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The Communicative Approach in English Language Teaching

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Abstract

Today, communities are increasingly facing rapid and profound changes and tensions that affect the social, economic, and political aspects of life. The role of education has also become questionable in the millennial era. A matter of fact, 21st century education requires a gradual shift in curriculum construction focusing on the transferable competencies that learners need to develop in instructional settings. In today’s knowledge–based, types of skills and competencies that students need to gain are different from in the past. Emphasizing the communicative competence is one of the most influential developments in language education. The implementation of communicative activities in EFL/ESL classroom prepares learners to use English in the world beyond based on their own needs, interests and opportunities.
Бюллетень науки и практики / Bulletin of Science and Practice
https://www.bulletennauki.com
Т. 5. №4. 2019
DOI: 10.33619/2414-2948/41
471
UDC 378
https://doi.org/10.33619/2414-2948/41/70
THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
©Azimova S., ORCID: 0000-0003-4762-3638, Fergana State University,
Fergana, Uzbekistan, macmillan1926@mail.ru
КОММУНИКАТИВНЫЙ ПОДХОД В ОБУЧЕНИИ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
©Азимова С. Х., ORCID: 0000-0003-4762-3638, Ферганский государственный университет,
г. Фергана, Узбекистан, macmillan1926@mail.ru
Abstract. Today, communities are increasingly facing rapid and profound changes and
tensions that affect the social, economic, and political aspects of life. The role of education has also
become questionable in the millennial era. A matter of fact, 21st century education requires
a gradual shift in curriculum construction focusing on the transferable competencies that learners
need to develop in instructional settings. In today’s knowledge–based, types of skills and
competencies that students need to gain are different from in the past. Emphasizing
the communicative competence is one of the most influential developments in language education.
The implementation of communicative activities in EFL/ESL classroom prepares learners to use
English in the world beyond based on their own needs, interests and opportunities.
Аннотация. Сегодня современные общества все чаще сталкиваются с быстрыми и
глубокими изменениями и напряженностью, которые затрагивают социальные,
экономические и политические аспекты жизни. Роль образования также стала меняться в
тысячелетнюю эпоху. На самом деле, образование 21-го века требует постепенного
изменения структуры учебного плана с учетом различных компетенций, которые студенты
должны развивать в условиях обучения. Современное языковое образование, основанное на
знаниях, типы навыков и компетенций, которые должны получить обучаемые, отличаются от
тех, что использовались в прошлом. Коммуникативная компетентность является одним из
наиболее важных аспектов в языковом образовании. Внедрение коммуникативного подхода в
преподавание английского языка способствует тому, что обучаемые языковые навыки могут
использоваться за пределами своей страны на основе собственных потребностей, интересов
и возможностей.
Keywords: communicative competence, communicative approach, social language, task-based
language learning, text-based teaching.
Ключевые слова: коммуникативная компетентность, коммуникативный подход,
социальный язык, проблемное обучение, обучение на текстовой основе.
The role and influence of English today are gaining a higher speed in the world. The main
factors for this phenomenon include expanding communication with the world after gaining
independence and increasing speed and scope of information exchange in the global village. The
dominant position in the internet space by the language of the published content is firmly held by
English, which is a strong motivation to learn English for those who wish to promote their global
competencies [1].
Бюллетень науки и практики / Bulletin of Science and Practice
https://www.bulletennauki.com
Т. 5. №4. 2019
DOI: 10.33619/2414-2948/41
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A communicative approach is an approach which is worldwide known and established it has
established itself in many parts of the world as a way of teaching languages, especially English. It is
the approach that has prevailed in English Language Teaching over the past 50 years, and it is still
used nowadays [2].
The origins of the Communicative Approach are to be found in the late 1960s and early
1970s. The communicative approach is the product of some linguists and educators who had grown
dissatisfied with the previous two methods used for foreign language teaching; the audio-lingual
method and Grammar-translation method. These great linguists and educators who contributed to
the rise of this worldwide used approach are Hymes, Chomsky, Wilkins, Van Ek and Alexander, and
the Council of Europe.
However, all these linguists and educators felt that students during those years were not
learning the language in the right way. They claimed that they did not learn the ‘whole language
and realistic language. Students did not know how to communicate outside the classroom in real life
situations, using the appropriate social language. So far they were relying on the structures of
language instead of relying on functions and notions of language. This made them unable to
communicate in the culture of the language studied [3].
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which is an approach to the teaching of second
and foreign languages, emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a
language. It is also referred to as the “Communicative Approach”. Historically, CLT has been seen
as a response to the Audio-Lingual Method (ALM), and as an extension or development of the
Notional-Functional Syllabus. Task-based language learning, a more recent refinement of CLT, has
gained considerably in popularity.
Communicative language teaching can be understood as a set of principles about the goals of
language teaching, how learners learn a language, the kinds of classroom activities that best
facilitate learning, and the roles of teachers and learners in the classroom.
Communicative competence includes the following aspects of language knowledge:
Knowing how to use language for a range of different purposes and functions;
Knowing how to vary our use of language according to the setting and the participants;
Knowing how to produce and understand different types of texts;
Knowing how to maintain communication despite having limitations in one’s language
knowledge.
