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Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Training for US Service Members and Veterans with Symptoms of PTSD

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Introduction The United States has been actively involved in major armed conflicts over the last 15 years. As a result, a significant proportion of active duty service personnel and returning veterans have endured combat, putting them at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disabling disorder that may occur after exposure to a traumatic event. Current therapies often require long-term, time-intensive and costly commitment from the patient and have variable degrees of success. There remains an ongoing need for better therapies, including complementary medicine approaches that can effectively reduce PTSD symptoms. While anecdotal evidence suggests that routine practice of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) can reduce symptoms of PTSD, there have been no formal studies to address this. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board (#PRO00019430). Male US active duty service members and veterans from the Tampa area participated in a 5-month (40 sessions) BJJ training program. Before beginning and again midway through and upon completion of training the participants completed several validated self-report measures that addressed symptoms of PTSD and other co-morbid conditions. Effect size and 95% confidence intervals were determined using a within-person single-group pretest–posttest design. Results Study participants demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in their PTSD symptoms as well as decreased symptoms of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety and decreased alcohol use; effect sizes varied from 0.80 to 1.85. Conclusions The results from this first-of-kind pilot study suggest that including BJJ as a complementary treatment to standard therapy for PTSD may be of value. It will be necessary to validate these promising results with a larger subject cohort and a more rigorous experimental design before routinely recommending this complementary therapy.
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MILITARY MEDICINE, 00, 0/0:1, 2019
Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Training for US Service Members and Veterans
with Symptoms of PTSD
Alison E. Willing*; Sue Ann Girling; Ryan Deichert; Rebecca Wood-Deichert; Jason Gonzalez;
Diego Hernandez; Elspeth Foran*; Paul R. Sanberg*§; Kevin E. Kip
ABSTRACT Introduction: The United States has been actively involved in major armed conicts over the last 15
years. As a result, a signicant proportion of active duty service personnel and returning veterans have endured com-
bat, putting them at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disabling disorder that may occur after
exposure to a traumatic event. Current therapies often require long-term, time-intensive and costly commitment from
the patient and have variable degrees of success. There remains an ongoing need for better therapies, including comple-
mentary medicine approaches that can effectively reduce PTSD symptoms. While anecdotal evidence suggests that rou-
tine practice of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) can reduce symptoms of PTSD, there have been no formal studies to address
this. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board
(#PRO00019430). Male US active duty service members and veterans from the Tampa area participated in a 5-month
(40 sessions) BJJ training program. Before beginning and again midway through and upon completion of training the
participants completed several validated self-report measures that addressed symptoms of PTSD and other co-morbid
conditions. Effect size and 95% condence intervals were determined using a within-person single-group pretestpost-
test design. Results: Study participants demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in their PTSD symptoms as
well as decreased symptoms of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety and decreased alcohol use; effect sizes
varied from 0.80 to 1.85. Conclusions: The results from this rst-of-kind pilot study suggest that including BJJ as a
complementary treatment to standard therapy for PTSD may be of value. It will be necessary to validate these promis-
ing results with a larger subject cohort and a more rigorous experimental design before routinely recommending this
complementary therapy.
INTRODUCTION
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling condi-
tion that may occur after exposure to a traumatic event, and
evokes a combination of intrusion and avoidance symptoms,
negative alterations in cognition and mood, and alterations
in arousal and reactivity.
1
There is high comorbidity
(>80%
2
) between PTSD and other health-related conditions
including major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized
anxiety disorder (GAD), and substance misuse or depen-
dence.
3,4
The United States has been involved in major
armed conicts for the better part of the last 15 years, putting
a signicant proportion of returning personnel at risk for
developing PTSD. Prevalence estimates vary dramatically
depending on sampling methodology and operational deni-
tion of PTSD, but a meta-analysis suggested prevalence was
between 5% and 13% depending on combat exposure.
5
Current guidelines for treating PTSD recommend trauma-
focused psychological interventions that are designed to
minimize the intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal symp-
toms by some combination of re-experiencing and working
through trauma-related memories.
