Article

Pho as the embodiment of Vietnamese national identity in the linguistic landscape of a western Canadian city

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This article examines the relationship between Pho, a type of Vietnamese soup, and Vietnamese national identity in the linguistic landscape of Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). The study suggests that Pho has not only been used by Vietnamese restaurants in Edmonton for indexical function but also for symbolic evocation associating with Vietnamese cuisine and national identity. The data comes from three Vietnamese restaurants in Edmonton. A multimodal analysis of shop signs, window signs and notices, menus, websites, and other relevant semiotic resources is carried out using geosemiotics, a multidisciplinary framework that analyses the meaning of the material placement of signs and human actions in the material world. The results indicate that Pho has a dominant visibility in the linguistic landscape of three restaurants. Furthermore, the symbolic relationship between Pho and Vietnamese identity is evident in the way it is used to address the feelings of nostalgia among migrant patrons.

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... This chapter takes a broad LL perspective, which renders the incorporation of semiotic modes other than written texts (including visual design and images) into the analysis to facilitate a better understanding of signs (cf. Tran, 2021). The analytical framework uses geosemiotics which is defined as "the study of the social meaning of the material placement of signs and discourses and of our actions in the material world" (Scollon & Scollon, 2003, p. 2). ...
Chapter
This chapter examines the influences of doi moi (literally “renovation,” more generally the economic reform policy) and globalization on the linguistic landscape of the capital of Vietnam. It suggests that the study of linguistic landscape can contribute to the understanding of social, cultural and ideological flows in globalization as well as the rise of the city as the space of citizenship and the prime badge of identity. The data come from commercial signage in three different neighbourhoods in the city of Hanoi. A multimodal analysis of signage is carried out using geosemiotics, a theoretical framework that studies the meaning of signs in the material world, with the support of an Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis (ELLA). The results indicate a revitalization of tradition and culture and a reinforcement of municipal and national identities.
... Lou has conducted a series of studies on linguistic landscapes by applying the geosemiotics framework in analyzing urban places (e.g., Lee & Lou, 2019;Lou, 2007Lou, , 2017. Along with Lou's, several studies focusing on diasporic spaces have found an advantage to combining the linguistic landscape and geosemiotics (e.g., Tran, 2019). Also, a recent study adopts the geosemiotics framework in analyzing the vernacular landscape of an American neighborhood undergoing neoliberalization (Gutsche and Shumow, 2017). ...
Article
This study analyzes visual-material resources, spatial organization, and human activities taking place in a large (Korean) Chinese migrant neighborhood in Seoul, South Korea. Grounded in walking fieldwork, this study identifies how dominant and marginal values are imposed in commercial streets and their surroundings of the neighborhood. The main commercial area plays a central role in the neighborhood, appropriating commodified Chinese cultures. A large local market commodifies Chinese culture in promoting the market as a multicultural place, while many Chinese restaurants highlight Chineseness, attracting both migrant and local consumers. On the other hand, the stigma of precarity is inscribed in every corner of the long-time low-income area: signs of otherness and unstable lives in the commercial landscape signify marginalization. The values expressed by the migrant neighborhood subtly suggest how migrants have been both included and excluded in South Korean society.
... but also Tran (2019) in a Canadian city and Buchstaller and Alvanides (2017) on the LL of the Marshall Islands. ...
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Anchored within current issues and debates in the field of Linguistic Landscape (LL) scholarship, this edited volume is concerned with politics of language and the semiotic construction of space in multilingual and multi-ethnic Asian countries. Spanning Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Taiwan and China, the chapters explore how different individuals and collectivities use semiotic resources in different spaces-schools, airports, streets and shops as well as online platforms-to reinforce or contest existing social structures, bearing strong implications for language maintenance and cultural revitalization, construction of ethnolinguistic and national identities, and socioeconomic mobility. Part I looks into how globalization and its accompanying forces and influences-such as the importance of English in socioeconomic mobility-come into contact with local Asian cultures and languages. Part II examines minority languages, demographically and socio-politically established in the countries, shedding light on the role of LL that plays in both their minorization and revitalization processes. Part III investigates how LL is utilized as a site for constructing identities to pursue socioeconomic, political and cultural goals. It is within this perspective that the presence and salience of English in the LL of the countries along with the use of the Asian languages is analyzed and understood, shedding light on how Asian heritage languages and cultures are preserved and/or certain identities in the times of political unrest or economic development are expressed. This fascinating insight into linguistic landscapes in Asia will be of interest to researchers, students and policy makers in sociolinguistics and applied linguistics anywhere in the world.
