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For decades, high-intensity interval/intermittent exercise training methods have been used by elite athletes to improve their performance in sports. One of the most effective training methods, i.e., ‘Tabata training,’ is reviewed herein from the viewpoint of the energetics of exercise. The prior research describing the metabolic profile and effects of Tabata training is also summarized, with some historical anecdotes. © 2019, The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature.
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The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12576-019-00676-7
REVIEW
Tabata training: one ofthemost energetically eective high‑intensity
intermittent training methods
IzumiTabata1
Received: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published online: 19 April 2019
© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019
Abstract
For decades, high-intensity interval/intermittent exercise training methods have been used by elite athletes to improve their
performance in sports. One of the most effective training methods, i.e., ‘Tabata training,’ is reviewed herein from the view-
point of the energetics of exercise. The prior research describing the metabolic profile and effects of Tabata training is also
summarized, with some historical anecdotes.
Keywords Aerobic· Anaerobic· Intermittent exercise· Sports activity· High-intensity
Introduction
Interval training has been used for decades by elite athletes
seeking to improve their sports performance [1]. The inter-
val training method known as Fartlek training was invented
by the Swedish coach Gösta Holmér in the 1930s [2]. Dr.
Woldemar Gershler also formalized a structured system of
interval training in Germany in the 1930s [3]. Interval train-
ing was popularized by the Czech runner Emil Zátopek, who
won gold medals in the 5000- and 10,000-m races as well
as the marathon at the Helsinki Olympic games in 1952 [4].
Thus, interval training itself is not new, and it was exten-
sively investigated during the 1970s. The effects of high-
intensity interval training on the human body’s aerobic
energy-releasing system were thoroughly examined by
Edward Fox [1, 5]. He showed that the improvement of the
body’s maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after high-inten-
sity interval training is linearly related to the oxygen demand
(expressed as % VO2max) of the high-intensity interval train-
ing, indicating that exercise intensity is a key factor for the
improvement of the body’s maximal aerobic power after
high-intensity interval training [57]. Further, Fox showed
that the improvement of the VO2max after high-intensity
interval training performed 2days/week is not different from
that achieved by training with this regimen 4days/week [5,
7]. Since 3days/week is the recommended frequency of
training to improve the VO2max by conventional moderate-
intensity exercise training, it is apparent that high-intensity
interval training is a potent stimulus for improving one’s
maximal aerobic power [8]. Thus, high-intensity exercises
and training have been used by elite athletes to improve their
performance in sports, as such high-intensity exercise was
shown to extensively recruit the aerobic energy-supplying
system, resulting in the increased maximal oxygen uptake
that is the most reliable factor for endurance.
New and important information about high-intensity
interval training became available in 1980—i.e., the anaer-
obic profile of high-intensity interval training. There had
been a lack of quantification of anaerobic energy during
high-intensity exercise before the 1980s, when the late Lars
Hermansen proposed a method [9, 10] for quantifying the
anaerobic energy release that uses the accumulated oxygen
deficit, which was first introduced by Krogh and Lindhard in
1920 [11]. The anaerobic energy release [which is another
aspect of the energy supply for resynthesizing the adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) consumed during exercise, especially
maximal- to supramaximal-intensity exercises] had not been
quantified. ‘Accumulated oxygen deficit’ is defined as the
difference between the accumulated oxygen demand and
the accumulated oxygen uptake measured during exercise.
This principle was further used to estimate the accumulated
oxygen deficit during a high-intensity intermittent exercise
[12] by the first author of the original 1996 paper describ-
ing Tabata training [12] (Izumi Tabata), who had studied at
* Izumi Tabata
tabatai@fc.ritsuei.ac.jp
1 Faculty ofHealth andSport Science, Ritsumeikan
University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, KusatsuCity,
Shiga525-8577, Japan
560 The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
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the Institute of Muscle Physiology in Oslo, Norway under
the supervision of Dr. Hermansen and learned the principle
directly from him.
Nomenclature
Before this review is considered, the nomenclature regard-
ing Tabata training and high-intensity interval/intermittent
training should be established. Tabata training is defined as
training at the intensity that exhausts subjects during the
7th or 8th sets of 20-s bicycle exercise bouts with a 10-s
rest between the exercise bouts. This exercise/training was
originally developed for bicycling exercise [12, 13]. Regard-
ing similar protocol training that uses other types of exercise
including running and various body-weight-bearing exer-
cises (e.g., burpees and squat jumps), the published evidence
of their metabolic profiles and effects on both VO2max and
the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) is insuf-
ficient. In this review, we therefore focus on Tabata train-
ing, defined as bicycle training at the intensity that exhausts
subjects during seven or eight sets of 20-s bicycle exercise
bouts with a 10-s rest between the bouts.
At more than 20years after the publication of the original
study [12, 13], the exercise intensity has not been empha-
sized; only the procedure of the training has been featured,
especially among general exercisers. For example, following
such a protocol (eight sets of a 20-s exercise with a 10-s rest
between the exercise bouts) using walking as the exercise
can be expected to result in no improvement of the VO2max.
Only training adopting the protocol with an exercise inten-
sity that exhausts the subject after 7–8 sets of the 20-s exer-
cise bout with a 10-s rest between the exercise bouts (i.e.,
Tabata training) elevates both the VO2max and the MAOD
to the extent that was reported by the original investigation.
Such increases in the two energy-releasing systems (i.e.,
the aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing systems) cannot
be obtained by walking, the exercise intensity of which is
estimated as < 30% VO2, in Tabata protocol. Therefore, the
term ‘Tabata training’ emphasizing not only the procedure
but also the exercise intensity that exhausts the subject after
7–8 sets of the exercise should be used for the name of the
training, and this term will be used hereafter in this review
[12, 13].
Interval orintermittent?
In a popular method of interval training, an individual
exercises at low intensity between bouts of high-intensity
exercise [1]. In contrast, intermittent training (including
Tabata training [12, 13]), exercisers completely stop the
exercise and rest for a while. Training that involves such a
‘complete stop’ period is thus called ‘intermittent’ training
[14, 15]. Intermittent training and interval training thus
differ significantly, and it is important to keep in mind that
Tabata training is an intermittent-exercise training method.
HIIT, SIT, or?
Tabata training has been considered one of the high-inten-
sity ‘interval or intermittent’ training (HIIT) methods,
which have varied considerably in terms of the charac-
teristics of the training exercise, i.e., the exercise mode,
intensity, and durations of exercise and rest. Weston etal.
defined HIIT as ‘near maximal’ (in other words, ‘submaxi-
mal’) effort generally performed at an intensity that elic-
its > 80% (often 85–95%) of the maximal heart rate [16].
Thompson suggested a broader definition of HIIT in which
HIIT typically involves short bursts of high-intensity exer-
cise followed by a short period of rest or recovery and
typically takes < 30min to perform [17].
In contrast, sprint interval training (SIT) is character-
ized by efforts performed at intensities equal to or greater
than the pace that would elicit a VO2peak, including ‘all-
out’ or ‘supramaximal’ efforts [16]. The word ‘sprint’
implies moving as fast as possible from the start of an
exercise [18], with an eventual decline in speed and/or a
discontinuation of the exercise. In contrast, in the origi-
nal and authentic Tabata training protocol, the exercise
intensity is constant (i.e., 170% VO2max) from the first to
the last session of the exercise. Using the word ‘sprint’ to
describe Tabata training exercise is therefore not accurate.
In exercise physiology, the intensity of a specific exer-
cise has been defined relative to the VO2max as ‘submaxi-
mal,’ ‘maximal,’ and ‘supramaximal’ when the oxygen
demand is less than, equal to, and greater than the VO2max,
respectively. Since the oxygen demand for Tabata training
is higher than the VO2max (i.e., 170% VO2max), the origi-
nal Tabata training is ‘supramaximal intensity intermittent
training.’ In terms of the exercise:recovery ratio, Tabata
training is different from other SITs, as Sloth etal. [19]
defined SIT as a protocol that includes duration of bouts:
10–60s, intensity: maximal, “all-out”, volume: 12 rep-
etitions, recovery: ≥ 5 times the duration of work, and Gist
etal. [20] defined it as intensity: “all-out”, “supramaxi-
mal”, “maximal” or “ VO2max”, SIT work:rest ratio of
30-s:4-min (rest interval of 3–5min). Tabata training is
thus not SIT in terms of the classical terminology of SIT.
