ArticlePDF Available

Coffee and Skin: What do We Know About it?

  • Ankara Bilkent City Hospital


Content may be subject to copyright.
offee, one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, can
trace its heritage back to the eighth century AD.1,2 Before it was com-
monly consumed on a daily basis, coffee had been used for medici-
nal purposes and regarded as a luxurious drink feasible only to upper-class.3
Coffee intake varies according to lifestyle and demographic factors.4Lastly
it has been reported that over 2.5 billion cups of coffee are consumed world-
Coffee and Skin:
What do We Know About it?
AABBSS TTRRAACCTT Coffee is one of the world's most popular drinks. It is only an inspirational morning re-
freshment for some, but for others it has become a lifestyle beverage with a global consumption of
billions cups per day. Because of its popularity, coffee has often been proposed to be able to prevent
health problems and has attracted a great deal of research over the years. Although there has been
limited research evaluating the effectiveness of coffee in ameliorating certain health conditions,
there is a compelling evidence that coffee consumption has potential benefits for a variety of chronic
diseases. Recent studies have confirmed that moderate amount of coffee consumption might have
a role in protection against type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's
disease, depression, cognitive impairment, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, prostate
cancer, endometrial cancer, liver cancer, leukemia and cardiovascular diseases, including hyper-
tension, coronary heart disease and venous thromboembolism. In dermatological point of view,
currently there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that caffeine and other nutrients con-
tained in coffee may protect against melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Moreover, as the
new data on coffee and health continues to get emerged, it is getting clear that coffee is also effec-
tive in inflammatory disease prevention, including inflammatory skin diseases. In this review, we
focused on recent evidence about coffee and dermatological diseases and aimed to explore the link
between coffee and melanoma/ non-melanoma skin cancers, psoriasis and rosacea.
KKeeyywwoorrddss:: Coffee; melanoma; non-melanoma skin cancer; psoriasis; rosacea
ÖÖZZEETT Kahve dünyada en fazla tüketilen içecekler arasında yer alır. Kahve bazıları için sadece bir
sabah uyaranı olabilir, ancak bazıları içinse günlük global tüketimi milyarlarla ölçülen bir hayat
tarzı içeceğidir. Popularitesi nedeniyle, kahvenin sıklıkla sağlık problemlerini önlediği ileri sürül-
müş ve kahve yıllar içerisinde çok sayıda araştırmanın başlıca konularından biri olmuştur. Her ne
kadar, kahvenin bazı hastalıkları iyileştirmesindeki etkinliği ile ilgili ortaya konmuş yeterli veri
yoksa da, günümüzde kahvenin çok sayıda kronik hastalığın önlenmesinde faydalı olduğunu gös-
teren kayda değer veriler bulunmaktadır. Son yıllarda yapılan çalışmalar, makul düzeyde kahve tü-
ketiminin tip 2 diyabet, metabolik sendrom, Parkinson hastalığı, Alzheimer hastalığı, depresyon,
kognitif bozukluklar, kronik karaciğer hastalığı, kronik böbrek hastalığı, prostat kanseri, endomet-
rium kanseri, karaciğer kanseri, lösemi ve hipertansiyon, koroner arter hastalığı ve venöz trombo-
embolizmi de içeren kardiyovasküler hastalıklara karşı koruyucu rol oynayabileceğini göstermiştir.
Dermatolojik açıdansa, kahvede bulunan kafein ve diğer bileşenlerin melanoma ve melanom dışı
deri kanserlerine karşı koruyucu olduğunu gösteren veriler gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Dahası, kahve
ve sağlıkla ilgili yeni veriler ortaya çıktıkça, kahvenin inflamatuar deri hastalıkları da dahil olmak
üzere, inflamatuar hastalıkların önlenmesinde etkili olduğu daha anlaşılır düzeye ulaşmış bulun-
maktadır. Bu derlemede, kahve ve deri hastalıkları ile ilgili güncel literatüre odaklandık ve kahve
ile melanom, melanom dışı deri kanseri, psöriazis ve rozaseanın ilişkisini irdelemeyi hedefledik.
