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The Importance of Training and Development in Employee Performance and Evaluation

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WWJMRD2017; 3(10): 206-212
International Journal
Peer Reviewed Journal
Refereed Journal
Indexed Journal
UGC Approved Journal
Impact Factor MJIF: 4.25
e-ISSN: 2454-6615
Joel Rodriguez
JR Training Design and
Consulting, Statesville, North
Carolina, USA
Kelley Walters
Northcentral University
San Diego, California, USA
Joel Rodriguez
JR Training Design and
Consulting, Statesville, North
Carolina, USA
The Importance of Training and Development in
Employee Performance and Evaluation
Joel Rodriguez, Kelley Walters
Employee performance impacts the bottom line of an organization. For this reason, it is the
responsibility of organizational leaders to be aware of the importance of training and development’s
impact on the performance and evaluation of employees. Employee training and development assists
the organization and employees in attaining diverse goals, such as improving morale, sense of
security, employee engagement, and overall competencies necessary to perform a particular job. In
addition, organizational leaders should use systematic approaches for assessing employee
performance, which outcomes are usually determined on personal, organizational, environmental,
motivation, skill level, aptitudes, or role perceptions factors. With suitable training and development
opportunities, as well as effective employee performance assessment approaches, employees will be
capable of assisting the organization in achieving its competitive posture in today’s global market.
Keywords: employee performance, performance appraisal, employee productivity, organization goals,
and performance measure
Employees are the backbone of the organization. The accomplishments or issues experienced
by the organization are contingent to the performance of its employees (Mwema &
Gachunga, 2014). Therefore, it is vital for organizational leaders to recognize the importance
of training and development in employee performance and evaluation. Enhanced capabilities,
knowledge, and skills are the foundation for the organization’s competitive advantage in
today’s global market. Although a large number of research have been accomplished in the
field of training and development in employee performance, it appears that organizational
leaders still experience gaps and challenges in this regard. For this reason, the goal of this
article is to provide concise information about the concept of employee training,
development, performance, and evaluation, as well as the reasons, impacts, approaches,
benefits, and guidelines when implementing effective employee training and development
opportunities, which ultimately enhance employee performance.
Employee Training and Development
Organizations aspire to be successful through differentiated programs, services, capabilities,
and products. However, such elements need to be envisioned, developed, implemented, and
sustained by well-trained individuals. Although employee training and development could be
a challenging task for many leaders, organizations are investing more than $126 billion a
year on employee training and development (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013) so employees are
able to positively impact organizational outcomes. According to the State of the Industry
report published by the Association for Talent Development, the direct expenditure per
employee on training and development has increased for the past three years. For example,
organizations invested $1,208 on 2014 (Miller, Ho, Frankel, Jones, & Bello, 2014); $1,229
on 2015 (Ho, Miller, Jones, & Bello, 2015); and $1,252 on 2016 (Ho, Jones, Julien, & Body,
2016). This investment on employee training and development comprises diverse content
areas, such as mandatory, compliance, managerial, supervisory, executive development,
customer services, sales, interpersonal skills, and others.
World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development
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World Wi de Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development
Efforts on employee training and development demonstrate
that organizations are capitalizing not only on high
potential employees, but also on individuals who can
commit to achieving higher levels of responsibilities.
According to Feldman (as cited by Jehanzeb & Bashir,
2013), this requires emotional agreement, meaning that the
organization and individuals will partner in achieving long-
term commitment through career advancement and training
opportunities. But, what is training and development? What
is it for? What approaches can be used? What are its
benefits? How can leaders support this effort?
Training and Development Conceptualized
Training and development is a function within Human
Resources management used to fulfill the gaps between
current and expected performance (Elnaga & Imran, 2013;
Nassazi, 2013). According to Business Dictionary (training,
n.d.), training is an “organized activity aimed at imparting
information and/or instructions to improve the recipient's
performance or to help him or her attain a required level of
knowledge or skill.” Training is planned and systematic
activities which are focused on enhancing the level of
skills, knowledge, and competency (Nassazi, 2013). It is
the process of conveying essentials skills, programmed
behavior, so individuals become aware of rules and
procedures to guide their own behavior to accomplish their
job effectively (What is Human, n.d.).
Training is focused on improving the skills necessary for
accomplishing organizational goals (Elnaga & Imran,
2013), since it expands the efficiency of individuals,
groups, and organizations (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013).
Although the concept of development can be seen as
training, gaining new abilities and skills for personal
growth (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013), it may also be seen as a
broader concept. It may be seen as the holistic, long-term
growth of individuals in order to perform future roles and
responsibilities (Nassazi, 2013).
Intentions of Training and Development
Employee training and development occurs at different
levels of the organization and helps individuals in attaining
diverse goals. According to Elnaga and Imran (2013), this
effort assists individuals in decreasing their anxiety or
frustration encountered in the workplace. When a task is
not properly performed and the end results are not
perceived as expected, the individual may not feel
motivated to keep performing (Asim, 2013). Individuals
who are not able to perform at the expected level of
performance may even decide to leave the organization,
because they feel they are not productive and become
dissatisfied with their job. For this reason, employee
training and development serves as the tool that not only
enhances the competencies required to perform a job, but it
also provides the means to assist individuals in feeling
more satisfied with the results of their performance.
Enhanced competencies lead to better performance and
Employee training and development is a vital component of
Human Resources planning activities, because it not only
maximizes the returns of individuals, but it may also attract
better talent to the organization (Bapna, Langer, Mehra,
Gopal, & Gupta, 2013). Comprehensively, it develops the
thinking abilities and creativity of individuals for better
decision making, customer service, complaints handling,
and overall self-efficacy (Elnaga & Imran, 2013). In
addition, employee training and development provides the
capabilities when individuals move from one assignment to
another of a different nature. It is necessary in providing
high quality of work at all levels in the organization (What
is Human, n.d.).
According to Mel Kleiman (as cited by Jehanzeb and
Bashir, 2013), employee training and development should
be utilized to orient individuals and to enhance their
managerial and operational skills. By providing core
proficiencies and structure throughout the employee
training and development process, it increases the
probability for individuals to effectively deliver the
mission, while supporting others in creating a learning
culture as part of the organization’s strategic goals. When
organizations provide the resources necessary to perform a
job, individuals become satisfied with their jobs and more
productive, while the organization becomes more
successful (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013).