Tabata training is an original and unique training method
that can be described by either the classic but familiar term
‘interval training’ or the modern and “cool” term ‘HIIT,’
which includes a variety of training methods using inter-
mittent/interval high-intensity exercise.
561The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
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The metabolic prole ofTabata training exercise
The endurance profile of most exercises and sports is thought
to depend on the amount of energy output per unit of time.
Since the energy output (i.e., the ATP consumption/resyn-
thesis) is equal to the energy supply from the body’s aerobic
and anaerobic energy-supplying systems, it well recognized
that increasing the functioning of the two energy-supplying
systems by physical training is an optimal way to enhance
endurance performance [21, 22]. Endurance training elevates
the maximal aerobic power [2325], whereas sprint train-
ing using very brief exercise at high intensity increases the
body’s anaerobic capacity measured as the MAOD [26]. For
most physical properties, the more demanding the training
is, the greater the improvement of the property will be, and
it is thus necessary to measure the energy supply from both
the aerobic and anaerobic energy-supplying systems dur-
ing exercise in order to evaluate the training’s efficacy. The
aerobic-energy release is well quantified by measuring the
VO2. Therefore, by measuring the oxygen uptake and com-
paring that value with the subject’s VO2max, the demand of
the exercise/training on the aerobic energy-releasing system
can be evaluated.
Since, at a submaximal exercise intensity, the energy from
the anaerobic energy-releasing system is supplied only at
the beginning of the exercise, the relative contribution of
this system is low [27]. In contrast, the anaerobic energy-
releasing system contributes significantly to the total energy
demand by 35, 53, and 70% during exhaustive exercises at
the supramaximal intensity of 119, 146, and 186% VO2max,
respectively [28]. As evaluating stress of a specific exercise
on aerobic energy-releasing system as a training, stress on
the anaerobic energy-releasing system can be evaluated by
comparing the accumulated oxygen deficit during an exer-
cise to the anaerobic capacity (i.e., the MAOD). However,
high-intensity intermittent exercise, which is often used as
a training method, had not been evaluated using the same
methods until we assessed the energy release from both the
aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing systems during two
different intermittent exercise protocols [12], which are used
by some of the top Japanese speed skaters. We analyzed the
two training protocols for the following reasons.
The two training protocols were introduced by Kouichi
Irisawa, who was a head coach of the Japanese Speed
Skating Team in the 1980s. Mr. Irisawa (who was sent by
the Japan Sport Association as a visiting guest to the Nor-
wegian Skate Federation) and the first author (I. Tabata)
of the original investigation of Tabata training [12, 13]
stayed in the same dormitory at the University of Oslo for
most of 1984. After returning to Japan, Tabata joined the
Japan National Speed Skating Team led by Mr. Irisawa
as the fitness coach for the Albertville Olympics to be
held in 1992. After discussion during the National team’s
training camp in 1989 in Maebashi in Japan’s Gunma Pre-
fecture about the selection of the best training method,
the two training methods developed by Mr. Irisawa and
used by top Japanese skaters were compared in a study
[12] conducted at a laboratory at the National Institute
of Fitness and Sport in Kanoya, which is located in the
southernmost region of Japan.
The study compared two intermittent bicycle exercise
(IE) protocols (IE1 and IE2) [12]. The results of that inves-
tigation showed that the accumulated oxygen deficit during
the exhaustive intermittent exercise of IE1 (exercise inten-
sity: approx. 170% VO2max, 7–8 bouts of 20-s exercise with
a 10-s rest between bouts) equaled the anaerobic capacity
(i.e., MAOD), and thus the IE1 protocol seemed to stress
the anaerobic energy system maximally (Fig.1). In addi-
tion, the IE1 protocol recruited the oxygen delivery system
maximally since the oxygen uptake measured during the last
part of the IE1 protocol was not different from the VO2max
of the subjects (Fig.2).
In contrast, neither the anaerobic system nor the aerobic
system seemed to be fully stressed during the exhaustive
intermittent exercise of the IE2 protocol (exercise intensity:
approx. 200% VO2max, 3–4 bouts of 30-s exercise with a
2-min rest between bouts). These results demonstrated that,
for the purpose of improving both the anaerobic and aerobic
energy-releasing systems, the IE1 protocol was superior to
the IE2 protocol. The IE1 protocol was also confirmed to
stimulate both the aerobic and anaerobic energy-releasing
systems maximally. Since the human body has only these
two energy-supplying systems, the IE1 protocol can be
Fig. 1 Accumulated oxygen deficit during the intermittent exercise
(IE)1 protocol (Tabata training) and the IE2 protocol and the anaero-
bic capacity, i.e., the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD)
[12]. **p < 0.01 vs. the anaerobic capacity (MAOD). ##p < 0.01 vs.
the accumulated oxygen deficit in the IE1 protocol
562 The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
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regarded is one of the most energetically effective exercise
training protocols for maximally improving both the aerobic
and anaerobic energy-supplying systems.
As mentioned above, since the IE1 training protocol
emerged during discussions between a top coach who had
an instinct for develop new training methods based on
interactions with athletes and an exercise physiologist who
was good at scientifically analyzing the characteristics of
exercise, Tabata training was both clinical (practical)- and
bedside (rink-side or gym-side)-initiated training. After
the above-described results were reported to Mr. Irisawa,
he stopped using the IE2 protocol as part of the training
menu for the skaters and concentrated on the use of the
IE1 protocol (i.e., Tabata training).
For anaerobic energy quantification, especially during
0–10min of exhaustive exercise of which the exercise
intensity is above the VO2max, an estimation of the oxygen
demand for such exercise is required. The oxygen demand
is a value (L/min, or ml/kg/min) representing the oxygen
that the body needs for a specific exercise at a specific
intensity (Fig.3). For a submaximal-intensity exercise,
the oxygen demand for a specific exercise is measured as
the oxygen uptake during the exercise. For a submaximal-
intensity exercise, the oxygen demand of which the oxygen
uptake has not been measured, the oxygen demand can be
estimated quite accurately by interpolation from the linear
relationship between the exercise intensity (W) [12, 13]
Fig. 2 Peak oxygen uptake during the last 10 s of the IE1 (Tabata
training exercise) and IE2 protocols, and the maximal oxygen uptake
[12]. **p < 0.01 vs. the maximal oxygen uptake. #p < 0.05 vs. the
peak oxygen uptake during the last 10s of the IE1 protocol
Fig. 3 Principle used to calculate the accumulated oxygen deficit for high-intensity intermittent exercise [12]
563The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
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(Fig.3) and the measured oxygen uptake, in the same way
as that used for running (m/min) [10].
This relationship was established by measuring the oxy-
gen uptake at 6–9 different intensities of 10-min exercises.
This time-consuming procedure, which need at least 3days
of testing, has been also used to measure the VO2max in
Scandinavian countries.Without establishing a linear rela-
tionship (r > 0.99) between the oxygen uptake and the exer-
cise intensity at a submaximal range, the leveling off of the
oxygen uptake in response to increased exercise intensity,
which is the only criterion for measuring the maximal oxy-
gen uptake [29], cannot be confirmed. Without this leveling
off, the measurement is regarded not as the VO2max but
rather as the peakVO2. The measurement of the oxygen
uptake at ten different intensities of 4-min exercises could
be used to establish the relationship between the oxygen
uptake and work rate at a submaximal level [30]. Since the
work rate during swimming is theoretically related to [swim-
ming speed (m/s)3], a linear relationship between exercise
intensity and oxygen uptake is established by the relation-
ship between the exercise intensity [swimming speed (m/s)3]
and the oxygen uptake [31].
In contract to submaximal-intensity exercise, the oxygen
uptake of a supramaximal-intensity exercise cannot be meas-
ured; if the oxygen uptake at such high intensity is higher
than the VO2max, it is the VO2max of the subject. Therefore,
in terms of expressing the intensity of a supramaximal-inten-
sity exercise relative to the VO2max, similar to the exercise
intensity of 170% VO2max for the IE1 protocol (Tabata
training) [12], the oxygen demand (not the oxygen uptake)
is used, and the oxygen demand is estimated by extrapolat-
ing the linear relationship between exercise intensities at
submaximal levels and the measured oxygen uptake (Fig.3).