AAnnaahh ttaarr KKee llii mmee lleerr::Kahve; melanom; melanom dışı deri kanseri; psöriazis; rozasea
aClinic of Dermatology,
Ankara Numune Training and
Research Hospital,
Ankara, TURKEY
Re ce i ved: 14.03.2019
Ac cep ted: 05.04.2019
Available online: 09.04.2019
Cor res pon den ce:
Ankara Numune Training and
Research Hospital,
Clinic of Dermatology, Ankara,
Cop yright © 2019 by Tür ki ye Kli nik le ri
DERLEME DOI: 10.5336/dermato.2019-66044
wide each day.5Coffee literally has potential im-
plications on human health and some debates exist
regarding the association of coffee consumption
with certain health conditions. Recent studies have
shown that coffee decreases the risk of metabolic
syndrome, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease,
Parkinson’s disease, gallstone disease, prostate can-
cer, endometrial cancer, liver cancer, leukemia,
cirrhosis, gout, renal stones and depression and re-
duces overall mortality (Table 1). On the other
hand, there are studies describing a possible asso-
ciation between coffee consumption and increased
risk of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, gastric can-
cer, endometriosis, rheumatoid arthritis and frac-
ture in women (Table 2).1,2,5-10
Coffee contains a wide array of compounds,
including the major component, caffeine. Caffeine
is well-known to be associated with a range of
physiological effects, specifically on cardiovascular
system. Since caffeine has the ability to increase
blood pressure, coffee intake has been captured at-
tention with safety concerns about cardiovascular-
related risks. Nevertheless, contemporary studies
have revealed that caffeine intake lowers the ove-
rall mortality from all causes of cardiovascular di-
sease rather than increasing it. Beneficial or noxi-
ous associations of coffee intake seem to vary bet-
ween health outcomes of interest. Though, there is
a presumed evidence of coffee intake has favorable
effects for a variety of conditions.1,2,5-10 In this re-
view, we will outline contemporary evidence-
based knowledge in the context of association of
coffee with dermatological diseases, in particular,
melanoma/non-melanoma skin cancers, psoriasis
and rosacea.
Regarded as the most widely consumed psychoac-
tive drug in the world, caffeine, naturally found in
leaves or beans of coffee and tea, also in cocoa
beans. Caffeine can provide a boost in alertness/
mood and counteract feelings of “low-energy”. Caf-
feine is a methylxanthine, of which primary mec-
hanisms of action have been defined as antagonism
at the level of adenosine receptors and inhibition
of phosphodiesterases. Adenosine is an important
biological mediator and adenosine receptors are
expressed throughout the body. Via antagonizing
adenosine receptors, caffeine increases plasma con-
centration of circulating catecholamines, which
consequently results in increased peripheral resis-
tance and raised blood pressure.11-13
There is a growing literature indicating that caf-
feine may protect against melanoma and non-me-
lanoma skin cancers.14-26 In coffee, although there
are other potential anticancer ingredients other
than caffeine, caffeine is one of the mostly researc-
hed compounds in chemopreventive power of cof-
fee. Caffeine exerts its antiproliferative and
anti-carcinogenic action via regulating cell growth,
development and apoptosis. It has been shown that
caffeine has sunscreen effect, reduces sunburn le-
sions in the epidermis and inhibits ultraviolet
(UV)-induced carcinogenesis by suppressing for-
mation of thymine dimers. Caffeine increases eli-
mination of damaged precancerous cells and
Ahu YORULMAZ Turkiye Klinikleri J Dermatol. 2019;29(1):31-5
Lowers risk of type 2 diabetes/ metabolic syndrome
Reduces risk of Parkinson’s disease
Protects against cirrhosis/ chronic liver disease/ gallstones
Protects against chronic kidney disease/ renal stones
Decreases risk of liver cancer
Decreases risk of endometrial cancer
Lowers risk of leukemia
Reduces risk of prostate cancer
Decreases risk of depression
Reduces mortality
TABLE 1: Some beneficial health outcomes of
coffee consumption.
Increases risk of lung cancer
Increases risk of fracture in women
Increases rik of laryngeal cancer
Increases risk of rheumatoid arthritis
Increases risk of gastric cancer
Increases risk of endometriosis
TABLE 2: Some harmful associations of drinking coffee.
apoptosis in tumors. Caffeine modulates cell cycle
and increases UV-induced apoptosis through p53-
dependent and p53-independent biological path-
ways. Data from recent studies have revealed an
inhibitory effect of caffeine on the proliferation of
both melanoma and nonmelanoma cell lines.14-26
The anti-carcinogenic potential of coffee in skin
cancer is not only linked with caffeine. Dietary
polyphenols contained in coffee are known to in-
hibit carcinogenesis because they have antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee is known
to contain a diverse kind of chemicals, including
carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, nitroge-
nous and phenolic compounds. The main polyphe-
nols in coffee are phenolic acids (i.e., chlorogenic
acids) and flavonoids (i.e., catechins). A certain
amount of evidence exists regarding the consump-
tion of polyphenols has the potential to protect aga-
inst various oxidative-stress related diseases.
