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Abstract

In light of the recent developments in marketing theory, namely service-dominant logic and value co-creation, the development of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty deserves reconsideration to broaden the mostly firm-centric earlier approaches. We propose a framework that includes the contributions of co-creating actors and identification with the firm as antecedents of customer satisfaction and loyalty. This framework can be adapted to a context by defining a context-specific set of actors and their unique reciprocal relationships. Two quantitative studies conducted in the professional German soccer leagues demonstrate that multiple actors (event organizer, teams, and fans) roughly show the same effect on customer satisfaction. Moreover, identification has both direct and indirect (i.e. via customer satisfaction and perceived social actors’ contributions) influence on customer loyalty. The results imply firm activities have limited influence on customer satisfaction and loyalty. As a result, managers must identify strategies to facilitate value co-creation among all relevant actors.

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... performance. More precisely, the sport related platforms are defined as engagement platforms (Buser, Woratschek, & Schönberner, 2020a;2020b). Engagement platforms are "physical or virtual touchpoints designed to provide structural support for the exchange and integration of resources, and thereby co-creation of value between actors in a service ecosystem" (Breidbach, Brodie, & Hollebeek, 2014, p. 594). ...
... In contrast to the service-dominant logic, the SEL includes sport engagement platforms with all the defining characteristics of sporting activities. For instance, sporting activities lead to voluntary engagement of sport fans (i.e., rituals, word-of-mouth communication) (Woratschek et al., 2020b). ...
... CHAPTER 3: EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE ON ENGAGEMENT AT THE INTRA-AND MICRO-LEVEL Schönberner, J.,& Woratschek, H. (2020b). What do sponsors gain? ...
Thesis
In service management and marketing, the question of how to engage customers and other relevant actors becomes increasingly important. Customer and actor engagement is understood as social and economic actors’ contributions to an organisation exceeding typical roles and transactional behaviours. From a corporate perspective, a key marketing objective is to foster the engagement of customers and other actors. Customer and actor engagement facilitated by virtual and physical engagement platforms leads to increased revenues, reputation, and cost savings. This emphasises the active role of customers’ and other actors’ as contributors to the creation of value for companies and organisations. Therefore, value co-creation is an appropriate theoretical foundation for addressing this phenomenon because it focuses on various actors’ resource exchanges to co-create value in service ecosystems. Value is always co-created by the interactions of multiple actors. However, value co-creation is a theory on a higher level of abstraction. Thus, applying concepts, such as actor engagement and engagement platforms, is essential to break down abstraction and enable accessibility for empirical research. Engagement platforms are virtual and physical touchpoints. They are provided by focal actors to enable and facilitate actors’ interactions and are embedded in service ecosystems. Although the concepts of actor engagement and engagement platforms have been introduced into the service management and marketing literature, there remain several calls for further research. Therefore, this doctoral thesis aims to advance the understanding of how actors and engagement platforms are interconnected within service ecosystems and how actors’ resource exchange is facilitated by engagement platforms. Thus, the following research question is addressed: How does actor engagement in terms of exchanging resources on engagement platforms contribute to value co-creation in service ecosystems? This doctoral thesis uses empirical insights to extend the theoretical conceptualisations of actor engagement at different levels of analysis. Hence, the analyses were conducted at organisational and dyadic levels (intra- and micro-levels) as well as in triadic relationships and networks (meso- and macro-levels) to allow for a multi-perspective consideration of the research question. As the research context, sport sponsorship and sport management in a broader sense were selected as specific parts of the service industry.
... To achieve this aim, companies must deal with the classic variables influencing customer satisfaction (such as image) and consider other types of variables whose significance has become more evident with the incorporation of ICTs. For example, Woratschek et al. (2020) emphasize the influence of social actors' contributions and consumer identification on customer satisfaction. Additionally, several articles have shown the effect of customer involvement in innovation processes on customer satisfaction (e.g. ...
... Interest in the topic continues to increase (Woratschek et al., 2020), with vigorous growth in the literature in recent years. Despite this increasing interest, there are no integrative frameworks for explaining the dimensions of value co-creation. ...
... The values of younger generations (generations Y or Z) must be understood in order to promote trust in, and commitment to, sharing economy platforms. Thus, customer satisfaction is related to value identification and, therefore, firms' strategies have limited influence on customer satisfaction and loyalty (Woratschek et al., 2020). ...
Article
Purpose Given the growing importance of the relationship between customer value co-creation and customer satisfaction, it is essential to assess the implications of this connection from both a managerial and an academic perspective. The literature on this link has grown enormously in recent years. However, there lacks an integrative framework to improve its understanding. Based on the use of bibliometric techniques, the purpose of this article is threefold: firstly, to shed light on the relationship's knowledge structure by identifying the main clusters of topics; secondly, to propose an integrative conceptual framework and finally, to identify future avenues of research. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyze a database of 133 recent documents dealing with this pairing to address this gap. A bibliometric coupling methodology was used. Additionally, an in-depth analysis of centrality, density and citations for the different clusters identified in the last years was performed. The authors characterize each group in the knowledge map of the relationship. Findings This bibliometric analysis identified seven thematic clusters. Three of these, with a more transversal nature, have fostered the growth of this literature. The subsequent clusters used theoretical frameworks present in the first three clusters, adapting them to the specific circumstances analyzed, following different patterns of evolution. The authors present the behavior of the citations in each cluster over recent years, analyzing their intellectual base, trends and development potential. Originality/value Derived from their findings, an integrative conceptual framework for explaining the knowledge structure of research in value co-creation and the customer satisfaction literature is proposed. The authors identify main topics by clusters and then detect research gaps and propose new research avenues for the future.
... Historically, most marketing models and conceptualizations have relied on a goodsdominant logic that is limited by a provider-centric perspective, such as the significance of appropriate management of perceived quality by sports managers to increase client loyalty (García-Fernández et al., 2018;Howat & Assaker, 2016); according to this perspective, the organization plays a key role in all processes and ultimately controls customer loyalty (Woratschek et al., 2019). Responding to the limitations of these traditional marketing models, Vargo and Lusch (2004) introduced service-dominant (S-D) logic, in which service provision is central to economic exchange. ...
... For instance, Hollebeek et al. (2019) used S-D logic for identifying the theoretical relationship between consumer engagement and value co-creation and found co-creation was an outcome of consumer engagement. Woratschek et al. (2019) also stated that sport, in general, offers a platform that facilitates value co-creation through interacting and engaging actors in business or leisure activities. In addition, Fang (2019) stated that personalization, relationship, and experience as dimensions of value-in-use reinforce customer loyalty. ...
... We also add to the prior research on value co-creation (e.g., Gerke et al., 2020aGerke et al., , 2020bKolyperas et al., 2019;McDonald & Karg, 2014;Woratschek et al., 2019) through testing the relationship with behavioural loyalty. Additionally, although researchers have shown that some links exist (Dessart et al., 2019;Thakur, 2018), no research to date has clearly assessed the combined indirect effect of consumer engagement on behavioural loyalty. ...
Article
Using service dominant logic as the theoretical framework, this study examines the associations between consumer engagement, two dimensions of value co-creation (co-production and value-in-use), and behavioural loyalty while considering the moderating role of psychological involvement. Participants (N = 559) were recruited from fitness clubs in Urmia, Iran. Structural equation modelling revealed positive associations between consumer engagement, value co-creation, and behavioural loyalty. consumer engagement had a positive indirect effect on behavioural loyalty through co-production, although not through value-in-use. This suggests oper-ationalizing value co-creation as multidimensional is more appropriate than as a unitary construct. Furthermore, psychological involvement had a moderating effect on the relationship between consumer engagement and behavioural loyalty, where the relationship was stronger for individuals with higher psychological involvement. Findings from this study suggest consumer engagement is a key antecedent of behavioural loyalty and highlight the importance of co-production and psychological involvement in promoting behavioural loyalty at fitness clubs.
... The details of this process increase consumer confidence for investment in the products offered by banks. Other researchers have highlighted the benefits of consumer involvement in an organization in terms of increasing consumers' satisfaction [79] and loyalty [80]. In services, the consumer-service provider relationship and the potential benefits of consumer communication help users to engage in co-creation [81]. ...
... In today's highly competitive environment, corporations face many challenges. Consumers want to buy new products for as little money as possible, and opponents are attempting to snatch the market share [80]. Conversely, maintaining a strong consumer base is a matter of life for businesses, and increasing the quantity of loyal consumers is the most cost-effective strategy [82]. ...
... However, although previous research has linked it more broadly to emotions (e.g., consumer affective commitment), the existing literature still lacks due consideration as to how co-creation can enhance consumer loyalty [80]. Similarly, one study by Cossío-Silva, et al. [106], on personal care, found that co-creation increases behavioral outcomes such as consumer loyalty. ...
Article
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The homogenization of the banking segment has made it difficult for banking institutions to practice the quality of services that are needed in order to retain consumers. Thus, these days, finding ways to increase consumer loyalty-especially green loyalty-has become a challenge for the banking industry around the planet. Research has long acknowledged that corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a strategic concern that could help organizations to increase consumer loyalty. However, the impact of CSR practices on green consumer loyalty is rarely addressed in the extant literature. Hence, the present research investigated the impact of CSR on green consumer loyalty with the mediating effect of co-creation in the banking industry of Pakistan. The study also introduced green banking initiatives as a moderator between the mediated relation of CSR and green consumer loyalty, with the intention that such a moderator would strengthen this indirect relationship. The structural equation modeling technique was used for the data analysis. The results confirm that CSR enhances consumer loyalty, and that co-creation partially mediates this relationship. Furthermore, green banking initiatives further strengthen this relation. The results of the current survey could help banking institutions learn how they can develop core strategic considerations based on the integration of CSR co-creation and green banking initiatives.
... Consumers now have an option to co-create their goods and services according to their own needs and wants, which reflects their different identities in the process (Torrico & Frank, 2017). As much as this co-creation leads to enhanced consumer experience (Buhalis & Foerste, 2015;Buhalis & Sinarta, 2019;Motamarri, 2017), increased brand loyalty (Iglesias et al., 2018;Woratschek et al., 2019) and enhanced intention to revisit (Ho, 2021;Meng & Cui, 2020), it also brings challenges for the organizations to meet the consumer demands. ...