Training and Development Needs and Common
The needs for employee training and development may
occur at any level of the organization, such strategic,
tactical or operational. Nassazi (2013) mentioned that needs
occurred at the strategic level are identified by senior
leaders based on organizational goals, mission, and
strategy. Middle management is responsible in identifying
the needs at the tactical level with the cooperation of other
lines of businesses. Needs occurred at the operational level
are determined by leaders at lower levels of management,
which are mainly focused on individual’s performance and
department-specific subjects. Leaders at all levels of
management are responsible not only for identifying the
needs for training and development, but also for selecting
the best methods, approaches, strategies, programs,
implementation, and assessment venues to achieve
expected individual performance and organizational results.
A vital element in the process of identifying employee
training and development needs is that all needs should be
relevant to organizational objectives. According to
Wognum and Torrington et al. (as cited by Nassazi, 2013),
there are three categories of identifying employee training
and development needs: (1) Resolving problems that are
focused on individuals’ performance, (2) continuous
improvement of working practices regardless of
individual’s performance issues, and (3) renewing the
organization through innovations and strategic changes.
Nassazi (2013) commented that, while going through the
needs identification process, leaders should also be thinking
about the needs to create, develop, maintain, and improve
any systems pertinent to the job and required skills, in
addition to the methods that will be used to implement
training and development programs.
There are several approaches being used in the employee
training and development arena, for examples: (1) Problem-
centered is focused on analyzing and resolving
performance issues due to insufficient skills (Nassazi,
2013). (2) Profile comparison is used to match the
competencies with the new or existing job filled (Nassazi,
2013). (3) Formal training and development program is a
pre-planned approach, which includes performance
evaluations and learning solutions that may be completed
during work or off-work for a specific duration of time
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(Nassazi, 2013). (4) On-the-job is provided to individuals
while performing their work with the same working
venues; for examples, job rotations, job transfers, coaching,
and mentoring (Nassazi, 2013). (5) Off-the-job involves
taking individuals away from their workplace so they can
concentrate on the training; for examples, conferences and
role playing (Nassazi, 2013). (6) Coaching and mentoring
is focused on developing particular skills for the task and
performance expectations in the workplace; in addition to
enhancing mutually beneficial relationships (Nassazi,
2013), while peers cooperate and participate on each
other’s development (Elnaga & Imran, 2013). (7) Job
rotation and transfers is focused on moving individuals
from one responsibility to another one, or moving them to
from one country to another one in order to acquire
knowledge about diverse operations (Nassazi, 2013). (8)
Orientation is focused on getting new employees
familiarized and trained on the new roles, responsibilities,
systems, technology, workplace layout, culture, benefits,
working conditions, processes, and procedures (Nassazi,
2013). (9) Conferences include presentations from the same
or diverse topics to a group of individuals; however, it may
not guarantee the full understanding of the topics at hand
(Nassazi, 2013). (10) Role playing is where individuals are
provided with minimal, stress-free work scenarios, roles,
responsibilities, issues, objectives, emotions, and other
information with the goal of enhancing their decision-
making skills. It is normally used to develop customer
services, sales, managerial, and employee support skills
(Nassazi, 2013). (11) Career planning and goal setting is
used to assist individuals in managing their diverse stages
of their professional lives by classifying work, priorities,
and skills necessary for promotion or particular goals
(Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013).
Benefits of Training and Development
Employee training and development is one of the most
significant motivators used to help both individuals and
organizations in achieving their short-term and long-term
goals and objectives. Training and development not only
enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes, but it also offers
several other benefits. The following are common benefits
of employee training and development, according to
Nassazi (2013): (1) It increases employees’ morale,
confidence, and motivations. (2) It lowers production costs
because individuals are able to reduce waste. (3) It
promotes a sense of security which in turn reduces turnover
and absenteeism. (4) It increases employeesinvolvement
in the change process by providing the competencies
necessary to adjust to new and challenging situations. (5) It
opens the doors for recognition, higher pay, and promotion.
(6) It helps the organization in improving the availability
and quality of its staff. It is noteworthy to remember that
individuals become more productive (Bapna, Langer,
Mehra, Gopal, & Gupta, 2013), because training and
development programs improve individuals’ skills and
abilities. Even organizations offer tuition reimbursement
for individuals to attend such programs (Jehanzeb &
Bashir, 2013).
In summary, there are several benefits that employee
training and development programs offer to individuals and
organizations, according to Jehanzeb and Bashir (2013):
Individual Benefits: Training and development programs
help individuals in learning the soft, functional, and
technical skills necessary to perform their jobs. They
achieve higher level of job satisfaction, because they feel
they are investing in their own future. They feel that their
role within the organization has a real purpose. Since the
individuals’ loyalty tends to increase substantially, they
invest more of their time and effort in achieving the bottom
line for the organization. Individuals tend to proactively
seek opportunities to acquire innovative skills, to
experience diverse roles and responsibilities, and to look
for additional personal and professional development. Such
tendencies increase their confidence, self-esteem, and job
gratification. Training and development enhances the
overall performance of individuals.
Organizational Benefits: Training and development
programs assist organizations in staying competitive in the
marketplace. According to Wanger (as cited by Jehanzeb
and Bashir, 2013), the American Society for Training and
Development (now called the Association for Talent
Development) found that there is a relationship between
financing in employee training and development programs
and higher revenues from stock market. Organizations that
invest an average of $1,575 per employee on learning,
received 24% growth in gross profit and 218% increase in
revenue per employee. As a result, training and
development programs help organizations in retaining their
talent, differentiating themselves against other
organizations, improving their appearance as best employer
in the job market, and increasing the overall organizational
Every organization is responsible for improving
employees’ performance by implementing relevant and
effective training and development programs. Since
employees are the most important assets of an organization,
it is crucial to sustain such a notion. Organization must
optimize the contribution of its employees by ensuring a
suitable source of staff that is functionally, technically, and
socially capable of growing into specialized or managerial
roles (Nassazi, 2013). Overall, organizations that
proactively implement employee training and development
programs receive positive results from the individuals that
use the programs (Jehanzeb & Bashir, 2013).