Polyphenols decrease oxidative stress by trapping
free radicals. Recent studies have shown that the
coffee bioactives enhance glutathione levels and
offer protection against DNA damage. Moreover,
beside their antioxidant activity, polyphenols are
known to inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting
cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Polyphenols modulate
the activity of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzy-
mes including, COX. It has been demonstrated that
polyphenols suppresses UVB-induced COX-2 exp-
ression and prostaglandin E2 levels.6,14,18,19,26-29
Other than protection against UV-induced carci-
nogenesis, the potential preventive effects of polyp-
henols against inflammatory skin diseases has also
raised great interest in recent years. A diet rich in
polyphenols is known to be associated with redu-
ced risk of developing chronic inflammatory disea-
ses. Psoriasis shares immunologic features with
other human autoimmune inflammatory conditi-
ons. Recent studies have offered support that
polyphenols may modulate inflammatory media-
tors and cell-mediated immunity responses in pso-
riatic patients, since they have anti-inflammatory,
antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Cof-
fee reduces the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6,
tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive pro-
tein (CRP) levels while increasing anti-inflamma-
tory markers, including adiponectin, IL-4 and
IL-10 levels. One of the most important polyphe-
nols, chlorogenic acid, exerts strong anti-inflam-
matory effects via inhibiting COX-2/ Nuclear
factor-kappaB pathway, consequently inhibiting
pro-inflammatory mediators synthesis and release,
especially TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon (IFN)-
γ). Moreover, another polyphenol, caffeic acid, also
known to inhibit inflammation by decreasing nit-
rite levels.30-32
The link between coffee and psoriasis is not
only based on the anti-inflammatory effects of
polyphenols. Caffeine is also known to have im-
munomodulatory and anti-inflammatory proper-
ties. The role of caffeine in immunosuppression has
been defined as the suppression of the release of
pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th1/Th2 cell pro-
liferation. Caffeine reduces the migration of mo-
nocytes and neutrophils. It has been shown that
higher caffeine consumption was associated with
reduced inflammasome activation. Caffeine in-
creases the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines
including IL-10 and decreases the release of pro-
inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-2 and
IFN-γ. Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist
inhibiting phosphodiesterases. Caffeine adminis-
tration increases Cyclic Adenosine MonoPhosp-
hate (cAMP) levels, which also has immuno-
modulatory properties, since it is known to in-
crease the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines
and immune cells.32,33
Other than caffeine and polyphenols, coffee also
contains numerous components that may also con-
tribute towards its antioxidant, immunomodula-
tory and anti-inflammatory effects.6However,
Ahu YORULMAZ Turkiye Klinikleri J Dermatol. 2019;29(1):31-5
there is not any solid data so far about the preven-
tive potential of other components of coffee aga-
inst further skin diseases. Rosacea represents a
dilemma among dermatological diseases in that it
tends to be aggravated with coffee consumption.
Until recent years, the aggravating potential of cof-
fee in rosacea has been linked with the thermal
heat of the beverages.34,35 On the other hand, there
has been a growing debate about whether the caf-
feine or the temperature of the coffee is the actual
culprit for exacerbation of rosacea.34-36 The fact that
increased risk of rosacea is also linked with caffeine
containing beverages that are lukewarm or cool in
temperature, has brought the idea of the associa-
tion of caffeine and rosacea is not only heat rela-
ted.36 Moreover, paradoxically, in a recent study it
has been shown that increased caffeine intake from
coffee is conversely associated with the risk of ro-
sacea in women.37
Caffeine is a methylxanthine, which increases
intracellular calcium stimulating the production of
nitric oxide (NO). NO is a mediator of vasodilation
in blood vessels. Caffeine is an adenosine receptor
antagonist, affects cAMP levels by inhibiting
phosphodiesterases. Administration of caffeine re-
sults in an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation.