Article
This paper investigates the Linguistic Landscape of Chinese restaurants in Hurstville, a Chinese-concentrated suburb in Sydney, Australia. It draws on Blommaert and Maly’s (2016) Ethnographic Linguistic Landscape Analysis (ELLA) and Scollon and Scollon’s geosemiotics ( 2003 ). Our data set consists of photographs, Google Street View archives, and ethnographic fieldwork, in particular in-depth interviews with restaurant owners. This paper adopts a diachronic perspective to compare the restaurant scape between 2009 and 2019 and presents an ELLA case study of a long-standing Chinese restaurant. It aims to unveil the temporal and spatial relationships between signs, agents, and place, that demonstrate how a social and historical perspective in Linguistic Landscape studies of diasporic communities can shed light on the changes in the broader social context.
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Crime and Custom in Savage Society represents Bronislaw Malinowski's major discussion of the relationship between law and society. Throughout his career he constructed a coherent science of anthropology, one modeled on the highest standards of practice and theory. Methodology steps forward as a core element of the refashioned anthropology, one that stipulates the manner in which anthropological data should be acquired. Malinowski's choice of law was not inevitable, but neither was it unmotivated. Anyone interested in understanding the social structure and organization of societies cannot avoid dealing with the concept of "law," even if it is to deny its presence. Law and anthropology have shown a natural affinity for one another, sharing a beneficial history of using the methods and viewpoints of one to inform and advance the other. The best lesson Malinowski provides us with comes in the last paragraphs of Crime and Custom in Savage Society: "The true problem is not to study how human life submits to rules; the real problem is how the rules become adapted to life." On that question, he has left us richly inspired to continue the quest.
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The article looks at two possible directions of cultural identity changes taking place in the era of globalization, analyzing the underlying forces and motivation behind certain shifts in linguistic and cultural behavior. Conformity to the leading dominant culture acquired through lingua franca at the expense of erasing parts of one's original mother tongue and cultural identity is juxtaposed to deliberate preservation and enhancement of minor cultural identities and minority languages. Linguistic landscape of Kazan is analyzed as an example of initially bilingual urban entity turning multilingual due to globalizing trends.
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The visibility and salience of specific languages in public spaces are important parameters of their ethnolinguistic vitality in a society. Drawing upon data from first-hand fieldwork, this paper explores the display of multiple languages in shop names presented in Singapore’s neighbourhood centres in order to reveal how local shop owners address multilingualism in this ethnically heterogeneous and linguistically hybrid society. In addition to spelling out the commercial drive to seduce potential clients, shop names also serve to mark off shop owners’ identity and prioritisation of relevant languages. It is found that English is prevalent in all types of shop signs, though Chinese is the preferred code on bilingual and multilingual signs and tends to be used to represent the primary shop names. The other official languages are rarely presented on shop signs. We argue that the disparate vitality of languages might result from a mixture of social factors such as the state’s macro language policy, demographic structure, as well as ethnic and cultural identity construction. The linguistic landscaping in Singapore’s neighbourhood centres suggests that for grassroots individuals, pragmatic and affective adequacies are top priority in their discourse construction.
