
Architectural Design, IMIAD (September 2015), Craft Demonstration Sessions (January 2016),
Community-driven Innovation Training Program (February 2016), Digitising and archiving Craft products (July
2016), and Exhibition and demonstration at Maker Fest (January 2017). The aim of these programs was to
expose the craft community to the contemporary market and inculcate the sense of craft design innovation to
sustain their crafts and develop new products for the emerging markets.
The Craft Innovation Training Program aimed to encourage the craft community to do craft innovation in their
products which could be displayed at their own houses. These contemporary craft design innovative products
was the starting point for engaging with tourists/visitors and getting large-scale orders. The training programme
was based on the Craft Innovation Training Model - IDE(2)AS Model, which is a part of the Craft Innovation
Training Toolkit (Gharge, Jain & Thakkar, 2014) developed by DICRC. The first craft innovation training
program ended with two major interior architectural elements installed at two potter houses - Tarkash
4
and
Aadh
5
. Further the other contextual program aimed to bring craftspeople out of their village and engage with
various national and international experts. The terracotta craftspeople of Gundiyali6 were invited to participate
in the International Exchange Workshop 2015, “Conversation with Crafts”.7 As part of the contextual programs,
several craft awareness tours were also conducted, where people from various parts of the world visited
Gundiyali village. The craft community engaged visitors in an informative and enriching hands-on experience,
explaining various techniques and methods pertaining to the mud craft. Various measures were taken to connect
the craftspeople to the various stakeholders in the craft-design industry and also to create awareness about the
craft. An interaction session was arranged at CEPT University to connect the artisans to architects, interior
designers, professionals and trade people. As part of the craft connect activities, the craftspeople were connected
to IIID (Institute of Indian Interior Designers) and a book containing the works done by the community as part
of various contextual programs was also published. A website was set up by the team at DICRC to ensure a
digital presence of the craft and craftspeople of Gundiyali village. A branding logo was created for the
craftspeople by Manthan Educational Society, Ahmedabad to help them with their marketing strategies. An
automated documentation box called Kalakosh
was also developed to allow craftspeople to document their work
digitally and share on multiple platforms as well as with clients. In order to widen the reach of the craftspeople,
they were invited to participate in various national and international level exhibitions: International IMIAD
Exchange Exhibition Ahmedabad, National Craft Fair Exhibition organized by Government of Gujarat; Makers
Fest Ahmedabad and Event X, Unbind at Bangalore. All of these activities were conducted keeping in mind the
larger plan of making Gundiyali an active tourist hub.
After this, there was a need to relook at the existing infrastructure facilities available with them. The
infrastructure of the village was mapped and various pockets were identified in the village to create possible
interaction spaces to hold tourist related activities. The intention behind inserting various activities in the village
is to add on more value to the craft activities through these supported activities, to encourage tourism and to
keep the craftspeople connected to the people and vice versa. The activities which were proposed after this stage
was craft museum, exhibition gallery, community training centre, craft shops and digital media centre.
The craft museum will act as the permanent display of the history of the practiced craft, evolution of products,
traditional products display of master craftspeople. The innovation done by the craftspeople, work done with the
craftspeople and stakeholders, designers, will be displayed in the exhibition gallery. For the community training
and knowledge exchange, a craft community centre is proposed, which will gather all the craftspeople at a point
to interact and exchange ideas and skills. Here, the focus is more on community learning and participation. To
encourage online marketing, a digital media centre is proposed where a team of the craftspeople can handle the
marketing and selling. Hence, the whole idea of community upbringing and development is been planned with
the people of Gundiyali, which would bring the long terms benefits to the craftspeople. The key thing is that
each of these places are planned in people's houses so that they can take responsibility and manage the
infrastructure and activities. This is also planned to ensure participation from the community and have inputs
from various stakeholders. The proposed strategies also include revision of the pedestrian walkway and
recommend new ways to access each community house. This is suggested keeping in mind the possibility of
conducting craft walks as part of the tourist activities.
With such continued efforts being conducted over the period of last three years, the craft community has
developed immense pride in the craft practice. After conducting various contextual programs, proposing
infrastructural changes, the community has opened up in discussions and showed a keen interest in the
development of the village for an active tourist hub. The activities conducted in Gundiyali have been possible
due to concentrated efforts of Manthan Education Program Society who have been funding various initiatives of
DICRC, CEPT University to work with this cluster. They have been key stakeholders while working with craft
communities and implementation of many of these activities. All the stakeholders' need to be empowered in
order to conduct such a multifaceted and multilayered programs. It is important that all stakeholders come
together to the same platform and work collectively to make a craft village into a craft sustainable tourism hub.
4. Conclusion:
In the current society of rapid changes, there emerges an imperative need to develop situations and opportunities
to connect the society and the local craftspeople, not only from the perspective to uplift the value of crafts but
also to initiate an immersive experience of the tourists with the place and the context. The Craft Experience
Tourism is one such opportunity. The set of conducive experience through this model will not only be beneficial
to the craftspeople but will also have series of impacts on the tourists. Such touristic activities can enable
tourists to gain experiences that are regarded as beneficial to them personally. Some benefits of participating in
tourism activities include improving one's psychological mood and well-being, allowing tourists to assert their
self-identity and learning about other places and cultures. (Lee & Shafer, 2002; Prentice et al., 1998). Tourists
are always looking for a varied range of experiences which are further away from their daily life. And as most of
the tourist within India belong to the urban set up, their need to venture into the rural or unfamiliar set up is the
most emergent in today's time. The Craft Experience Tourism brings forth this range due to the varied types of
craft clusters in India, which ranges from the small cluster of 10 families to an entire village of 2000 families.
This results in a challenging task for the stakeholders associated with the experience tourism. Henceforth, the
development of the model is an important aspect to address such wide range of differences.