Caffeine plays a central role in activation of
sympathetic nerves and mediation of skin vasodi-
latation. Increased sympathetic excitability and va-
sodilatation are assumed to be implicated in the
development of flushing and subcutaneous telan-
giectasia in rosacea.34-36,39
The pathogenesis of rosacea still remains un-
clear. Abnormal neurovascular signaling is presu-
med to be one of the key constituents of the
pathogenesis. But other than neurovascular
dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation, a condition
induced by sensory nerves via antidromically re-
leased neuromediators, represents a prominent
etiological factor in rosacea development.39,40 The
conflicting results from large population-based stu-
dies have led to reconsideration of limiting of caf-
feine intake in rosacea.36,37 Components in coffee
are known to have potent antioxidant, anti-in-
flammatory and immunomodulatory effetcs. It is
still under consideration whether coffee has the
potential to ameliorate the symptoms of rosacea.36,37
There are evident effects of coffee on human
physiology in that it contains thousands of bioac-
tive components. Moreover, it is known that some
of these constituents have the potential to produce
unique health effects that could be different to ef-
fects of the same constituent from other sources.1
Over the years, conflicting findings and concerns
have arisen from the studies investigating associa-
tion of coffee intake with certain health conditi-
ons. Until now, studies oftenly focused on the
mostly well-known components of coffee. Some
components, for instance, caffeine and polyphe-
nols, both have antioxidant, immunomodulatory
and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, these bi-
ochemical ingredients display additive action in re-
gard to chemoprevention of diseases. However, due
to the myriad of compounds, coffee may have both
health promoting but, in some circumstances, un-
desirable effects to health.1,2,5-10 Not only large-scale
population based studies, but also biological and
molecular studies are needed to assess the poten-
tial benefits and impact of coffee intake on human
During this study, no financial or spiritual support was received
neither from any pharmaceutical company that has a direct
connection with the research subject, nor from a company that
provides or produces medical instruments and materials which
may negatively affect the evaluation process of this study.
No conflicts of interest between the authors and / or family
members of the scientific and medical committee members or
members of the potential conflicts of interest, counseling, ex-
pertise, working conditions, share holding and similar situa-
tions in any firm.
This study is entirely author's own work and no other author
Ahu YORULMAZ Turkiye Klinikleri J Dermatol. 2019;29(1):31-5
Ahu YORULMAZ Turkiye Klinikleri J Dermatol. 2019;29(1):31-5
1. Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA,
Hayes PC, Parkes J. Coffee consumption and
health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of mul-
tiple health outcomes. BMJ. 2017;359:j5024.
2. Whayne TF Jr. Coffee: a selected overview of
beneficial or harmful effects on the cardiovascular
system? Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2015;13(5):637-
48. [Crossref]
3. Fredholm BB. Notes on the history of caffeine
use. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2011;1(200):1-9.
[Crossref] [PubMed]
4. Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Dodd KW, Vogtmann
E, Xiao Q, Sinha R, et al. Coffee drinking is wide-
spread in the United States, but usual intake
varies by key demographicand lifestyle factors. J
Nutr. 2016;146(9):1762-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
5. Weisse AB. Coffee: grounds for concern?
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2015;28(1):122-3.
6. Bae JH, Park JH, Im SS, Song DK. Coffee and
health. Integr Med Res. 2014;3(4):189-91. [Cross-
ref] [PubMed] [PMC]
7. Grosso G, Godos J, Galvano F, Giovannucci EL.
Coffee, caffeine, and health outcomes: an um-
brella review. Annu Rev Nutr. 2017;37:131-56.
[Crossref] [PubMed]
8. Cano-Marquina A, Tarín JJ, Cano A. The impact
of coffee on health. Maturitas. 2013;75(1):7-21.
[Crossref] [PubMed]
9. Nieber K. The impact of coffee on health. Planta
Med. 2017;83(16):1256-63. [Crossref] [PubMed]
10. Alicandro G, Tavani A, La Vecchia C. Coffee and
cancer risk: a summary overview. Eur J Cancer
Prev. 2017;26(5):424-32. [Crossref] [PubMed]
11. Temple JL, Bernard C, Lipshultz SE, Czachor JD,
Westphal JA, Mestre MA. The safety of ingested
caffeine: a comprehensive review. Front Psychia-
try. 2017;8(1):80. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
12. Franco R, Oñatibia-Astibia A, Martínez-Pinilla E.
Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao
and chocolate. Nutrients. 2013;5(10):4159-73.
[Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
13. Spaeth AM, Goel N, Dinges DF. Cumulative neu-
robehavioral and physiological effects of chronic
caffeine intake: individual differences and impli-
cations for the use of caffeinated energy products.