For example, the oxygen demand of 170% VO2max for bicy-
cling is calculated as 1.70 times the VO2max measured for
bicycling.
It should be noted that, for estimating oxygen demand at
supramaximal intensity, the relationship between exercise
intensity (the work rate) and the submaximal level oxygen
uptake measured by an incremental test [e.g., a graded exer-
tion test (GXT)] [32] should not be used. The oxygen uptake
at a specific exercise intensity measured by an incremen-
tal test procedure, which normally allots an identical time
(1–2min) for each exercise intensity, does not necessarily
represents the oxygen uptake or oxygen demand, which is
balanced with energy for re-synthesizing the ATP consumed
during exercise at the specific intensity. This is because the
time necessary for the oxygen uptake to reach the steady
state (which is defined as the oxygen uptake/demand bal-
ance of the specific exercise) differs based on the exercise
intensity. The time necessary for the oxygen uptake to reach
the steady state of oxygen consumption at a higher exercise
intensity is longer than that at a lower exercise intensity [27].
Therefore, the original investigation of anaerobic capacity
(MAOD) measured oxygen uptake during 6–9 bouts of
10-min constant-intensity exercises whose intensity ranges
from approx. 30% to 85% of the VO2max [10].
The original investigation [10, 12, 13] used such a time-
consuming test for the following reasons: (1) to measure the
VO2max correctly by ascertaining the leveling-off, and (2)
to correctly estimate the oxygen demand at supramaximal
intensity for calculating the accumulated oxygen deficit,
which is defined as the difference between the total accumu-
lated oxygen demand (L), [i.e., the estimated oxygen demand
(L/min) × the exercise time (min)] and the accumulated oxy-
gen uptake (L) measured during the exercise.
The eects ofTabata training onthebody’s aerobic
andanaerobic energy‑releasing systems
Six weeks of training using the IE1 protocol, which was later
named Tabata training, was found to increase the MAOD
by 28.0 ± 19.4% (Fig.4) and the VO2max by 15.0 ± 4.7%
(Fig.5) [13]. This training consisted of 4 days/week of
exhaustive IE1 exercises (7–8 sets to exhaustion) and 1day/
week of 30min of continuous exercise at 70% VO2max
and four subsequent sets of the IE1 protocol, which was
not exhaustive. The results of that study suggested that this
high-intensity intermittent exercise is a very effective tool
to improve sports-related physical fitness. Since this train-
ing improved the subjectsVO2max and MAOD during the
training period, the training subjects became able to bike > 8
sets of the 20-s exercise at the first-prescribed intensity for
the training. At that time point, the intensity (i.e., the work
rate for bicycling) was increased by 11 watts so that the exer-
cise exhausted the subjects within 7–8 sets of 20-s exercise.
The important thing is that, during this training period, the
Fig. 4 Effect of endurance training (ET) and intermittent training (IT;
Tabata training) on the anaerobic capacity, i.e., the maximal accumu-
lated oxygen deficit (MAOD) [13]. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 increase vs.
the pretraining value. #p < 0.05 increase vs. the 2-week value
564 The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
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exercise intensity that exhausts the subject within 7–8 sets
of the 20-s exercise should be prescribed during the entire
training period.
It is well known that there is a site specificity of training
and its effects. As an example of site specificity, only the
functioning of the lower-leg muscles is improved by exercise
using the lower legs, e.g., squats. No effects are expected to
be found in the functioning of the arm muscles. There is also
specificity regarding energy-releasing systems. Anaerobic
training improves the body’s anaerobic capacity measured
as the MAOD, whereas aerobic training elevates the aero-
bic capacity measured as the VO2max. For example, Medbø
and Burgers [26] reported that training with eight bouts of
20-s running exercise at 165% VO2max with a 4.5–5.0-min
pause between the bouts increased the subjects’ MAOD by
approx. 10%.
Aerobic training consisting of 1-h prolonged bicycle
exercise at 70% VO2max increased the VO2max without
effects on the MAOD [13]. During the last session of the
IE1 protocol, the oxygen uptake reached the VO2max (which
is a measure of aerobic capacity), and the accumulated oxy-
gen deficit of the training exercise amounted to the MAOD
(which is a measure of anaerobic capacity). The magnitude
of the effects of specific training on a specific aspect of fit-
ness may depend on the extent to which the training stresses
the subject’s fitness. Since humans have only two energy-
releasing systems and the IE1 protocol stresses both systems
maximally, training using the IE1 protocol can be regarded
as one of the ultimate aerobic and anaerobic training meth-
ods. Consequently, according to the system specificity of
training and its effects on energy release, Tabata training
enhances both the VO2max and the MAOD.
Since the intensity of the IE1 protocol is quite high com-
pared to other types of so-called ‘aerobic exercise,’ train-
ing using the IE1 protocol looks like ‘anaerobic training.’
If this is so, and if the effect is expected according to the
specificity of energy release, training that uses the IE1 pro-
tocol is not expected to improve the VO2max. However, the
oxygen uptake at the end of training using the IE1 protocol
reaches the VO2max. This result, i.e., that the VO2max was
increased by the training, can be explained by the specificity
of training and training effects regarding energy release. One
may think it strange that the study’s authors [12] measured
oxygen uptake during the IE1 that appears to be anaerobic
exercise. This was simply because, for the calculation of
the oxygen deficit value needed for the determination of the
anaerobic energy release of the training, the oxygen uptake
had to be measured.
After the publication of these two papers [12, 13], train-
ing using the IE1 protocol began to be referred to as the
‘Tabata protocol,’ ‘Tabata interval training,’ or ‘Tabata-style
training,’ and these terms began to be used by many people,
including both sport-oriented athletes and health-oriented
non-athletes. Further research on ‘Tabata’ or ‘Tabata-style’
exercise training was then conducted. For example, Foster
etal. elegantly reproduced the effect of 8weeks of Tabata
training on aerobic energy-releasing system (18% increase
in the VO2max) [33].
As shown by Foster etal. [33], the Tabata training method
is quite demanding for ordinary young adults. The use of
this training method needs (1) high motivation of elite ath-
letes who want to elevate both their aerobic and anaerobic
energy-releasing systems, and (2) convincing instruction to
the athletes from coaches who fully understand the scientific
evidence regarding this method.
Dierent high‑intensity intermittent exercise
protocols
In their efforts to devise a more efficient training method
than Tabata training, Kouzaki and Tabata compared several
other high-intensity intermittent bicycle exercise protocols
in terms of the recruitment of the aerobic and anaerobic
energy-releasing systems [34]. Their study revealed that the
most demanding protocol was the ‘IDE200’ protocol, which
used the intensity 200% VO2max for the first and second
sets, 180% VO2max for the third and fourth sets, and 160%
VO2max for the fifth and sixth sets of 20-s exercise bouts
separated by 10-s rests. This was because the oxygen deficit
during the IDE200 protocol and the oxygen uptake during
the last part of the protocol were not significantly different
from those observed during the IE170 protocol (i.e., Tabata
training).
In addition, the peak lactate concentration after the
IDE200 protocol was significantly higher than that observed
after the IE170 protocol. The reasons for the comparison
of the IDE200 protocol with Tabata training (IE170) were
as follows. Even during such high-intensity exercise, which
Fig. 5 Effects of ET and IT (Tabata training) on the maximal oxygen
uptake [13]. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 increase vs. the pretraining value
565The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
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appears to be ‘anaerobic’ exercise, the oxygen uptake during
the first 20s is related to the oxygen demand of the exercise,
which is expressed as the %VO2max (Kouzaki and Tabata,
unpublished observation), and the higher the speed of the
recruitment of aerobic energy during the beginning of the
high-intensity exercise, the higher the oxygen uptake was
during the last phase of the exercise.