6
The most frequent of
these include Prolonged Exposure (PE) therapy, Cognitive
Processing Therapy (CPT), and Eye Movement Desensitization
and Reprocessing (EMDR). These are generally time-intensive
therapies and complete restoration of mental health is not a
guarantee. Further, not all sufferers seek help with conventional
treatments because of the stigma of mental health disorders.
Together, these issues have led to the development and/or con-
sideration of complementary and alternative medicine strategies
to potentially manage PTSD.
One such adjunct is Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ), a martial art
and self-defense system that focuses on grappling and
ground ghting. There are numerous anecdotal reports
espousing the purported effectiveness of BJJ, but no system-
atic studies have been performed. Studies of other martial
arts such as Judo, Tai Chi, and Qigong suggest that these
practices enhance mood state, reduce fatigue and promote
psychological well-being.
710
Within the context of females
with military sexual trauma, self-defense training has been
associated with signicant reductions in behavioral
*Center for Excellence in Aging and Brain Repair, Department of
Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, Morsani College of Medicine, University of
South Florida, 3515 E. Fletcher, Tampa, FL 33613.
College of Nursing, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B.
Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612.
Tampa Jiu Jitsu, LLC, 4210 Carnal Ave, Tampa, FL 33618.
§Ofce of Research, Innovation & Knowledge Enterprise, University of
South Florida, 3702 Spectrum Blvd. Ste. 165, Tampa, FL 33612.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public
Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, Tampa,
FL 33612.
doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz074
© Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and repro-
duction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 00, 0/0 2019
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avoidance, PTSD hyper arousal, and depression, with signi-
cant increases in interpersonal activity, and self-defense self-
efcacy.
11
The authors of this latter study argued that the
self-defense curriculum provided an enhanced exposure ther-
apy experience and therefore may be a valuable complemen-
tary tool to standard PTSD treatment. For these reasons, we
undertook this small study to investigate proof-of-concept for
the potential therapeutic efcacy of BJJ in reducing PTSD
symptoms, as well as symptoms of related comorbidities.
METHODS
Participants
Armed service personnel and veterans from the greater
Tampa area participated in this study. All study participants
provided written informed consent prior to screening. The
inclusion criteria for participation were: (i) Male, ages 18 years
or older; (ii) US service member or veteran with prior
combat-related deployment(s); (iii) current evidence of sig-
nicant symptoms of PTSD as determined by the PTSD
Checklist (PCL-5) and Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening
Questionnaire (PDSQ) and a clinical interview; (iv) no sui-
cidal/homicidal ideation or intent, and no evidence of psy-
chotic behavior or being in psychological crisis; and (v) the
ability to read and speak English. An ofcial diagnosis of
PTSD was not required for enrollment nor was time since
onset determined. The exclusion criteria were: (i) previous
training in BJJ during the past 6 months; (ii) major psychiat-
ric disorder uncontrolled and likely to interfere with partici-
pation in the BJJ program (as determined by clinician
assessment); (iii) current substance abuse dependence treat-
ment anticipated to interfere with program participation; (iv)
brain injury prohibiting speech, writing, and purposeful
actions or positive screen for TBI expected to impact partici-
pation in the BJJ program. Contraindications to physical
activity were also assessed using the Physical Activity
Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q
12
). Based on these criteria,
29 male US active duty service members and veterans, from
22 to 60 years of age (average 34.5 ±13.1 years), were
screened for participation in this study, 23 were enrolled, but
only 9 (39.1%) completed the full 5-month (40 session) BJJ
training program. Reasons for withdrawal included deployment,
relocation, work issues, transportation issues, and unspecied.
In all cases, participant dropout occurred prior to the study
midpoint. General demographic characteristics, military his-
tory and scores on the PCL-5 and PDSQ PTSD subscale of
all enrolled subjects are presented in Supplementary
Tables 13.
