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Abstract

Resistance exercise training (RET)-induced increases in voluntary 1RM strength are greater with higher loads and training by replicating (or close) the strength test. In contrast, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is primarily mediated by intensity of effort, which is achieved by performing RET to volitional fatigue and with an internal focus on contracting a muscle throughout the exercise range of motion. In addition, RET-induced muscular hypertrophy is augmented by increasing training volume, but with diminishing returns. Other training variables such as volume-load, inter-set rest, and time under tension have negligible effects on RET-induced changes in muscle size or strength. We conclude that an uncomplicated, evidence-based approach to optimizing RET-induced changes in muscle size and strength follows the FITT principle: frequency, intensity (effort), type, and time.

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... letter on our paper highlights a minor semantic dispute rather than a fundamental difference of opinion. Nonetheless, we provide here a more nuanced evidence-based explanation than was provided in our paper [1]. ...
... Programming manipulation over time should, in our opinion, be individualized to the athlete (or non-athlete) and one variable that could be manipulated is load, but there is a myriad of others that all, via a higher intensity of effort, mediate hypertrophy. We hope our clarification serves to highlight the evidencebased science and prescriptive advice we offered in our review [1]. ...
... Juneau and Tafur's letter on our paper highlights a minor semantic dispute rather than a fundamental difference of opinion. Nonetheless, we provide here a more nuanced evidence-based explanation than was provided in our paper [1]. ...
... Finally, similar to the major ongoing discussions regarding which variables may be optimal to improve muscular adaptions, such as muscle hypertrophy or strength [376][377][378][379][380][381][382][383][384][385][386][387][388][389][390], the optimal exercise prescription (e.g., exercise variables and training variables) for resistance exercises and/ or resistance training with respect to brain health (including appropriate functional and structural brain changes as well as enhancement of cognitive functions) are largely unknown and have to be elucidated in future studies [105,108,110]. In addition, the interested reader may find further and more detailed information regarding the design of resistance exercise sessions or resistance training in the referenced literature [355,[391][392][393][394]. ...
Article
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Background: During the aging process, physical capabilities (e.g., muscular strength) and cognitive functions (e.g., memory) gradually decrease. Regarding cognitive functions, substantial functional (e.g., compensatory brain activity) and structural changes (e.g., shrinking of the hippocampus) in the brain cause this decline. Notably, growing evidence points towards a relationship between cognition and measures of muscular strength and muscle mass. Based on this emerging evidence, resistance exercises and/or resistance training, which contributes to the preservation and augmentation of muscular strength and muscle mass, may trigger beneficial neurobiological processes and could be crucial for healthy aging that includes preservation of the brain and cognition. Compared with the multitude of studies that have investigated the influence of endurance exercises and/or endurance training on cognitive performance and brain structure, considerably less work has focused on the effects of resistance exercises and/or resistance training. While the available evidence regarding resistance exercise-induced changes in cognitive functions is pooled, the underlying neurobiological processes, such as functional and structural brain changes, have yet to be summarized. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of resistance exercise-induced functional and/or structural brain changes that are related to cognitive functions. Methods and results: A systematic literature search was conducted by two independent researchers across six electronic databases; 5957 records were returned, of which 18 were considered relevant and were analyzed. Short conclusion: Based on our analyses, resistance exercises and resistance training evoked substantial functional brain changes, especially in the frontal lobe, which were accompanied by improvements in executive functions. Furthermore, resistance training led to lower white matter atrophy and smaller white matter lesion volumes. However, based on the relatively small number of studies available, the findings should be interpreted cautiously. Hence, future studies are required to investigate the underlying neurobiological mechanisms and to verify whether the positive findings can be confirmed and transferred to other needy cohorts, such as older adults with dementia, sarcopenia and/or dynapenia. Keywords: Cognition, Neuroplasticity, Strength exercises, Strength training, Physical activity
... The effectiveness of RT is associated with the appropriated manipulation of variables related to intensity and volume [6,10,11]. Current evidence suggests that increases in strength are more dependent on the intensity of load, while muscle hypertrophy is related to the RT volume [12][13][14][15][16]. However, the best approach to improve CVD risk factors in older women is still unknown [6,7,17,18]. ...
Article
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This study analyzed the effects of the pyramidal resistance training (RT) system with two repetition zones on cardiovascular risk factors in older women (≥ 60 years old). Fifty-nine older women were randomly assigned in three groups: non-exercise control (CON, n = 19), narrow-pyramid system (NPR, n = 20), and wide-pyramid system (WPR, n = 20). Training groups performed eight weeks of RT (eight exercises for the whole-body, 3x/week, non-consecutive days) in which NPR and WPR performed 3 sets of 12/10/8, and 15/10/5 repetitions, respectively. Regional body fat was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood parameters related to glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profiles were assessed. After the training period, although no difference was observed for the magnitude of the changes between NPR and WPR, significant group by time interactions indicated benefits with RT compared to CON for reducing body fat (mainly android body fat; -7%) and improving glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C and C-reactive protein (P < 0.05). Composite z-score of cardiovascular risk, created by the average of the intervention effects on the outcomes, indicate similar responses between NPR and WPR, differing from CON (P < 0.001). Results indicate that both repetition-zones of the pyramidal RT reduced similarly the cardiovascular risk in older women.
... Breath restriction post hyperventilation has been shown repeatedly to significantly improve immune response [5] Both uncomfortable doses of heat [4] and cold [9] have distinct restorative properties. Muscular hypertrophy (growth) is associated with training to muscular fatigue (uncomfortable experience) [7]. Novel eccentric contractions from such eccentric effort (like slowly lowering oneself from a pull up) often induces "delayed onset muscle soreness" [3] as part of the recovery/adaptation -also uncomfortable . ...
Conference Paper
According to the latest science of human performance, we are wired to thrive and adapt from discomfort. This workshop explores how to leverage that science to improve human wellbeing and to improve sustainability as a side-effect of designing ubiquitous technology to prepare, practice and perform discomfort, for social benefit. We will use Design Jams as a key activity to explore and build up this Uncomfortable Design Methodology. There will be prizes.
... We suggest future studies may want to consider examining the integration of goal based autoregulatory approaches of strength and conditioning in athletic populations. If hypertrophy is the goal, utilize the wide range of exercise loads (in combination with sufficient volume) which have been demonstrated to induce hypertrophy (20). The chosen load can be based on the athlete's recovery status/mood/preference. ...