Secondly, the oxygen deficit that accumulated during the
30-s exhaustive exercise (200% VO2max) does not reach the
maximal oxygen deficit [7, 18], suggesting that such high-
intensity exercise to exhaustion does not recruit anaerobic
energy maximally. To ensure a full recruitment of anaero-
bic energy release, a somewhat low intensity is required.
Therefore, the exercise intensity used for the last two bouts
was 160% VO2max, which corresponds to the intensity that
exhausts the subjects at approx. 1–2min and which was
shown to maximally stimulate the anaerobic energy-releas-
ing system.
After an 8-week training using the IDE200 protocol
5days/week, the subjects’ MAOD was increased signifi-
cantly (by 32%), and the VO2max was also elevated signifi-
cantly (by 14%) [34].
Ogita etal. reported that a higher-intensity (approx. 250%
VO2max) and shorter-duration (five 5-s exercise bouts with
a 10-s rest between bouts) intermittent swimming training
protocol performed for 4weeks improved the swimmers
MAOD and VO2max by 22% and 5%, respectively [35].
The eects ofTabata training andresistance
training ontheMAOD
Principally, the MAOD is proportional to the muscle vol-
ume. This is because the greater the muscle volume, the
more creatine phosphate is available in whole muscle and
the more lactate accumulates; creatine phosphate and lactate
are the bases of the alactic and lactic energy release that
respectively comprise anaerobic energy release. Changes
in the MAOD after resistance training that enlarges muscle
volume were thus investigated by Hirai and Tabata [36]. In
that study, the training consisted of a high-intensity inter-
mittent exercise training (IT; in this case, Tabata training)
for 6weeks and IT plus resistance training (RT) for the
subsequent 6weeks. During the IT-alone period, the sub-
jects trained using IT on 5days/week. During the IT + RT
period, they trained using IT on 3days/week and RT for
3days/week. The IT increased the subjects’ MAOD by 17%
(Fig.6). The RT consisted of (a): four sets of 12 repetitions
of squat and leg curl exercises at 12 repetition max (RM)
with a 30-s rest between each set, and (b) two sets of maxi-
mal bouts of the same exercise with a load of 90, 80, and
70% of one RM.
After the IT and RT period, the subject lifted a bar-
bell mass 12 times (12 RM) for squat was increased by
108 ± 8%. The IT + RT further increased the subjects’
MAOD values, suggesting that an increase in muscle
volume as a result of resistance training is effective for
increasing the MAOD [36]. However, Minahan and Wood
reported that resistance training did not affect the MAOD
[37]. It is thus not known whether the increase in the
MAOD obtained with an IT + RT regimen is attributable
to combined effects of resistance training and HIIT or just
to HIIT. Further research can be expected to elucidate this
issue.
During the IT-alone period, both the maximal power
during the Wingate test, and the circumference (cm) of
thigh muscle were not changed. However, after the IT and
RT period, the maximal power was significantly increased
by 10 ± 3% (p < 0.05) with a significant increase in the
thigh muscle circumference (3 ± 1%, p < 0.01) [36]. These
results may indicate that (1) Tabata training itself does not
affect anaerobic power, and (2) an increase in muscle mass
is necessary to induce an increase in anaerobic power.
In the above-described study by Hirai and Tabata [36],
the VO2max increased during the IT period (11 ± 2%),
whereas no significant change was observed during the
IT + RT period (Fig.7). This result may indicate that, in
terms of high-intensity intermittent training, a different
strategy is necessary for further improvement in the aero-
bic energy-releasing system. Hickson etal. demonstrated
that simultaneous training for strength and endurance will
result in a reduced capacity to develop strength, but will
not affect the magnitude of the increase in the VO2max
[38]. Studies that eliminate the interference of one type
of fitness over another type should be devised to address
this issue.
Fig. 6 Effects of IT and resistance training (RT) on the MAOD [36].
*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. the pre-training value. +p<0.05, ++p < 0.01
vs. the 3-week value. #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 vs. the 6-week value.
$p < 0.05 vs. the 9-week value
566 The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
1 3
Metabolic changes inmuscle afterTabata training
Changes in the enzyme activity/content in skeletal muscles
recruited during exercise training were studied after Berg-
strom introduced the needle biopsy technique in 1962 [39].
Specific training induces increased expressions of proteins
that have specific physiological functions in skeletal muscles
recruited by training. For example, aerobic training increases
the enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS, which is a key
enzyme for oxidative metabolism [40]), and high-intensity
exercise training increases glycogen phosphorylase and
phosphofructokinase (PFK), which are possible rate-limiting
enzymes of anaerobic metabolism [41, 42]. Sprint training
with a very short duration of exercise (i.e., 5-s running)
without changes in the VO2max elevated the enzyme activ-
ity of myokinase [43].
Skeletal muscle adaptation to Tabata training was recently
reported [44]. After 6weeks of Tabata training, the enzyme
activities of CS and PFK were significantly increased
(Fig.8), indicating that the training may have enhanced
protein expressions, possibly limiting both the aerobic
and anaerobic energy-releasing systems, suggesting that in
terms of the two energy-releasing systems, peripheral adap-
tations occurred after the Tabata training. These elevated
enzyme activities may have contributed to the increases in
the VO2max (9.2%) and MAOD (20.9%).
In addition, along with an enhanced expression of fatty
acid oxidative enzyme activity [45], the protein expression
of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1
α (PGC1α) was found to be enhanced after rats performed
a Tabata training model [46]. Those results suggested that
dozens of proteins that are known to be increased by this
transcriptional coactivator may be increased after Tabata
training [47].
The swimming protocol used for the above-mentioned
rat study consists of 14 bouts of intermittent 20-s swim-
ming with a 10-s rest between the exercise bouts while the
rat bears a weight equivalent to 14% of its body weight [46].
Since it was not feasible for rats to run intermittently at a
high intensity (speed) on a treadmill, swimming was intro-
duced to model Tabata training for rats. Because the oxygen
uptake during the high-intensity intermittent swimming was
not measured in that investigation, the precise percentage of
the rats’ maximal oxygen uptake during the swimming was
not known. The reason that this protocol has been used in
previous studies is that the protocol was shown, by trial and
error, to raise the blood lactate concentration to levels that
were similar to those measured for humans and to elevate
the enzyme activity of citrate synthase, which is an oxidative
enzyme in mitochondria [48].
Indeed, the above-cited clinical study [44] demon-
strated that 79 genes including genes involved in glucose
metabolism, the mitochondria membrane, the extracellular
matrix, and angiogenesis were increased in skeletal mus-
cle by training. A proteomics analysis of rat muscles after
Fig. 7 Effects of the IT and RT on the maximal oxygen uptake [36].
*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 increase vs. the pretraining value. +p <0.05,
++p < 0.01 vs. the 3-week value
Fig. 8 Effects of Tabata training
on the enzyme activities of
phosphofructokinase (PFK) and
citrate synthase (CS) [44]
567The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
1 3
Tabata-model training revealed that the protein expression of
glycogen phosphorylase (the first enzyme of glycogenolysis)
was increased [49]. It is well documented that low-volume
interval training increases skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes
[50]. Robinson etal. [51] reported that moderate-intensity
HIIT affects the transcription of a large number of proteins
in humans.
In terms of the increase in the VO2max after HIIT, there
has been some disagreement regarding whether the main
location of the occurrence of adaptation is central (cardi-
orespiratory: cardiac output) or peripheral (skeletal muscle:
metabolic enzymes). The improvement in the VO2max after
specific training may be due to both central and peripheral
factors, which correspond to increased cardiac output and
oxygen extraction and/or oxygen consumption in working
skeletal muscle. These factors can be further explained by
increased maximal cardiac output/stroke volume of heart
and increased oxidative enzyme activity in skeletal muscle,
respectively. Since the increase in the VO2max after HIIT
including Tabata training is very rapid (e.g., 2–3weeks)
[13, 36] and changes in the morphology of the heart are
not expected during such a short time period, the increase
in the VO2max after Tabata training could be attributed to
peripheral factors.