Procedure
This was a prospective cohort study with the objective of
estimating the effect size of BJJ training in reducing mental
health symptoms among US service members or veterans
with current symptoms of combat-related PTSD. After
recruitment and screening, psychological health status of study
participants was assessed using a battery of validated self-
report measures pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Participants
were compensated with a $25 gift card each time they com-
pleted the self-report questionnaires (maximum $75). The
intervention was training in BJJ twice weekly (70 minute clas-
ses) for 5 months (40 sessions). The length of intervention was
determined based on previous studies examining the effect of
Tai Chi on psychological well-being.
7,9,10
The BJJ training
regimen was administered at an appropriate training level by a
qualied BJJ instructor at Tampa Jiu Jitsu, LLC and included
the following components: standing and ground self-defense
moves, concepts of positive Jiu Jitsu behavior, safe interaction
with other students, appropriate conict resolution, and a posi-
tive Jiu Jitsu lifestyle. The rst ten classes served as a trial
period to identify any participants who may have insufcient
ability to obey all safety protocols put in place, obey instructor
commands, self-calm with verbal cues from the instructor, and
not make threatening or dangerous comments to other students
or oneself. The study was approved by the University of South
Florida Institutional Review Board (#PRO00019430).
Measures
The primary outcome measures for this study included the
PCL-5 and PDSQ. The PCL-5 Checklist is a self-administered
scale that identies key symptoms of PTSD; it has been valid-
ated against the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-
5
13
and is considered reliable in the assessment of PTSD. The
PDSQ provides a global assessment of psychopathology
14,15
and subscale scores measuring symptoms of 13 psychological
disorders, including (but not limited to) PTSD, major depres-
sive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and
alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD).
The secondary outcome measures included the Brief Symptom
Inventory (BSI);
16
the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory
Short-Form (PTGI);
17
the Centers for Epidemiological Studies
Depression Scale (CES-D);
18,19
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality
Index (PSQI);
20
Alcohol Use Disorder Identication Test
(AUDIT)
21,22
and Pain Outcomes Questionnaire (POC).
23
Instruments were chosen for evaluation of multiple symptoms
known to be associated with PTSD. These outcome measures
were obtained prior to intervention, at the midpoint of BJJ
training and then again at completion of training.
Data Analysis
Demographics, military history, and clinical history variables
are presented as means and standard deviations for continu-
ous variables, or percentages for categorical variables. To
determine if there were meaningful differences between the
subjects who withdrew versus completed the study, we performed
analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables and
Chi-square tests for categorical variables (Supplementary
Tables 13). Subsequent analyses were only performed on
subjects who completed the study. This included calculation
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of Cohens measure of effect size (d) and 95% condence
intervals (CI) using the within-person single-group pretest
posttest design as described previously.
24
This method pro-
vides an uncontrolled comparison of symptomatology before
and after enrollment in the BJJ program. Similarly, mean
symptom scores on measures of PTSD and related comor-
bidities were evaluated by use of paired t-tests and repeated
measures mixed models. This included assessment of symp-
tom changes from pre-intervention to the mid-point, pre-
intervention to end of the training program, mid-intervention
to end of the training program, and assessment of linear
trend over all three time assessments. For consistency, all
effect sizes that represent an improvement on the measure of
interest (Table I) are reported with positive numbers. All
measures used were evaluated for internal consistency reli-
ability using Cronbachsα.
RESULTS
Primary Outcome Measures
Over the course of 5 months (40 sessions) of BJJ training,
scores on the PCL-5 (PTSD checklist) decreased signi-
cantly from a baseline of 47.2 ±16.8 to 25.1 ±20.4 after
2.5 months (p=0.02), and 19.0 ±17.0 (p=0.002) after
5 months (Table I, Fig. 1). The effect size on the PCL-5
from pre-intervention to post-intervention was large (d=1.49,
CI [0.46, 2.53]). Internal consistency, as determined by
Cronbachsα, was high (0.968). Similar results were obtained
on the PDSQ PTSD subscale (d=1.57, CI [0.57, 2.57];
Cronbachsα=0.890) (Table I,Fig.2B).
Secondary Outcome Measures.