Article
The periodization of resistance exercise is often touted as the most effective strategy for optimizing muscle size and strength adaptations. This narrative persists despite a lack of experimental evidence to demonstrate its superiority. In addition, the general adaptation syndrome, which provides the theoretical framework underlying periodization, does not appear to provide a strong physiological rationale that periodization is necessary. Hans Selye conducted a series of rodent studies which used toxic stressors to facilitate the development of the general adaptation syndrome. To our knowledge, normal exercise in humans has never been shown to produce a general adaptation syndrome. We question whether there is any physiological rationale that a periodized training approach would facilitate greater adaptations compared with nonperiodized approaches employing progressive overload. The purpose of this article is to briefly review currently debated topics within strength and conditioning and provide some practical insight regarding the implications these reevaluations of the literature may have for resistance exercise and periodization. In addition, we provide some suggestions for the continued advancement within the field of strength and conditioning.
... [26][27][28][29][30] Strength training of lower intensity, volume, or timeframe might not increase BMD significantly, but can contribute to the maintenance of a certain level. 34 At this point, it is important to emphasize that in case of strength training, a crucial element are the resistance level and the nature of the training itself. 9 To impact muscles and bones sufficiently to prospectively increase BMD, the resistance level of strength training has to be a minimum of 70% of 1-repetition maximum or at least "moderate intensity." ...
Article
Clinical Scenario: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is a serious condition in older adults. The mild form, osteopenia, is often a precursor of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a pathological condition and a global health problem as it is one of the most common diseases in developed countries. Finding solutions for prevention and therapy should be prioritized. Therefore, the critically appraised topic focuses on strength training as a treatment to counteract a further decline in BMD in older adults. Clinical Question: Is strength training beneficial in increasing BMD in older people with osteopenia or osteoporosis? Summary of Key Findings: Four of the 5 reviewed studies with the highest evidence showed a significant increase in lumbar spine BMD after strength training interventions in comparison with control groups. The fifth study confirmed the maintenance of lumbar spine density due to conducted exercises. Moreover, 3 reviewed studies revealed increasing BMD at the femoral neck after strength training when compared with controls, which appeared significant in 2 of them. Clinical Bottom Line: The findings indicate that strength training has a significant positive influence on BMD in older women (ie, postmenopausal) with osteoporosis or osteopenia. However, it is not recommended to only rely on strength training as the increase of BMD may not appear fast enough to reach the minimal desired values. A combination of strength training and supplements/medication seems most adequate. Generalization of the findings to older men with reduced BMD should be done with caution due to the lack of studies. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade B of recommendation to support the validity of strength training for older women in postmenopausal phase with reduced BMD.
... • Muscular hypertrophy (growth) is associated with training to muscular fatigue (uncomfortable experience) where one cannot complete that next rep [6]. ...
... Resistance training is one of the most popular forms of physical exercise and commonly aims to increase muscle strength and mass [1][2][3]. It has been used to promote benefits in a wide range of populations, including healthy young people and chronically ill patients [4][5][6]. ...
Article
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The present article aims to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensors during traditional resistance training (TRT) and no load resistance training with or without visual feedback (NL-VF and NL-NF). Sixteen healthy men (age: 25.2 ± 3.6) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants visited the laboratory on three occasions involving: (1) a 10 repetition maximum test (10 RM test), (2) familiarization and (3) performance of knee extensions using TRT, NL-VF and NL-NF in a random order, with 10 min of rest between them. TRT involved the performance of a set to momentary muscle failure using the 10 RM load. NL-NF involved the performance of 10 repetitions with no external load, but with the intention to maximally contract the muscles during the whole set. NL-VF involved the same procedure as NL-NF, but a monitor was positioned in front of the participants to provide visual feedback on the EMG activity. Peak and mean EMG activity were evaluated on the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). Results: there were no significant differences in VM and VL peak EMG activity among different situations. There was a significant difference for peak EMG activity for RF, where TRT resulted in higher values than NL-VF and NL-NF (p < 0.05). Higher values of mean EMG activity were found for VM, VL and RF during TRT in comparison with both NL-VF and NL-NF. Conclusions: resistance training with no external load produced high levels of peak muscle activation, independent of visual feedback, but mean activation was higher during TRT. These results suggest that training with no external load might be used as a strategy for stimulating the knee extensors when there is limited access to specialized equipment. Although the clinical applications of no load resistance training are promising, it is important to perform long-term studies to test if these acute results will reflect in muscle morphological and functional changes.
... Panton et al. (2004) also reported 2.9% increase in the lower limb fat-free mass after 12 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance training in COPD patients. We speculate that the increases in lower limb fat-free mass could be due to the higher workload produced during eccentric cycling, which induced greater muscle hypertrophy (Morton et al. 2019). Thus, it is possible that hypertrophy after ECC could be mediated by greater activation of the protein synthesis signaling pathways and a decrease of the atrophy-related genes as shown in previous studies in healthy individuals (Valladares-Ide et al. 2019). ...
Article
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PurposeThe present study compared the effects of eccentric cycling (ECC) and conventional concentric cycling (CONC) training on muscle function, body composition, functional performance, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods Twenty patients (age: 69.6 ± 10.1 years, forced expiratory volume in 1-s: 73.2 ± 11.4% of predicted) were randomly allocated to ECC (n = 10) or CONC (n = 10) group. They performed 12 weeks of ECC or CONC training at similar perceived exertion. The workload, heart rate (HR), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), and dyspnea were monitored during cycling. Outcomes measures included maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) strength of the knee extensors, rate of force development (RFD), lower limb fat-free (LLFFM) and fat (LLFM) mass, 6-min walking test (6MWT), timed up-and-go test (TUG), stairs ascending (SAWT) and descending walking time (SDWT), and QOL assessed by the Saint George's respiratory questionnaire.ResultsECC produced on average threefold greater (P < 0.001) workload (211.8 ± 106.0 kJ) than CONC (78.1 ± 62.6 kJ) over 34 training sessions. ECC showed 1.5 ± 2.1% greater SpO2, 24.7 ± 4.1% lower HR, and 64.4 ± 29.6% lower dyspnea in average than CONC (P < 0.001). ECC increased LLFFM (4.5 ± 6.2%; P = 0.03), while CONC decreased LLFM (3.3 ± 6.4%; P = 0.04) after training. Both ECC and CONC reduced (P < 0.05) SAWT (− 16.1 ± 9.3% vs − 10.1 ± 14.4%) and SDWT (− 12.2 ± 12.6% vs − 14.4 ± 14.7%), and improved (P < 0.05) QOL (33.4 ± 38.8 vs 26.1 ± 36.6%) similarly, but only ECC improved (P < 0.05) RFD (69–199%), TUG (13.6 ± 13.6%), and 6MWT (25.3 ± 27.7%).Conclusion These results suggest that ECC training with less cardio-pulmonary demands was more effective in increasing functional performance and muscle mass for COPD patients than CONC training.