However, Burgomaster etal. [52] reported that after
2weeks of SIT training, the subjects’ VO2peak did not
increase but the activity of CS was enhanced by 38%, sug-
gesting that changes in peripheral factors do not necessarily
induce increase in VO2peak. Daussin etal. suggested that
adaptation after interval training occurs both centrally and
peripherally [53]. Macpherson etal. reported that 6-week
run sprint interval training improved their subjects’ aerobic
performance but not maximal cardiac output [54], whereas
another research group reported that 6-week high-intensity
interval training increased their subjects’ cardiac output and
VO2max [55]. The authors of the latter study attributed the
initial increase in cardiac output after the early phase of the
high-intensity interval training to plasma volume expansion
[55], which was apt to occur in their sedentary subjects with
lower VO2max values compared to those of the recreation-
ally active subjects of the Macpherson etal. study. Further
research is necessary to address these findings.
In the original Tabata etal. study in 1996 [13], the
subjects executed Tabata training exercise for 4days and
non-exhaustive sessions of exercise at 170% VO2max after
30min of exercise at 70% VO2max on Wednesday as a break.
However, as Fox etal. reported, the frequency of 2 × /week
appears to be enough for Tabata training to induce the adap-
tation of the aerobic energy-releasing system [5, 7]. In terms
of peripheral adaptation, the expression of PGC1α, which
is a potent transcriptional coactivator for enzymes involved
in oxidative metabolism, was maintained for 24h after
Tabata training in rats [46]. This transcriptional coactivator
activates the transcription of proteins that have physiologi-
cal functions, and its activity remained high for several
days. When the human subjects exercised for 2days, a high
level of PGC1α was maintained for half a week. This might
explain why only 2days of Tabata training enhanced the
subjects’ oxidative metabolism, in which dozens of enzyme
proteins are involved in skeletal muscle.
In terms of the number of training sessions per day, the
PGC1α expression after 5days of Tabata training performed
1×/day or 2×/day was compared in rats, and no difference
was observed between these training groups. Although this
finding was not from a human study, the results of other
experiments suggest that the PGCα expression is saturated
after Tabata training in rats (Terada and Tabata, unpublished
observation). A further expression of PGC1α and a subse-
quent increase in proteins that are transcriptionally stimu-
lated by PGC1α should thus not be expected when a human
does additional Tabata training on the same day.
Changes inmuscle buer capacity inmuscle
afterTabata training
One of the most important changes explaining the improve-
ment of the MAOD after HIIT—probably including
Tabata training—is the enhanced buffer capacity of mus-
cles recruited during the HIIT [56]. This enhanced capac-
ity allows more muscle lactate formation, which results in
proportional glycolytic ATP production for high-intensity
exercises. Shark etal. reported that, after 8-week sprint
training, their subjects’ muscle buffer capacity was increased
by ~ 37%. This robust increase in buffering capacity may
explain the majority of the elevation of the MAOD after
HIIIT including Tabata training.
In addition, carnosine is regarded as a minor contribut-
ing factor (5–10%) to muscle buffer capacity [57]. In this
context, it is interesting that the levels of the mRNA and
protein of carnosine synthase 1 were increased by Tabata
training [44], suggesting that the body’s carnosine content
might be elevated by Tabata training as demonstrated after
a HIIT [58].
The eects ofTabata training oncirculation
Endurance training increases capillary density [59]. Cocks
etal. [60] reported that SIT and endurance training are
equally effective at increasing skeletal muscle capillariza-
tion and the body’s endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)
content and at decreasing aortic stiffness. Using an animal
model of Tabata training, Hasegawa etal. [61] observed that
Tabata training decreased central arterial stiffness (assessed
by arterial pulse wave velocity) to the same level as con-
ventional aerobic training through the same arterial signal
mechanism. This investigation showed that both animal
568 The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
1 3
model of Tabata training and aerobic training induced
increased expression of eNOS, which produces nitric oxide
(NOx), which subsequently may dilate arteries, suggesting
that Tabata training might improve arterial function via the
same mechanism as conventional aerobic training and may
decrease the risk of cardiovascular events.
The eects ofTabata training exercise onexcess
post‑exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
anddiet‑induced thermogenesis (DIT)
There has been a rumor that Tabata training is effective for
losing body weight. However, the energy consumption dur-
ing a high-intensity short-duration training exercise is negli-
gible. After the exercise, the body’s oxygen uptake is higher
than the resting metabolic rate, but EPOC after Tabata train-
ing exercise has not yet been quantified. The thermic effects
of meals ingested after Tabata training have also not been
evaluated. The resting oxygen uptake of human subjects
after sprint-interval exercise was investigated with the use
of a metabolic chamber for a > 22-h period, including the
subjects’ intake of three meals. There were no observable
differences in total resting oxygen uptake during the late
recovery phase (3–22h after the exercise period, at which
point the EPOC had worn off) between the subjects’ exercise
and non-exercise control days, suggesting that there was no
effect of the preceding SIT on the subsequent meal-induced
thermogenesis [62].
In contrast, a recent investigation reported that oxygen
uptake after lunch and supper ingested 1.5h and 7.5 h
after Tabata training exercise, respectively, was higher
than that measured on the non- exercise day for subjects
weighing 64.4 ± 6.0 kg [63]. This study showed that
EPOC during the first 1.5h after the Tabata training exer-
cise, and ΔDIT defined as a difference in resting oxygen
uptake from 12:00–23:00 between Tabata training exer-
cise and non-exercise control day are 115.3 ± 32.3 and
146.1 ± 90.9mlkg−1, respectively. These data suggest that
EPOC and ΔDIT after Tabata training exercise were com-
parable with oxygen uptake during the Tabata training exer-
cise (123.4 ± 12.0mlkg−1). Energy consumption calculated
from oxygen uptake during 10-min warm up exercise (WU),
Tabata training exercise was 74.3 ± 5.2, 39.8 ± 6.3kcal,
respectively. EPOC during the first 1.5h after Tabata train-
ing exercise and ΔDIT after Tabata training are 37.5 ± 12.7,
and 47.8 ± 32.0kcal, respectively. Summation of the previ-
ously described 4 energy consumption are 199.4 ± 12.4kcal
for the subjects. This value that is regarded as elevated
energy consumption by Tabata training exercise could be
the lowest in terms of securing weight reduction. However,
after 6-week Tabata training, body weight was not changed
[13]. Therefore, weight reducing effect of Tabata training
seems to be minimal.
The Tsuji et al. study [63] also reported that the
ΔDIT was correlated with the VO2max of their subjects
(52.1 ± 6.6mlkg−1 min−1) (r = 0.76, n = 10, p < 0.05), sug-
gesting that an improvement of the VO2max may further
enhance the energy consumption elevated by diet. Another
recent investigation [64] demonstrated that the lunch-
enhanced thermogenesis (ΔDIT: approx. 1.5–5.5h after
exercise for subjects weighing 67.9 ± 7.7kg) after Tabata
exercise (15.7 ± 10.4kcal) was greater than that after 30min
of exercise at 70% VO2max (6.6 ± 8.4kcal), suggesting that
the ΔDIT of high-intensity exercise was greater than that of
the moderate-intensity exercise. However, again, in terms of
reducing body weight, the ΔDIT after high-intensity inter-
mittent exercise is limited even when the ΔDIT after the
consumption of a meal is considered.
Recommended practical procedures forTabata
training
The first article regarding Tabata training was published
over 30years ago, and no further paper was published by
the authors of the original article until recently. There has
thus been some confusion about Tabata training, especially
concerning the methodology. The following practical tips for
executing authentic Tabata training are presented in order
to prevent the misunderstanding of Tabata training in future
studies.
First, before an individual engages in Tabata training,
warming up for 10min at approx. 50% VO2max is recom-
mended [12, 13].
Authentic Tabata training consists of 7–8 exhaustive
sets of 20-s high-intensity bicycle exercise (intensity: 170%
VO2max) with a 10-s rest between the exercise bouts [9, 10].
For determining the optimal exercise intensity of the train-
ing, the exercise intensity equivalent to the subject’s 170%
VO2max is first determined. The 170% VO2max is an inten-
sity that exhausts the subject by approx. 50s of bicycling (if
the subject continues to bicycle at that time) (Tabata, unpubl.
data). The exercise intensity should be determined individu-
ally. The subject should then be instructed to continue bicy-
cling until exhaustion (described below) after a 20-s cycling
bout with a 10-s rest interval. If the subject can continue to
bicycle for more than eight sets, the exercise intensity should
be increased. If the subject cannot bike for less than six sets,
the exercise intensity is reduced. Therefore, the intensity of
Tabata training does not have to be 170% VO2max; the inten-
sity that exhausts the subject during the seventh or eighth
set should be used.