... Previous research has highlighted that DT for employees is especially crucial for the service sector as consumers directly interact with them (Joshi & Roh, 2009;Torrico & Frank, 2017). However, since manufacturing industries are also transforming to involve consumers in the value creation chain, the importance of inclusion cannot be undermined (Goermar et al., 2020;Iglesias et al., 2018;Woratschek et al., 2019). Therefore, future researchers should examine the impact of DT on consumer experiences by extending previously examined relationships. ...
Article
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Diversity training is the most popular and effective tool for inclusion in the workplace, as evident from the growing research and investment interest. However, existing reviews have several limitations, including the absence of discussion on how and why diversity training can significantly impact consumer experiences. The current study utilizes a hybrid review combining systematic literature analysis with a theory‐context‐methodology framework to highlight future research directions. 259 articles were screened using the SPAR‐4‐SLR protocol to select 48 articles which were then analyzed to delineate the impact of diversity training on the employees and its impact on the consumer experience. The research findings demonstrate an overall positive impact of the training on employee‐related factors and underscore gaps in methodology, theory engagement, and contextualization. Future research directions, including suggestions and propositions for developing diversity training for enhancing consumer experiences, are delineated.
... Regardless of the above concerns, emphasis on customer participation in VC is not misguided, more so during service failure and recovery. Customer participation in service delivery enables employees to identify the mismatch between customer expectation and experience to expedite service recovery for customers (Mostafa, 2020;Woratschek et al., 2019). Unfortunately, a dearth of studies exists on how customers may reduce employee workload and fear-based silence at work in service failures and recovery with voluntary participation in the VC process. ...
... Also, this finding can be discussed in line with the findings of Burris et al. (2012) in the restaurant setting that, supervisor-subordinate disagreement on voice can attain negative outcomes when employee over-estimate their voice relative to managers' perspective and a positive outcome can arise when employees under-estimate their upward voice. The supported negative link between customer participation in VC and employee workaholism upholds the impact of customer participation in VC in expediting services and fine-tuning the value embedded in products as offered by hotels with valuable insights (Finsterwalder and Kuppelwieser, 2020;Woratschek et al., 2019). Thus, a positive customer evaluation in VC helps employees to evade working excessively beyond normal work schedules and enjoy a work-life balance (Chan et al., 2010;Bakker et al., 2014). ...
Value co-creation (VC) is generally considered as having mutually beneficial implications for all actors involved. Nonetheless, emerging evidence on value co-destruction and its consequences on the wellbeing of co-creating actors implies that narrowing down on specific fallouts of this process is needed for managerial interventions. This paper contributes to the value-co-creation literature by exploring the relationship between customer participation in VC on some difficult to detect employee service behaviors: workaholism and fear-based silence. The extent to which employee trust (TRS) in employee – hotel relationship moderates these relations is assessed. While the findings from 422 frontline employee-customer data within luxury hotels in Ghana support a negative effect of VC on fear-based silence and workaholism, TRS buffered these effects. We recommend that VC in service failure and recovery be approached with tact, compassion, and forgiveness.
... Like: customer-related factors (customer satisfaction, trust, psychological commitment, LP membership); product-related factors (perceived value, product quality, perceived fairness, switching costs, brand reputation) (Pan et al., 2012); customer knowledge management (Bhat et al., 2018); service quality (Nyadzayo and Khajehzadeh, 2016). Hence, keeping in view the determinants suggested in the past studies, the current study is conducted within the given domain and proposes VCC as a new antecedent of CL that has not been thoroughly studied previously (Cossío-Silva et al., 2016;Woratschek et al., 2020). ...
... Overall, the results showed support for the hypotheses. Based on the recommendations given by different researchers about the lack of empirical study in the area of VCC, the theoretical framework is developed (Cossío-Silva et al., 2016;Woratschek et al., 2020;Baumann and Le Meunier-FitzHugh, 2014;Haro et al., 2014). Over time, different researchers highlighted the need to empirically test the concept of VCC (Warnke et al., 2008;Skaržauskaitė, 2013). ...
... Like: customer-related factors (customer satisfaction, trust, psychological commitment, LP membership); product-related factors (perceived value, product quality, perceived fairness, switching costs, brand reputation) (Pan et al., 2012); customer knowledge management (Bhat et al., 2018); service quality (Nyadzayo and Khajehzadeh, 2016). Hence, keeping in view the determinants suggested in the past studies, the current study is conducted within the given domain and proposes VCC as a new antecedent of CL that has not been thoroughly studied previously (Cossío-Silva et al., 2016;Woratschek et al., 2020). ...
... Overall, the results showed support for the hypotheses. Based on the recommendations given by different researchers about the lack of empirical study in the area of VCC, the theoretical framework is developed (Cossío-Silva et al., 2016;Woratschek et al., 2020;Baumann and Le Meunier-FitzHugh, 2014;Haro et al., 2014). Over time, different researchers highlighted the need to empirically test the concept of VCC (Warnke et al., 2008;Skaržauskaitė, 2013). ...
... Many firms in today's competitive global business climate are saddled with several challenges of securing ample market share, meeting increasing consumer expectations, reducing the cost of operations and increasing profitability (Han and Hwang, 2018;Asgarpour et al., 2015). Consequently, businesses have increasingly become interested in growing and maintaining lucrative existing clientele by understanding their post-buying attitudes and decision-making process (Woratschek et al., 2020;Palalic et al., 2020). Loyal customers tend to buy more, pay more and recommend to many others (Woratschek et al., 2020;Abd Razaka et al., 2020). ...
... Consequently, businesses have increasingly become interested in growing and maintaining lucrative existing clientele by understanding their post-buying attitudes and decision-making process (Woratschek et al., 2020;Palalic et al., 2020). Loyal customers tend to buy more, pay more and recommend to many others (Woratschek et al., 2020;Abd Razaka et al., 2020). Therefore, businesses and destinations try to build a sustained customer relationship by providing them with their needs in the bid to increase customer loyalty amidst competition (Han and Back, 2008;Suhartanto et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Purpose Studies in hospitality and tourism have seldom investigated the role of employee commitment to building customers' attitudinal loyalty. This study examines the impact of employee commitment on customers' attitude-based loyalty. The study contributes to knowledge of how employees' affective attitude (i.e. employee commitment) impacts and mediates the relationships within this model by considering service quality attributes separately in the context of China's Greater Bay Area. Design/methodology/approach Using a quantitative approach, 664 customers visiting hotels and tourist attractions within three cities of Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai were surveyed. A convenience sampling technique was employed to administer questionnaires within these contexts. A structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOS software was used to test the relationships in the proposed model. Findings The results suggest that while service quality attributes have a different impact on employee commitment, employee commitment plays a response-predictor-mediator role in the attitudinal loyalty framework. For instance, personal interactions and technical quality are significant predictors of employee commitment. Employee commitment influences customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Moreover, employee commitment fully mediates the relationship between technical quality and customer satisfaction and partially mediates the association between personal interaction and customer satisfaction. Practical implications Given that employee commitment could be derived from personal interaction with customers, hoteliers and destination management organizations should encourage customers through their websites to be responsive to employees by providing constructive feedback on their service delivery. Management of hotels, attractions and destinations need to motivate employees through incentives such as pay raise, bonuses, time-off and paid holidays. Originality/value The paper is inimitable in its attempt to extend the customer attitudinal loyalty debate by including employees' attitude (i.e. commitment) in the measurement of customers' attitudinal loyalty in the hospitality and tourism industry.
... Loyalty is a direct result of customer satisfaction [21]. Satisfaction is primarily influenced by the value of services provided to customers, values are made by satisfied, loyal, and productive employees [22]; [23]; 24. Employee satisfaction, in turn, mainly comes from services and policy support, allowing employees to deliver results to customers [25]; [26]; [27]. ...
... Customer satisfaction can be projected with the ease of reaching customers anywhere, services that meet customer expectations, and customers wishing to recommend banks to the general public. The results of this study are in line with the opinion expressed by [17]; [18]; [23] that creating healthy and close relationships with customers is a dream for all marketers and often becomes one of the keys to long-term marketing success. ...
Research
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The purpose of this study is to prove and analyze the influence of leadership, organizational culture, motivation, work satisfaction, service quality, customer satisfaction on financial performance at Regional Bank in Kalimantan Province, Indonesia (PT. BPD Kaltim Kaltara).This study uses a quantitative approach starting with deductive thinking to reduce the hypothesis, then conduct testing in the field by distributing questionnaires to 165 employees as respondents who sampled a total population of 1, 262 employees of local Bank. The data obtained are then processed by statistical methods using WarpPLS software to be analyzed descriptively and inferential statistics. The results of this study indicate that leadership, organization culture, and motivation affect the latent work satisfaction variables, then Work satisfaction can influence customer satisfaction higher than the effect on service quality at Local Bank. Service quality can influence customer satisfaction higher than its effect on financial performance at Regional Bank in Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, but positively and significantly influences indirectly on the financial performance through the Meditor Customer Satisfaction. Customer satisfaction slightly influences financial performance at Regional Bank in Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. It can be stated that efforts to improve financial performance at Regional Bank in Kalimantan Province, Indonesia can be made and improve customer satisfaction and service quality. Scarcity of research in the context of developing human capital involving marketing elements to measure financial performance, and the absence of research that examines the company's own internal organizational culture.
... In fact, "relationship management" has been acknowledged as an imperative psychological approach to building a long-term relationship with consumers in both online and offline settings (Kozlenkova et al., 2017). Previous research has consistently reported that customer engagement (CE) and value co-creation (VCC) are key ingredients in nurturing consumer satisfaction throughout the purchase journey, which, in turn, influences behavior beyond monetary transactions (e.g., positive word-of-mouth and loyalty) (Venkatesan, 2017;Woratschek et al., 2020). Specifically, CE is manifested as an umbrella term used in any emotional connection formed between two parties (i.e., business and consumers) Thakur, 2019). ...
... More recently, Fan et al. (2020) found that in the social media environment, VCC had a positive effect on fostering relationships with online users, which ended in high satisfaction for the users. Past studies have also highlighted that VCC is a major factor that drives positive behavior, such as trust , loyalty (Woratschek et al., 2020;Cossío-Silva et al., 2016), and decreased switching behavior (Revilla-Camacho et al., 2015). In accordance with those studies, we suggest that consumers who experience high VCC behavior when using a branded app tend to show a high CUI. ...