... Strong evidence indicates that low-load resistance training (LL-RE) combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) can elicit comparable muscular adaptations to traditional high-load resistance training [1][2][3][4][5][6]. BFR resistance training (BFR-RE) offers a distinct advantage compared to traditional high-load resistance training (HL-RE) in that it does not require the recommended intensities associated with traditional resistance exercise [7] in order to induce positive neuromuscular adaptations. In fact, BFR-RE incorporates exercise loads corresponding to 20 to 30% of an individual's one-repetition maximum (1-RM), rather than loads exceeding 70% of a person's 1-RM [8,9]. ...
Article
The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the acute perceptual responses during low-load resistance exercise (RE) with clinical blood flow restriction (cBFR-RE) and practical blood flow restriction (pBFR-RE), and during conventional low- (LL-RE) and high-load resistance exercise (HL-RE), to determine if these responses differed between young males and females. Twenty-nine participants (14 males: 23.6±2.7years, 25.3±3.1kg/m² and 15 females: 20.3±1.6years, 23.4±1.9kg/m²) completed the following exercise conditions in a randomized design: 1) cBFR-RE, 2) pBFR-RE, 3) HL-RE, and 4) LL-RE. Low-load conditions consisted of 30-15-15-15 repetitions of two-leg press (LP) and knee extension (KE) exercises with 30% one-repetition maximum (1-RM), and HL-RE consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% 1-RM, all with 60s rest intervals. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and discomfort were assessed before exercise and immediately following each set. RPE was significantly higher in HL-RE compared to all low-load conditions for both exercises after each set (all p<0.05). cBFR-RE resulted in significantly greater RPE than pBFR-RE and LL-RE for both exercises for sets 1-4 for LP and sets 2-3 for KE (all p<0.05). Levels of discomfort were similar between cBFR-RE and HL-RE, which tended to be significantly higher than pBFR-RE and LL-RE (p<0.05). Men reported significantly greater RPE than women following sets 2-4 during KE with cBFR-RE and sets 2 and 3 during KE for HL-RE (all p<0.05). Males also reported significantly greater discomfort than women following sets 2-4 for KE LL-RE (p<0.05). Altogether, these data suggest that pBFR-RE may provide a more favorable BFR condition based on perceptual responses and that perceptual responses may differ between sexes across varying resistance exercise conditions.
... Por su parte, la masa muscular aumentó en los dos grupos (GBM y GSM), sin embargo, sólo el GSM obtuvo cambios significativos. Estudios previos señalan que para incrementar la masa muscular se deben seguir los principios básicos del entrenamiento, especialmente, lo referente a la magnitud de la carga (duración, volumen, intensidad y densidad), además de considerar la ingesta diaria de proteínas 7,13 . Pese a que los resultados de nuestro estudio reportaron una tendencia de mejora para el GBM, no conseguir cambios significativos en dicho grupo, podría estar relacionado con el volumen y densidad constantes aplicados en la intervención, o bien, con la ingesta proteica, la cual, no controlamos. ...
Article
Introduction: Resistance training exercises must be adapted to people’s characteristics and dosed individually to achieve maximum benefits. Aim: To compare the effects of a resistance training program on body composition and maximum strength in physically active university students, according to their baseline body mass index (BMI). Material and methods: Twenty-four Physical Education students (15 males and 9 females) completed a supervised resistance training program that lasted eight weeks (16 sessions). The students were previously distributed into a group below the mean BMI group (BMG; n = 11; 7 males and 4 females) and above the mean BMI group (AMG; n = 13; 8 males and 5 females). Body weight, height, BMI, body composition (adipose mass and muscle mass), and maximum upper body strength (bench press and military press), and lower body strength (parallel squat [45°] and deadlift) were measured through a one-repetition maximum (1RM). Results: Fat mass decreased significantly (p< 0.05) with a small effect size (d< 0.30) in both groups (BMG and AMG). In contrast, muscle mass increased significantly (p= 0.008) only in AMG with a small effect size (d= 0.36). Maximum upper and lower body strength increased significantly (p< 0.05) with a small and moderate effect size (d< 0.80) in the BMG and AMG. Comparisons between the groups revealed no significant differences. Conclusions: An eight-week resistance training program significantly reduces fat mass and a significant increase in maximal upper and lower body strength in physically active university students, independent of their baseline BMI. However, only AMG achieves a significant increase in muscle mass.
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Calculating resistance-training volume in programs focused on muscle hypertrophy is an attempt to quantify the external workload carried out, then to estimate the dose of stimulus imposed on targeted muscles. The volume is usually expressed in some variables that directly affected the total training work, such as the number of sets, repetitions, and volume-load. These variables are used to try to quantify the training work easily, for the subsequent organization and prescription of training programs. One of the main uses of measures of volume quantification is seen in studies in which the purpose is to compare the effects of different training protocols on muscle growth in a volume-equated format. However, it seems that not all measures of volume are always appropriate for equating training protocols. In the current paper, it is discussed what training volume is and the potentials and shortcomings of each one of the most common ways to equate it between groups depending on the independent variable to be compared (e.g., weekly frequency, intensity of load, and advanced techniques).
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Skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of physical and metabolic health and, critically, mobility. Accordingly, strategies focused on increasing the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle are relevant, and resistance exercise is foundational to the process of functional hypertrophy. Much of our current understanding of skeletal muscle hypertrophy can be attributed to the development and utilization of stable isotopically labeled tracers. We know that resistance exercise and sufficient protein intake act synergistically and provide the most effective stimuli to enhance skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular intricacies that underpin the tremendous response variability to resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy are complex. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies with the aim of shedding light on key regulatory mechanisms that dictate hypertrophic gains in skeletal muscle mass. We also aim to provide a brief up-to-date summary of the recent advances in our understanding of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training in humans.