Employee Performance
The training and development function is mainly
responsible for employee performance (Asim, 2013).
Performance can be demonstrated in the improvement of
production, easiness in utilizing new technology, or being a
highly motivated individual (Nassazi, 2013). As
organizational leaders strive to achieve higher levels of
employee performance, they should establish goals and
standards, which performance can be measured against.
Employee Performance Conceptualized
Employee performance is defined as the outcome of
individuals with respect to process, results, relevance, and
success (Nassazi, 2013). According to Arinanye (2015), the
measures of success are focused on productivity,
efficiency, effectiveness, quality, and attendance of work. It
is the overall achievement of a particular task measured
against pre-selected standards of accuracy, cost, and speed;
or the strategic approach to enhancing organizational
effectiveness by improving the performance of individuals
who work in the organization.
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Factors Impacting Performance
As any other area in the training and development arena,
employee performance may be impacted by diverse factors.
According to Arinanye (2015), it may be due to leaders’
attitude, personal concerns, roles, responsibilities, norms,
and standards. Asim (2013) provided other factors, such as
lack of proper equipment and skills, high work load,
inadequate more clerical hold, non-attendance of key
human resources, insufficient routine of managers,
undecided objectives or performance standards, deficient
statement within the organization, pressure from co-
workers to limited presentation, and lack of ability to get
things done more. There are additional factors impacting
employee performance.
According to Nassazi (2013), working conditions impact
the manual or mental work on employees as they may
become fatigued; thus, endangering organizational property
and increasing the possibility accidents, low morale, or loss
of life. As a result, organizations should provide noise-free
working environments, adequate lighting systems and
temperatures. Developing a positive safety culture ensures
good working environments; therefore, improving the
overall employee performance. In addition, organizations
should contemplate on their reward systems. The main
objective for implementing reward systems is to attract and
retain quality employees. Organizations may opt to
implement performance-based pay systems to reward
individuals according to performance standards and
profitable goals and objectives; however, a sense of
fairness and consistency should always be applied.
Furthermore, modeling teamwork in the workplace is of
vital importance. Teamwork is the interaction of two or
more individuals working toward achieving particular goals
and objectives. It facilitates open communication between
individuals and, when they complement each other, this
behavior enables them to achieve more tasks due to the
synergy created among them. Teamwork creates a sense of
belonging, affiliation, dignity, and self-efficacy. Lastly,
training stimulates employees’ performance by improving
knowledge, skills, attitude, abilities, competencies, and
behaviors of individuals, while reducing complaints,
absenteeism, and turnovers; as well as enhancing
productivity and developing the capabilities necessary to
achieve predetermined outcomes, goals, and objectives
(Elnaga & Imran, 2013).
Motivation impacts employee performance and
organizational commitment in a direct manner (Asim,
2013). Organizational leaders are mainly responsible for
supporting such a vital element in order to achieve high
productivity, profitability, and organizational sustainability
(EK & Mukuru, 2013). In addition, when organizations
involve individuals in the decision making process, there is
a high possibility of developing mutual trust and motivation
among leaders and employees (Nassazi, 2013). Motivated
individuals are inspired to be more creative and loyal,
leading to increased employee performance. Leaders
should realize that a motivated organization is able to
achieve a more cohesive organizational culture and robust
communication venues. A cohesive organizational culture
supports employee performance through the values, norms,
and beliefs that influence the way individuals think, feel,
and behave in the organization. Creating such an
organizational culture that incorporates nurturing,
sustaining, and improving individuals’ performance depend
on the degree to which the values of such a culture are
mutually embraced. In addition, robust communication
venues enhance organizational culture by helping
employees in sharing their knowledge, ideas, and opinions
necessary for innovation, effective decision making, and
achieving performance standards (Arinanye, 2015).
Trust serves as the foundation of an organization. It
increases employees’ productivity, positive attitudes, and
high level of cooperation among leaders and employees.
Such an element relates to attitudes, perceptions, behaviors,
and performance outcomes within the workplace. Trust in
the workplace increases organizational commitment and
provides for transformational leadership. Organizational
commitment is the degree to which individuals feel
dedicated, attached, and loyal to the organization.
According to Arinanye (2015), there are three dimensions
of organizational commitment: (1) Affective commitment
measures emotional attachment, identification, and
involvement with the organization. (2) Normative
commitment reflects the pressures that an individual feel to
remain with the organization due to job obligations. (3)
Continuance commitment is focused on the perceived costs
related to leaving the organization. In addition, there are
other factors impacting organizational commitment, such as
job enrichment, empowerment, compensation, educational
level, personality, and position. In regards to leadership
styles, although there are diverse styles, charismatic and
transformational leaders are more able to enhance
employees’ commitment to the organization, because they
tend to invest a vast amount of their time giving advice,
supporting, and attending to employees individual needs.
The psychological empowerment utilized by
transformational leaders enhances relationships among
leaders and employees; thus, ultimately improving
employee performance (Arinanye, 2015).
Lastly, several organizations use a performance
management process to produce high quality individuals.
Such a process involves employees in the development
planning process; thus, increasing the probability of
creating motivated, high performance employees (Nassazi,
2013). Performance management ensures that
organizational goals are consistently met in an effective and
efficient manner. It inspires lifelong education, tailored to
individual’s development plans and goals (EK & Mukuru,
Although employee performance is one of the greatest
challenges most organizational leaders may experience in
the workplace, for the reasons provided above, it is
imperative to emphasize that training and development is
still a vital element in improving employee performance
and achieving organizational goals and objectives.