Nutr Rev. 2014;72 Suppl 1:34-47. [Crossref]
14. Caini S, Cattaruzza MS, Bendinelli B, Tosti G,
Masala G, Gnagnarella P, et al. Coffee, tea and
caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin
cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analy-
sis. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(1):1-12. [Crossref]
15. Wu S, Han J, Song F, Cho E, Gao X, Hunter DJ,
et al. Caffeine intake, coffee consumption, and
risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Epidemi-
ology. 2015;26(6):898-908. [Crossref] [PubMed]
16. Lukic M, Jareid M, Weiderpass E, Braaten T. Cof-
fee consumption and the risk of malignant
melanoma in the Norwegian Women and Cancer
(NOWAC) Study. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:562.
[Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
17. Conney AH, Lu YP, Lou YR, Kawasumi M,
Nghiem P. Mechanisms of caffeine-induced inhi-
bition of UVB carcinogenesis. Front Oncol.
2013;3:144. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
18. Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Graubard BI, Hollen-
beck AR, Shebl FM, Mayne ST, et al. Coffee
drinking and cutaneous melanoma risk in the NIH-
AARP diet and health study. J Natl Cancer Inst.
2015;107(2). [Crossref]
19. Liu J, Shen B, Shi M, Cai J. Higher caffeinated
coffee intake is associated with reduced malignant
melanoma risk: a meta-analysis study. PLoS One.
2016;11(1):e0147056. [Crossref]
20. Ferrucci LM, Cartmel B, Molinaro AM, Leffell DJ,
Bale AE, Mayne ST. Tea, coffee, and caffeine and
early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control
study. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014;23(4):296-302.
[Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
21. Song F, Qureshi AA, Han J. Increased caffeine in-
take is associated with reduced risk of basal cell
carcinoma of the skin. Cancer Res.
2012;72(13):3282-9. [Crossref] [PubMed]
22. Oh CC, Jin A, Yuan JM, Koh WP. Coffee, tea, caf-
feine, and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a
Chinese population: The Singapore Chinese
Health Study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2019 Feb 4.
[Epub ahead of print]. [Crossref]
23. Micek A, Godos J, Lafranconi A, Marranzano M,
Pajak A. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee
consumption and melanoma risk: a dose-re-
sponse meta-analysis of prospective cohort stud-
ies. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018;69(4):417-26.
[Crossref] [PubMed]
24. Wang J, Li X, Zhang D. Coffee consumption and
the risk of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis.
Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(4):1317-29. [Crossref]
25. Vaseghi G, Haghjoo-Javanmard S, Naderi J,
Eshraghi A, Mahdavi M, Mansourian M. Coffee
consumption and risk of nonmelanoma skin can-
cer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer
Prev. 2018;27(2):164-70. [Crossref] [PubMed]
26. Fortes C, Mastroeni S, Boffetta P, Antonelli G,
Pilla MA, Bottà G, et al. The protective effect of
coffee consumption on cutaneous melanoma risk
and the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymor-
phisms. Cancer Causes Control.
2013;24(10):1779-87. [Crossref] [PubMed]
27. Kang NJ, Lee KW, Shin BJ, Jung SK, Hwang MK,
Bode AM, et al. Caffeic acid, a phenolic phyto-
chemical in coffee, directly inhibits Fyn kinase ac-
tivity and UVB-induced COX-2 expression. Car-
cinogenesis. 2009;30(2):321-30. [Crossref]
[PubMed] [PMC]
28. Wang Y, Ho CT. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea
and coffee: a century of progress. J Agric Food
Chem. 2009;57(18):8109-14. [Crossref] [PubMed]
29. Yamagata K. Do coffee polyphenols have a pre-
ventive action on metabolic syndrome associated
endothelial dysfunctions? An assessment of the
current evidence. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(2).
30. Andújar I, Recio MC, Giner RM, Ríos JL. Cocoa
polyphenols and their potential benefits for human
health. Oxid Med Cell Longev.
2012;2012:906252. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
31. Działo M, Mierziak J, Korzun U, Preisner M, Szopa
J, Kulma A. The potential of plant phenolics in pre-
vention and therapy of skin disorders. Int J Mol Sci.
2016;17(2):160. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
32. Barrea L, Muscogiuri G, Di Somma C, Annunzi-
ata G, Megna M, Falco A, et al. Coffee consump-
tion, metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of
psoriasis: good or bad stuff? Arch Toxicol.