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Skeletal muscle is the organ of locomotion, its optimal function is critical for athletic performance, and is also important for health due to its contribution to resting metabolic rate and as a site for glucose uptake and storage. Numerous endogenous and exogenous factors influence muscle mass. Much of what is currently known regarding muscle protein turnover is owed to the development and use of stable isotope tracers. Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the meal- and contraction-induced alterations of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown. Increased loading as resistance training is the most potent nonpharmacological strategy by which skeletal muscle mass can be increased. Conversely, aging (sarcopenia) and muscle disuse lead to the development of anabolic resistance and contribute to the loss of skeletal muscle mass. Nascent omics-based technologies have significantly improved our understanding surrounding the regulation of skeletal muscle mass at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. Despite significant advances surrounding the mechanistic intricacies that underpin changes in skeletal muscle mass, these processes are complex, and more work is certainly needed. In this article, we provide an overview of the importance of skeletal muscle, describe the influence that resistance training, aging, and disuse exert on muscle protein turnover and the molecular regulatory processes that contribute to changes in muscle protein abundance. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:2249-2278, 2021.
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A training plan, or an exercise prescription, is the point where we translate sport and exercise science into practice. As in medicine, good practice requires writing a training plan or prescribing an exercise programme based on the best current scientific evidence. A key issue, however, is that a training plan or exercise prescription is typically a mix of many interacting interventions (e.g. exercises and nutritional recommendations) that additionally change over time due to periodisation or tapering. Thus, it is virtually impossible to base a complex long-term training plan fully on scientific evidence. We, therefore, speak of evidence-informed training plans and exercise prescriptions to highlight that only some of the underlying decisions are made using an evidence-based decision approach. Another challenge is that the adaptation to a given, e.g. endurance or resistance training programme is often highly variable. Until biomarkers for trainability are identified, we must therefore continue to test athletes, clients, or patients, and monitor training variables via a training log to determine whether an individual sufficiently responds to a training intervention or else re-plan. Based on these ideas, we propose a subjective, pragmatic six-step approach that details how to write a training plan or exercise prescription that is partially based on scientific evidence. Finally, we advocate an athlete, client and patient-centered approach whereby an individual’s needs and abilities are the main consideration behind all decision-making. This implies that sometimes the most effective form of training is eschewed if the athlete, client or patient has other wishes.
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Objectives: Little is known regarding the variables or mechanisms mediating cross-education as a result of resistance training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of low-load eccentric-only blood flow restriction (Ecc-BFR) and low-load concentric-only BFR (Con-BFR) on indices of cross-education. Design: Thirty-six women were randomly assigned to 4-wks of unilateral resistance training with Ecc-BFR (n = 12), Con-BFR (n = 12) or control (no intervention, n = 12) group. Eccentric peak torque, concentric peak torque, maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, muscle thickness, and muscle activation were assessed from the contralateral, untrained arm. Results: Muscle strength (collapsed across mode) increased from 0-wk to 2-wks (4.9%) and 4-wks (13.0%) for Ecc-BFR only. There were increases in muscle activation (collapsed across mode and group) regardless of training modality, but there were no changes in muscle size for any of the conditions. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that low-load Ecc-BFR increased muscle strength. The increases in muscle strength as a result of Ecc-BFR were not mode-specific. Thus, low-load Ecc-BFR provides a unique alternative to maintain muscle function in an untrained limb that may have application during limb immobilization and rehabilitation practices.
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A weight (resistance) training program includes training variables, such as exercises, sets, repetitions and training frequency. A training plan describes how the variables should be modified over time. In order to be effective, both training programs and plans should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. Based on the literature review, the most important and well supported is the principle of progressive overload, which states that the stimulus should be gradually increasing over time. The principle of specificity states that the training adaptations are specific to the stimulus applied, while the principle of variation (and periodization) states that the stimulus should change (within the specificity limits) to remain challenging. Although they are not necessary to increase performance, there is evidence supporting higher improvements. The principle of individuality states that the stimulus should be adjusted based on the individual's needs. Even though overlooked, limited data indicate that it may be more important than specificity and variation. This paper discusses the basic principles, the criticism against them, and how they should be applied when designing resistance training programs. Contribution/Originality: This study documents the principles that a weight training plan should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. This study contributes in the existing literature by clarifying the confusion and misconceptions on the topic.
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Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has a detrimental impact on athletic performance. Despite rehabilitation guidelines and criterion-based progressions to ensure safe restoration of fundamental physical capacities and maladaptive movement strategies, residual deficits in maximal strength, rate of force development (RFD), power and reactive strength are commonly reported. These combined with associated compensatory inter and intra-limb strategies increase the risk of re-injury. Objective The aim of this article is to examine the relationships between fundamental physical capacities and biomechanical variables during dynamic movement tasks. Design Narrative review Results The available data suggests that quadriceps strength and RTD, explain a moderate portion of the variance in aberrant kinetic and kinematic strategies commonly detected in ACL reconstructed cohorts at who are during the later stages of rehabilitation and RTS Conclusion The available data suggests that quadriceps strength and rate of torque development, explain a moderate portion of the variance in aberrant kinetic and kinematic strategies commonly detected in ACL reconstructed cohorts at who are in the later stages of rehabilitation and RTS
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Using a within-subject design we compared the individual responses between drop-set (DS) vs. traditional resistance training (TRAD) (n=16) and crescent pyramid (CP) vs. TRAD (n=15). Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), leg press and leg extension 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) were assessed pre and post training. At group level, CSA increased from pre to post (DS: 7.8% vs. TRAD: 7.5%, P=0.02; CP: 7.5% vs. TRAD: 7.8%, P=0.02). All protocols increased the 1-RM from pre to post for leg press (DS: 24.9% vs. TRAD: 26.8%, P < 0.0001; CP: 27.3% vs. TRAD:2 6.3%, P < 0.0001) and leg extension (DS: 17.1% vs. TRAD: 17.3%, P < 0.0001; CP: 17.0% vs. TRAD: 16.6%, P < 0.0001). Individual analysis for CSA demonstrated no differences between protocols in 15 subjects. For leg press 1-RM, 5 subjects responded more to TRAD, 2 to DS and 9 similarly between protocols. In TRAD vs. CP, 4 subjects responded more to CP, 1 to TRAD and 10 similarly between protocols. For leg extension 1-RM 2 subjects responded more to DS, 3 to TRAD and 11 similarly between protocols. Additionally, 2 subjects responded more to CP, 2 to TRAD and 11 similarly between protocols. In conclusion, all protocols induced similar individual responses for CSA. For 1-RM, some subjects experience greater gains for the protocol performed with higher loads, such as CP.