In addition to measures of PTSD, we also examined other mea-
sures of mental health. The total score on the PDSQ is a mea-
sure of global psychopathology (Cronbachsα=0.965). Mean
scores on this instrument decreased from 53.4 ±19.9 prior to
BJJ training to 28.1 ±14.3 at the mid-point assessment
and to 23.3 ±14.1 by the end of the study (Table I, Fig. 2A).
The effect sizes at 2.5 months (d=1.58, CI [0.61, 2.55]) and
5months(d=1.85, CI [0.77, 2.94]) were both very large.
In addition to global psychopathology score, subjects scored
better at 5 months on PDSQ subscales that measured MDD
(d=1.30, CI [0.47, 2.12], p=0.009, Cronbachsα=0.869;
Table I,Fig.2C); GAD (d=0.90, CI [0.14, 1.67], p=0.004,
Cronbachsα=0.831; Table I,Fig.2D); and AAD d=0.90
(CI [0.01, 1.79], p=0.005, Cronbachsα=0.635; Table I,
Fig. 2E). Consistent with the results on the AAD subscale,
mean scores at baseline, 2.5 months, and 5 months on the
AUDIT scale were 6.4 ±2.9, 5.7 ±4.5, and 3.8 ±3.1,
respectively. This resulted in a pre- to post-intervention effect
size of d=0.76 (CI [0.09, 1.63], Cronbachsα=0.768, p
=0.03) (Table I,Fig.2f). The complete results obtained on
all scales are presented in Supplementary Tables 4 and 5.
DISCUSSION
The goal of this study was to estimate the effect size of BJJ
training on reduction of PTSD symptoms and symptoms of
related comorbidities in a population of retired or active duty
service personnel who had been combat-deployed. We
observed signicant improvements in symptomology on
TABLE I. Effect Size of BJJ Training on Psychological Outcome Measures (n=9)
Outcome Measure
Effect Pre to Mid Effect Pre to Post Effect Mid to Post
p-TrenddCI dCI dCI
PCL-5 (PTSD) 1.03
*
0.14, 1.92 1.49
**
0.46, 2.53 0.23 0.37, 0.84 0.002
PDSQ Subscales:
Total score 1.58
**
0.61, 2.55 1.85
***
0.77, 2.94 0.46 0.08, 0.99 0.0009
PTSD 1.69
**
0.63, 2.75 1.57
**
0.57, 2.57 0.0 0.70, 0.70 0.0008
Major depressive disorder 1.04
*
0.28, 1.81 1.30
**
0.47, 2.12 0.10 0.14. 0.34 0.009
Alcohol abuse/dependence 1.17
**
0.54, 1.79 0.90
*
0.01, 1.79 0.21 0.54, 0.95 0.005
Generalized anxiety disorder 1.21
*
0.35, 2.06 0.90* 0.14, 1.67 0.03 1.02, 1.07 0.004
AUDIT 0.24 0.30, 0.77 0.76 0.09, 1.62 0.71 0.18, 1.24 0.03
d: Effect size; positive values reect symptom improvement. CI: 95% condence interval. PDSQ: Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. AUDIT:
Alcohol Use Disorder Identication Test scale.
*
Paired t-tests: p<0.05;
**
p<0.01;
***
p<0.001.
Based on repeated measures mixed model. One of the
nine subjects had missing data on some measures at one outcome assessment interval.
Pre Mid Post
0
20
40
60
80
Time of Assessment
Score on PCL-5
p = 0.02
p = 0.002
FIGURE 1. Plot of mean scores on the PCL-5 (PTSD Checklist) pre-
intervention, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. The lled circles rep-
resent the mean scores; vertical lines represent plus and minus one standard
deviation.
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scales that specically assessed PTSD symptoms, as well as
measures of major depression, generalized anxiety disorder,
and alcohol use.
One potential explanation for the observed benets of BJJ
training may be the physical exercise component of training.
However, in a systematic review of the literature on exercise
as a treatment for PTSD in non-veterans, results appeared
promising, but not denitive.