2018;92(5):1831-45. [Crossref] [PubMed]
33. Sharif K, Watad A, Bragazzi NL, Adawi M, Amital
H, Shoenfeld Y. Coffee and autoimmunity: more
than a mere hot beverage! Autoimmun Rev.
2017;16(7):712-21. [Crossref]
34. Clatici VG, Satolli F, Tatu AL, Voicu C, Draganita
AMV, Lotti T. Butterfly effect-the concept and the
ımplications in dermatology, acne, and rosacea.
Maedica (Buchar). 2018;13(2):89-94.
35. Steinhoff M, Buddenkotte J, Aubert J, Sulk M,
Novak P, Schwab VD, et al. Clinical, cellular, and
molecular aspects in the pathophysiology of
rosacea. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc.
2011;15(1):2-11. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
36. Yuan X, Huang X, Wang B, Huang YX, Zhang YY,
Tang Y, et al. Relationship between rosacea and
dietary factors: a multicenter retrospective case-
control survey. J Dermatol. 2019;46(3):219-25.
[Crossref] [PubMed]
37. Li S, Chen ML, Drucker AM, Cho E, Geng H,
Qureshi AA, et al. Association of caffeine intake
and caffeinated coffee consumption with risk of in-
cident rosacea in women. JAMA Dermatol.
2018;154(12):1394-400. [Crossref] [PubMed]
38. Echeverri D, Montes FR, Cabrera M, Galán A, Pri-
eto A. Caffeine’s vascular mechanisms of action.
Int J Vasc Med. 2010;2010(1):834060. [Crossref]
39. Schwab VD, Sulk M, Seeliger S, Nowak P, Aubert
J, Mess C, et al. Neurovascular and neuroimmune
aspects in the pathophysiology of rosacea. J In-
vestig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2011;15(1):53-62.
[Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
40. Ahn CS, Huang WW. Rosacea pathogenesis.
Dermatol Clin. 2018;36(2):81-6. [Crossref]
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Acne and Rosacea are chronic inflammatory skin diseases with an increasing frequency and an important negative impact on the quality of life, which are associated with a large number of false myths regarding causes and treatment. The butterfly effect is associated with chaos theory, and it is a concept originated in meteorology, which represents the dependence on initial conditions.
Full-text available
Despite the wide consumption of coffee, its anti-inflammatory effect on clinical severity of psoriasis is still debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the coffee consumption and clinical severity of psoriasis in a sample of patients stratified according to the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and smoking. This cross-sectional case–control observational study was conducted on 221 treatment-naïve psoriatic patients. Lifestyle habits, anthropometric measures, clinical and biochemical evaluations were obtained. Clinical severity of psoriasis was assessed by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Data on energy caloric intake and coffee consumption were collected using a 7-day food diary record. The coffee consumption was analyzed as coffee intake (consumers and non-consumers) and daily servings (range 0–4 servings/day). Coffee consumers have a lower PASI score vs non-consumers (p < 0.001). The lowest PASI score and MetS prevalence were found in patients consuming 3 cups of coffee/day (p < 0.001), which was also the most common daily serving (34.8%), whereas the highest PASI score was found among those drinking ≥ 4 cups/day. Grouping the case patients according to smoking and MetS, the best odds of PASI score was observed in those drinking 3 cups of coffee per day and no smokers, after adjusting for total energy intake (OR 74.8; p < 0.001). As a novel finding, we reported a negative association between coffee intake, MetS prevalence and clinical severity of psoriasis. The evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of coffee on clinical severity of psoriasis, whose metabolic risk increases along with its clinical severity, could be of great importance from a public health perspective.
Full-text available
Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.