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To date, there are several knowledge gaps on how to properly prescribe concurrent training to achieve the best dose-response, especially regarding the optimal intensity or volume of the aerobic component. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the effects of different aerobic exercise modes and intensities [i.e. aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (MICT) combined with a resistance training (RT) program] on metabolic outcomes in participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thirty-nine men and women (67.0 ± 6.7 years) volunteered to a 12-weeks exercise intervention (3 week–1, 50 min/session) and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) RT plus MICT (RT+MICT) (2 males; 11 females); (b) RT plus HIIT (RT+HIIT) (4 males; 9 females); and (c) control group (CON) – without formal exercise (4 males; 9 females). Intensity was established between 60 and 70% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) in RT+MICT and ranged from 55–65% to 80–90% HRmax in the RT+HIIT group. Dependent outcomes included morphological, metabolic and hemodynamic variables. Both training groups improved waist circumference (RT+MICT: P = 0.019; RT+HIIT: P = 0.003), but not body weight, fat mass or fat-free mass (P ≥ 0.114). RT+HIIT group improved fasting glucose (P = 0.014), low density lipoprotein [LDL (P = 0.022)], insulin (P = 0.034) and homeostatic model assessment (P = 0.028). RT+MICT group reduced triglycerides (P = 0.053). Both exercise interventions did not change high sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, systolic, diastolic or mean arterial blood pressure (P ≥ 0.05). The CON group reduced the LDL (P = 0.031). This trial suggests that short-term exercise mode and intensity may differently impact the metabolic profile of individuals with MetS. Further, our data suggests that both concurrent trainings promote important cardiometabolic gains, particularly in the RT+HIIT. Nonetheless, due to the small-to-moderate effect size and the short-term intervention length, our data suggests that the intervention length also has an important modulating role in these benefits in older adults with MetS. Therefore, more research is needed to confirm our results using longer exercise interventions and larger groups.
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Global health organizations have provided recommendations regarding exercise for the general population. Strength training has been included in several position statements due to its multi-systemic benefits. In this narrative review, we examine the available literature, first explaining how specific mechanical loading is converted into positive cellular responses. Secondly, benefits related to specific musculoskeletal tissues are discussed, with practical applications and training programmes clearly outlined for both common musculoskeletal disorders and primary prevention strategies.
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This systematic review and meta-analysis determined resistance training (RT) load effects on various muscle hypertrophy, strength, and neuromuscular performance task [e.g., countermovement jump (CMJ)] outcomes. Relevent studies comparing higher-load [>60% 1-repetition maximum (RM) or <15-RM] and lower-load (≤60% 1-RM or ≥ 15-RM) RT were identified, with 45 studies (from 4713 total) included in the meta-analysis. Higher- and lower-load RT induced similar muscle hypertrophy at the whole-body (lean/fat-free mass; [ES (95% CI) = 0.05 (−0.20 to 0.29), P = 0.70]), whole-muscle [ES = 0.06 (−0.11 to 0.24), P = 0.47], and muscle fibre [ES = 0.29 (−0.09 to 0.66), P = 0.13] levels. Higher-load RT further improved 1-RM [ES = 0.34 (0.15 to 0.52), P = 0.0003] and isometric [ES = 0.41 (0.07 to 0.76), P = 0.02] strength. The superiority of higher-load RT on 1-RM strength was greater in younger [ES = 0.34 (0.12 to 0.55), P = 0.002] versus older [ES = 0.20 (−0.00 to 0.41), P = 0.05] participants. Higher- and lower-load RT therefore induce similar muscle hypertrophy (at multiple physiological levels), while higher-load RT elicits superior 1-RM and isometric strength. The influence of RT loads on neuromuscular task performance is however unclear.
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IntroductionUnderstanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours and perceptions, and facilitate future follow-up study.Objectives To determine how the onset of coronavirus (COVID-19), and associated ‘lockdown’, affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed RT prior to the pandemic.Methods We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study using online surveys in multiple languages (English, Danish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Slovakian, Swedish, and Japanese) distributed across social media platforms and through authors’ professional and personal networks. Adults (n = 5389; median age = 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 25, 38]), previously engaged in RT prior to lockdown (median prior RT experience = 7 years [IQR = 4, 12]) participated. Outcomes were self-reported RT behaviours including: continuation of RT during lockdown, location of RT, purchase of specific equipment for RT, method of training, full-body or split routine, types of training, repetition ranges, exercise number, set volumes (per exercise and muscle group), weekly frequency of training, perception of effort, whether training was planned/recorded, time of day, and training goals. Secondary outcomes included motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue RT.ResultsA majority of individuals (82.8%) maintained participation in RT during-lockdown. Marginal probabilities from generalised linear models and generalised estimating equations for RT behaviours were largely similar from pre- to during-lockdown. There was reduced probability of training in privately owned gyms (~ 59% to ~ 7%) and increased probability of training at home (~ 18% to ~ 89%); greater probability of training using a full-body routine (~ 38% to ~ 51%); reduced probability of resistance machines (~ 66% to ~ 13%) and free weight use (~ 96% to ~ 81%), and increased probability of bodyweight training (~ 62% to ~ 82%); reduced probability of moderate repetition ranges (~ 62–82% to ~ 55–66%) and greater probability of higher repetition ranges (~ 27% to ~ 49%); and moderate reduction in the perception of effort experienced during-training (r = 0.31). Further, individuals were slightly less likely to plan or record training during lockdown and many changed their training goals. Additionally, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and likelihood of continuing current training were all lower during-lockdown.Conclusions Those engaged in RT prior to lockdown these behaviours with only slight adaptations in both location and types of training performed. However, people employed less effort, had lower motivation, and perceived training as less effective and enjoyable, reporting their likelihood of continuing current training was similar or lower than pre-lockdown. These results have implications for strategies to maintain engagement in positive health behaviours such as RT during-restrictive pandemic-related public health measures.Pre-registrationhttps://osf.io/qcmpf.PreprintThe preprint version of this work is available on SportRχiv: https://osf.io/preprints/sportrxiv/b8s7e/.