In this age of technology, consumers have become comfortable shopping with their mobile devices. In light of this growing trend, the branded app market has grown steadily, surpassing all other types of mobile commerce. Although many retail businesses go mobile, consumers' continuous use of the branded app remains a key challenge in gaining a competitive advantage in the contemporary market. By integrating both the stimulus-organism-response (S-OR) model and gender schema theory (GST), this study aims to investigate how gender differences affect the factors that drive branded app continuous use intention (CUI). Survey data collected from 715 millennial mobile shoppers were analyzed using the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique. The results demonstrate that telepresence and social presence have a significant effect on customer engagement (CE) and value co-creation (VCC), which consequently impact CUI. Furthermore, the moderation results indicate that both genders play rather different roles in the proposed relations. Therefore, our work contributes to the information system and consumer behavior literature, while providing practitioners with useful information about effective strategies to drive the continuous usage of a branded app.
... This relationship will lead to repetitive purchase behavior that would undoubtedly benefit the organization. Woratschek et al. (2020) and Slack and Singh (2020) also found that customer satisfaction significantly influences customer loyalty. Satisfied and happy customers tend to be loyal customers because customer satisfaction can make an emotional affection to a service provider and generate loyalty (Othman et al., 2020). ...
... Then, H3 is accepted. This finding is in line with the prior studies (Akroush and Mahadin, 2019;Chahal and Kumari, 2010;Slack and Singh, 2020;Woratschek et al., 2020), which shows that patient satisfaction positively impacts patient loyalty. Satisfied patients will be more likely to come again in the future when they need the same or different services, spread positive reviews about the hospital, and recommend the provided services to other people who need the same or different services. ...
Article
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This article aims to study the effect of perception of health care service quality on patient satisfaction and loyalty in mother and child hospital. The researcher tried to identify the effect and relationship of each variable. Data collected through an accidental sampling technique among 50 samples in two hospitals in Surabaya, and the data were analyzed using path analysis. The result suggests that the perception of health care service quality does not significantly have a positive effect on patient loyalty. At the same time, there are significant and positive effects on the relationship between the perception of health care service quality and patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction significantly has a positive effect on patient loyalty. Furthermore, patient satisfaction as a mediator variable mediates the relationship between the perception of health care service quality and patient loyalty. These findings emphasize the importance of these aspects to develop a better mother and child hospital.
... According to Cobanoglu et al. (2013), satisfaction can be achieved when the conference attendees receive high-quality services than they expected, and this is the goal for the tourism and hospitality sector, not only the event management sector. In this vein, many researchers have proved that guest satisfaction has a direct and significant impact on guest loyalty (Gogoi, 2020;Woratschek et al., 2019;Qomariah, 2017). Kotler et al. (2016) have stated that attracting new customers could cost five times more than servicing an existing customer. ...
... For example, the digitalization of stadium experiences using smartphones encourages fans to co-create content. As digital compensation grew, it progressed from hastily added content to comprehensive esports and virtual alternatives (Woratschek et al., 2020). MSEs are complex meta-digital entertainment systems designed in a creator economy to strengthen fan engagement, and celebrity athlete brand monetization. ...
Article
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This article explores the relationship between social media, sports mega events, and creator economy. First, we present a literature review highlighting previous research conducted on the rise of dependence on social media for building creator economy towards MSEs during the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by a summary of Whiting and Williams social media uses and gratifications model and the instrumental case study methodology applied in this research. The results offer a practical application of Whiting and Williams social media Uses and Gratifications Model 2013 that serves as theory-testing, next an analysis is conducted on the MSE's utilisation of social media and MSEs as a tool for the creator economy. Finally, limitations are presented, and future research is suggested.
... According to the literature, value creation is enabled by different actors, who operate inside or outside the firm. Customer satisfaction can be interpreted from the customer's point of view as a result of value creation (Woratschek, Horbel, & Popp, 2019). ...
Article
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The application of co-creation is important and traditionally proves that banks that offer products and services without taking into account the opinions and recommendations of customers have the opportunity to remain focused on the bank and not be successful (Keshavarz & Jamshidi, 2018). In many organizations, especially those dealing with services, customer satisfaction is considered a challenge. Customer satisfaction influences customer loyalty and a loyal customer is a constant source of revenue, and satisfied customers do not focus on replacement products found on the market. From this, we conclude that customer satisfaction increases loyalty and reduces opposition to the products and services that the company offers (Jaakkola, Helkkula, & Aarikkula-Stenroos, 2015). This study aims to measure the impact of co-creation value through the DART (dialogue, access, risk assessment, and transparency) model on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The method used to answer the research questions is the quantitative method, where data were collected through primary research; the population of this study is the customers of all commercial banks in Kosovo, where the sample was 300 customers of randomly selected banks. Based on the research results, referring to Spearman’s rho correlation we conclude that co-creation with customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are in direct proportion. According to the ordinary least squares (OLS) model, we conclude that co-creation affects customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Through this research, banking structures have the opportunity to increase customer satisfaction and create loyalty to customers through the co-creation process, strengthening its components such as dialogue, access, risk assessment, and transparency.
... 2022; Chan et al., 2010;Cui & Wu, 2016;Merz et al., 2018;Pathak et al., 2022;Scholl-Grissemann et al., 2022;Yim et al., 2012). The co-creation of value is also inseparable from employees (Amin et al., 2022) and other stakeholders (Woratschek et al., 2020). However, in the value formation process, value co-creation is the result we hope to obtain, and value co-destruction also sometimes occurs (Guan & Xie, 2019). ...
Article
This paper develops a value co-destruction behavior (VCDB) scale in the business-to-customer (B2C) service context. It uses a multi-method and multistage design, which is consistent with the method of developing and validating psychometric scales. That is, in the first stage, we focus on the development of measurement items designed to reflect the conceptual attributes of VCDB. The second stage determines whether the measurement items are established as an indicator of VCDB and whether their reliability values are acceptable. The third stage tests to what extent the measured items represent the structure of VCDBs and their reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Finally, the nomological validity of the VCDB scale is tested. Through qualitative induction and three quantitative studies, this study constructed a multidimensional VCDB scale, composed of bad employee resource integration behavior, bad customer resource integration behavior, bad employee interpersonal interaction behavior and bad customer interpersonal interaction behavior.
... visiting places where their idols enjoyed glorious moments), constituting a sub-branch of sport tourism (Cordina et al., 2019). For teams, a visit represents a chance to engage fans with the team brand by providing a unique experience (Woratschek et al., 2020). Sport facilities also offer host destinations various financial and brand benefits (Ginesta, 2017). ...
Article
This study explores the relationships among sport stadium visitors’ experiences, satisfaction, team brand image, and destination image. A text mining approach was first used to analyse 26,538 individual reviews from 17 European sport stadiums on TripAdvisor. The online reviews were then used as input to create a word frequency of each individual review and construct a structural equation model. Results indicate that the visitor experience had a strong impact on team brand image and a moderate effect on destination image. Satisfaction mediated the influence of the visitor experience on team brand image, but not on destination image. Team brand image exerted a significant but small impact on destination image. These findings show that stadium visits impact the marketing of both host teams and cities. City, leisure and stadium managers should therefore coordinate their efforts to highlight teams as part of a city’s cultural brand to generate image-based benefits for both.
... substantiates the argument of the strong association between these two variables (Woratschek et al., 2019;Vega-Vazquez et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Objetivo: Analisar o papel da similaridade percebida na interação social e na cocriação de valor, e sua relação com a experiência de consumo em ambientes de serviços para públicos específicos.Método: A pesquisa, do tipo survey, contemplou uma amostra final de 270 indivíduos, cujos dados foram analisados por meio da Modelagem de Equações Estruturais a partir da análise de invariância.Originalidade/Relevância: A pesquisa apresenta uma contribuição relevante para o campo de estudos do ambiente de varejo ao examinar o aspecto social associado às experiências individuais de consumo no que tange os relacionamentos que ocorrem entre os clientes durante a prestação do serviço em ambientes para públicos específicos.Resultados: Os resultados evidenciaram uma relação causal direta e positiva entre similaridade percebida e interação social. Os achados também sugerem que a interação social, ao apresentar influência direta na cocriação de valor, assume papel de variável mediadora na relação entre similaridade e cocriação de valor. Além disso, observou-se que a cocriação de valor exerce influência direta na experiência de consumo.Contribuições teórico-metodológicas: Este trabalho contribui para a literatura de Marketing ao destacar o impacto dos ambientes de serviços segmentados na percepção de similaridade entre os consumidores, o que pode gerar interação social e cocriação de valor, resultando em uma experiência de consumo satisfatória.
... Interpersonal resources, in this regard, represent resources that are more directly related to the dialogical character of cocreation. Studies point out that firm-initiated activities alone are not successful in creating positive outcomes, such as loyalty or satisfaction (e.g., Woratschek et al. 2020). It can trigger customers to engage their general and context-specific resources, or conversely, intentionally prevent the use of these resources (Echeverri and Skålén 2011): I had to go with two other babysitters until I found the one that I wanted. ...
Article
This study investigates different types of operant resources and their effects on cocreation by considering the moderation effects of cocreation potential and the provider’s positive attitude. The contextual nature of operant resources is discussed based on how consumers activate resources in different service situations. The first study explores whether context-specific resources contribute to cocreation more than general resources. This hypothesis is found to be valid only for certain service contexts. In-depth interviews are conducted in the second study to understand the phenomenon more deeply. The qualitative study reveals three distinct types of resources: general, context-specific, and interpersonal resources. In the third study, a scenario-based experimental study is conducted to test the hypotheses, which are confirmed. We conclude that context-specific resources more directly shape cocreation, moderated by perceived level of cocreation potential. The relationship between potential and resources is then moderated by the provider’s positive attitude.
... According to Kim and Park (2017), Lee et al. (2016), Raji and Zainal (2016), and Eid and El-Gohary (2015), consumer engagement is a critical antecedent to customer satisfaction. Woratschek et al. (2020) emphasised service co-creation through the proposition that the contribution of customers in service design creates an experience that determines tourists' satisfaction and loyalty. Hamidi et al. (2020) demonstrated in their research that some of the well-known aspects of service co-creation include enhancement in customer power, self-identification, self-efficacy, and consumer satisfaction. ...