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Sociolinguistics as an interdisciplinary science joins language and society to provide knowledge on their relationship and interaction. Language planners and policy makers can use this science to make accurate decisions. This study examined language policy and the strategies used by the public to shape the linguistic landscape of Petaling Jaya, in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The study focused on the patterns of language use on private and government signage to examine whether the top-down language policy, was being complied with. The samplings included 400 photographs of signboards of shops, restaurants, internet cafes, and offices. Results suggested that majority of signboards are bilingual or multilingual. Sign users apparently comply with the official policy particularly with regard to the national language Bahasa Melayu (BM) in terms of font size and language sequencing. However, some shopkeepers tend to use strategies to circumvent the policy. Simultaneous accommodation and resistance to the official policy characterizes these strategies, some of which are driven by commercial motives. A common approach is to create names in the English language. A recurrent strategy is that of using multiple codes or languages on a single signboard. We conclude that power apparently sets the tone for language ideology on signboards, and that language ideology in Malaysia 'serves to rationalize existing social structures and dominant linguistic practices, particularly through their institutionalization in official language policy' (Lanza and Woldemariam, 2009: 189). However, we suggest that it is important that policies with regard to Affiliation Language ideology and the linguistic landscape linguistic landscape be based on sociolinguistic science including cultural, racial and political demands.
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Moving away from logocentric studies of the linguistic landscape, this paper explores the relations between linguascapes and smellscapes. Often regarded as the least important of our senses, smell is an important means by which we relate to place. Based on an olfactory ethnography of a multicultural suburb in Sydney, we show how the intersection of people, objects, activities and senses make up the spatial repertoire of a place. We thus take a broad view of the semiotic landscape, including more than the visual and the intentional, and suggest that we are interpellated by smells as part of a broader relation to space and place. Understanding the semiotics of the urban smellscape in associational terms, we therefore argue not merely that smell has generally been overlooked in semiotic landscapes, nor that this can be rectified by an expanded inventory of sensory signs, but rather that the interpellative and associational roles of smells invite us towards an alternative semiotics of time and place.
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This article presents the results of a piece of research on the languages used in places of worship carried out in the Kuala Lumpur area (Malaysia). Seven different places of worship were selected (a mosque, a Sikh gurdwara, two churches, a Chinese temple, a Hindu temple and a Theravada Buddhist temple) and brief interviews were carried out involving people with an official position within those institutions, while at the same time digital pictures were taken of all the signs present within the compounds where the places of worship were located. A brief survey was also carried out to gauge the believers’ attitudes towards the languages used in the signs photographed. After a general introduction on Malaysia and its linguistic repertoire and on the religions found in the country, the methodology employed is described in detail and the results are presented. There follows an in-depth discussion of the results and some general remarks on official language policies and the position of English.
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The article explores the processes of re-production of national identity based on food-related practices and discourses of Peruvian migrants living in Santiago de Chile. The meeting point of these three fields - migration, national identity and food - is most evidently performed in the celebration of the Peruvian National Holidays in Santiago. The article finds evidence that the performance in this national festivity reinforces a sense of Peruvianness, thus contributing to the study of contemporary processes of renewal of national identities in transnational contexts. The case study also demonstrates that the ascription of national identity by Peruvian in Santiago is strategic, and it operates as an assemblage of various and locally situated elements.
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Aims This paper suggests a framework of separate and flexible multilingualism to describe multilingual phenomena in Macao. The aims are to capture both conventional and creative language practice and to explore what exactly is the state of multilingualism in modern Macao under the context of globalization, and more specifically how we can capture variation in multilingual practice. Methodology The objectives are achieved by analyzing the interplay and distance between languages in multilingual texts, focusing on the multimodality and intertextuality of the texts. Data and analysis The database is a collection of 300 posters for cultural and entertainment events in Macao. The distance of languages is analyzed at the unit level in multimodal texts; separate and flexible multilingualism are exemplified and further elaborated. Conclusions Multilingualism in Macao is mainly characterized by separate multilingualism, where different languages are demarcated clearly. However, Macao is undergoing a significant process of globalization, accompanied by a huge flow of people, and concomitantly flexible multilingualism is emergent and coexistent with separate multilingualism. Flexible multilingualism is often manifested in translanguaging. The various practices of translanguaging are performances of creativity and they show criticality by problematizing the widely accepted essentialist conceptions on boundaries between languages and modes. Originality This paper extends the framework of separate and flexible multilingualism to explain multilingual practice in general. We analyze multimodal data using a combined method of multimodality and multilingualism while focusing on the linguistic elements. The paper treats the posters as a special and less studied type of linguistic landscape in Macao, and it provides an original and realistic interpretation of the written multilingual linguistic landscape in a unique Chinese city. Significance This paper provides a new way of understanding multilingualism; translanguaging is broadened to account for written data. Multilingualism can be understood better by observing language-related practice in multimodal texts.