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Introduction: Exercise-induced microRNAs (miRNAs) expression has been implicated in the regulation of skeletal muscle plasticity. However, the specificity and acute time course in miRNA expression following divergent exercise modes are unknown. In a randomized cross-over design, we compared the acute expression profile of eight skeletal muscle miRNAs previously reported to be involved in skeletal muscle development, growth and maintenance following a bout of either resistance exercise (RE), high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and concurrent resistance and high intensity interval exercises (CE). Methods: Nine untrained young men (23.9±2.8y, 70.1±14.9kg, 177.2±3.0cm, 41.4±5.2ml·kg-1·min-1) underwent a counter-balanced cross-over design in which they performed bouts of RE (2x10 repetitions maximum 45°Leg Press and Leg Extension exercises), HIEE (12x1 min sprints at VO2peak with 1min rest intervals between sprints) and CE (RE followed by HIIE), separated by one week. Vastus lateralis biopsies were harvested immediately before (Pre), and immediately (0h), 4h and 8h after each exercise bout. Results: There were similar increases (main effect of time; P<0.05) in miR-1-3p,-133a-3p,-133b, -181a-3p, and -486 expression at 8h from Pre with all exercise modes. Besides a main effect of time, miR-23a-3p and -206 presented a main effect of condition with lower expression after HIIE compared to RE and CE. Conclusions: Select miRNAs (miR-1-3p, -133a-3p,-133b,-23a-3p,-181a-3p,-206,-486) do not exhibit an expression specificity in the acute recovery period following a single bout of either RE, HIIE or CE in skeletal muscle. Our data also indicate that RE has a higher effect on the expression of miR-23a-3p and -206 than HIIE. As upregulation of these miRNAs appears to be confined to the 8h period post-exercise, this may subsequently impact the expression patterns of target mRNAs forming the basis of exercise-induced adaptive responses.
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Resistance training (RT) is the only non-pharmacological intervention known to consistently improve, and therefore offset age-related declines in, skeletal muscle mass, strength, and power. RT is also associated with various health benefits that are underappreciated compared with the perceived benefits of aerobic-based exercise. For example, RT participation is associated with reduced all-cause and cancer-related mortality and reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Despite these benefits, participation in RT remains low, likely due to numerous factors including time constraints, a high-perceived difficulty, and limited access to facilities and equipment. Identification of RT strategies that limit barriers to participation may increase engagement in RT and subsequently improve population health outcomes. Across the lifespan, declines in strength and power occur up to eight times faster than the loss of muscle mass, and are more strongly associated with functional impairments and risks of morbidity and mortality. Strategies to maximise healthspan should therefore arguably focus more on improving or maintaining muscle strength and power than on increasing muscle mass per se. Accumulating evidence suggests that minimal doses of RT, characterised by lower session volumes than in traditional RT guidelines, together with either (1) higher training intensities/loads performed at lower frequencies (i.e. low-volume, high-load RT) or (2) lower training intensities/loads performed at higher frequencies and with minimal-to-no equipment (i.e. resistance ‘exercise snacking’), can improve strength and functional ability in younger and older adults. Such minimal-dose approaches to RT have the potential to minimise various barriers to participation, and may have positive implications for the feasibility and scalability of RT. In addition, brief but frequent minimal-dose RT approaches (i.e. resistance ‘exercise snacking’) may provide additional benefits for interrupting sedentary behaviour patterns associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Compared to traditional approaches, minimal-dose RT may also limit negative affective responses, such as increased discomfort and lowered enjoyment, both of which are associated with higher training volumes and may negatively influence exercise adherence. A number of practical factors, including the selection of exercises that target major muscle groups and challenge both balance and the stabilising musculature, may influence the effectiveness of minimal-dose RT on outcomes such as improved independence and quality-of-life in older adults. This narrative review aims to summarise the evidence for minimal-dose RT as a strategy for preserving muscle strength and functional ability across the lifespan, and to discuss practical models and considerations for the application of minimal-dose RT approaches.
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Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT) with an emphasis on either muscular strength-type RT or muscular endurance-type RT on measures of body composition. Methods Twenty-five resistance-trained men (age 28.4 ± 6.4 years; body mass 75.9 ± 8.4 kg; height 176.9 ± 7.5 cm) were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT group that performed three sets of 6–8 repetition maximum (RM) with 3-min rest (n = 10), an endurance-type RT group that performed three sets of 20–25 RM with a 60-s rest interval (n = 10), or a control group (n = 5, CG). All groups completed each set until muscular failure and were supervised to follow a hyperenergetic diet (39 kcal·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹). Body composition changes were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results After 8 weeks, we found significant increases in total body mass (0.9 [0.3–1.5] kg; p < 0.05; ES = < 0.2) and lean body mass (LBM) (1.3 [0.5–2.2] kg; p < 0.05; ES = 0.31) only in the strength-type RT group; however, no significant interactions were noted between groups. Conclusions Although only strength-type RT showed statistically significant increases in LBM from baseline, no between-group differences were noted for any body composition outcome. These findings suggest that LBM gains in resistance trained are not significantly influenced by the type of training stimulus over an 8-week training period.
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Low‐load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRE) performed to volitional failure is suggested to constitute an effective method for producing increases in muscle size and function. However, failure BFRE may entail high levels of perceived exertion, discomfort and/or delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The aim of the study was to compare BFRE performed to volitional failure (F‐BFRE) vs non‐failure BFRE (NF‐BFRE) on changes in muscle size, function and perceptual responses. Fourteen young untrained males had one leg randomized to knee‐extension F‐BFRE while the contralateral leg performed NF‐BFRE. The training consisted of 22 training bouts over an 8‐week period. Whole‐muscle cross‐sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps components, muscle function, and DOMS were assessed before and after the training period. Perceived exertion and discomfort were registered during each training bout. Both F‐BFRE and NF‐BFRE produced regional increases in muscle CSA in the range of; quadriceps (2.5‐3.8%), vastus lateralis (8.1‐8.5%), and rectus femoris (7.9‐25.0%). All without differences between leg. Muscle strength (6.8‐11.5%) and strength‐endurance capacity (13.9‐18.6%) also increased to a similar degree in both legs. Less perceived exertion, discomfort and DOMS were reported with NF‐BFRE compared to F‐BFRE. In conclusion, non‐failure BFRE enable increases in muscle size and muscle function, while involving reduced perceptions of exertion, discomfort and DOMS. Non‐failure BFRE may be a more feasible approach in clinical settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of different volumes of resistance training (RT) on muscle performance and hypertrophy in trained women. Methods: The study included 40 volunteers that performed RT for 24 weeks divided in to groups that performed five (G5), 10 (G10), 15 (G15) and 20 (G20) sets per muscle group per session. Ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests were performed for the bench press, lat pull down, 45º leg press, and stiff legged deadlift. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured using ultrasound at biceps brachii, triceps brachii, pectoralis major, quadriceps femoris, and gluteus maximus. Results: All groups significantly increased all MT measures and 10RM tests after 24 weeks of RT (p<0.05). Between group comparisons revealed no differences in any 10RM test between G5 and G10 (p>0.05). G5 and G10 showed significantly greater 10RM increases than G15 for lat pulldown, leg press and stiff legged deadlift. 10RM changes for G20 were lower than all other groups for all exercises (p<0.05). G5 and G10 showed significantly greater MT increases than G15 and G20 in all sites (p<0.05). MT increased more in G15 than G20 in all sites (p<0.05). G5 increases were higher than G10 for pectoralis major MT, while G10 showed higher increases in quadriceps MT than G5 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Five to 10 sets per week might be sufficient for attaining gains in muscle size and strength in trained women during a 24-week RT program. There appears no further benefit by performing higher exercise volumes. Since lack of time is a commonly cited barrier to exercise adoption, our data supports RT programs that are less time consuming, which might increase participation and adherence.