Employee Performance Evaluation
There are organizations that may not be using a systematic
approach for assessing employee performance. Therefore,
the concern of this action is that it produces unclear,
inefficient, and ambiguous evaluation results (Ahmed,
Sultana, Paul, & Azeem, 2013). For this reason, it is vital
for organizations to create a systematic approach for
assessing performance. Typically, employee performance is
measured in terms of outcomes and behaviors, according to
predetermined standards set by the organization. Employee
performance outcomes may be determined on personal,
organizational, environmental, motivation, skill level,
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World Wi de Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development
aptitudes, or role perceptions factors. Nassazi (2013) and
Arinanye (2015) provided four examples of employee
performance assessment metrics used in organizations: (1)
Productivity which is the amount of input resources
converted into goods and services. (2) Efficiency and
effectiveness which is the capacity of producing outcomes
with minimal resources in order to achieve particular
objectives. (3) Quality which is a distinctive trait of a
product or service that fulfills a need. (4) Profitability
which is the capability to consistently earn profit during a
time period.
Employee Performance Evaluation Conceptualized
Employee performance evaluation is an important element
in enhancing the quality of work (Shaout & Yousif, 2014).
It is one of the most applied techniques organizational
leaders use in the workplace (Long, Kowang, Ismail, &
Rasid, 2013). According to Kirovska and Qoku (2014), it is
a formal, structured system of assessing the characteristics
of employee behavior in regards to outcomes. It is a
process that examines particular performance objectives
over a period of time. Commonly, organizational leaders
assess employee performance quarterly or annually (Shaout
& Yousif, 2014). Nassazi (2013) mentioned that the
frequency is usually determined based on resource
capability and objectives to be assessed. Such objectives
may be categorized as developmental or administrative.
The developmental objectives are focused on providing
feedback, recognizing strengths and weaknesses,
identifying goals, classifying training needs, improving
communication, and providing time for employees to voice
their concerns. The administrative objectives are mostly
focused on documenting decisions, identifying high
potential employees, determining new assignments and
transfers, recognizing poor performance, deciding on
layoffs, validating employee selection criteria, and
achieving legal standards and requirements.
Generally, employee performance evaluation requires the
supervisor to have a conversation with the employee, and
then completing a form or systems to track the
conversation, needs, and action plan. An effective
employee performance evaluation session helps
organizational leaders in making the right decisions for the
employee’s success and development (Long, Kowang,
Ismail, & Rasid, 2013). In addition, the overall perspective
of employee performance evaluation is centralized on
recognizing the current skills’ status of the workforce. Such
a status requires the collection of diverse accurate and
unbiased data in order to assess the employees’
contribution to the organization (Shaout & Yousif, 2014)
and to make organizational and personnel decisions
(Ahmed, Sultana, Paul, & Azeem, 2013). Knowing the use
of employee performance evaluation data may assist
leaders in stimulating, motivating, and directing team
members. The higher the motivation of team members are,
the greater results the team and organization attain
(Kirovska & Qoku, 2014).
Performance Evaluation Guidelines
Commonly, organizational policies and procedures ensure
that employee performance evaluations are accomplished in
a timely and effective manner, since such documents
provide the guidelines or courses of action in identifying
and fulfilling employee developmental needs (Nassazi,
2013). Elnaga and Imran (2013, p. 143) provided some
guidelines when assessing employee performance:
Ability: Assess abilities and issues, such as physical
and health status. Consider how these factors impact
job requirements and capabilities.
Standards: Assess perceptions in regards to work tasks,
roles, responsibilities, relationships, time management,
and how these elements impact organizational goals
and objectives.
Knowledge and Skills: Assess if knowledge and skills
are aligned to work tasks. If they are not aligned,
identify training and development opportunities to
fulfill this gap.
Measurement: Assess the actual employee evaluation
approach in terms of unbiased task performance.
Feedback: Assess if leaders provide regular,
continuous work performance feedback and its
alignment to compensation.
Environment: Assess availability of resources, tools,
and time necessary to perform work tasks.
Motivation: Assess the incentives or consequences for
good or bad performance and how it impacts employee
Nassazi (2013) provided six different approaches for
assessing employee performance in the workplace: (1)
Supervisory assessment is completed by the employee’s
supervisor and reviewed by the senior manager. (2) Self-
assessment is achieved by the employee prior the
performance interview session. (3) Subordinate assessment
is when a team member assesses the leader in order to
develop the employee rather than for administrative
reasons. (4) Peer assessment is accomplished by colleagues
and data is collected into a single profile so the supervisor
can use it during the interview session. (5) Team
assessment is focused on team accomplishments rather than
individual performance. (6) Customer assessment is
performed by both internal and external customers.
According to Asim (2013), there are organizations that
systematically evaluate employee performance in order to
increase productivity based on three main metrics, such as
production counts, personnel data, and judgmental
methods. Employees are responsible for achieving such
metrics through effective feedback; for examples by
describing where things are going well and not so well, and
identifying the basis for further development (Kirovska &
Qoku, 2014). Also, Kirovska and Qoku commented that in
order to achieve greater productivity, performance goals
and objectives should adhere to SMART criteria, meaning
that they are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and
time bound.
In addition, leaders should help employees in developing
performance objectives and action plans in order to provide
guidance and direction on how to allocate their effort to
assigned tasks. From the developmental standpoint,
performance objectives facilitate the evaluation of
knowledge, abilities, and skills put into action (Kirovska &
Qoku, 2014). As a result, metrics such as time, quality,
quantity, customer satisfaction, response rates, and
stakeholder participation are being utilized to assess such
actions (Arinanye, 2015). Such a list of measurable
performance criteria should consistently be applied to all
individuals within the department. According to Kirovska
and Qoku (2014, pp. 29-30), there are 15 employee
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World Wi de Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development
performance evaluation criteria that can be used in the
1. Ambition/Initiative: Employees show ambition or take
initiative to improve a process, product, or overall
work environment.
2. Attendance: Employees regularly show up to work and
its impact on the department productivity or morale.
3. Attitude/Cooperation: Employees show good attitude,
professionalism, and flexibility toward peers and
4. Communication Skills: Employees properly share
information, communicate concerns, and resolve
problems at work.
5. Department and Company-Oriented: Employees have
broad view and deep understanding of roles,
responsibilities, products, and services offered by the
6. Focus: Employees prioritize work tasks against
personal desires or socializing opportunities.
7. Improvements from Previous Evaluation: Employees
improve performance when compared to previous
performance evaluation.