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Linguistic fetish refers to the phenomenon of using languages for symbolic (fetishised) rather than utility (instrumental-communicative) purposes in commercial texts. In such a context, form takes precedence over content, which may or may not be relevant to, or understood by, the target audience. In this chapter, building on and extending my previous work in this area (Kelly-Holmes 2010, 2005, 2000), I explore linguistic fetishization as a sociolinguistic practice, using a range of examples from a variety of media and contexts. The chapter starts by examining current thinking on visual multilingualism in sociolinguistics, before moving on to examine the commodification of such visual language in contemporary consumer culture using the notion of linguistic fetish. I then go on to examine three cases of linguistic fetish in visual multilingualism – the foreign language visual; the minority language visual; and visual English – and attempt an assessment of their sociolinguistic implications.
Article
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This study explores the linguistic landscape of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using photographs as a source of data, the study collects samples from both government and private signage from five selected neighbourhoods of the city. In addition to photographs, interviews with business owners have been conducted and used for triangulation purposes. The data suggest that multidimensionality marks the linguistic landscape of the city. The multidimensionality is embedded in the complex sociopolitical, economic and ethnolinguistic facets and trends the linguistic landscape demonstrates. The sociopolitical dimension signifies the officially laid-down monolingual Malay-oriented policies, which accentuate compulsory use of the national language Malay. Non-compliance to the official version of policy results in strict punitive actions. The economic dimension manifests in the prominent use of English for its advertising and symbolic potential. Similarly, the ethnolinguistic dimension denotes vitality and identity expressed by the Chinese and Indian communities in specific localities. The study argues that although the official policy is formulated and implemented with the intent of unifying a multiethnic population, discursive defiance to this policy at the bottom levels can be triggered by many reasons including pragmatism, religion or identity, and such defiance clearly transpires in the linguistic and semiotic representation of the signboards.
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Purpose – The purpose of this article is to analyze the links between nostalgia and food consumption. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an exploratory qualitative analysis of 104 descriptions of nostalgic food consumptions, the use of NVivo helps to substantiate and interpret the textual interview data. Findings – The research suggests six themes of food nostalgia (childhood, yearning, substitute, homesickness, special occasions and rediscovery). Prior research suggests that nostalgia is rather a negative or ambivalent emotion; however, the findings of this study suggest that nostalgic food consumption is rather related to positive emotions. Practical implications – Perspectives are given for the use of nostalgia in an advertising context and as a reinsurance factor. Originality/value – This research integrates marketing and sociological perspectives to better understand links between food consumption and nostalgia.
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A 500-pound tuna is caught of the coast of New England or Spain, flown thousands of miles to Tokyo, sold for tens of thousands of do liars to Japanese buyers...and shipped to chefs in New York and Hang Kong? That's the manic logic of global sushi.