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An inability to lift loads great enough to disrupt muscular blood flow may impair the ability to fatigue muscles, compromising the hypertrophic response. It is unknown what level of blood flow restriction (BFR) pressure, if any, is necessary to reach failure at very low-loads [i.e., 15% one-repetition maximum (1RM)]. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations following resistance training with a very low-load alone (15/0), with moderate BFR (15/40), or with high BFR (15/80), and compare them to traditional high-load (70/0) resistance training. Using a within/between subject design, healthy young participants (n = 40) performed four sets of unilateral knee extension to failure (up to 90 repetitions/set), twice per week for 8 weeks. Data presented as mean change (95% CI). There was a condition by time interaction for 1RM (p < 0.001), which increased for 70/0 [3.15 (2.04,4.25) kg] only. A condition by time interaction (p = 0.028) revealed greater changes in endurance for 15/80 [6 (4,8) repetitions] compared to 15/0 [4 (2,6) repetitions] and 70/0 [4 (2,5) repetitions]. There was a main effect of time for isometric MVC [change = 10.51 (3.87,17.16) Nm, p = 0.002] and isokinetic MVC at 180°/s [change = 8.61 (5.54,11.68) Nm, p < 0.001], however there was no change in isokinetic MVC at 60°/s [2.45 (−1.84,6.74) Nm, p = 0.261]. Anterior and lateral muscle thickness was assessed at 30, 40, 50, and 60% of the upper leg. There was no condition by time interaction for muscle thickness sites (all p ≥ 0.313). There was a main effect of time for all sites, with increases over time (all p < 0.001). With the exception of the 30% lateral site (p = 0.059) there was also a main effect of condition (all p < 0.001). Generally, 70/0 was greater. Average weekly volume increased for all conditions across the 8 weeks, and was greatest for 70/0 followed by 15/0, 15/40, then 15/80. With the exception of 1RM, changes in strength and muscle size were similar regardless of load or restriction. The workload required to elicit these changes lowered with increased BFR pressure. These findings may be pertinent to rehabilitative settings, future research, and program design.
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We examined the effects of resistance training (RT) frequency performed 3 times per week (RT3) versus RT performed 6 times per week (RT6) under volume-equated conditions in resistance-trained men. Twenty-seven men were randomly allocated to RT3 (n = 14) or RT6 (n = 13). The supervised training intervention lasted for 6-weeks. Upper and lower-body strength were assessed using the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test. Also, muscular endurance (60% 1RM performed to momentary failure), and muscle thickness (elbow flexors, elbow extensors, rectus femoris, and vastus intermedius) were measured pre and post-intervention. Pre-to-post intervention, both groups increased upper-body strength (RT3: +4%; RT6: +6%) and lower-body strength (RT3: +22%; RT6: +18%) with no significant between-group differences. No significant pre-to-post intervention increases in muscular endurance were seen in either of the training groups. Both groups increased elbow extensor thickness (RT3: +14%; RT6: +11%), rectus femoris thickness (RT3: +5%; RT6: +6%), and vastus intermedius thickness (RT3: +10%; RT6: +11%) with no significant between-group differences. Only the RT3 group significantly increased elbow flexor thickness from pre-to-post intervention (+7%). When training volume is equated, it seems that RT performed either 3 or 6 times per week can result in similar strength gains over a 6-week training period. Furthermore, under volume-equated conditions, comparable hypertrophy results may also be expected with both RT frequencies. Finally, no changes were seen in muscular endurance possibly because of the considerable inter-individual variability in the responses. The findings presented herein might be of interest to coaches, exercise practitioners, athletes, and recreational trainees.
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between low-, moderate-, and high-volume resistance training (RT) protocols in resistance-trained men. Methods: Thirty-four healthy resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: a low-volume group (1SET) performing 1 set per exercise per training session (n = 11); a moderate-volume group (3SET) performing 3 sets per exercise per training session (n = 12); or a high-volume group (5SET) performing 5 sets per exercise per training session (n = 11). Training for all routines consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Muscular strength was evaluated with 1 repetition maximum (RM) testing for the squat and bench press. Upper-body muscle endurance was evaluated using 50% of subjects bench press 1RM performed to momentary failure. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated using B-mode ultrasonography for the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, mid-thigh and lateral thigh. Results: Results showed significant pre-to-post intervention increases in strength and endurance in all groups, with no significant between-group differences. Alternatively, while all groups increased muscle size in most of the measured sites from pre-to-post intervention, significant increases favoring the higher volume conditions were seen for the elbow flexors, mid-thigh, and lateral thigh. Conclusion: Marked increases in strength and endurance can be attained by resistance-trained individuals with just three, 13-minute weekly sessions over an 8-week period, and these gains are similar to that achieved with a substantially greater time commitment. Alternatively, muscle hypertrophy follows a dose-response relationship, with increasingly greater gains achieved with higher training volumes.