8. Integrity: Employees show ethical behaviors and
respect the privacy of other team members and
9. Know Who to Ask: Employees know when to ask
questions and who can answer the questions rather
than making decisions based on assumptions.
10. Level of Technical Knowledge: Employees
demonstrate acceptable professional and technical
levels of knowledge.
11. Productivity/Deadlines: Employees consistently meet
productivity standards based on project requirements
and deadlines.
12. Quality of Work: Employees enhance the quality of
work based on feedback received from customers,
peers, and leaders.
13. Reliability/Trustful Person: Employees consistently
show competence, independence, and trust in the
14. Stress Management: Employees effectively cope with
workplace changes in order to complete work in an
effective and timely manner.
15. Teamwork/Department is Short-Handed: Employees
willingly and voluntarily collaborate with others to
complete work tasks.
The above guidelines help both employees and leaders not
only create a cohesive working environment where trust,
confidence, and desire to be successful are the common
denominators, but also provide the resources necessary to
achieve higher performance and organizational
Employee Evaluation Methods
Shaout and Yousif (2014, pp. 966-967) provided 10
examples of traditional and more contemporary methods
for evaluating employee performance:
1. Ranking Method: Organizational leaders rank
employees according to merit from best to worst.
2. Graphic Rating Scales: This method lists several traits
and a range of performance for each trait; then,
employees are graded by aligning the score that best
describes their level of performance for each trait.
3. Critical Incident Method: Leaders keep a record of
unusual behaviors and revisit it with the employees in
order to find the resources that will help improve their
4. Narrative Essay: Leaders write an explanation of
employee’s strengths and weaknesses based on overall
impressions of performance, capabilities, and
qualifications with recommendations necessary for
improving performance.
5. Management by Objectives: Leaders grade
performance based on formulated objectives, execution
process, and constructive feedback. This systematic
approach consists of strategic planning, objectives
hierarchy, objectives setting, action planning, method
implementation, control and appraisal, as well as
subsystems, organizational, and management
6. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales: This method
helps leaders in contrasting employee performance
against particular behaviors by using numerical ratings
and behavioral statements that describe each element
of performance.
7. Humans Resource Accounting: Leaders assess
employee performance based on human resource
costing and accounting, as well as its contribution to
the organization.
8. Assessment Center: This approach requires leaders to
participate in work-related exercises, work groups,
computer simulations, fact finding exercises,
analysis/decision making problems, role playing, and
oral presentation activities in order to be assessed by
trained observers.
9. 360 Degree: This approach assesses the influence of
actions based on feedback provided by diverse
individuals, such as the immediate supervisor, team
members, customers, peers, and self.
10. 720 Degree: This method allows external sources, such
as stakeholders, family members, suppliers, and
communities to provide their feedback about an
organization, leaders, and individuals.
Reasons and Ways for Handling Performance
Evaluation Failures
Organizational leaders should keep in mind the reasons
why employee performance evaluation fails. Nassazi
(2013) provided several reasons, for examples: Lack of
information, lack of evaluation skills, not taking evaluation
seriously, not being prepared, not being honest and sincere,
ineffective discussion with employees, unclear language,
and insufficient reward for performance. In addition, F.
Nichols (as cited by Long, Kowang, Ismail, & Rasid, 2013)
stated there are additional concerns perceived by
organizational leaders in regards to employee performance
evaluations; for examples, (1) employees set easily
attainable goals, (2) creation of negative emotions and
feelings, (3) no collaboration and teamwork opportunities,
(4) importance on tasks rather than results, (5) promotion of
short-term views and organizational politics, and (6)
expensive practices for conducting and handling
performance evaluations problems and appeals.
Through performance evaluations, leaders are able to
identify whether employees have accomplished the work
tasks in an effective manner and recognize the challenges
employees have experienced during the performance on
~ 212 ~
World Wi de Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development
such activities. Leaders should not make employees behave
like the leaders; instead, leaders should recognize that
employees have their own values, morals, virtues, and
faults. Such factors should be utilized in the best possible
way in order to improve performance, while attaining
organizational goals. If performance is unacceptable,
leaders are required to provide additional support in order
to enhance employee performance through coaching,
mentoring, counseling, or any other approach (Kirovska &
Qoku, 2014).
Evaluating employee performance is not an easy task, since
it may impact all dimensions of employees’ perceptions
and reactions. However, it provides a holistic view
regarding the employees current state of performance.
Based on such an outlook, leaders should find diverse ways
to not only improve performance, but also to achieve
predetermined organizational standards. For many leaders,
failure is not an option; however, it is their responsibility to
support team members in their journey to become
successful professionals, individuals who can effectively
perform their job, while achieving organizational goals and
Employees are the most valuable asset of the organization
as they take responsibility for enhanced customer
satisfaction and quality of products and services. Without
proper training and development opportunities, they would
not be able to accomplish their tasks at their full potential.
Employees who are fully capable to perform their job-
related tasks tend to keep their jobs longer due to higher job
satisfaction. Training and development is a vital tool used
to not only maximize the performance of employees, but
also to help them in becoming more efficient, productive,
satisfied, motivated, and innovative in the workplace
(Elnaga & Imran, 2013). Identifying the right learning
opportunities for employees will help the organization in
achieving its competitive posture in today’s global market.
1. Ahmed, I., Sultana, I., Paul, S. K., & Azeem, A.
(2013). Employee performance evaluation: A fuzzy
approach. International Journal of Productivity and
Performance Management, 62(7), 718-734.
2. Arinanye, R. T. (2015). Organizational factors
affecting employee performance at the College of
Computing and Information Sciences (COCIS),
Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (Unpublished
master dissertation). Uganda Technology and
Management University, Kampala, Uganda.
3. Asim, M. (2013). Impact of motivation on employee
performance with effect of training: Specific to
education sector of Pakistan. International Journal of
Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), 1-9.
4. Bapna, R., Langer, N., Mehra, A., Gopal, R., & Gupta,
A. (2013). Human capital investments and employee
performance: An analysis of IT services industry.
Management Science, 59(3). 641-658.
