"On The Analysis of Love in Its First Stages; and The Influence of Idealization On It."

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This study reports the initial results attempting to prove and validate a central theory sustaining the concept of Love, and more concretely, its evolution and its relationship to another factor; temporality. The main goal of this study is to find the relationship between the level of idealization within a couple and the time spent together. An examination of past literature on couple stability and future marital impact of idealization has shown the possible influence of idealization on love. The relationships between idealization, time and age, will be established by administering a couple's test to each member of the dyad, revealing the idealization level that each member has on that precise moment or phase. The results of the analysis will then be presented, giving support to the fact that couples do idealize more on the first stages of a relationship, and that age also has an effect on idealization.

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Marriage formation is deeply embedded in societal context. This study documents trends towards lower marriage rates and delayed marriage in Europe and the US. Using time series analyses, it shows the relevance of economic and gender context in understanding marriage formation. The study extends previous work by including more countries, a longer time period, and by examining changes in predictors of marriage patterns over time. Analyses show that the association between economic context and marriage rates weakens over time, but the role of gender equality and policy context remain stable. Differences in age at first marriage across policy clusters are diminishing. Although greater gender equality is consistently linked to later marriage entry, the link between economic context and age at first marriage is changing. Changes in predictors of cross-national marriage patterns over time strongly suggest the institution of marriage itself is changing.
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Objetivo: Construir una aproximación comprensiva de la relación de pareja antes de la convivencia, a partir de los significados y formas de configurarse en la actualidad en jóvenes de 18 a 25 años de edad. Método: fenomenológico hermenéutico; se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad. Resultados: aparecen configuraciones de pareja en la actualidad como “amigos con derecho”, “amigovios”, “parche”, “relaciones sexuales”, “relaciones virtuales”, frente a relaciones con compromiso, amor, confianza y construcción de intimidad. Conclusión: Existen nuevas maneras de crear y estar en pareja soportadas por las características de incertidumbre y transitoriedad constantes y de individualidad, pero los jóvenes continúan hacia la búsqueda de lazos sólidos y estables que los vincule de nuevo con la posibilidad de construir futuro y proyecciones, lo cual deviene en bienestar y en salud.
Results of numerous studies have demonstrated a positive relation between religiosity and marital well-being. In this study, the authors examined direct effects on marital satisfaction of religious homogamy, prayer for spousal well-being, and forgiveness. They also examined the degree to which religiosity buffered against risks to marital well-being. The results indicated significant positive linear relations between each indicator of religiosity and marital satisfaction. Furthermore, religiosity moderated, or buffered against, the negative effects of risk factors; specifically, religious homogamy buffered against previous divorce; prayer buffered against having a high-stress marriage; and spousal forgiveness buffered against cohabitation before marriage, previous divorce, and stressful marriage.
The phenomenon of idealization in college premarital long-distance relationships is explored. In this study, 71 college couples participated in a survey. Findings indicate long-distance couples have more restricted communication and are more idealized than their geographically close counterparts. Further, an associative pattern between restricted communication and positive relational images is found. Speculation is offered that long-distance couples, due to their limited contact, postpone realistic assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Premarital counseling programs have been proliferating in the United States since their appearance in the 1930s. In order to evaluate the success such programs have had in preparing couples to build successful marriages, reduce the incidence of divorce and prevent unsuccessful marriages from occurring, the authors reviewed those programs which outlined standardized intervention procedures and utilized dependent measures to assess the program's effectiveness. Thirteen programs met these criteria. In general, premarital counseling programs were found to be atheoretical in their approach to intervention, loosely designed and nonspecific as to their goals.
This study reports on the development of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, a new measure for assessing the quality of marriage and other similar dyads. The 32 item scale is designed for use with either married or unmarried cohabiting couples. Despite widespread criticisms of the concept of adjustment, the study proceeds from the pragmatic position that a new measure, which is theoretically grounded, relevant, valid, and highly reliable, is necessary since marital and dyadic adjustment continue to be researched. This factor analytic study tests a conceptual definition set forth in earlier work and suggests the existence of four empirically verified components of dyadic adjustment which can be used as subscales [dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, dyadic consensus and affectional expression]. Evidence is presented suggesting content, criterion related, and construct validity. High scale reliability is reported. The possibility of item weighting is considered and endorsed as a potential measurement technique, but it is not adopted for the present Dyadic Adjustment Scale. It is concluded that the Dyadic Adjustment Scale represents a significant improvement over other measures of marital adjustment, but a number of troublesome methodological issues remain for future research.
The book reviews classical, Kleinian, and object relations theories, with the author's own work relying heavily on the object relation, theory of Fairbairn and the group theory of Bion. Comprehensive chapters cover couples therapy; integration of individual, family, and couples therapy; treatment of divorced and remarried families; work with families suffering loss and death; family therapy with different-aged children; and termination. The Scharffs draw on their background in child psychiatry, psychoanalysis, group therapy, and family therapy to offer an important integration of the growing field of object relations family therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reports initial results of an attempt to introduce and validate a social-psychological construct of romantic love. Starting with the assumption that love is an interpersonal attitude, an internally consistent paper-and-pencil love scale was developed. The conception of romantic love included 3 components: affiliative and dependent need, a predisposition to help, and an orientation of exclusiveness and absorption. The 13-item love-scale scores were only moderately correlated with scores on a parallel 13-item scale of "liking," which reflected a more traditional conception of interpersonal attraction. The validity of the love scale was assessed in a questionnaire study with 158 undergraduate dating couples and a laboratory experiment with 79 undergraduate dating couples. On the basis of the emerging conception of love, it was predicted that college dating couples who loved each other a great deal (as categorized by their love-scale scores) would spend more time gazing into one another's eyes than would couples who loved each other to a lesser degree. The prediction was confirmed. (22 ref.)
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