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Indochinese refugees were a product of the longest war in modern history -- the thirty-year Vietnam War and its metastasis into Laos and Cambodia in the late 1960s and early 1970s. An immensely complex conflict that still creates bitter controversy, the war was a tragedy of staggering proportions for Americans and Vietnamese, Cambodians and Laotians alike. With the exception of the American Civil War a century earlier, the Vietnam War became the most divisive event in U.S. history. If the war divided America, it devastated Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The war also produced a massive refugee population for whom the United States assumed a historic responsibility. After the end of the war in 1975, over two million refugees fled Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The 1975 refugee exodus was only the start of an extraordinary emigration which took many unexpected turns and lasted for years. By the early 1990s over one million had been resettled in the U.S., 750,000 in other Western countries (principally Canada, Australia and France), and many others still languished in refugee camps from the Thai-Cambodian border to Hong Kong. But an era was coming to a close, while a new phase of the Indochinese diaspora was opening. The end of the Cold War in 1989, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, U.N.-supervised elections in Cambodia in 1993, and the end of the U.S. trade embargo against Vietnam in 1994 were but the most remarkable events of a compressed period of rapid and fundamental change in international relations that transformed the nature of refugee resettlement in the United States. For a sizable and rapidly growing generation of young Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian Americans now rooted in communities throughout the United States and speaking accentless English, a new era was dawning in which the legacy of war was increasingly receding in practical importance. Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian Americans now form a sizable and diverse component of the Asian-origin population in the United States. If the studies reviewed here are any indication, the future of the Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao, Hmong and ethnic Chinese generations now coming of age in the United States will likely be as diverse as their past, and will be reached by multiple paths. In their diversity they are writing yet another chapter in the history of the American population and society, and in the process they are becoming, quintessentially, Americans.
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This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international language on language signs. It compares the use of these languages as related to the differences in language policy regarding the minority language in these two settings and to the spread of English in Europe. The data include over 975 pictures of language signs that were analysed so as to determine the number of languages used, the languages on the signs and the characteristics of bilingual and multilingual signs. The findings indicate that the linguistic landscape is related to the official language policy regarding minority languages and that there are important differences between the two settings.
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Linguistic landscape refers to the visibility and salience of languages on public and commercial signs in agiven territory or region. It is proposed that the linguistic landscape may serve important informational and symbolic functions as a marker of the relative power and status of the linguistic communities inhabiting the territory. Using the theoretical framework of ethnolinguistic vitality, it was hypothesized that the experience of the linguistic landscape by members of a language group may contribute to social psychological aspects of bilingual development. Factor analysis results show that the linguistic landscape emerges as a distinct factor separate from other measures of linguistic contacts. This factor was an important correlate of subjective ethnolinguistic vitality representing perceptions of the vitality of the in-group language in various domains. The study also found relations between the Linguistic Landscape factor and degree of in-group language use, especially in institutional settings, suggesting a 'carryover effect" of the linguistic landscape on language behavior.
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The linguistic landscape (LL) is a sociolinguistic concept that captures power relations and identity marking in the linguistic rendering of urban space: the city read as text. As such, LL is embedded in the physical geography of the cityscape. However, with the increasing scope of multilingual capabilities in digital communications, multilingual options and choices are becoming more prevalent in virtual space.These virtual linguistic voices are important forces in global language ecology. In this paper, the concepts of virtual linguistic landscape and linguistic cyberecology are delineated and exemplified in a variety of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 applications and environments. It is argued that the LL of virtual space, though grounded in the concept of multilingual interactions within a physically defined world, has distinct characteristics to the digital world that continue to evolve conterminous with the complex relationship of the real to the digital.
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Food has a special significance in the expanding field of global history. Food markets were the first to become globally integrated, linking distant cultures of the world, and in no other area have the interactions between global exchange and local cultural practices been as pronounced as in changing food cultures. In this wide-ranging and fascinating book, the authors provide an historical overview of the relationship between food and globalization in the modern world. Together, the chapters of this book provide a fresh perspective on both global history and food studies. As such, this book will be of interest to a wide range of students and scholars of history, food studies, sociology, anthropology and globalization.
Chapter
This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international language on language signs. It compares the use of these languages as related to the differences in language policy regarding the minority language in these two settings and to the spread of English in Europe. The data include over 975 pictures of language signs that were analysed so as to determine the number of languages used, the languages on the signs and the characteristics of bilingual and multilingual signs. The findings indicate that the linguistic landscape is related to the official language policy regarding minority languages and that there are important differences between the two settings.
Book
'Imagined Communities' examines the creation & function of the 'imagined communities' of nationality & the way these communities were in part created by the growth of the nation-state, the interaction between capitalism & printing & the birth of vernacular languages in early modern Europe.