5. EK, K., & Mukuru, E. (2013). Effect of motivation on
employee performance in public middle level technical
training institutions in Kenya. International Journal of
Advances in Management and Economics, 2(4), 73-82.
6. Elnaga, A., & Imran, A. (2013). The Effect of Training
on Employee Performance. European Journal of
Business and Management, 5(4), 137-147.
7. Ho, M., Jones, M., Julien, T., & Body, J. (2016). 2016
State of the Industry. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Talent Development (ATD).
8. Ho, M., Miller, L., Jones, M., & Bello, B. (2015). 2015
State of the Industry. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Talent Development (ATD).
9. Jehanzeb, K., & Bashir, N. A. (2013). Training and
development program and its benefits to employee and
organization: A conceptual study. European Journal of
Business and Management, 5(2), 243-252.
10. Kirovska, Z., & Qoku, P. N. (2014). System of
employee performance assessment: Factor for
sustainable efficiency of organization. Journal of
Sustainable Development, 5(11), 25-51.
11. Long, C. S., Kowang, T. O., Ismail, W. K. W., &
Rasid, S. Z. A. (2013). A review on performance
appraisal system: An ineffective and destructive
practice. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research,
14(7), 887-891.
12. Mwema, N. W., & Gachunga, H. G. (2014). The
influence of performance appraisal on employee
productivity in organizations: A case study of selected
WHO offices in East Africa. International Journal of
Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(11), 324-337.
13. Miller, L., Ho, M., Frankel, D., Jones, M., & Bello, B.
(2014). 2014 State of the Industry. Alexandria, VA:
Association for Talent Development (ATD).
14. Nassazi, N. (2013). Effects of training on employee
performance: Evidence from Uganda (Unpublished
doctoral dissertation). University of Applied Sciences,
Vassa, Finland.
15. Shaout, A., & Yousif, M. K. (2014). Performance
evaluation - Methods and techniques survey.
International Journal of Computer and Information
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... However, when an institution fails to give accurate training and provide the opportunity for them to develop, they will face difficulties in accomplishing the tasks given, let alone utilizing their potential. Employees who can fully undertake their tasks tend to have longer work retention because they have higher job satisfaction (Rodriguez & Walters, 2019). Therefore, administering training becomes one of the company's efforts to develop its human capital. ...
... Training is a learning process that involves acquiring knowledge, sharpening skills, concepts, and rules, or changes in attitude and behavior to improve employees' performance. Training can also be defined as a planned program that produces the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and social behavior that increases the performance of employees (Rodriguez & Walters, 2019). Meanwhile, sustainable training is a designed program according to the needs of sustainable company management to help achieve the company's strategy to grow and develop following the competition of industries (Vitale et al., 2018). ...
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This study focuses on employee performance and its contributing factors, namely transformational leadership style and sustainable training. This study aims to examine and analyze the effects of transformational leadership style on the employee performance of PT. Sasa Inti Gending – Probolinggo Regency through the implementation of sustainable training. The population in this study consisted of all staff members and employees at PT. Sasa Inti Gending, with a total of 770 people. This population is homogeneous, with various educational backgrounds, positions, durations of employment, and divisions. Based on the sample size calculation using the Slovin formula, the respondents in this study were 89 people. The data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive analysis. The hypotheses were tested based on the regression coefficients' results and the significance values of the three substructure models developed. These three models were merged into a full model of path coefficients. The results of this study have proven that the transformational leadership style has a significant direct effect on employee performance. Meanwhile, sustainable training can indirectly affect the role of transformational leadership style on employee performance.
... Guan & Frenkel, (2019) defines training as the acquisition and development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes by employees to be able to do work effectively. Training is focused on improving the skills needed to achieve organizational goals (Rodriguez & Walters, 2017). At the Labuhanbatu Youth and Sports Culture and Tourism Office, training is a mandatory agenda which is carried out periodically according to a predetermined time. ...
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The study aims to analyze the effect of training on employee performance with organizational commitment and motivation as mediating variables. This research was conducted at the Labuhanbatu Youth and Sports Culture and Tourism Office. This study uses a quantitative method with path analysis (Path Analysis). This study uses an analytical tool in the form of IBM SPSS 25 Software to facilitate the analysis process. On the results of the t-test on training (X) on organizational commitment (Z1) it has a tcount (3.84) > ttable (1.66) which means Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, with a significance value smaller than the probability value or 0.000 <0 .05 it can be concluded that training (X) has a positive and significant influence on organizational commitment (Z1). The t-test on training (X) on motivation (Z2) has a tcount (4.18) > ttable (1.66) which means that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, with a significance value smaller than the probability value or 0.000 <0.05, so it can be concluded that training (X) has a positive and significant effect on motivation (Z2). The t-test on training (X) on employee performance (Y) has a tcount (5.54) > ttable (1.66) which means Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, with a significance value smaller than the probability value or 0.000 <0.05 it can be concluded that training (X) has a positive and significant influence on employee performance (Y). The t-test on organizational commitment (Z1) to employee performance (Y) has a tcount (7.99) > ttable (1.66) which means that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, with a significance value smaller than the probability value or 0.000 <0. 05 it can be concluded that organizational commitment (Z1) has a positive and significant influence on employee performance (Y). The t-test on motivation (Z2) on employee performance (Y) has a tcount (11.20) > ttable (1.66) which means Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, with a significance value smaller than the probability value or 0.000 <0.05 it can be concluded that motivation (Z2) has a positive and significant influence on employee performance (Y).
... The training material provided is in accordance with what I expected 10 The training has a purpose to improve skills ...