25
In the 35 years covered by this
review, only 13 studies met the inclusion criteria for analysis,
but none of these studies was a randomized controlled trial.
Similar conclusions have been reached by other authors.
26,27
Another potential explanation is that BJJ can be viewed as a
problem solving opportunity for the practitioner that may instill
a resilience that translates to life outside the gym. It has been
suggested that a self-defense curriculum may provide an
enhanced exposure therapy-like experience.
11
Allowing veterans
Pre Mid Post
0
20
40
60
80
Time of Assessment
PDSQ Total Score
p = 0.002
p = 0.0009
Pre Mid Post
–5
0
5
10
15
Time of Assessment
PDSQ - PTSD Score
p = 0.001
p = 0.0008
Pre Mid Post
-5
0
5
10
15
20
Time of Assessment
PDSQ - MDD Score
p = 0.01
p = 0.009
0
5
10
15
Time of Assessment
PDSQ - GAD Score
p = 0.01
p = 0.004
A
B
C
F
Pre Mid Post
–1
0
1
2
3
4
Time of Assessment
PDSQ - AAD Score
p = 0.008
p = 0.005
Pre Mid Post
Pre Mid Post
0
5
10
15
Time of Assessment
Audit Total Score
p = 0.50
p = 0.03
D
E
FIGURE 2. Plot of mean total and subscale scores from the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (2A, Total; 2B, PTSD; 2C, MDD; and 2D,
GAD; 2E, AAD; and 2F, Audit) pre-intervention, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. The lled circles represent the mean scores; vertical lines represent
plus and minus one standard deviation. PDSQ: Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. PTSD: post-traumatic stress disorder. MDD: major depres-
sive disorder. GAD: generalized anxiety disorder. AAD: alcohol abuse disorder. AUDIT: alcohol use disorder identication test.
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to repeatedly practice problem solving and successfully resolve
difcult, uncomfortable struggles may promote re-learning how
to be effective in adverse circumstances. Perception of being
capable of contribution to the resolution of a traumatic event
may lead to fewer symptoms of PTSD.
28
Social withdrawal is an avoidance strategy that is associ-
ated with development of PTSD.
29
A potential benet of BJJ
is that it forces its practitioners to engage in social interac-
tion; the only way to practice and learn is to have training
partners to grapple with. In addition to social interaction, the
training paradigm in this study could also provide a degree
of social support, since the participants were interacting with
others who shared similar life experiences. It remains to be
determined whether the participants would have experienced
similar reductions in PTSD symptomology if they trained
with others who had not served in the armed forces.
30
In summary, veterans in this study had clinically signicant
improvements in symptoms of PTSD as determined using the
PCL-5 and the PTSD subscale of the PDSQ self-report ques-
tionnaires. Meaningful reductions in PTSD comorbidities
including depression, generalized anxiety, and alcohol use were
also reported. The magnitude of the effect sizes suggests that
routinepracticeofBJJmaybeabenecial complementary
approach for the treatment of PTSD. However, given the lim-
itations of the current small number of subjects and high per-
centage of subjects who did not complete the full 5-month
program, these results should clearly be interpreted with cau-
tion. Going forward, it is imperative to conduct more rigorous
testing to determine if these effects endure in a larger sample of
veterans and/or armed services personnel of both genders.
Moreover, future studies would benet greatly from the use of
an experimental design (e.g., randomized controlled trial). In
this realm, the extent to which thepracticeofBJJmightimpart
similar benets as compared to those achieved with traditional
PTSD therapies or even other complementary or alternative
medicine approaches couldbeformallyevaluated.
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
Supplementary material is available at Military Medicine online.
FUNDING
State of Florida Department of Education.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
RD and RWD own Tampa Jiu Jitsu, where the BJJ training was offered.
They participated in BJJ instruction, but had no role in study design, data
collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation
PREVIOUS PRESENTATIONS
The work contained in this paper was presented in poster form at the
American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair annual meeting, April
2016 and at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting, November 2016.