Exhaustion during bicycle exercise is determined as fol-
lows. During the bicycling, when the pedaling frequency
tends to less than the fixed rate [normally 90 repetitions
per minute (rpm)], we encourage the subject verbally with
phrases such as ‘Come on, come on!’ With this verbal
569The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
1 3
encouragement, a subject can often increase the pedaling
frequency to 90rpm. When encouragement has been given
but the subject’s pedaling frequency gradually declines to
85rpm, we define it as exhaustion and let the subject stop
bicycling.
For bicycling exercise, it is important to raise the pedal-
ing frequency to the fixed rate as soon as possible to set
the correct load for the subject. A pedaling frequency of
100rpm might be good for cyclists. In the original Tabata
study, 90rpm was used. The reason why we use a higher
pedaling frequency than that used for normal bicycle
exercise (50–70rpm) is that without such a high pedaling
frequency, a high-enough load cannot be set for heavy-
weight top athletes. In the original Tabata training experi-
ments, Monark bicycles (whose highest load is 7 kP) were
used, but even with such a heavy weight, the load is not
high enough to exhaust elite athletes within 7–8 sets of
Tabata training if 50–70rpm is used. By using 90rpm, an
adequate work rate, which is a function of weight (kP) and
rpm, is assured for highly trained athletes.
Possible adverse eects ofTabata training
Because high-intensity exercise may reduce immunologi-
cal functions [65], it can be speculated that in terms of
the prevention of any type of cancer that may be initiated
by low immunological function, high-intensity exercise
training may have no effects or adverse effects. However,
the results of a recent study suggested that Tabata training
may help prevent colon cancer by enhancing the secretion
and elevating the blood concentration of secreted protein
acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) (Fig.9), a myokine
that decreases the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF),
which is the first step of colon cancer induction, by induc-
ing the apoptosis of ACF in the colon [66]. These biologi-
cal results may explain the epidemiological finding that
vigorous exercise may help prevent and not worsen colon
cancer [67, 68]. Another recent investigation indicated that
this result may reflect the evidence that Tabata training
does not reduce immunological function [69].
Important contributions ofother scientists
Among the many scientists who have examined Tabata
training and other HIIT methods, the contribution of Dr.
Martin Gibala to the popularity of HIIT among scientists
and exercisers should be appreciated [52, 7072]. He and
his team conducted numerous studies on skeletal muscle
adaptation after HIIT. These studies helped scientists fur-
ther understand HIIT including Tabata training.
Future research
The use of Tabata training is usually an individual attempt
by coaches and/or athletes. Scientific evidence from the
sport fields is thus limited. Ravier reported that a running
training protocol that was similar to Tabata training elevated
the VO2max and MAOD of karate athletes who also per-
formed other types of repetitive exercise [73]. Evaluations
of top athletes by researchers will help elucidate the effects
of Tabata training on the performance of various sports. A
determination of the effects of Tabata training using exer-
cises that simulate the activities of specific sports is valuable
in light of the specificity of training and training effects on
sports performance.
However, in terms of effects on aerobic and anaerobic
energy-releasing systems, there is not enough published
data about training methods that follow protocols similar to
Tabata training but use other types of exercise including run-
ning and various body-weight bearing exercises, which are
frequently adopted by competitive runners and recreational
exercisers, respectively. Effects of such exercise training on
VO2max have been reported [7480], and such research on
similar protocol training methods is expected to determine
the effects on anaerobic energy-releasing systems.
Since Tabata training induces the expression of proteins
related not only to sports performance but also to health pro-
motion [44], more research on the possible effects of Tabata
Fig. 9 Effects of HIIE (: Tabata training exercise) and 30-min
moderate-intensity (70% VO2max) prolonged exercise (MIE) () on
the serum SPARC concentration in human subjects [66]. Values are
mean ± SD. *p < 0.05 vs. the pre-exercise values of the HIIE experi-
ments. #p < 0.05 vs. the pre-exercise values of the MIE. p < 0.05
between the HIIE and MIE at the same time points
570 The Journal of Physiological Sciences (2019) 69:559–572
1 3
training and other training that uses a Tabata protocol on
health outcomes is expected.
Tabata training is very demanding [33], and thus partici-
pation in Tabata training might be limited to highly moti-
vated athletes who are familiar with the scientific evidence
regarding Tabata training or are persuaded to engage in the
training by coaches who know the Tabata training research
findings. In a study of women who were simply recreation-
ally active, their perceived enjoyment of a weight-bearing
HIIT increased from pre- to post-training, suggesting that
chronic exposure to such training may elevate people’s
enjoyment of the training [78]. In addition, the dropout rate
in the Chuiesiri etal. study of obese pre-adolescent boys
[80] was quite low (6.3%), and Logan etal. reported a high
adherence rate among inactive volunteer adolescents to an
all-out-type HIIT using various types of weight bearing
exercise; 90% of their subjects completed the regimen [79].
These rates may indicate that the HIIT was tolerable and
positively accepted. However, the results of another inves-
tigation suggested that training at high intensities would be
rated as not enjoyable [81]. A psychological inquiry regard-
ing study subjects’ enjoyment of Tabata training is required.
The development of low-intensity training using a Tabata
protocol and training at the same intensity as that used in
Tabata training (7–8 sets) but with a smaller number (3–4
sets) of exercise bouts [82] is expected; with a lower-inten-
sity protocol, subjects would more easily enjoy the training.
As noted above, it also is necessary to investigate the
possible detrimental side effects of Tabata training and
other types of HIIT and to find solutions to prevent such
side effects by diet/supplements, other physical conditioning,
and/or other methods.
Lastly, in order to prescribe science-based training, more
basic research on HIIT involving Tabata training is required
to further delineate the mechanisms underlying the benefi-
cial effects of this training on both sport-oriented and health-
oriented outcomes, both of which contribute to improved
quality of life.
Conclusions
Our studies have demonstrated that 6- to 12-week Tabata
training increases the body’s VO2max by 9.2–15.0% and
the MAOD by 20.9–35.0% [13, 36, 44]. A 2018 review of
the Tabata protocol, which included various body-weight-
bearing exercises, indicates that the VO2max is elevated by
5–18% after the training lasting 4–12weeks [83]. The mag-
nitude of the elevation of the VO2max after Tabata train-
ing is similar to those of other HIIT and moderate-intensity
aerobic exercise training types [83]. 6-week Tabata training
increased the MAOD by 17–28% [13, 36, 44]. These values
are comparable to those obtained by other HIIT types [74,
75].
In conclusion, these improvements of both the aerobic
and anaerobic energy-releasing systems after Tabata train-
ing are comparable to those provided by conventional aero-
bic and anaerobic training, including other types of HIIT,
suggesting that Tabata training is useful to enhance sports
performances that depend on both the aerobic and anaerobic
energy-releasing systems for resynthesizing the ATP used
during the specific sports.
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... In addition, elite players displayed 41% higher distances in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 test (965 + 251 vs. 685 + 217 m; p < 0.05) in comparison to the sub-elite players, further demonstrating their abilities to perform under severe-intensity conditions (Ingebrigtsen et al., 2012). Vestberg et al. (2020) and Ingebrigtsen et al. both demonstrated how psychological and physiological abilities in soccer grow along with the level of competition, further warranting proper training protocols to maximize numerous performance attributes (Bangsbo, 2014;Jagim et al., 2017;Tabata, 2019). ...
... HIIT is a form of exercise centered on altering sets and recovery periods that vary between high and low intensities/volumes for specific periods (Feito et al., 2018). HIIT programs have been shown to improve aerobic and anaerobic capabilities in various populations, with additional neuromuscular benefits when incorporating resistance training (Feito, 2018;Tabata, 2019). Furthermore, HIIT can improve both aerobic and anaerobic conditioning in athletes, usually in less time than traditional cardiovascular training (Feito et al., 2018;Ribeiro et al., 2015;Rowan et al., 2012;Tabata, 2019). ...