Full-text available
Many studies have examined the relationship between training and employee job satisfaction, the relationship between employee training and organizational commitment, the relationship between competence and employee job satisfaction, and the relationship between competence and organizational commitment, but there are still many unanswered questions. In particular, research has not explained how training and competence directly affect job satisfaction and managerial competence and how training and competence indirectly affect organizational commitment through job satisfaction. Therefore, this study investigates how training and competence directly affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Indirectly, training and competence affect organizational commitment through job satisfaction. Survey-based data collection was collected by purposive sampling, which included 280 employees from BPJS who participated in the training. The findings from the path analysis, along with measurements and structural tests, are very supportive of the employee training program. The findings show that employee training and competence directly affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The findings also show that training and employee competence indirectly affect organizational commitment through job satisfaction. Finally, employee job satisfaction affects managerial competence. This study shows that employee training is an effective way for organizations to achieve their goals. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2023-07-02-016 Full Text: PDF
... Despite that, Zeb et al (2018) found a contradicting finding as the training and development was at a high level. Training designed and delivered by the organization gives employees greater opportunities to learn new responsibilities and knowledge (Rodriguez & Walters, 2017). Consequently, investing in employees' growth is necessary for any organization that cares about its productivity and success. ...
... Format ini sering digunakan ketika menganalisis data dalam Excel atau paket statistik seperti SPSS atau SAS. (Rodriguez & Walters, 2017). ...
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The increasing number of restaurants leads to competition in service, the restaurant will provide perfect service to keep consumers visiting again. The quality of reliable human resources in service, especially in the marketing and sales divisions, is the best way said restaurant owners according to restaurant representatives. Training and development will create quality human resources that adapt to service developments. These services are business-to-business and business-to-consumer which have different consumer characteristics. The research purpose is to examine human resource analytics information systems in determining prospective employees’ training with limited funds.. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in this study. A qualitative approach using the business challenge bundle method and business process model and notation is used to analyze the data. Data was collected from interviews and focus group discussion.There are five stages of the module. The first module is about the skill map, the second is the training map, the third is the performance map, the fourth is about the behavior map, and the fifth is the design of the Human Resource Analytics system which has been integrated from modules 1 to 4.
... Training, personal development, and career development are directly related to an organisation's vision of the future (Rodriguez and Walters 2017). That is, increasingly well-trained and trained employees will, in theory, be better people and better employees (Chiavenato 2006). ...
Full-text available
This research project aims to analyse the leadership and communication styles adopted by Angolan companies, particularly in Benguela province, and their impact on the results of these organisations. In Angola, and with the recent assimilation of the principles of market economy, the figure of the leader must abandon old management paradigms and integrate the modern principles of management of organisations into their functions, not only focusing on achieving the goals of the company but also on creating an environment conducive to the participation and involvement of employees, articulating strategies so that everyone grows in and with the organisation. Thus, the general objective of the research is to assess the managers’ perception of their leadership style (transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire) and its impact on the organisation’s performance. To this end, a quantitative study was carried out using a questionnaire, using, among other dimensions, the multifactorial leadership questionnaire (MLQ), distributed to a sample of 227 managers. Data were analysed using SPSS using descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, Tukey’s test). The results show that the leaders perceive their leadership styles as transformational and recognise that communication, motivation, and the reward system strongly impact the organisation’s performance.
... This is in line with Hamadamin and Atan (2019:1) who state that SCA is no longer defined by the physical assets of the business but more on the skills set; that is, skills possessed by employees, they also add that employees stand out as a major source of gaining SCA in any business. This is further supported by Rodriguez and Walters (2019) who state that the SCA of an organisation is dependent on the competency and quality of the employees. It is recommended that management of foundries in South Africa formulate a comprehensive training programme for employees. ...
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Background: The foundry industry plays an important economic role in South Africa and all efforts should be made to sustain the industry. However, the problem is that many foundries are closing down due to economic factors. Aim: The primary research objective was to identify from literature the micro-economic drivers applicable to the sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) of foundries in South Africa. The secondary objectives were to benchmark the perceptions of stakeholders in the most prominent micro-economic drivers identified from literature. Setting: With micro-economic drivers identified, management can then compile a SCA strategy to retain the industry. Foundry representatives from foundries located in all nine provinces of South Africa were invited to participate in the study. Method: An explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach was followed by first employing a quantitative approach, followed by a qualitative approach to identify the most prominent micro-economic drivers. Descriptive data analysis was utilised for the quantitative data and thematic analysis was utilised for the qualitative phase. Results: It was found that the most prominent micro-economic drivers are product quality, the ability to innovate, employees’ skills development, and investment in plant infrastructure. Conclusion and contribution: The article contributes towards the deficiency in literature by presenting the most prominent micro-economic drivers for the South African foundry industry. The article also makes recommendations on SCA strategies for foundries in South Africa based on the four micro-economic drivers.
Training and career development have been considered to improve employee performance because better-quality human capital is vital in enhancing employee performance. This study analysed the influence of training on the performance of public procurement professionals when mediated by career development in Tanzania. The study used a cross-sectional research design involving 204 public procurement professionals from Dodoma city in Tanzania. The study applied Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) as a part of Covariance Based-Structural Equation Modelling (CB-SEM) and Hayes' PROCESS macro to analyse the data and determine the relationship between the training and performance of public procurement professionals when mediated by career development in Tanzania. The results show that training and career development determine the performance of public procurement professionals. Training facilitates the career development of public procurement professionals, whereas career development mediates the relationship between training and the performance of public procurement professionals. This study only considers training and career development, among other aspects of human resource development practices. This excludes the other human resource development practices in public organisations. This study brings together human resource development concepts (training and career development) and the performance of public procurement professionals. Thus, it adds value to the literature on human resource management concerning the performance of public procurement professionals.
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This article investigates the expansion of organizational learning capabilities (OLC) and its growing utilization in the organization in order to identify whether OLC affects the relationship between training and development and organizational performance. This study further explores the correlation between organizational learning capabilities and organizational performance, offering insight into the different understandings of organizational triumph related to OLC. This research was conducted via survey method and data were collected from five service industries in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. A data sample of 300 employees was analyzed using quantitative approaches, such as descriptive statistics and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results of the article addressed issues that are related to human capital regarding OLC, including training and development aspects which were not discussed by the literature in the past. The main findings of this paper are the formulation of an empirically and theoretically supported model related to the effect of OLC on the relationship between training and development and organizational performance. On the other hand, this study signifies that OLC is a better instrument for enhancing organizational performance, as well as in dealing with today’s indeterminate and continuously challenging economic atmosphere. This study is the first of its nature to shed light on training and development, organizational learning capabilities, and organizational performance in the service sector of KP, Pakistan.