Article
The ubiquitous spread of English is vividly observed in local linguistic landscapes and urban spaces around the world, and Turkey is no exception. Emerging as a bona fide line of inquiry at the nexus of sociolinguistics, sociology, social psychology, geography and media studies (Sebba, 2010), linguistic landscaping examines the dynamic relationship of English vis-à-vis the local languages, and documents, analyzes and interprets the attributes, patterns, characteristics, meanings and the creative uses of English in such domains as advertising (Kelly-Holmes, 2005; Vettorel, 2013) and shop signs (MacGregor, 2003; Ong, Ghesquière & Serwe, 2013; Schlick, 2002). These studies provide contextualized accounts of language contact situated in local sociolinguistic contexts and contribute to the representation of reflections from various parts of the world (e.g. see Backhaus (2007) and MacGregor (2003) for Japan ; McArthur (2000) for Switzerland and Sweden ; Griffin (2004) and Ross (1997) for Italy; Schlick (2002) for Austria, Italy and Slovenia; Dimova (2007) for Macedonia; Hasanova (2010) for Uzbekistan; Ong, Ghesquière & Serwe (2013) for Singapore; El-Yasin & Mahadin (1996) for Jordan; Wang (2013) for China; Ben Said (2010) for Tunisia; Schlick (2003) for Slovenia, Austria, Italy, and the UK; Stewart & Fawcett (2004) for Portugal; Thonus (1991) for Brazil; and Baumgardner (2006) for Mexico).
Book
Exploring a much neglected area, the relationship between food and nationalism, this book examines a number of case studies at various levels of political analysis to show how useful the food and nationalism axis can be in the study of politics.
Article
This paper focuses on the linguistic composition of commercial signs in the linguistic landscape (LL) of Athens, Greece. Previous studies have mainly been carried out in officially multilingual and multi-ethnic areas [Ben-Rafael, E., Shohamy, E., Amara, M. H., & Trumper-Hecht, N. (2006). Linguistic landscape as symbolic construction of the public space: The case of Israel. In D. Gorter (Ed.), Linguistic landscape: A new approach to multilingualism (pp. 7–28). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters; Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2006). Linguistic landscape and minority languages. In D. Gorter (Ed.), Linguistic landscape: A new approach to multilingualism (pp. 67–80). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters; Huebner, T. (2006). Bangkok's linguistic landscapes: Environmental print, codemixing and language change. In D. Gorter (Ed.), Linguistic landscape: A new approach to multilingualism (pp. 31–51). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters]. Greece, however, is characterised by official monolingualism and a great degree of ethnic homogenisation, which suggests that apart from tourist areas, one would expect that languages and scripts other than Greek would not be as visible as in contexts characterised by official or de facto multilingualism. A total of 621 shop signs were collected and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings indicate that a significant number of shops employ – often creatively – languages other than Greek, either monolingually or in combination with Greek, resulting in a situation of written multilingualism, with English emerging as the strongest linguistic player. The results also strongly suggest that the multilingual character of commercial signs is not primarily informational but symbolic reflecting a desire to project a cosmopolitan, sophisticated, and trendy outlook.
Article
Discourses in Place is essential reading for anyone with an interest in language and the way we communicate. Written by leaders in the field, this text argues that we can only interpret the meaning of public texts like road signs, notices and brand logos by considering the social and physical world that surrounds them. Drawing on a wide range of real examples, from signs in the Chinese mountains, to urban centres in Austria, Italy, North America and Hong Kong, this textbook equips students with the methodology and models they need to undertake their own research in 'geosemiotics', the key interface between semiotics and the physical world. Discourses in Place is highly illustrated, containing real examples of language in the material world, including a 'how to use this book' section, group and individual activities, and a glossary of key terms. © 2003 Ron Scollon and Suzie Wong Scollon. All rights reserved.
Book
Book synopsis: Food has a special significance in the expanding field of global history. Food markets were the first to become globally integrated, linking distant cultures of the world, and in no other area have the interactions between global exchange and local cultural practices been as pronounced as in changing food cultures. In this wide-ranging and fascinating book, the authors provide an historical overview of the relationship between food and globalization in the modern world. Together, the chapters of this book provide a fresh perspective on both global history and food studies. As such, this book will be of interest to a wide range of students and scholars of history, food studies, sociology, anthropology and globalization.