... Furthermore, in contrast to the findings of numerous scholars, perceived trust, perceived service quality and perceived value do not influence satisfaction (Lee, 2021;Uzir et al., 2021). Nevertheless, a positive and significant relationship was found between satisfaction and loyalty, as promulgated by Woratschek et al. (2020). ...
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Purpose This study aims to explore the loyalty intent of prepaid (contract-free) customers in a market where disloyalty is prevalent and the market has low switching costs. Design/methodology/approach A quota, non-probability sampling technique was applied, resulting in the completion of 220 self-administered questionnaires that were used for data analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation model were applied to determine model fit and test the formulated hypotheses for this study. Findings The strength of the satisfaction–loyalty relationship is found to be influenced by three specific satisfaction antecedents, strengthened by the mediating role of customer delight and impacted by switching costs. Practical implications The findings of this study may guide mobile service providers in their initiatives to secure satisfaction and loyalty in a market context where switching costs are low and the market is described as disloyal. Originality/value This study investigates the well-researched relationship between satisfaction and loyalty and the antecedents of customer satisfaction to determine which of these variables should be the focus in a challenging market where consumers are disloyal and switching costs are low.
... Based on empirical research in the auto service industry, some scholars have explored how consumers' participation in value co-creation affects their loyalty (Opata et al., 2021). Similarly, in the study of sports events, some scholars have proposed that multi-value co-creation activities of sports events can have a significant impact on audience value, which cannot only increase their loyalty to the events but also improve their satisfaction (Woratschek et al., 2020;Jiang et al., 2021). Based on the existing research on value co-creation behavior and consumer-brand relationship quality in different contexts, this study proposes the following hypotheses based on the canal tourism context: ...
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In recent years, there is the popular phenomenon of “grass planting” marketing. The value co-creation behavior of ordinary consumers KOC (key opinion consumer) in the online community is sometimes out of utilitarian intentions, which is deemed as plain people’s “grass planting” advertising in a certain degree. We collected the tourists’ data in Chinese Grand Canal National Cultural Park, analyzed the impact of value co-creation behaviors such as tourists’ experience sharing, topic discussions, and suggestions in online communities on the value of tourism experience and the quality of brand relationships under the “planting grass” marketing environment and verified the moderating mechanism of tourist altruism in it. According to the results, tourists’ online value co-creation behavior has a significant positive impact on the consumer-brand relationship quality, and experience value plays a mediating role. Tourists’ online value co-creation behavior has a significant positive impact on experience value, in which altruism plays a moderating role. The greater the tendency of altruism, the higher the impact of tourists’ value co-creation behaviors on their experience value, and vice versa. This conclusion is not only of great significance in deepening and improving theories of value co-creation, altruism, experience value and consumer-brand relationship quality, but also has important certain management enlightenment on how to combine the design of merchant value co-creation incentive mechanism with altruism in “grass planting” marketing.
... The value proposition can also impact the core value of the companies and make dramatic changes to the overall performance. The different reasons that trigger the companies to develop processes of value proposition and maintain the market position motivate them to increase their various value creation approaches for desirable performance (Woratschek, Horbel, & Popp, 2020). Also, the studies stated that innovation refers to the offerings of the companies which should be adapted and provide solutions to the customer and meet their needs in a way which can add value as seen and expected by the customers. ...
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The current research main purpose is to examine the effect of digital marketing on both value creation and customer satisfaction. The literature was reviewed for the relevant existing studies to address the knowledge gap that has not been fulfilled before by a proposed integrative model. A quantitative research approach was used in this study to investigate the hypothesized proposed model with a survey questionnaire to collect data from the sample of customers of telecommunication firms operating in Jordan. The instrument was developed and customized to achieve the research objectives. With a total of 315 valid and complete returned questionnaires, the research has analyzed the data collected by using the PLS-SEM approach to run the essential analysis procedures and test the hypothesized statements. The results showed a significant and positive effect of digital marketing on both value creation and customer satisfaction. The research would contribute to providing more understanding of the issues related to this topic and filling research gaps and provide some new knowledgeable and theoretical research implications.
... Companies are familiar with the fact that as customer acquisition, customer retention, and customer profit growth are areas that companies need to work on, building customer loyalty to maintain a competitive advantage in the market is an important issue. Customer loyalty is one of the best intangible assets an organization can have, both at the attitudinal and behavioral levels, and it is a huge potential differentiator that can be a source of increased competitive advantage (33). However, for a company to have a high competitive advantage, it is important to carefully analyze and communicate effectively with each customer in order to fulfill the commitment to them, which is very important in the ever-changing market and helps to increase the level of customer satisfaction and loyalty (34). ...
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Based on the service encounter perspective, this study combines theoretical foundations for such factors as service quality and the characteristics of the hospital service industry to develop a research model scale to investigate whether the quality of hospital services affects patients' perceptions of health service encounters, trust, and loyalty. Nowadays, with the advancement of medical technology, patients pay more attention to the quality of medical services and good service encounters provided by healthcare professionals in order to establish positive patient relationships; hospitals need to improve their own service quality and establish good patient trust relationships so that doctor-patient satisfaction and loyalty can be improved. In a review of related literature, this study found that most past studies focused on issues related of quality of medical services and patient satisfaction, but ignored those related to the relationship between medical service encounters and patient trust and loyalty, as well as the lack of scientific measurement markers for service encounters in the Chinese medical service industry. Therefore, this study uses the Service Encounter Perspective and Service Quality Theory Development Research Scale to collect and analyze data for a typical case of a Chinese tertiary hospital. Finally, this study explores the relationship between the four variables of service quality, service encounter, trust, and loyalty by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of the data. Finally, it is concluded that the higher the service quality of the hospital, the higher the customer trust, the higher the service encounter, and in the greater the doctor-patient loyalty.
... It results from a comparison that is between service perception and the expectations of the customers (Cronin and Taylor, 1992;Groonros, 2010). Overall service quality represents a good source of competitive advantage within the service industry like the hotel and hospitality (Rahman et al., 2020;Woratschek et al., 2020). Furthermore, overall service quality and reliability of products of an organisation create a competitive advantage (Bahadur et al., 2018;Iqbal et al., 2018). ...
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Purpose – This study examines the influence of service quality, satisfaction, trust, value, and commitment on hotel customers’ attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Design/Methodology/Approach – Data was collected from 234 customers in Harare, Zimbabwe’s commercial capital who were served from five selected hotels using self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey. Hypothesised relationships were tested through structural equation modelling with the aid of Smart PLS software. Findings – Service quality, satisfaction, trust, value and commitment were found to have a significant positive effect on hotel customers’ attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Research limitations/Implications – The study’s findings may not be generalised to other contexts as sample data was only collected in hotels situated in Harare. Complementary cross-sectional research studies can be done in other parts of the world to enable cross-cultural comparisons, as well as methodological validations. Practical implications – Hotels are encouraged to be more attentive to service quality, satisfaction, trust, value and commitment as they have a direct effect on hotel customers’ attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Hotel managers may need to consider the impact of the aforementioned variables when devising service marketing strategies. Originality/Value – Notwithstanding the limitations of the current study, the results have the potential to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of service quality, satisfaction, trust, value and commitment in enhancing attitudinal and behavioural loyalty.
... be considered here in turn to understand how the application of actor engagement can enhance our understanding in a sport management context. First, sport fans engage with a range of different types of individual and collective actors, including athletes, coaches, commentators, teams, brand communities, events, team sponsors, and even the sport itself (Woratschek et al., 2020). The conceptualization of actor engagement also considers nonhuman actors (Storbacka et al., 2016), encouraging further examination of fan engagement within e-sports and other technologically mediated sporting contexts (Kim & Kim, 2020). ...
Article
Customer engagement (CE) is an emerging perspective that provides a holistic view of the ways in which customers’ interactive experiences with organizations create value for both the parties. Central to this, is the need to develop an understanding of why a customer would choose to invest their resources (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) with an organization, to be able to better facilitate this engagement and properly value the outcomes from it. Sport, with its inherently strong interactions for both participants and fans, would seem an ideal setting to study CE. To date, however, the CE work in sport domains has largely followed established paths. Given CE’s potential to unify many disparate areas of sport research, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the CE work to date and highlights several ways sport can leverage and advance this work through both academic research and management practice.
... Researchers have not reached an agreement concerning the structure of the relationship between CPVCA and loyalty. Relatedly, some studies adopt direct relationship between CPVCA and customers` loyalty (for example, Iglesias et al., 2020;Woratschek et al., 2020;Thiruvattal, 2017). While, Other studies confirmed the existence of an indirect effect for CPVCA on customers` loyalty through customers` satisfaction (Prastiwi & Hussein, 2019); relationship strength (Rajah et al., 2008); perceived service quality (Mariyudi & Matriadi, 2018). ...
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This study investigates the influence for intrinsic and extrinsic motives on customers` participation in value co-creation activities (CPVCA), beside examining the direct and indirect impact for CPVCA on customers` loyalty. Quantitative research approach is used, while the study population encompasses all Lebanese private universities students. A questionnaire was developed to gather data from 403 universities` students who were chosen using the convenience sampling technique. PLS-SEM was adopted to examine the study proposed scale validity and the relationships between its latent variables. The current study results indicate a positive influence for both intrinsic and extrinsic motives on CPVCA. Also, the findings reveal a significant direct relationship among CPVCA and customer loyalty, as well as an indirect relationship via mediating brand experience.
... In contrast to the service-dominant logic, the SEL includes sport engagement platforms with all the defining characteristics of sporting activities. For instance, sporting activities lead to voluntary engagement of sport fans (i.e., rituals, word-of-mouth communication) (Woratschek et al., 2020b). Moreover, sponsors can engage in interorganizational citizenships behaviors (Gerke et al., 2017) by voluntarily integrating resources (i.e., management competencies, technical competencies, and innovative ideas) above and beyond the terms of the contract (Buser et al., 2020). ...