This Craft Experience Tourism Model has been developed on basis of strong theoretical framework combined
with multiple practical pilot projects to test and implement the framework. The model is been designed with a
possibility to scale, replicate and mutate as per the context and the cluster. The model can be used by various
craft clusters, tourism boards, organizations and independent practices. The step by step process into an informal
craft setup will create the synergy for collaborative processes with an aim towards value building and increasing
the awareness about rich craft traditions of a cluster. It will also help in generating a new set of skills for the
craft community and bring emerging craft-design thinking knowledge in their process of production and
business. Various facets of the stages will aid in empowering all the stakeholders to use tourism as a means to
not only sustain the generation old craft practices but also engage the younger generation to carry forward this in
new direction. The strength of this model is that it is dynamic in nature and can be used to re-contextualize
(from a smaller craft cluster to a large scale evolved craft cluster) and facilitate craft rejuvenation with a
long-lasting impact on the society. With around 2.3 million people involved in craft sector in India, it aims to
keep the craft-based production systems ecologically, socially, economically and culturally sustainable. This
could also bring new coaction in the craft clusters and can generate new avenues for the tourism industry. Such a
model will not only empower the craftspeople to establish their position in the larger global market but also
trigger new ideas to continue the craft practices for generations to come.
Endnotes
1. A detailed list of the initiatives and schemes could be read at Srivastav and Rawat, 2016
2. Few of them include: Lee & Shafer, 2002; Mannell & Iso-Ahola, 1987; McIntosh & Prentice, 1999b; Stamboulis
& Skayannis, 2003
3. For more details of the RTVM read Routh, Singh and Shah, 2013.
4. Tarkash
is a modular cladding system that can be used for surface treatment in buildings. Tarkash
was co-created
by artisan Abdulla Daud Kumbhar and Iqbal Abdulla Kumbhar of Gundiyali village and Designer Aarohee
Nagecha from DICRC, CEPT University, Ahmedabad.
5. Aadh
is a modular partition system that can be used as an interior architecture element. The prototype was created
using the turned wheel technique. Aadh
was co-created by artisan Siddiq Yakub Kumbhar of Gundiyali village and
designer Priyanka Shah from DICRC, CEPT University, Ahmedabad.
6. Participating craftspeople from Gundiyali were Ali Mamad Daud Kumbhar, Amad Daud Kumbhar, Amad Mamad
Kumbhar, Salim Kasim Kumbhar, Salim Suleman Kumbhar, and Siddik Yakub Kumbhar.
7. The International IMIAD Workshop 2015, "Conversation with Crafts" was a part of the International Masters in
Interior Architectural Design (IMIAD) offered at Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. The
participating universities included CEPT University, India, and four international universities: SUPSI, Lugano,
Switzerland; Istanbul Technical University, Turkey; Hochschule fur Technik, Stuttgart, Germany
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... Dai et al. considered that it is difficult to fully express the true content of ICH knowledge as it is long-term accumulated experience [22]. Jain and Thakkar pointed out that ICH is a kind of tacit knowledge to a great extent and is intertwined with its cultural and historical background and realization [23]. Tan et al. argued that ICH teaching is realized through face-to-face oral or operational communication between masters and apprentices, the success or failure of which depends highly on tacit knowledge transfer [13]. ...
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The need to consider the experiences and benefits gained by visitors to tourism attractions is addressed, with specific reference to an industrial heritage park. The differing dimensions of experience and the various benefits are examined, as well as factors having influence on them. The consumer groups defined in terms of experiences and benefits derived are described in terms of their motivations for visiting and socioeconomic profile. The study raises questions concerning the usefulness of past emphases on sociodemographic analyses at heritage attractions, as experiential and benefit segmentations appear to be somewhat independent of sociodemographic attributes.
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The need to consider the experiences and benefits gained by visitors to tourism attractions is addressed, with specific reference to an industrial heritage park. The differing dimensions of experience and the various benefits are examined, as well as factors having influence on them. The consumer groups defined in terms of experiences and benefits derived are described in terms of their motivations for visiting and socioeconomic profile. The study raises questions concerning the usefulness of past emphases on sociodemographic analyses at heritage attractions, as experiential and benefit segmentations appear to be somewhat independent of sociodemographic attributes.RésuméLe tourisme comme expérience: le cas des parcs d'héritages. Cet article considère le besoin de tenir compte des expériences acquises et des avantages obtenus par ceux qui visitent les attractions touristiques, et se concentre sur un parc d'héritage industriel. Sont examinés les différentes dimensions de ces expériences et les divers avantages, ainsi que les facteurs qui influencent ces expériences et ces avantages. Les groupes de consommateurs, définis en termes d'expériences et avantages obtenus, sont décrits en fonction de leurs motivations en tant que visiteurs et de leur profil socio-economique. Cette étude soulève des questions quant a l'utilité de l'importance accordée par le passé aux analyses socio-démographiques réalisées aux centres d'héritages, puisque les segmentations selon les expériences et les avantages semblent être, au moins en partie, indépendantes des attributs socio-démographiques.
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Tourism is undergoing significant change and facing new challenges—that call for new perspectives. At least two dimensions of the change can be identified:•new forms of tourism, characterized by the tendency to depart from mass tourism;•the diffusion of information and communication technologies, with a pervasive effect on the creation, production and consumption of the tourist product. The limited success of most attempts to exploit produced windows of opportunity indicates that we are facing a pre-paradigmatic phase of transition. Innovative attempts gain new strategic value when viewed from a perspective that values experience as an important new attribute. Such a perspective has significant consequences for the growth of destination strategies, policies, and the integration of the information-society dimension.
Making Tourism More Sustainable, A Guide for Policy Makers” A report by United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization
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