... HIIT programs have been shown to improve aerobic and anaerobic capabilities in various populations, with additional neuromuscular benefits when incorporating resistance training (Feito, 2018;Tabata, 2019). Furthermore, HIIT can improve both aerobic and anaerobic conditioning in athletes, usually in less time than traditional cardiovascular training (Feito et al., 2018;Ribeiro et al., 2015;Rowan et al., 2012;Tabata, 2019). HIIT provides opportunities to train at different intensities and volumes, which reflect athletes' current physical and psychological abilities to work in high-stress environments and potentially improve fatigue resistance and recovery capabilities experienced during training and matchplay, further demonstrating its potential among soccer players (Bangsbo, 2014;Feito, 2018;Mohr & Iaia, 2018;Tabata, 2019). ...
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As performance and competition levels increase in soccer, so does the need for efficient training programs. High-intensity interval training is an effective exercise modality that can improve both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems, but its efficacy in well-trained soccer players is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a bodyweight high-intensity interval training program and its effects on critical velocity via a 50-meter 3-minute all-out test and maximal sprint speed by a 40-yard dash in well-trained soccer players during the competitive season. The experimental subjects performed a progressive series of exercises consisting of backward sprints, lower body plyometrics, and an alternating series of sprints/walking, twice per week for four consecutive weeks, in addition to their regular practice and match schedules. A 2 x 2 ANOVA was used for both performance tests, along with the smallest worthwhile change and smallest real difference to measure practical significance. No statistically significant differences were found between time or groups for the 40-yard dash or 50-m 3-minute all-out tests; however, significant small and trivial interactions were found, respectively. Considerable differences between both groups were also observed regarding the smallest worthwhile change and smallest real differences for both performance tests. The results obtained can serve as a practical option for strength and conditioning coaches to improve sprinting and critical velocity in well-trained soccer players within a four-week in-season training period, along with foundations for future replication or follow-up research to further determine the training program’s effectiveness.
... Besides traditional continuous training (CT), high intensity interval training (HIIT) has been gaining popularity in recent years. The HIIT is a training form with combinations of short high-intensity bursts at the training phase and low-intensity exercises at the interval phase (Gibala et al., 2012;Tabata, 2019;Moniz et al., 2020). Therefore, the HIIT intensity is determined by multiple factors including intensity, duration and exercise patterns at both training and interval phases (Gibala et al., 2012). ...
... Therefore, the HIIT intensity is determined by multiple factors including intensity, duration and exercise patterns at both training and interval phases (Gibala et al., 2012). According to the Tabata protocol, an optimal duration ratio of high-intensity training to lowintensity interval phase should be 2:1 for its maximized energetical effect (Tabata, 2019). ...
... The training protocols and intensities followed the guidelines of Buchheit and Laursen (Buchheit and Laursen, 2013), and exercise intervals followed Tabata's protocol (Tabata, 2019). ...
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Background: Comparisons between high intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous training (CT) regarding improvements of adolescents’ cardiac function are scarce and the preferred intensity for cardiac improvement with restricted myocardial damage remains unknown. This study conducted a 4-weeks training in male adolescent rats under moderate (MI) or high intensity (HI) HIIT and CT programs, aiming to discover and compare exercise-induced myocardial adaptations towards these two training methods. Methods: 39 male adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 4 weeks) were randomly assigned to high intensity HIIT (HI-HIIT, n = 8), moderate intensity HIIT (MI-HIIT, n = 8), high intensity CT (HI-CT, n = 8), moderate intensity CT (MI-CT, n = 8) and sedentary control (SC, n = 7) groups. Rats in training groups were trained for 4 weeks and echocardiography was performed at baseline and after the final training. Serum creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTn-T) and untargeted metabolomics analysis were measured from blood samples collected 24 h after the final training. Results: HIIT groups had greater cardiac output improvement than CT groups while no significant difference was found between the HI-HIIT and the MI-HIIT groups. HI-CT group showed higher serum CK-MB and cTn-T levels compared to MI-HIIT, MI-CT and control groups. Untargeted metabolomics analysis identified eleven HI-HIIT-related metabolites, five MI-HIIT-related metabolites and two HICT-related metabolites. The majority of the identified metabolites were phospholipid-related. Phosphatidylglyceride 18 level was significantly different between the HI-CT and MI-CT groups, and was negatively associated with cTn-T in CT groups. Conclusion: HIIT and CT improve cardiac function of adolescent rats while the HIIT demonstrates better improvement and less myocardial damage. High and moderate training intensities in HIIT exert similar cardiac benefits. HI-CT induced myocardial damage might be associated with serum phospholipids.
... Functional training can not only adapt to and conform to the training characteristics of various sports but also make adaptive adjustments according to the training content. All training is based on the purpose of actual combat and is summed up in functional training [6]. He believes the following: first, the ability of coordination in sports is the basis of left and right training; training movements is not to train muscles but to train movement skills, and then, train special sports skills. ...
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Baseball itself is a new sport. In the process of training, teachers often use traditional training methods, which leads to unsatisfactory training results. High-intensity intermittent and intensive interval training can better improve the efficiency of athletes’ oxidation and energy supply and ultimately play a positive role in improving athletes’ performance. This paper takes the influence of high-intensity and intensive interval training on the special endurance of baseball players as the research object. A series of functional training programs are developed through adaptive training, testing, coordination training, and recovery training. Through the use of experimental means to understand the influence of high-intensity interval training and intensive interval training on the physical fitness of baseball players, the paper is aimed at providing ways and means to improve the physical fitness level of baseball players in the future. Based on the experimental test data, functional training is different from traditional training methods to make up for the lack of training research. It is to improve the competitive ability of our baseball players and promote the development of our baseball. It plays an active role in improving the specific endurance, speed, and intermittent endurance of baseball players.
... All exercise sessions included a 10-min low-to-moderate warm-up, a 4-min maximal work-out, and a 5-min cool-down and stretching. The Tabata style HIIE protocol included 4 movements (jumping jacks, high knees, squat jumps, and mountain climbers in sequence) with subjects using their own body weight based on the Tabata training recommendations [54]. During the 20 s exercise period, participants were encouraged to work maximally and to repeat the movements as many times as possible, and then rest for 10 s. ...
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... Dayanıklılık Antrenmanı CMJ: Dikey Sıçrama SLJ: Durarak Uzun Atlama bpm: Nabız Hızı RHR: Dinlenme Kalp Atış Hızı rpm: Dakikadaki Devir Sayısı Bla: Kan Laktat Konsantrasyonu AT: Anaerobik Eşik BF(%): Vücut Yağ YüzdesiSubmaksimal bir egzersiz yoğunluğunda, anaerobik enerji salan sistemden gelen enerji yalnızca egzersizin başlangıcında sağlandığından, bu sistemin göreceli katkısı düşüktür. Buna karşılık, anaerobik enerji salma sistemi, sırasıyla 119, 146 ve %186 VO2max supramaksimal yoğunlukta kapsamlı egzersizler sırasında toplam enerji talebine 35, 53 ve %70 oranları gibi önemli ölçüde katkıda bulunur(Tabata, 2019). ...
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... The physiological effects of circuit resistance exercise have been verified by several studies [16][17][18][19]. Tabata et al. [20] reported that high-intensity exercise can help to prevent colorectal cancer by enhancing the secretion and elevating the blood concentration of myokines. It is therefore necessary to examine the effect of high-intensity circuit resistance exercise (HCRE) on FBCSs. ...
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Questions remain about whether resistance exercise has a positive effect on immune and inflammatory cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of high-intensity circuit resistance exercise (HCRE) on inflammation and immune cells, and physical fitness, of female breast cancer survivors (FBCSs). Thirty FBCSs were randomly assigned to the HCRE (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. HRCE was administered for 50 min a day, 2–3 times a week, for 12 weeks. The control group only performed activities of daily living during the study period. Baseline and post-intervention measures included body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, reaction time, balance, inflammation, and immune cell measurements. The results showed that HCRE improved body mass index, body fat, muscle mass, grip strength, back muscle strength, sit-up, whole-body reaction, standing on one leg with eyes closed, Y-balance test, and NKCA in FBCSs. The improvement of physical strength and immune cells of FBCSs was achieved using the 12-week HRCE program. Future studies must analyze various exercise intensities and types, and should be conducted on other cancer survivors. In addition, strategies should be developed to allow FBCSs to participate in resistance training.