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Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengindentifikasikan pengaruh Kegiatan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia (KPSDM) terhadap kinerja pramuwisata di Provinsi Jambi melalui soft competency. Ketiga variabel tersebut akan dikonstruk dan dilihat hubungan antar ketiganya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian yang bersifat kuantitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner serta dilakukan analisa menggunakan partial least square (PLS) dan menganalisa 3 model persamaan, yaitu model bagian luar (outer model), model bagian dalam( inner model) dan pengujian hipotesis. Berdasarkan data yang telah dikumpulkan dan telah diolah menggunakan SmartPLS, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan antara KPSDM terhadap kinerja, pengaruh yang signifikan antara KPSDM terhadap soft competency, pengaruh signifikan antara soft competency terhadap kinerja serta pengaruh signifikan antara KPSDM terhadap kinerja melalui soft competency. Implikasi yang dapat diambil dari penelitian ini adalah Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pramuwisata Provinsi Jambi harus secara aktif melakukan Kegiatan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia untuk pramuwisata di Provinsi Jambi agar dapat terus meningkatkan soft competency dan kinerja pramuwisata.
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The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual study established on the employee training and development program and its benefits. This paper will inspect the structure and elements of employee training and development program and later the study present what are the positive outcomes for employees and organizations. Organizations find it difficult to stay competitive in recent global economy. Importance of employee development program is growing for the organizations those pursuing to receive an advantage among competitors. Employees are esteemed resource of the organization and success or failure of the organization relay on the performance of employees. Therefore, organizations are financing large amount on employee training and development programs. Furthermore, in training program it is supportive for companies to emphasis on knowledge, expertise and ability of employees. There is substantial discussion among professionals and researchers on the affect that development program has on both employee and organization. The study described here is a vigilant assessment of literature on fundamental of employee development program and its benefits to organizations and employees.
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The rapid pace of technological innovation necessitates that information technology (IT) services firms continually invest in replenishing the skills of their key asset base, the human capital. We examine whether human capital investments directed toward employee training are effective in improving employee performance. Our rich employee level panel data set affords us the opportunity to link formal training with performance at the individual employee level. Using a dynamic panel model, we identify a significant positive impact of training on employee performance. A unit increase in training is linked to a 2.14% increase in an employee's performance. Interestingly, we find that in the IT sector, skills atrophy and consequently high-experience employees reap higher returns from training, which highlights the uniquely dynamic nature of IT knowledge and skills. We also find that general training that an employee can utilize outside the focal firm improves employee performance. However, specific training pertinent to the focal firm is not positively linked to performance. On the other hand, although domain and technical training both enhance employee performance individually, the interaction between the two suggests a substitutive relationship. Thus, our findings suggest that the value of training is conditional on a focused curricular approach that emphasizes a structured competency development program. Our findings have both theoretical and practical significance. Most important, they justify increased human capital investments to fuel future growth in this important component of the global economy. This paper was accepted by Lorin Hitt, information systems.
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Purpose – Managers encounter many decisions that require the simultaneous use of different types of data in their decision-making process. A critical decision area for managers is the performance evaluation of personnel, whether individually or as a member of a team. Performance evaluation is critically essential for the effective management of the human resource of an organization and evaluation of staff that help develop individuals, improve organizational performance, and feed into business planning. Design/methodology/approach – Performance evaluations require and often involve disparate types of information that are vague, incomplete, objective, and subjective. This paper proposes a performance evaluation system of employees considering various performance evaluation criteria using fuzzy logic. The main task in the proposed approach involves determining the performance indices of employees considering their respective performance in various qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria and then selecting the best employee who holds highest performance index comparing all the indices. Findings – A model is developed for any kind of organization where performance evaluation is significantly important for staff motivation, attitude and behavior development, communicating and aligning individual and organizational aims, and fostering positive relationships between management and staff. Fuzzy control is used to determine the overall performance index by combining results of the performance in selected criteria and provided it in numerical values which will undoubtedly ensure convenience of the concerned human resource personnel during performance rating calculation. Originality/value – This is the first time, a performance evaluation model is developed using fuzzy approach for any kind of organization where performance evaluation is significantly important for staff motivation, attitude and behavior development, communicating and aligning individual and organizational aims, and fostering positive relationships between management and staff.
This paper discusses the issues pertaining to the implementation of performance appraisal exercise in the organizations. This exercise is supposed to improve employees' competency and productivity. However, poor execution of performance appraisal exercise can be detrimental especially to the organizational performance. Performance appraisal also has been noticed to be one of the most problematic activities of human resource management and is considered as rather an unnecessary bureaucratic practice or and even a destructive effect on the relationship of employees and managers. Two main reasons of this problem are employee satisfaction and perceive fairness on the performance appraisal system.
Organizational factors affecting employee performance at the College of Computing and Information Sciences (COCIS)
  • R T Arinanye
Arinanye, R. T. (2015). Organizational factors affecting employee performance at the College of Computing and Information Sciences (COCIS), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (Unpublished master dissertation). Uganda Technology and Management University, Kampala, Uganda.
Impact of motivation on employee performance with effect of training: Specific to education sector of Pakistan
  • M Asim
Asim, M. (2013). Impact of motivation on employee performance with effect of training: Specific to education sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), 1-9.
Effect of motivation on employee performance in public middle level technical training institutions in Kenya
  • K Ek
  • E Mukuru
EK, K., & Mukuru, E. (2013). Effect of motivation on employee performance in public middle level technical training institutions in Kenya. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 2(4), 73-82.
System of employee performance assessment: Factor for sustainable efficiency of organization
  • Z Kirovska
  • P N Qoku
Kirovska, Z., & Qoku, P. N. (2014). System of employee performance assessment: Factor for sustainable efficiency of organization. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(11), 25-51.
The influence of performance appraisal on employee productivity in organizations: A case study of selected WHO offices in East Africa
  • N W Mwema
  • H G Gachunga
Mwema, N. W., & Gachunga, H. G. (2014). The influence of performance appraisal on employee productivity in organizations: A case study of selected WHO offices in East Africa. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(11), 324-337.