Article
The paper theorizes languages in public spaces in a broad framework consisting of multiple components beyond written texts in public spaces. These include among others, visuals, sounds, movements, gestures, history, politics, location, people, bodies, all embedded in the dimensions offered by Lefebvre (1991) of spaces as practiced, conceived and lived. Relating to Linguistic Landscape (LL) as a mechanism of Language Policy (LP), the paper frames LL within current theories of LP which focus on ‘engaged language policy’ (Davis, 2014) reflecting and cultivating language practice as used by communities. The paper shows how LL is instrumental in contributing to the broadening of the theory and practice of LP, a discipline that has been mostly overlooked by LP. The studies show how language in public space was used for the revival of Hebrew in Palestine, for documentation of multilingualism in specific areas where different groups reside, for realizing that LP in public spaces is broader than written language showing how multimodalities are essential for making meaning of spaces, for discovering the wealth of LL devices used for contestations in the city, and for examining local policies in neighborhoods. Finally, the engagement of high school students with documentation of LL in their neigborhoods was found to have a real impact on LP awareness and activism.
Article
This study explores the linguistic landscape of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using photographs as a source of data, the study collects samples from both government and private signage from five selected neighbourhoods of the city. In addition to photographs, interviews with business owners have been conducted and used for triangulation purposes. The data suggest that multidimensionality marks the linguistic landscape of the city. The multidimensionality is embedded in the complex sociopolitical, economic and ethnolinguistic facets and trends the linguistic landscape demonstrates. The sociopolitical dimension signifies the officially laid-down monolingual Malay-oriented policies, which accentuate compulsory use of the national language Malay. Non-compliance to the official version of policy results in strict punitive actions. The economic dimension manifests in the prominent use of English for its advertising and symbolic potential. Similarly, the ethnolinguistic dimension denotes vitality and identity expressed by the Chinese and Indian communities in specific localities. The study argues that although the official policy is formulated and implemented with the intent of unifying a multiethnic population, discursive defiance to this policy at the bottom levels can be triggered by many reasons including pragmatism, religion or identity, and such defiance clearly transpires in the linguistic and semiotic representation of the signboards.
Article
This paper argues that food and styles of eating have become the predominant markers of social change for the Vietnamese in both Vietnam and in the diaspora. In post-socialist Vietnam the transition to a market economy has allowed for a huge growth in the number of restaurants and cafés, and in the north, a return to an earlier style of cooking. The intense interest and emphasis on food as embodied pleasure has meant that it has come to stand for the transition away from a heavily state-controlled economy. The new configurations of family and friendship are being framed by newly available ways of ‘eating out’, which are both a means of social display and distinction as well as an indicator of the tensions between reform and festivity within an authoritarian nation-state struggling to define itself in a globalising world.
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Language ideology and linguistic landscape: Language policy and globalisation in a regional capital of Ethiopia
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The Vietnamese community in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada
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Mythologies (A. Lavers, Trans.)
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Operation passage to freedom: The United States Navy in Vietnam
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Expanding the linguistic landscape: Linguistic diversity, multimodality and the use of space as a semiotic resource
Pütz, M., & Mundt, N. (Eds.). (2018). Expanding the linguistic landscape: Linguistic diversity, multimodality and the use of space as a semiotic resource. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Cảnh sắc và hương vị đất nước
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Nguồn gốc Phở ở Sài Gòn [The origin of Pho in Saigon
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Phan, N. (2015, August 6). Nguồn gốc Phở ở Sài Gòn [The origin of Pho in Saigon]. 2 Sài Gòn. Retrieved from http://2saigon.vn
English as the language of marketspeak: Reflections from the linguistic landscape of Turkey
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Selvi, A. F. (2016). English as the language of marketspeak: Reflections from the linguistic landscape of Turkey. English Today, 32(4), 32-38.
Linguistic landscape as an ecological arena: Modalities, meanings, negotiations, education
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