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Network approaches in sport management are mainly guided by the logic of sport products, where firms produce value that is used-up by consumers. This logic neglects the collaborative nature of sport. On the contrary, the logic of value co-creation provides a perspective where actors collaborate to co-create value in sport networks. Thus, this purely conceptual research aims to examine approaches to value co-creation in sport ecosystems to offer a holistic perspective on the interconnectedness of actors and engagement platforms. Using the concepts of value co-creation, engagement platforms, and sport network approaches, this paper conceptualizes the Sport Ecosystem Logic as a general theory to promote innovative research. Comprising five fundamental premises, the Sport Ecosystem Logic explains how actors’ shared interests in sporting activities evolve into an entire sport ecosystem. The Sport Ecosystem Logic advances our understanding of actors’ resource integration on sport engagement platforms and how these platforms are interconnected in a sport ecosystem.
... meal kit preparation) occurs before customers' participation (e.g. cooking the meal), whereas cocreation in a conventional dining context often co-occurs between customers and employees at the same place, namely, direct cocreation (Woratschek et al., 2020). Second, customer participation in the current context is a relatively independent step to complete the service product. ...
Purpose This study aims to explore an emerging phenomenon – gourmet meal kits delivered to out-of-towners from iconic local restaurants. This study explores the interplay of goal framing and basic needs and their effects on customer intentions. This study also examines the underlying mechanism of experience cocreation and the moderating effect of food involvement. Design/methodology/approach This study develops a framework that combines the self-determination theory (SDT) and customer experience cocreation. Two online experimental studies involving 478 US consumers were conducted to examine the underlying mechanism of customers’ decision-making on purchasing gourmet meal kits (Study 1) and visiting destination restaurants after receiving the meal kit (Study 2). Findings Intrinsic goal-framing leads to stronger intentions to purchase gourmet meal kits and to visit destination restaurants that sell meal kits. In contrast, extrinsic goal-framing enhances the positive influence of perceived relatedness and competence on behavioral intentions. The effects of goal framing and basic needs on behavioral intentions are moderated by food involvement and mediated by experience cocreation to varying degrees. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to empirically examine an emerging business model – delivering restaurants’ food experiences to out-of-towners. The study also expands the application of the SDT by incorporating customer cocreation as the underlying mechanism.
... Another study examined the effects of interactions between spectators on value creation for such spectators [77]. Value cocreation behavior can influence customer satisfaction and loyalty because of identification in the context of a team sports event [78]. e present study explored value cocreation in the context of sports events and the mechanisms underlying its influence event spectators; thus, the study findings extend the literature on value cocreation in sports events. ...
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This study analyzed the effects of multiple interactions in value cocreation activities involving sports spectators. Interaction activities for value cocreation at sports events comprise spectator-athlete and spectator-staff interactions. A survey of spectators at the 2017 Wuhan Open revealed that spectator-athlete and spectator-staff interactions increased spectator perceived value, which in turn increased spectator satisfaction and loyalty. Spectator-staff interactions had a greater effect on spectator sports event value than did spectator-athlete interactions. Therefore, organizers of sports events should effectively manage multiple value cocreation interactions to improve spectator satisfaction and loyalty. The present study’s consideration of the effect of multiple interactions in value cocreation extends value cocreation theory.
... Numerous theoretical and empirical marketing studies agree that CS is one of the most important criteria in the formation of BL in various sectors (e.g. Bennett et al., 2005;Chen and Wang, 2009;Fornell, 1992;Oliver, 1997;Woratschek et al., 2020) ...
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of consumer-based brand authenticity (CBBA) on customer satisfaction (CS) and brand loyalty (BL). The moderating effect of the variable “alternative attractiveness” in the relationship between CS and BL was further investigated. The study compared and analyzed the difference between global sportswear brands and domestic ones and the difference between global chocolate brands and domestic ones in terms of CBBA, CS, BL and attractiveness of alternatives (AA). Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling and multigroup analysis were conducted in order to analyze the data collected from 600 consumers via face-to-face survey. Findings The results showed that quality commitment and heritage-sincerity, which are subdimensions of CBBA, had a significant positive effect on CS. Additionally, both of them affected CS differently in the comparison of the global brands with the domestic ones. Furthermore, CS had a significant positive effect on BL, and AA had a negative effect on BL. Originality/value This study deepens the insights into the effects of antecedents of CBBA on CS and BL, enhancing the research with quantitative analysis through two different product groups. The study provides important cues on which antecedents of CBBA help to strengthen the authenticity of brands of Turkish and global origin, and also differs in that it examines to what extent the effect of CBBA on CS and BL varies across global and domestic brands.
... In fact, customers are inside the value chain, and they influence and control where, when and how to generate value and become a creator of value (Albinsson et al., 2016;Tanev, 2011). The experience-centric view of interaction in value co-creation leads to a more extensive understanding of the value creation (Forés and Camis on, 2016;Woratschek et al., 2020;Zaborek and Mazur, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the dialogue, access, risk assessment and transparency model of value co-creation processes (dialogue, access, risk and transparency) on new service market performance (NSMP) with the mediating role of value-informed pricing in the context of business-to-business (B2B). Design/methodology/approach The data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 230 managers of the telecommunications industry in Malaysia and analyzed through structural equation modeling using SmartPLS v.3.3.3 software. Findings This study found that dialogue and transparency are predictors of NSMP. The findings indicate that value-informed pricing plays a mediating role in the relationship between dialogue and transparency with NSMP. Practical implications Disclosing pricing related information, providing up to date information to the customers, making clear to the customers about new offerings would certainly influence value-informed pricing. Thus, managers can enhance customer engagement in the interaction processes to better understand customer expectations of new services and how the new services should be priced. Originality/value The link between value co-creation and value-informed pricing has been only conceptualized in literature. This study has opened a new stream of research, examining the relationship of interactional-based value co-creation process with value-informed pricing and NSMP in the context of B2B relationship from providers’ perspective.
... Moreover, according to Budianto (2019), loyalty towards a brand encourages guests to directly promote the preferred product/service with other relatives and friends. For this reason, loyalty can be easily considered as a "step" that guests reach after attaining satisfaction, and at the same time, as stated by several researchers, it is highly influenced by brand and corporate image (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2000;Woratschek et al., 2019;Mohamed et al., 2020). These issues lead to the following hypothesis: ...
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Purpose This paper aims at exploring the relations amongst the concepts of customer relationship management (CRM), convenience, trust, perceived service quality, satisfaction, perceived value, loyalty, image and purchase intention in the hotel sector. Design/methodology/approach The research was conducted using interviews with hospitality managers and guests who had a direct connection with the hotel industry. According to the qualitative study results and literature review, the authors designed a model that was examined via structural equation modelling and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis. Findings This paper presents a conceptual framework that enhances existing research in the field of study, as it was implemented to measure the antecedent and consequences of perceived service quality. Based on the results from New York and London, the authors found that CRM and convenience have significant impact on perceived service quality. Interestingly, the aggregated data illustrate the negative relationship between image, loyalty and purchase intention. Originality/value The approach used by this study is partially in line with previous theoretical analyses and shows appealing patterns in international service quality perception. Besides, the paper adds insights into the realm, linking together different dimensions in order to reach an in-depth understanding and complex analysis of each item that affects and is affected by perceived service quality in the hotel industry.
... Findings that relate satisfaction and postconsumption behaviors like loyalty have also been consistently reported for sports contexts (Yoshida and James, 2010); in particular, a significant positive relationship has been found between customer satisfaction, service quality perceptions and loyalty (Ahrholdt et al., 2017(Ahrholdt et al., , 2019Woratschek et al., 2020). Accordingly, we hypothesize that H5. ...
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Purpose Extending existing research in a football context, this study explores how image and service quality influence spectator tribe satisfaction and loyalty and variations in behaviors depending on age, gender and emotional involvement. Design/methodology/approach Spectators aged 18 years and older who attended Barcelona Football Club home La Liga matches were sampled. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the model, and hybrid multigroup PLS-SEM was used to explore observed heterogeneity. Findings Image and service quality both influence spectator satisfaction and loyalty. Satisfaction and loyalty are associated differently with three tribes: a nonpassionate tribe characterized by low emotional involvement and younger and older passionate tribes composed of emotionally involved spectators aged <30 and >30 years old, respectively. Research limitations/implications This study’s results contribute to strengthening the suitability of PLS-SEM and multigroup in sport management, in particular for analyzing the behavior of specific groups of football spectators. Originality/value The findings of this study underline image and service quality as crucial to football spectator satisfaction and loyalty, with emotional involvement and age defining different consumer tribes as potential targets for marketing purposes.
... Thereby, by customer participation, co-producers and co-participants in the entire service chain could be possible, which leads to evolve offerings to render services that satisfy customers' unique needs and cause pleasurable fulfillment for customers (Oliver, 2015). Regarding empirical evidence, research has revealed the active influence of the contribution of co-creating customers on customer satisfaction as in Woratschek et al. (2020). The following hypothesis is therefore suggested: ...
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E-services such as online tourism, e-commerce, ride hailing, mobile banking, and payment are increasingly adopted in emerging markets. The paper, on the basis of service-dominant logic, aims to develop and validate an integrative theoretical model that centers on the customer readiness-customer participation link in e-services. From the perspective of customer, as both technology user and service consumer, this study proposes technology readiness, a technology-related factor, and customer empowerment, a firm-developed factor, as determinants of customer readiness and perceived value and satisfaction as outcomes of customer participation. A cross-sectional survey with PLS-SEM analysis of 257 customers in e-services in Hochiminh City, Vietnam, reports that all of eight hypotheses are empirically supported. This paper is among the first, with empirically affirming the roles of technology readiness and customer empowerment, two formative second-order constructs, to evidently investigate the two important formation mechanisms of customer readiness and the interconnection of these customer operant resources.
... Previous studies have also suggested that the effect of service quality on consumer behavioural intentions varies across sports (Jang et al., 2020) and that consumers evaluate experiences in non-professional and professional sports differently (Kim et al., 2019). These ideas are echoed by Woratschek et al. (2020) highlighting that each sport setting has unique characteristics that likely influence value creation, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Against this backdrop, we hypothesise that: ...