So, Communicative Language Teaching is an approach to the teaching foreign languages that
emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language [4].
Principles of CLT:
In the CLT approach, the meaning is given prime importance. The main focus of the
approach is to make the learners able to understand the intention and expression of the writers and
speakers.
In this approach, it is believed that communicative functions are more important rather than
linguistic structures. Littlewood states that «one of the most characteristics features of
communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as
structural aspects of language, combine these into a more fully communicative view». Each
language has a limited number of sentence patterns. Mastering only those sentence patterns does not
help the learners to communicate in the target language. The learner needs to learn the
communication functions of those structures.
While using the CLT approach in teaching language, the target language is used in the
classroom. The target language is a vehicle for class room communication, not just the object of
study [1]. Because if the learners continue to use their native languages, they are not able to
Бюллетень науки и практики / Bulletin of Science and Practice
https://www.bulletennauki.com
Т. 5. №4. 2019
DOI: 10.33619/2414-2948/41
473
communicate in the target language. It is believed that the native language should be used
judiciously.
Appropriate use of language is emphasized rather than accuracy. Accuracy comes at the later
stage. It is believed that when the learners learn to use the language appropriately accuracy comes
automatically.
Language should be taught by integrating all language skills and not by only one skill. It
means communication approach is not limited to only speaking skill; reading and writing skills
should be developed.
Language cannot be learnt through rote memorization. It cannot be learnt in isolation. It
should be learnt through social interaction. To communicate in the target language, there is a need to
struggle with language. Richards and Rodgers state that the target linguistic system will be learned
best through the process of struggling to communicate.
While using this approach, the major focus is to make the learner able to communicate in the
target language. Errors are tolerated by the teacher because what is more important is to make them
able to speak in the target language. The teacher should not correct them during the activities in
which they are using the target language. The teacher can note the errors of the learners and make it
correct after the activities are over.
CLT approach provides opportunities to communicate in the target language to the learners.
It encourages teacher-student and student-student interaction. It helps to encourage the cooperative
relationship among students. The teacher should give work in a group or in pair which give
opportunities to share the information among them. It also helps to promote communication among
them. Richards and Rodgers state that students are expected to interact with other people, either in
the flesh, through pair and group work, or in their writings.
CLT approach provides the opportunities to the learners not only about what to say and but
also about how to say.
The teacher should create situations which help to promote communication. The teacher
should teach them how language should be used in a social context. The teacher should give
activities such as role play which help the learners to learn the language in social context.
Language teaching techniques should be designed in such a way that it encourages the
learners to use the target language. Functional aspects of language should be given importance.
Dramas, role plays, games should be used in the classroom to promote real communication.
Students should be given opportunities to listen to language as it is used in authentic
communication. They may be coached on strategies for how to improve their comprehension [8].
Today CLT can be seen as describing a set of core principles about language learning and
teaching, as summarized above, assumptions which can be applied in different ways and which
address different aspects of the processes of teaching and learning. Some focus centrally on the
input to the learning process. Thus content-based teaching stresses that the content or subject matter
of teaching drives the whole language learning process. Some teaching proposals focus more
directly on instructional processes. Task-based instruction, for example, advocates the use of
specially designed instructional tasks as the basis of learning. Others, such as competency-based
instruction and text-based teaching, focus on the outcomes of learning and use outcomes or
products as the starting point in planning to teach.
Today CLT continues in its classic form as seen in the huge range of course books and other
teaching resources that cite CLT as the source of their methodology. In addition, it has influenced
many other language teaching approaches that subscribe to a similar philosophy of language
teaching.
Бюллетень науки и практики / Bulletin of Science and Practice
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Т. 5. №4. 2019
DOI: 10.33619/2414-2948/41
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Communicative Language Teaching is an approach which provides an opportunity to the
learners to communicate in the target language. The use of the functional aspect of language makes
them able to communicate in the target language in their day to day life. The activities which are
used in CLT approaches such as dramas, role plays, and games make learning enjoyable.
Generally, communicative language teaching makes use of authentic material because it is
important to give them the opportunity to understand how language is actually used outside the
classroom. Students are involved in real life situations tasks that require communication. In this
approach, the teacher sets up a situation, in which students are likely to be involved in real life. In
some activities, the outcomes of them are unknown to the students. The result depends on their
reactions and responses. Thus, they will be kept motivated and they will be kept in suspense until
they finish the activity and see the clear outcome [6].
Furthermore, in a communicative language teaching class use the language through
communicative activities. Most of these exercises are completed through pair and group work.
Those activities give students the opportunity to be involved in real or realistic communication.
Normally those activities are fluency-based activities, such as role-plays, games information gap
activities, interviews [7].
The communicative approach supports that learning is more student centered than teacher
centered. A typical communicative language teaching lesson follows a PPP model. The teacher may
present some part of the lesson, and students complete some exercises, but then students produce
the language in freer activities that help them to communicate. As a result, the student talk is
increased, whereas the teacher talk is decreased. The teacher establishes situations which promote
communication and he facilitates students communication. During the activities, he does not
interrupt them, but he monitors their performance. Error correction is not immediate. If he notes a
mistake and he realizes that he has to work on it, he does it later during a more accuracy-based
activity. However, the role of students is to communicate by negotiating to mean. Even if their
knowledge of the target language is not complete, they still have to try and make themselves
understood, but also understand their classmatesintentions of communication [8].