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This study aims to prove the effect of an exercise protocol on the percentage of body fat tested in obese women. The samples of this study were 16 women, aged 19-21 years, had a Body Mass Index (BMI) = 25.0-29.9 kg/m² according to the Asia Pacific criteria. The sample was taken from the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education (FIP), Surabaya State University (UNESA). This type of research uses a pre-experimental research design with "the one group pretest-posttest group design". This research was conducted for 4 weeks with the implementation of exercise 1 week 5 times. Body fat percentage was measured using a Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) SECA medical Body Composition Analyzer (mBCA) which has a type specification of 514. The mean results and standard deviation of the pretest were 42.31±3.74%; posttest 41.24±4.03%, paired t-test results obtained p= 0.000, and the percentage of delta (%∆) experienced a decrease in body fat percentage 2.57±2.16%. The conclusion of this study shows the effect of tabata body weight training in reducing body fat percentage in obese women.Key words: Tabata, Body weight training, Obesity
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We measured and compared the diet-induced increase in resting oxygen uptake (DIIROU) after moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) with the DIIROU after high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE). Eight healthy adult males participated in six testing sessions, including the measurement of resting oxygen uptake with and without lunch after MIE, HIIE, and as a non-exercise control. The MIE was 30 min of exercise at an intensity of 70% V ・ O 2 max, and the HIIE consisted of seven to eight 20 second bouts of exhaustive exercise at 170% V ・ O 2 max with 10-sec rests between the bouts. The exercise time of the HIIE for the no-lunch (fasting) experiment (144.1 ± 10.0 sec) was not significantly different from that for the lunch experiment (142.8 ± 10.3 sec). Lunch (713 kcal) was served for the lunch experiment at 12:00, which corresponds to ~1.5 hr after each exercise. Compared to the non-exercise control results, the accumulated oxygen uptake (AOU) of the MIE and HIIE were significantly higher from the end of the exercise until 11:30 (p < 0.001). However, no difference in AOU was noted from 11:30 to 12:00 between the control and MIE or HIIE results, suggesting that excess post-exercise oxygen consumption wore off before 12:00. The values of DIIROU (quantified as the difference in AOU between the lunch and fasting experiment from 12:00 to 16:00) after HIIE, MIE, and the non-exercise control were 132.7 ± 37.2, 102.8 ± 48.0, and 77.8 ± 40.7 ml/kg, respectively. The ΔDIIROU for the MIE (25.0 ± 17.8 ml/kg) calculated as the difference in DIIROU from the non-exercise control was significantly less than that of the HIIE (55.0 ± 25.4 ml/kg) (p < 0.01). These results may indicate that MIE potentiates a diet-induced increase in resting oxygen uptake , even though this effect was less than that of HIIE and was quantitatively small.
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Abstract High-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIIT) has been proposed as an effective approach for improving both, the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity. However, the detailed molecular response of the skeletal muscle to HIIT remains unknown. We examined the effects of the HIIT on the global gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. Eleven young healthy men participated in the study and completed a 6-week HIIT program involving exhaustive 6–7 sets of 20-s cycling periods with 10-s rests. In addition to determining the maximal oxygen uptake ($${\dot{{\rm{V}}}{\rm{O}}}_{2{\rm{\max }}}$$ V˙O2max ), maximal accumulated oxygen deficit, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after the training to analyse the skeletal muscle transcriptome. The HIIT program significantly increased the $${\dot{{\rm{V}}}{\rm{O}}}_{2{\rm{\max }}}$$ V˙O2max , maximal accumulated oxygen deficit, and thigh muscle CSA. The expression of 79 genes was significantly elevated (fold-change >1.2), and that of 73 genes was significantly reduced (fold-change
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Apply It: From this article, the reader should understand the following concepts: Tell the difference between a fad and a trend. Apply and use worldwide trends in the commercial, corporate, clinical (including medical fitness), and community health fitness industry. Read expert opinions about identified fitness trends for 2018.
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Background: High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. Methods: Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups. Both exercise groups performed exercises on a cycle ergometer three times/week for 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, both HIIT and supra-HIIT did not affect body mass, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) increased in both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (p < 0.05). Both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups had higher resting metabolic rate than the control group (p < 0.05). A measure of arterial stiffness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness decreased after 12 weeks of HIIT and supra-HIIT program (all p < 0.05). Flow-mediated dilation, a measure of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased in both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that both HIIT and supra-HIIT have favorable effects on aerobic capacity, metabolic rate, vascular function and structure, and blood lipid profile in obese preadolescent boys. HIIT may be a time efficient and effective exercise for preventing future cardiovascular disease in obese children.
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It is usually reported that the Tabata protocol (TP) is performed with eight bouts of 20:10 intervals at a load equivalent to 170% of iV̇O2max. However, the feasibility of accumulating 160 s of work at 170% iV̇O2max has been questioned. This article tested the intensity that would allow the performance of the original TP on a cycle ergometer, and measured the highest value of oxygen consumption (V̇O2) obtained during the TP and the time spent above 90% of the maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) during the TP performed at different intensities. Thirteen young active males (25.9 ± 5.5 years, 67.9 ± 9.2 kg, 1.70 ± 0.06 m, 23.6 ± 3.1 kg·m-2) participated in the study. Participants performed a graded exertion test (GXT) on a cycle ergometer to obtain maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and the intensity associated with V̇O2max (iV̇O2max). V̇O2, maximal heart rate (HRmax), and number of bouts performed were evaluated during the TP performed at 115%, 130%, and 170% of i V̇O2max. V̇O2max, HRmax, and iV̇O2max were 51.8 ± 8.0 mL.kg-1·min-1, 186 ± 10 bpm, and 204 ± 26 W, respectively. The number of bouts performed at 115% (7 ± 1 bouts) was higher than at 130% (5 ± 1 bouts) and 170% (4 ± 1 bouts) (p < .0001). The highest V̇O2 achieved at 115%, 130%, and 170% of iV̇O2max was 54.2 ± 7.9 mL·kg-1·min-1, 52.5 ± 8.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, and 49.6 ± 7.5 mL·kg-1·min-1, respectively. Non significant difference was found between the highest V̇O2 achieved at different intensities, however qualitative magnitude-inference indicate a likely small effect between 115% and 170% of iVO2max. Time spent above 90% of the V̇O2max during the TP at 115% (50 ± 48 s) was higher than 170% (23 ± 21 s; p < 0.044) with a probably small effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that the adequate intensity to perform a similar number of bouts in the original TP is lower than previously proposed, and equivalent to 115% of the iV̇O2max. In addition, intensities between 115 and 130% of the iV̇O2max should be used to raise the time spent above 90% V̇O2max.
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Purpose: Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. Methods: In the animal study, forty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60min at 30m/min, 5days/wk for 8weeks), RT (ladder-climbing, 8-10sets/day, 3days/wk for 8weeks), and HIIT (14repeats of 20-sec swimming session with 10-sec pause between sessions, 4days/wk for 6weeks from 12-week-old) groups (n=10 in each group). In the human study, we confirmed the effects of 6-week HIIT and 8-week AT interventions on central arterial stiffness and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level in untrained healthy young men in randomized controlled trial (HIIT, AT, and CON; n=7 in each group). Results: In the animal study, the effect on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), as an index of central arterial stiffness, following HIIT was the same as the decrease in aortic PWV and increase in arterial eNOS/Akt phosphorylation following AT, which was not changed by RT. Negative correlation between aortic PWV and eNOS phosphorylation was observed (r=-0.38, p<0.05). In the human study, HIIT- and AT-induced changes in carotid-femoral PWV (HIIT -115.3±63.4 and AT -157.7±45.7 vs. CON 71.3±61.1 m/sec, each p<0.05) decreased, and plasma NOx level increased compared with those in CON. Conclusion: HIIT may reduce central arterial stiffness via the increase in aortic NO bioavailability despite short time and short term and has the same effects as AT.