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Research question Previous research on service quality in spectator sport has provided mixed results on its measurement and influence on spectators’ outcomes. This study synthesises previous empirical research in a meta-analytic framework to provide a comprehensive understanding of service quality measurement, its effects on spectators’ perceived value, satisfaction and behavioural intentions, while also exploring culture and sport setting as moderators. Research methods This meta-analysis is based on a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed articles. It integrates 121 effect sizes based on 139,796 participants from 121 independent studies that were examined through a meta-analytic structural equation model. Results and findings The results indicated that the dimensions of functional and aesthetic quality had a moderate effect on perceived value and a small effect on both satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Core product quality showed a moderate influence on satisfaction but did not influence neither perceived value nor behavioural intentions. Both perceived value and satisfaction were significantly related to behavioural intentions. Culture and sport setting partially moderated the relationships between service quality and spectator outcomes (perceived value, satisfaction and behavioural intentions towards the teams). Implications This meta-analysis aggregates a range of attributes derived from previous studies in a comprehensive model and provides a succinct overview of the differential role of service quality dimensions on spectators’ perceived value, satisfaction and behavioural intentions. It offers a roadmap for planning service delivery in spectator sport that contributes to recalibrate future directions for research and practice.
... Service quality acts as a strong source of competitive advantage within the service industry Woratschek et al., 2020). That is, competitive advantage results from continuous improvement on quality and reliability of the organisation's products (Bahadur et al., 2018;M. ...
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Customer satisfaction, loyalty and corporate image play a critical role in improving loyalty within the banking sector. The current study examines the mediators and moderators of the effect of customer satisfaction on loyalty. Data were collected from bank customers (n = 308) using a structured questionnaire through a cross-sectional survey in Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses. Customer satisfaction has a direct positive effect on customer loyalty. Service quality and corporate image were each found to partially mediate the effect of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. Gender, age, education and income were found not to moderate the effect of customer satisfaction on loyalty. Thus, this study extends the extant services marketing literature by examining the mediators and moderators of the customer satisfaction-customer loyalty relationship within the banking sector. As a result, banks are encouraged to consider customer satisfaction, service quality and image altogether when trying to influence customer loyalty.
... Merz et al. [31], O'Cass and Ngo [4]). Although scarce, in the B2B field, VcC can act as an antecedent for other relational variables, such as customer satisfaction and loyalty [30]. Last, there are also mediating variables such as superior service solutions or collaboration in the supply chain [33]. ...
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Research on Value co-Creation (VcC) has been more extensive in B2C (business-to-consumer) than in B2B (business-to-business) and mainly for service contexts, under dyadic approaches (supplier–client). Moreover, research has paid little attention to the impacts of VcC on Satisfaction in its duality: Social and Economic Satisfaction. As a novelty, this study examines VcC in B2B industrial relationships in the triad of supplier–manufacturer–client. A model proposes VcC as an antecedent of manufacturer’s Economic Satisfaction, with the mediating role of Social Satisfaction. The model is empirically contrasted for a sample of 77 firms from an industrial panel—the Spanish Furniture Market Observatory. The triadic approach is depicted with bi-directional relationships of the manufacturer with its main supplier and main client). Results evidence that VcC and Economic Satisfaction are greater in the manufacturer–main client relationship. Moreover, the manufacturer’s Satisfaction relies on its social dimension, which has a key role to produce Economic Satisfaction. Results also show asymmetry in the supply chain, different from those with the main supplier. Implications for managers invite to achieve a long-term VcC chain with all business partners, the focus being on manufacturer’s social dimension, so the triad supplier–manufacturer–client could be better aligned.
Article
The act of donating blood creates social and public value (as a transformative service), but donors do not always repeat, so this study analyses the antecedents of attitudinal loyalty in donors. In addition, this research identifies active donor profiles to design personalised strategies to increase customers’ attitudinal loyalty. An online survey was conducted with 30,619 active donors who have donated blood at least once over the past two years. The study applies a quantitative modelling model called Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Analyses confirmed that motivations, obstacles and service quality influence satisfaction and donor attitudinal loyalty. Also, three active donor clusters were identified, as donation centres must adjust to each cluster to create value for society. This research contributes to understanding the factors that increase donor loyalty and closing a gap in the literature on prosocial consumer behaviour, and thereby other public services that depend upon the willingness of the individual. Furthermore, this approach enables the design of a more effective policy agenda and helps to focus public investment on developing strategies to engage willing and experienced donors.
Purpose On a home game weekend of collegiate football, thousands of fan visitors spend their weekend participating in college football games, showing significant potential of sports tourism businesses in the USA. Understanding the original personality of sport tourists and their travel motivation factors is imperative to develop appealing tourist attractions at the destinations of sports team fandoms. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationships among tourists' personality characteristics, their push and pulls motivations, satisfaction with travel experience, and loyalty toward destination and team using structural equation modeling. Design/methodology/approach The author collected information from a total of 301 sports tourists who had traveled to a college football game within the past year, staying at least one night in a hotel or other lodging place. This study employed PASW Statistics 25.0 and structural equation modeling using LISREL 9.30 for data analyses. Findings Personality has a significant relationship with push factors, especially for socialization motivation, and pull factors (i.e. access and affordability, other attractions) had more significant effects on sports tourists' satisfaction than push factors. The findings indicate the key roles for the entertainment motivation in generating tourists' satisfaction and destination loyalty and important roles of destination loyalty in building team loyalty. Originality/value The present study provides an approach of sports tourists' travel behaviors and experiences in the sporting event tourism. The outcome of this research can help both sports event organizers and destination marketers to understand the motivations for sports game attendance and to develop marketing strategies and products/services for attracting various types of sports tourists to games.
Article
Poor information quality, especially at work, is not a new issue. Users have been dealing with poor quality of information for a long time (Liu, 2020). Improving the quality of information received, used or relied on is a continuous commitment (Ballou & Pazer, 1985; Wand & Wang, 1996; Wang & Strong, 1996; Redman, 1998; Tayi & Ballou, 1998; Haug, Stentoft Arlbjørn & Pedersen, 2009; Pipino, Lee & Wang, 2002; Sukumar, Natarajan & Ferrell, 2015, among many others). Early on, many studies were found concentrating on information quality problems (Deschamps, 2020) such as the role of Information quality in Quality Management (Forza, 1995a) and its impact on quality performance (Forza, 1995b), introduction to data or information quality dimensions [from Wang & Strong (1996) to Deschamps (2020)] and the impacts of poor data/information quality on organizations (Redman, 1998). In this article, the term data quality or information quality will be used interchangeably to refer to the same issue. In the next section, more developments on information quality studies, definition of key terms such data, information and data quality, impacts of good and poor information quality to organizations and the co-creation concept will be discussed.
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The purpose of the study is to reveal the effect of value co-creation within the scope of the DART model, which consists of Dialogue, Access, Risk Assessment, and Transparency on perceived service newness and loyalty. In addition, it is aimed to determine the mediating role of perceived service newness between value co-creation and passenger loyalty. For this purpose, the data collected by the online and convenience sampling method from the passengers who travel airlines. The data is subjected to reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis in order to discover the variables that make up the dimensions in the study model. The relationship in the study model is evaluated by using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) via the SmartPLS 3.0 package program. The findings show that value cocreation has an impact on the perceived service newness and loyalty. This study found also mediating effect of perceived service newness in the relation between value co-creation and loyalty. The study contributed the understanding of value co-creation from the passenger perspective to the value co-creation literature by using the DART model. The study also provides theoretical and managerial contributions to manage the value co-creation process effectively and efficiently. Keywords: Value co-creation, perceived service newness, loyalty, DART model, passenger
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This article deals with the impact on customer loyalty through the implementation of customer co-creation campaigns in the beauty industry, also referred to as the cosmetic industry; while additionally featuring central points that add to the ability and willingness of a customer to partake in these co-creation campaigns. Co-creation refers to the practice deviced by organizations to team up with their stakeholders during the planning, advancing, and implementing stages of their products and services. “It replaces the hierarchical approach to management and the linear approach to innovation, affording all stakeholders the possibility to influence and bring forth meaningful and relevant solutions in a collaborative environment” (Kirah, A 2009). An exploratory survey was conducted to collect data from 229 respondents, through questionnaires. All the respondents were users of cosmetic products, irrespective of gender; living in the cities of Bangalore and Mysore. Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlation and Factor Analysis were used to analyse the acquired data, and study the outcomes. The findings of the study suggest that the customer co-creation campaigns have a favorable impact on customer loyalty, ultimately resulting in higher customer retention rates. The study also confirms various factors contributing to a customer’s participation in the co-creation campaign.
Article
This study explores the influence of Family Life Cycle (FLC) stages on the perceived value-customer loyalty relationship in e-shopping. A customized Indian FLC classification system comprising ten FLC stages was used in this study. Perceived value was measured as Utilitarian Value (UV) and Hedonic Value (HV), which acted as second-order constructs formed by utilitarian and hedonic benefits. Customer loyalty was measured as Re-Purchase Intention (RPI), positive Word of Mouth (WOM) and Willingness To Pay More (WTPM). Based on the split into FLC stages, 827 married women e-shoppers in metropolitan cities participated in the study. Value-loyalty and benefits-loyalty relationships were measured using PLS-SEM and differences in group behaviour were observed using PLS-MGA. Results showed that UV had a significant dominant effect on all value dimensions, while HV had a significant effect on only the dimension, WOM. Moreover, the values/benefits influencing dimensions of loyalty differed as women transcended from one FLC stage to the next. In effect, this study showed strong empirical evidence that FLC stages play a significant role in e-shopping Value-Loyalty and Benefit-Loyalty relationship.
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Service scholars are recognising the complex, adapting, and dynamic nature of value creating service systems. There remains an opportunity to explore the dynamic properties of these multilevel systems and build explanations of how these complex systems change and stabilise providing the context for value creation. This paper builds on the continuing work and use of sociological theory in these efforts and argues for an alternative metatheoretical approach and accompanying framework. Together this contribution provides a basis for building midrange theory to address the stabilising (morphostatic) and change inducing (morphogenetic) mechanisms in service ecosystems https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/ucdPm4pTzkzGWUgczisX/full?target=10.1080/02642069.2017.1389908
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This paper applies the perspective of service-dominant logic, specifically value co-creation in service ecosystems to the context of sports. It builds on the notion that co-created value can only be understood as value-in-context. Therefore, a structural model is developed and tested for different contexts of spectating live broadcasts of football games during the Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup 2014. The context-specific contributions of the co-creating actors, spectators’ experience evaluations, and the resulting context-specific value perceptions from the spectators’ perspective are identified. The results highlight that the relative influence of the main co-creating actors and the relative importance of the value dimensions differ across contexts. Service providers (in sports) should identify how consumers evaluate experience and which dimensions of value are most important to them in the context under consideration. This will help them to successfully facilitate value co-creation, make meaningful value propositions, and achieve strategic benefit for themselves.