The communicative approach is based on the idea that in order to learn a second language
successfully, you have to communicate real meaning. Thus, when learners are involved in real
communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be active and used, and this
will allow them to learn to use the language.
References:
1. Brandl, K. (2008). Communicative Language Teaching in Action, New Jersey, Pearson
Prentice Hall.
2. Brumfit, C. J. (1984). Communicative methodology in language teaching: The Roles of
Fluency and Accuracy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
3. Spada, N. (2007). Communicative Language Teaching: Current Status and Future
Prospects. International Hand Book of English Language Teaching (Part I). New York, Springer.
4. Newmark, P. (1981). Approaches to Translation (Language Teaching Methodology Senes).
Oxford, Pergamon Press. https://doi. org/10.1017. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100005222.
5. Weir, C. J., & Weir, C. J. (1990). Communicative language testing. Hemel Hempstead,
Prentice Hall.
6. Savignon, S. J. (1991). Communicative language teaching: State of the art. TESOL
quarterly, 25(2), 261-278. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587463.
7. Morrow, C. K. (2018). Communicative language testing. The TESOL encyclopedia of
English language teaching, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0383.
Бюллетень науки и практики / Bulletin of Science and Practice
https://www.bulletennauki.com
Т. 5. №4. 2019
DOI: 10.33619/2414-2948/41
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8. KukulskaHulme, A., & Viberg, O. (2018). Mobile collaborative language learning: State
of the art. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(2), 207-218.
https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12580.
Список литературы:
1. Brandl K. Communicative Language Teaching in Action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice
Hall, 2008.
2. Brumfit C. J. Communicative methodology in language teaching: The Roles of Fluency and
Accuracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
3. Spada N. Communicative Language Teaching: Current Status and Future Prospects.
International Hand Book of English Language Teaching (Part I). New York: Springer, 2007.
4. Newmark P. Approaches to Translation (Language Teaching Methodology Senes). Oxford:
Pergamon Press, 1981. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100005222.
5. Weir C. J., Weir C. J. Communicative language testing. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall,
1990.
6. Savignon S. J. Communicative language teaching: State of the art // TESOL quarterly.
1991. V. 25. №2. P. 261-278. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587463.
7. Morrow C. K. Communicative language testing // The TESOL encyclopedia of English
language teaching. 2018. P. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0383.
8. KukulskaHulme A., Viberg O. Mobile collaborative language learning: State of the art //
British Journal of Educational Technology. 2018. V. 49. №2. P. 207-218.
https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12580.
Работа поступила
в редакцию 01.03.2019 г.
________________________________________________________________________________
Cite as (APA):
Azimova, S. (2019). The Communicative Approach in English Language Teaching. Bulletin
of Science and Practice, 5(4), 471-475. https://doi.org/10.33619/2414-2948/41/70.
Ссылка для цитирования:
Azimova S. The Communicative Approach in English Language Teaching // Бюллетень
науки и практики. 2019. Т. 5. №4. С. 471-475. https://doi.org/10.33619/2414-2948/41/70.
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Since the introduction of communicative language teaching (CLT) in the late 1970s, there have been different definitions and interpretations of the communicative approach to second language (L2) instruction. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in several misconceptions of CLT and how it is implemented in the L2 classroom. While most descriptions of CLT emphasize the communication of messages and meaning, there is disagreement as to whether CLT should include a focus on the analysis and practice of language forms. There is also some debate (and confusion) as to whether the inclusion of literacy skills, use of the first language (L1), and vocabulary instruction is compatible with the principles and practice of CLT. These differences in interpretation and implementation of CLT are sufficiently problematic to suggest that CLT has become a rather vacuous term. Indeed, some have argued that, as a label for a language teaching method, CLT has lost its relevance to L2 teaching. In this chapter, I will describe some of the developments in CLT theory, research, and practice that point to the conclusion that a balance needs to be struck within CLT—one that allows for the integration of more direct instruction of language (including grammatical, lexical, and socio-pragmatic features) with communicative skills.
Communicative Language Teaching in Action
  • K Brandl
Brandl K. Communicative Language Teaching in Action. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.
Communicative Language Teaching: Current Status and Future Prospects
  • N Spada
Spada, N. (2007). Communicative Language Teaching: Current Status and Future Prospects. International Hand Book of English Language Teaching (Part I). New York, Springer. 4. Newmark, P. (1981). Approaches to Translation (Language Teaching Methodology Senes).
Communicative language testing
  • Oxford
Oxford, Pergamon Press. https://doi. org/10.1017. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100005222. 5. Weir, C. J., & Weir, C. J. (1990). Communicative language testing. Hemel Hempstead, Prentice Hall.
Communicative language testing // The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching
Morrow C. K. Communicative language testing // The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching. 2018. P. 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0383.