Full-text available
Objectives To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Design Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome. Data sources PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings. Studies of genetic polymorphisms for coffee metabolism were excluded. Results The umbrella review identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique health outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of interventional research with nine unique outcomes. Coffee consumption was more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across exposures including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. There was evidence of a non-linear association between consumption and some outcomes, with summary estimates indicating largest relative risk reduction at intakes of three to four cups a day versus none, including all cause mortality (relative risk 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.88), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.72 to 0.90), and cardiovascular disease (0.85, 0.80 to 0.90). High versus low consumption was associated with an 18% lower risk of incident cancer (0.82, 0.74 to 0.89). Consumption was also associated with a lower risk of several specific cancers and neurological, metabolic, and liver conditions. Harmful associations were largely nullified by adequate adjustment for smoking, except in pregnancy, where high versus low/no consumption was associated with low birth weight (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.67), preterm birth in the first (1.22, 1.00 to 1.49) and second (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22) trimester, and pregnancy loss (1.46, 1.06 to 1.99). There was also an association between coffee drinking and risk of fracture in women but not in men. Conclusion Coffee consumption seems generally safe within usual levels of intake, with summary estimates indicating largest risk reduction for various health outcomes at three to four cups a day, and more likely to benefit health than harm. Robust randomised controlled trials are needed to understand whether the observed associations are causal. Importantly, outside of pregnancy, existing evidence suggests that coffee could be tested as an intervention without significant risk of causing harm. Women at increased risk of fracture should possibly be excluded.
Full-text available
To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Of the 12 unique acute outcomes examined in the selected 9 meta-analyses of RCTs, coffee was associated with a rise in serum lipids, but this result was affected by significant heterogeneity, and caffeine was associated with a rise in blood pressure. Given the spectrum of conditions studied and the robustness of many of the results, these findings indicate that coffee can be part of a healthful diet.
Background: Although epidemiologic studies in populations of European descent suggest a possible chemoprotective effect of caffeine against nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), data in Asian populations are lacking. Objectives: We examined the relationship of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with NMSC risk among Chinese in Singapore. Methods: We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 men and women who were 45 to 74 years old at recruitment from 1993 to 1998. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Coffee drinking was associated with reduced NMSC risk in a dose-dependent manner (P trend < .0001). Compared with those who drank coffee less than weekly, those who drank 3 or more cups per day had a lower risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93) and a lower risk of squamous cell carcinoma (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.84). Compared with nondrinkers of black tea, daily drinkers of black tea also had a reduced risk of NMSC (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94). Caffeine intake reduced NMSC risk in a stepwise manner (P trend = .0025); subjects with a caffeine intake of 400 mg/d or more had the lowest risk (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34-1.04). Conclusion: Consumption of caffeinated drinks such as coffee and black tea may reduce the risk of NMSC among Chinese.
Although patients with rosacea often consult dermatologists for dietary factors that might be related to their skin disorders, few studies have been conducted to research the relationship between rosacea and dietary factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between rosacea and diet among the large Chinese population with rosacea, which would provide dietary guidelines for patients with rosacea. A multicenter case–control study was conducted. The feeding frequency 2 years before the occurrence of rosacea was collected by standardized questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate risks related to the diet. One thousand three hundred and forty‐seven patients with rosacea and 1290 controls were enrolled in our study. We found that high‐frequency intake of fatty food and tea presented a positive correlation with rosacea, while high‐frequency dairy product intake showed significant negative correlation with rosacea. Sweet food, coffee and spicy food appeared to be independent of any subset of rosacea in our study. However, high‐frequency dairy product intake showed a borderline beneficial effect on rosacea severity. We further analyzed the correlation between diet and the subtype of rosacea. We found that high‐frequency fatty intake was associated with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR) and phymatous rosacea, while high‐frequency tea intake was only associated with ETR. In addition, high‐frequency dairy product intake showed negative correlations with ETR and papulopustular rosacea. Rosacea is associated with some dietary factors, and our study is valuable in establishing dietary guidelines to prevent and improve rosacea.
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is not fully understood but involves the complex interplay of genetic factors, immune dysregulation, neurovascular dysregulation, presence of microorganisms, and environmental factors. Increased activation of the immune system occurs through multiple stimuli, including increased levels of cathelicidin and kallikrein 5, Toll-like receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases, and mast cells within the skin. Their effects are enhanced by the presence of microorganisms and external triggers, such as UV radiation.
To determine the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk a dose-response meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies were performed. Eligible studies were identified searching PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose-response relationship was assessed by random-effects meta-analysis and the shape of the exposure-outcome curve was modelled linearly and using restricted cubic splines. A total of seven studies eligible for meta-analysis were identified that comprised 1,418,779 participants and 9211 melanoma cases. A linear dose-response meta-analysis showed a significant association between total coffee consumption and melanoma risk. An increase in coffee consumption of one cup per day was associated with a 3% reduction in melanoma risk (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95–0.99). Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with incidence of melanoma. Nevertheless, further studies exploring also the role of confounding factors are needed to explain the heterogeneity among studies.