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Abstract This study integrates consumer-brand identification and customer satisfaction as core relationship drivers to study their interrelationships as well as the effects on customer loyalty and word-of-mouth communication. Considering multiple interacting targets of identification in brand communities, the empirical study unfolds the multifaceted, context-specific relevance of identification and satisfaction: While the effect of identification on brand loyalty is mediated by customer satisfaction, satisfaction has no significant effect on community loyalty. Moreover, brand communities are particularly useful for gaining new customers, whereas no increase in brand loyalty could be found. Managers are generally advised to specify constructs of interest related to different relevant targets of identification.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend brand identification theory to the sports team context by testing the direct and indirect effects of a sports team’s personality, sports fans’ identification with the team, and the effect of the length of fans’ relationship with a team on their loyalty to it. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a quantitative study among ice hockey fans of one Finnish hockey team before play-off games. Data came from an online questionnaire generating 1,166 responses. Findings – The authors find that: first, identification with a team mediates the effects of brand personality on attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty; second, brand personality is a stronger driver of identification among newer fans; and third, brand personality has a stronger influence on both attitudinal and behavioral loyalty among newer fans. These findings stress the importance of sports brand’s personality in driving fans’ identification with the team and their loyalty to it. Originality/value – The study develops and tests a new conceptual model on consumer loyalty in the sports team context. The authors shed light on how sports team personality affects its fans’ identification with the team and the formation of fan loyalty, from the perspective of fans’ relationship length.
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This paper examines the relationship between brand associations (anything in the consumer's mind linked to a specific team brand) and brand loyalty in US professional sport. To study the relationship between 13 brand association dimensions and brand loyalty, a survey of professional sport consumers was completed (N = 929). Results of multiple regression analysis revealed positive relationships between fan identification, escape, nostalgia, and product delivery, and brand loyalty. Negative relationships were found between tradition, star players, and peer group acceptance, and brand loyalty.
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Service-dominant logic continues its evolution, facilitated by an active community of scholars throughout the world. Along its evolutionary path, there has been increased recognition of the need for a crisper and more precise delineation of the foundational premises and specification of the axioms of S-D logic. It also has become apparent that a limitation of the current foundational premises/axioms is the absence of a clearly articulated specification of the mechanisms of (often massive-scale) coordination and cooperation involved in the cocreation of value through markets and, more broadly, in society. This is especially important because markets are even more about cooperation than about the competition that is more frequently discussed. To alleviate this limitation and facilitate a better understanding of cooperation (and coordination), an eleventh foundational premise (fifth axiom) is introduced, focusing on the role of institutions and institutional arrangements in systems of value cocreation: service ecosystems. Literature on institutions across multiple social disciplines, including marketing, is briefly reviewed and offered as further support for this fifth axiom.
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Purpose – Understanding the role and implications of information and communication technology (ICT) in service is the key research priority for service science and the management of service quality. The purpose of this paper is to address this priority by providing insights into the role of “engagement platforms” (EPs), physical or virtual customer touch points where actors exchange resources and co-create value. Despite an emerging body of literature that emphasizes the fit between engagement and technology-enabled service contexts, EPs remain ill-defined. Specifically, little is known about the particular types of EPs, their characteristics, and implications for the performance of service ecosystems and managing service quality. Design/methodology/approach – By drawing on two illustrative case studies, the authors investigate and theorize about the characteristics and dynamics of EPs in virtual/physical contexts, and identify if, how and to what extent configurations of EPs may enhance resource exchange within and across service ecosystems. Findings – By building on emerging research at the service/engagement interface, the paper introduces the notion of the “engagement ecosystem,” as a configuration of individual, mutually dependent EPs that represent specific interactivity-facilitative loci. The paper explicates the relevance of the model and highlight opportunities for future research in this emerging field of inquiry. Research limitations/implications – The work addresses the call for research at the intersection of ICT and service science through development and application of the engagement ecosystem concept. The theorizing process draws on two illustrative case studies, and thereby provides a theoretical contribution and foundation for future research in this emerging area. Practical implications – The authors guide managerial decision-making regarding the implementation, adoption, and utilization of engagement ecosystems. Furthermore, the nature of “engagement” as a bridging concept implies that the work can help managers to operationalize service-centric thinking. Originality/value – By showing how individual EPs form engagement ecosystems, the paper bridges theory and practice, and offers new insight in the realm of practical application of the S-D logic.
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S-D logic can be interpreted as a transition from a goods-centred to a service-centred view on markets. It seems worthwhile to examine phenomena from the perspective of S-D logic and to reconsider the conclusions that have been drawn from traditional perspectives. In addition, the analysis of specific phenomena through the lens of S-D logic might facilitate the discovery of new facets, which are also relevant for a general theory. In this article, tourism will be used as a case in order to demonstrate the application of this two-way research approach.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the ontological and semantic foundations of consumer-dominant value creation to clarify the extent to which the call for a distinct consumer-dominant logic (CDL) is justified. This paper discusses consumer-driven value creation (value-in-use) across three different marketing logics: product-dominant logic (PDL), service-dominant logic (SDL) and CDL. PDL conceptualises value as created by firms and delivered to consumers through products. SDL frames consumer value as a function of direct provider-consumer interaction, or consumer-driven chains of action indirectly facilitated by the provider. Recently, the research focus has been turning to consumer-dominant value creation. While there is agreement on the significance of this phenomenon, there is disagreement over whether consumer-dominant value creation is an extension of SDL or calls for a distinct CDL. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper, which is informed by five cases of consumer dominance. The cases are used to clarify rather than verify the analysis of the ontological and semantic underpinnings of consumer-dominant value creation. Findings – The ontological and semantic analysis demonstrates that PDL and SDL have insufficient explanatory power to accommodate substantial aspects of consumer-dominant value creation. By implication, this supports the call for a distinct CDL. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the ongoing theoretical debate over the explanatory power of SDL by demonstrating that SDL is unable to accommodate important ontological and semantic aspects of consumer-driven value creation.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: to introduce a practice-based framework designed to integrate and deepen our understanding of how individuals co-create service experience practices; to identify co-creating service experience practices; and to provide a compelling agenda for future research, and offer practical strategies to enhance co-created service experiences. Accordingly, we extend practice theory, building on Kjellberg and Helgesson’s (2006) practice-based framework for markets by integrating Holt’s (1995) consumer practices and social capital-based practices (Gittell and Vidal, 1998; Woolcock, 2001). Design/methodology/approach – The authors interpretive analysis draws on naturalistic observations carried out over 18 months, supplemented with 35 interviews (17 with residents, and 18 with staff) and a diary study of nine non-management staff (including nursing staff, kitchen and cleaning staff and administrative staff) at a residential aged care facility. Findings – This paper offers a new conceptualization of service experience. Rather than viewing service experiences as dyadic, designed and produced by the firm for the customer, the authors conceptualize service experience as dynamic, experiential, relational activities and interactions, thus highlighting the collective, collaborative, evolving and dynamic nature of service experience. Research limitations/implications – Building on McColl-Kennedy et al. ’s (2012) foundational work, the authors articulate three distinct types of practices that characterize service experiences. We extend practice theory offering an integrative practice-based framework consistent with our practice-based conceptualization of service experience. Based on the service ecosystem metaphor and drawing parallels and contrasts with an ant colony, the authors provide a co-created service experience practices (CSEP) framework comprising: representational practices – assimilating, producing and personalizing; normalizing practices – bonding, bridging and linking; and exchange practices – accounting (searching and selecting), evaluating (sorting and assorting), appreciating, classifying (displaying objects and demonstrating collective action, and play (communing and entertaining). Our CSEP framework integrates three theoretical frameworks, that of Kjellberg and Helgesson’s (2006) market practices framework, Holt’s (1995) consumer practices and social capital-based practices (Gittell and Vidal, 1998; Woolcock, 2001), to yield a deeper explanation of co-created service experience practices. Practical implications – It is clear from our observations, interviews with residents and staff, and from the diary study, that customers co-create service experiences in many different ways, each contextually determined. In some cases the customers are well equipped with a wide array of resources, integrated from exchanges with other customers, staff, friends and family and from their own resources. In other cases, however, few resources are integrated from few sources. Importantly, the authors found that some staff are willing and able to offer an extensive range of resources designed to complement the customers’ own resources to help facilitate the service experience. We offer a seven-point practical plan designed to enhance service experiences. Originality/value – The authors work contributes theoretically and practically in four important ways. First, the authors provide a critical analysis of prior service experience conceptualizations. Second, consistent with the conceptualization that service experiences are dynamic, experiential, relational activities and interactions developed with the customer and potentially other actors, including for example, other customers, organizations, and friends and family, we draw parallels and contrasts with a biological ecosystem and offer a co-created service experience practices (CSEP) framework designed to integrate and deepen the understanding of co-created service experiences and extend practice theory. Third, the authors provide managerial implications, including a seven-point practical plan. Finally, the authors offer a research agenda to assist further theory development.
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of context in service provision and, more broadly, in market co-creation. We oscillate foci from an individual actor at the micro level to a market at the macro level to make the scaleable influence of context more salient. This reveals the meso level, which is nestled between the micro and macro levels. We discuss how these market levels influence one another. We conceptualize markets as simultaneous, continuous exchanges that are bounded by each of these levels of context.