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6 MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 00, 0/0 2019
Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Training for US Service Members and Veterans with Symptoms of PTSD
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... Other psychological constructs that were examined included life satisfaction (Wojdat et al., 2017), prosocial behavior, self-control, crime frequency (Blomqvist Mickelsson, 2020), PTSD markers, anxiety, depression, and alcohol intake (Willing et al., 2019). Overall, life satisfaction was significantly higher in BJJpractitioners than control groups (Wojdat et al., 2017), and BJJ-practitioners significantly increased levels of pro-social behavior and self-control, while reported crime frequency dropped (Blomqvist Mickelsson, 2020). ...
... Of note is the populations studied. Whereas the bulk of the studies examined 'regular' practitioners, Willing et al. (2019) utilized BJJ as a complementary therapeutic element for military veterans, with the primary aim of examining changes in PTSD scores. Consequently, in light of the discussions surrounding BJJ's potentially therapeutic properties, Willing et al. (2019) are the only authors that explicitly use BJJ as what could be perceived as a clinical intervention. ...
... Whereas the bulk of the studies examined 'regular' practitioners, Willing et al. (2019) utilized BJJ as a complementary therapeutic element for military veterans, with the primary aim of examining changes in PTSD scores. Consequently, in light of the discussions surrounding BJJ's potentially therapeutic properties, Willing et al. (2019) are the only authors that explicitly use BJJ as what could be perceived as a clinical intervention. Within their study, Willing et al. (2019) found clinically meaningful improvements in PTSD-markers, along with improvements in anxiety, depression, and reduced alcohol intake; however, it was a pilot study, and the results ought to be interpreted accordingly due to sample size issues, as accounted for below. ...
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Celem pracy było udzielenie odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy poczucie własnej skuteczności ma związek ze strategiami radzenia sobie ze stresem wśród zawodników uprawiających amatorsko brazylijskie jiu-jitsu. Aby zweryfikować hipotezy badawcze posłużono się polską adaptacją uogólnionej własnej skuteczności (GSES) oraz inwentarzem do pomiaru radzenia sobie ze stresem (Mini-COPE). W badaniu wzięło udział 100 osób w przedziale wiekowym między 18. a 49. rokiem życia o różnym poziomie zaawansowania brazylijskiego jiu-jitsu – początkujący (biały pas), średniozaawansowany (niebieski, purpurowy pas) oraz zaawansowany (brązowy, czarny pas). Analiza korelacji strategii radzenia sobie ze stresem z poczuciem własnej skuteczności wykazała dodatnie istotne związki dla strategii: aktywne radzenie sobie, planowanie, pozytywne przewartościowanie, akceptacja oraz poczucie humoru. Kolejne dane wskazują na ujemne związki strategii radzenia sobie ze stresem z poczuciem własnej skuteczności dla strategii: poszukiwanie wsparcia emocjonalnego, poszukiwanie wsparcia instrumentalnego, zaprzestanie działań oraz obwinianie sobie. Analiza wyników wykazał, że branie udziału w zawodach różnicuje poczucie własnej skuteczności zawodników brazylijskiego jiu-jitsu. Uzyskane wyniki stanowią podstawę do dalszych badań w tym kierunku. [EN] The study aimed to answer the question of whether self-efficacy is related to the strategies of coping with stress among amateur Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors. To verify the research hypotheses the Polish adaptation of generalized self-efficacy (GSES) and the inventory for measuring coping with stress (Mini-COPE) were used. The study involved 100 people between the ages of 18 and 49 on different levels of advancement - beginner (white belt), intermediate (blue, purple belt), and advanced (brown, black belt). An analysis of the correlation between the coping strategy with stress and the sense of self-efficacy showed positive significant relationships for the strategy: active coping, planning, positive reevaluation, acceptance, and sense of humor. Further data indicate negative relationships between coping strategies and self-efficacy for the strategy: seeking emotional support, seeking instrumental support, ceasing to act, and self-blame. The analysis of the results showed that participation in competitions differentiates the self-efficacy of Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors. The obtained results constitute the basis for further research in this direction.
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