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The present article alleviates the often-cited ambiguity of the value concept by proposing that value research consists of two main streams: value creation processes and value outcomes. The prior considers the parties, activities, and resources involved in value creation, whereas the latter explains the value outcomes customers perceive. Furthermore, the article investigates the value approach offered by the Service-Dominant logic, which proposes that value is co-created by firms and customers, and that beneficiaries determine the value [outcomes] (Vargo and Lusch, 2008). Finally, the article discusses how value creation processes and value outcomes might be interlinked, and creates a number of propositions to this end. It is in particular proposed that experiences offer a shared platform for investigating value creation processes and value outcomes.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of value co-creation in complex value networks with many actors. Electronic health records (EHRs) are innovations that warrant deep study to properly introduce such a complex system. Design/methodology/approach – The paper describes a qualitative study based on Grounded Theory to understand value co-creation from multiple actors’ perspectives in a National EHR Service Project: the Portuguese Health Data Platform. Findings – Study results enabled further development of the value co-creation concept in complex environments with multiple actors. More specifically they allowed: operationalizing the value co-creation concept by identifying its factors and outcomes, understanding how value co-creation factors and outcomes are interconnected, and understanding of how value co-creation for each actor depends on his/her own actions and the actions of other actors, in a complex set of interactions and interdependencies. Practical implications – The findings have implications for service managers seeking to understand how actors participating in the network integrate resources and interact to co-create value. The study highlights the need for designing and managing services to co-create value, not only by enabling dyadic interactions between the customer and the service provider, but also by supporting and enabling value co-creation interactions among different actors in the network. Originality/value – This study responds to the need for empirical research on value co-creation in many-to-many contexts and for operationalizing the value co-creation concept.
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Research question: Sports economic theory and management models have frequently been criticised for not sufficiently explaining phenomena in sport management. This article addresses this gap by proposing a conceptual framework that can be used to understand sport management problems and derive appropriate strategies. Research methods: The framework proposed in this conceptual article has been developed through a critical review of existing literature on sport management and theoretical considerations based on the service-dominant logic. Results and findings: The sport value framework (SVF) provides 10 foundational premises on value co-creation in sport management and suggests three levels for its analysis. The main contribution is a new and better theoretical basis for explaining phenomena in sport management compared with traditional sport economic thinking. Moreover, the SVF provides guidance in structuring research in sport management. Implications: The framework encourages researchers and practitioners to rethink their strategies by applying a different logic that captures the complexity of sport management.
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Quality is a central element in business strategy and academic research. Despite important research on quality, an opportunity for an integrative framework remains. The authors present an integrative framework of quality that captures how firms and customers produce quality (the quality production process), how firms deliver and customers experience quality (the quality experience process), and how customers evaluate quality (the quality evaluation process). The framework extends the literature in several ways. First, the authors describe important linkages between the three processes, including links reflecting the role of co-production. Second, they point to overlooked aspects of the quality processes that influence how quality is conceptualized and should be managed. These include customer heterogeneity in measurement knowledge and motivation; the role of emotion in quality production, experience, and evaluation; and a new typology of attributes. Third, they propose a quality state residing within each quality process and describe what gives rise to these states, which will enhance decision makers' ability to measure and manage quality processes. Finally, they offer theoretical and managerial implications derived from their integrative quality framework including 20 strategies to increase customer satisfaction.
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Purpose – The purpose of this conceptual paper is to analyse the implications generated by a service perspective. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual analysis of two approaches to understanding service perspectives, service logic (SL) and service-dominant logic (SDL), reveals direct and indirect marketing implications. Findings – The SDL is based on a metaphorical view of co-creation and value co-creation, in which the firm, customers and other actors participate in the process that leads to value for customers. The approach is firm-driven; the service provider drives value creation. The managerial implications are not service perspective-based, and co-creation may be imprisoned by its metaphor. In contrast, SL takes an analytical approach, with co-creation concepts that can significantly reinvent marketing from a service perspective. Value gets created in customer processes, and value creation is customer driven. Ten managerial SL principles derived from these analyses offer theoretical and practical conclusions with the potential to reinvent marketing. Research limitations/implications – The SDL can direct researchers’ and managers’ views towards complex value-generation processes. The SL can analyse this process on a managerial level, to derive customer-centric, service perspective-based opportunities to reinvent marketing. Practical implications – The analysis and principles help marketing break free from offering only value propositions and become an organisation-wide responsibility. Firms must organise service-influenced marketing and create a customer focus among all employees, beyond conventional marketing. Originality/value – A service perspective on business has key managerial implications and enables researchers and managers to find new, customer-centric, service-influenced marketing approaches.
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Social identity and identity theories have recently emerged as an important theoretical lens in relationship marketing research. However, the study of identity-motivated marketing relationships, defined as internal and external stakeholders’ identification with a marketing entity that can be an individual, a group, a brand, or a company, is not without controversies. Following a synthesis of this stream of research, this paper reviews the nature and causes of two key issues surrounding the conceptualization and measurement identity-based constructs. Recommended solutions and avenues for further research are then discussed.
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The authors investigate the conceptualization and measurement of service quality and the relationships between service quality, consumer satisfaction, and purchase intentions. A literature review suggests that the current operationalization of service quality confounds satisfaction and attitude. Hence, the authors test (1) an alternative method of operationalizing perceived service quality and (2) the significance of the relationships between service quality, consumer satisfaction, and purchase intentions. The results suggest that (1) a performance-based measure of service quality may be an improved means of measuring the service quality construct, (2) service quality is an antecedent of consumer satisfaction, (3) consumer satisfaction has a significant effect on purchase intentions, and (4) service quality has less effect on purchase intentions than does consumer satisfaction. Implications for managers and future research are discussed.
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Relationship marketing—establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational exchanges—constitutes a major shift in marketing theory and practice. After conceptualizing relationship marketing and discussing its ten forms, the authors (1) theorize that successful relationship marketing requires relationship commitment and trust, (2) model relationship commitment and trust as key mediating variables, (3) test this key mediating variable model using data from automobile tire retailers, and (4) compare their model with a rival that does not allow relationship commitment and trust to function as mediating variables. Given the favorable test results for the key mediating variable model, suggestions for further explicating and testing it are offered.
Chapter
This book chapter is intended to add to the existing literature by taking a closer look at the social relationships of football fans. Social relationships are the culture that evolves between two or more people (McCall, 1970; Wood, 1982). They build on strong bonds that emerge from the interaction between individuals as they act according to common accepted norms and rules. We contribute to a better understanding of how these relationships provide meaning to football fans and, thus, affect their behavior and loyalty to a team. Because of the explorative nature of the research, an ethnographic approach using data from filmed observations of and depth interviews with football fans in Germany was applied. Fans, who follow their teams to away games were chosen for the analysis, because it was assumed they are the most loyal and engaged fans. The remainder of the chapter is organized as follows. We will start with an overview on the related literature. This is followed by an illumination on the research framework and the research setting. We will explain the research methodology used whereby the focus will be on videography as a research method because it has not yet been widely used in sport marketing. Afterwards, the most important themes drawn from interviews and observation are presented and discussed in light of the existing literature. Finally, the concluding sections point out the implications of this study for understanding the social relationships of football fans and the consequences for their relationship to a team. A complementary video which illustrates some interviews and observations can be made available by the authors upon email request.
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Importance-performance analysis (IPA) is a popular approach used by firms to focus resources on crucial attributes, reduce expenditure on non-critical ones and develop improvement and innovation strategies accordingly. However, IPA develops quality improvement plans based on inaccurate assumptions about the independence between importance and performance and lacks clear measurement standards, which may lead to inappropriate recommendations. IPA also does not account for desired versus adequate service. Therefore, this study proposes an innovative framework that integrates the advantages of IPA, the zone of tolerance concept, and Kano’s model. A case study conducted in a wealth management department in the banking industry demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results indicate that the proposed approach recommends optimal service strategies to managers and outperforms traditional IPA.
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A traditional understanding of voluntary organizations with a social mission is that they are offering social services. In this article, this understanding is argued to be misleading. In a study of 59 social voluntary organizations (SVOs) an alternative view is proposed. Instead of offering social services, these organizations co-create sociality, and this is realized in collaboration with clients and in the contexts of social networks. This shift in understanding regarding what these organizations provide is mirrored in their marketing approach and managerial practice. The study is based on theory of organizational identity and service-dominant logic (S-D logic) and the findings advances our understanding of marketing approaches of SVOs, identifying the dialectical relation between organizational identity and managerial action, an organizational action embedded in integrative and excluding forces in the local society. The study also adds to research of transformative service research unfolding how service organizations create up-lifting services.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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The current study proposes and tests a structural model of fan satisfaction with attending a sporting event. Specifically, three cognitive antecedents (expectancy disconfirmation, team identification, quality of opponent) are related to two affective states (enjoyment, basking in reflected glory) which are, in turn, related directly to satisfaction judgments in a recursive model. Two-stage sampling was used to collect data from 232 individuals attending one of four women's basketball games at a major Division I-A university. The hypothesized model performed better than two alternative models and was further refined through a series of hierarchical model comparisons. The final model is supportive of a disconfirmation-affect-satisfaction hierarchy. In particular, team identification was found to have the dominant influence on affect and enjoyment had the dominant influence on fan satisfaction.
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This study proposes comprehensive customer experience and team performance models in response to a lack of studies regarding service quality and performance in professional sports. Past studies have overlooked the effects of customer experience and customer-perceived board performance on team performance and loyalty behavior. The present study was conducted to provide a reference for the innovative marketing of professional sports teams. The study results reveal that both customer experience and team identification correlate positively with fan loyalty, and on-field and customer-perceived board performance positively moderated the effects of customer experience and team identification on repatronage intention. However, the moderating effects of on-field and customer-perceived board performance on word of mouth is nonsignificant. Professional sports teams must consider factors that are important to fans apart from winning and losing, and they must develop marketing strategies that attract new customers instead of relying solely on existing customers for team promotion.
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Traditional theories in sport marketing limit the context of the sport experience to firm–customer encounters or the consumer’s individual sphere of practices and processes. Our paper responds to recent calls for developing conceptual frameworks that better explain sport market exchanges. Specifically, we aim to contribute to sport marketing by attempting to provide a deeper understanding of sport experiences and the context that frames exchanges in sports. To accomplish this objective, we propose an integrative framework that combines the service-dominant logic ecosystem perspective with consumer culture theory. We broaden the context of the sport experience by applying a service-ecosystems perspective and identify five factors that influence sport experiences from this extended context – historical meaning, tribal logics, rituals and socialization processes, value-in-subcultural-context, and the co-construction/co-destruction of context. The proposed integrative framework directs researchers and managers toward an extended, rich context that is reproduced through the co-creation of value and influences evaluations of sport experiences.