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PurposeMuscular strength is suggested to be dependent upon muscle characteristics. Yet, sex-specific relationships of muscle characteristics to strength in the resistance-trained require investigation. Therefore, the purpose was to evaluate sex differences in muscle characteristics and isometric strength in the elbow extensors, as well as their respective associations. Methods Resistance-trained men (n = 15, mean ± SD 22 ± 4 years, 87.5 ± 12.8 kg, 16.9 ± 2.9% body fat) and women (n = 15, mean ± SD 25 ± 5 years, 59.3 ± 7.3 kg, 22.4 ± 4.2% body fat) were tested. B-mode ultrasound images assessed muscle thickness, pennation angle, and echo intensity. Muscle volume and fascicle length were estimated from previously validated equations. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured elbow extensors isometric strength. Independent samples t-tests and Fisher’s r-to-z test examined differences between sexes. ResultsSex differences existed in all muscle characteristics (p < 0.05). Men’s absolute strength (27.86 ± 3.55 kg) was significantly greater than women (16.15 ± 3.15 kg), but no differences were noted when controlling for muscle volume (men 0.069 ± 0.017, women 0.077 ± 0.022 kg/cm3). Sex differences did not exist in the relationships of muscle characteristics to strength with muscle size having the largest correlations. However, the relationship between echo intensity and body fat was different in men (r = − 0.311) and women (r = 0.541, p = 0.0143). Conclusions Sex differences in isometric elbow extensor strength are eliminated when expressed relative to muscle volume. Relationships of echo intensity and body fat were different between men and women and may be indicative of greater adipose infiltration in women.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects between single-set vs. multiple-sets of resistance training (RT) on measures of muscular strength, muscle mass, muscle quality (MQ) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in untrained healthy older women. Sixty-two older women were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: single-set RT (SS, n = 21), multiple-sets RT (MS, n = 20), or non-training control (CG, n = 21). Both training groups performed RT for 12 weeks, using 8 exercises of 10-15 repetitions maximum (RM) for each exercise. The SS group performed only 1 set per exercise whereas MS performed 3 sets. Anthropometric, muscle strength (1RM tests), lean soft tissue (LST) and MQ from upper (UL) and lower limbs (LL), and IGF-1 were measured pre- and post-training. Both training groups showed significant pre- to post-training increases for UL1RM (SS: 37.1%, MS: 27.3%, CG: -3.0%), LL1RM (SS: 16.3%, MS: 21.7%, CG: -0.7%), ULLST (SS: 7.8%, MS: 8.8%, CG: -1.1%), LLLST (SS: 5.6%, MS: 6.3%, CG: -0.8%), ULMQ (SS: 25.2%, MS: 16.7%, CG: -0.2%), LLMQ (SS: 10.5%, MS: 15.4%, CG: -3.5%), IGF-1 (SS: +7.1%, MS: +10.1%, CG: -2.2%). We conclude that both SS and MS produce similar increases in muscular strength, LST and MQ of upper and lower limbs, and IGF-1 after 12 weeks of RT in untrained older women. Our results suggest that, in the early stages, the RT regardless number of sets is effective for improving muscular outcomes in this population.
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Numerous reports suggest there are low and high skeletal muscle hypertrophic responders following weeks to months of structured resistance exercise training (referred to as low and high responders herein). Specifically, divergent alterations in muscle fiber cross sectional area (fCSA), vastus lateralis thickness, and whole body lean tissue mass have been shown to occur in high versus low responders. Differential responses in ribosome biogenesis and subsequent protein synthetic rates during training seemingly explain some of this individual variation in humans, and mechanistic in vitro and rodent studies provide further evidence that ribosome biogenesis is critical for muscle hypertrophy. High responders may experience a greater increase in satellite cell proliferation during training versus low responders. This phenomenon could serve to maintain an adequate myonuclear domain size or assist in extracellular remodeling to support myofiber growth. High responders may also express a muscle microRNA profile during training that enhances insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression, although more studies are needed to better validate this mechanism. Higher intramuscular androgen receptor protein content has been reported in high versus low responders following training, and this mechanism may enhance the hypertrophic effects of testosterone during training. While high responders likely possess “good genetics,” such evidence has been confined to single gene candidates which typically share marginal variance with hypertrophic outcomes following training (e.g., different myostatin and IGF-1 alleles). Limited evidence also suggests pre-training muscle fiber type composition and self-reported dietary habits (e.g., calorie and protein intake) do not differ between high versus low responders. Only a handful of studies have examined muscle biomarkers that are differentially expressed between low versus high responders. Thus, other molecular and physiological variables which could potentially affect the skeletal muscle hypertrophic response to resistance exercise training are also discussed including rDNA copy number, extracellular matrix and connective tissue properties, the inflammatory response to training, and mitochondrial as well as vascular characteristics.
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Background: This study investigated the effect of volume-matched strength training programs with different frequency and subsequent detraining on muscle size and strength. Methods: During a training period of 11 weeks, untrained subjects (age: 22.3 ± 0.9 years, height: 173.1 ± 4.8 cm and body mass: 66.8 ± 8.4 kg) performed knee-extension exercise at 67% of their estimated one-repetition maximum either one session per week (T1 group: 6 sets of 12 repetitions per session; n = 10) or three sessions per week (T3 group: 2 sets of 12 repetitions per session; n = 10). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle stiffness were measured as an index of muscle fatigue and muscle damage, respectively. The magnitude of muscle hypertrophy was assessed with thigh circumference and the quadriceps muscle thickness. The changes in muscle strength were measured with isometric maximum voluntary contraction torque (MVC). Results: During the training period, RPE was significantly higher in the T1 than in the T3 (p < 0.001). After 11 weeks of training, both groups exhibited significant improvements in thigh circumference, muscle thickness, and MVC compared with baseline values. However, there was a significant group difference in MVC improvement at week 11 (T1: 43.5 ± 15.5%, T3: 65.2 ± 23.2%, p < 0.05). After 6 weeks of detraining, both groups showed the significant decreases in thigh circumference and muscle thickness from those at the end of training period, while no significant effect of detraining was observed in MVC. Conclusion: These results suggest that three training sessions per week with two sets are recommended for untrained subjects to improve muscle strength while minimizing fatigue compared to one session per week with six sets.
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Background The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Methods Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. Results ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. Discussion The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.
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Health authorities worldwide recommend 2-3 days per week of resistance training (RT) performed ~48-72 h apart. However, the influence of recovery period between RT sessions on muscle strength, body composition and red blood cells (RBCs) are unclear. Aim: Examine the effects of three consecutive (C) or nonconsecutive (NC) days of RT per week for 12 weeks on strength, body composition and RBCs. Methods: Thirty young, healthy and recreationally active males were randomly assigned to 3 C (~24 h between sessions) or NC (~48-72 h between sessions) days of RT per week for 12 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 10-repetition maximum (RM) of leg press, latissimus pulldown, leg curl, shoulder press and leg extension for each session. Ten RM and body composition were assessed pre- and post-RT. RBC parameters were measured on the first session before RT, and 0 and 24 h post-3rd session in untrained (week 1) and trained (week 12) states. Results: No training x group interaction was found for all strength and body composition parameters (p = 0.075-0.974). Training increased strength for all exercises, bone mineral density, and total body mass via increased lean and bone mass (p < 0.001). There was no interaction (p = 0.076-0.994) and RT induced temporal changes in all RBC parameters (p < 0.001-0.003) except RBC corrected for plasma volume changes (time x training interaction; p = 0.001). Training increased hematocrit and lowered mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.001-0.041) but did not alter uncorrected RBC, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and RBC distribution width (p = 0.178-0.797). Conclusion: Both C and NC RT induced similar improvements in strength and body composition, and changes in RBC parameters.
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The present study investigated the effects of different intensities of resistance training (RT) on elbow flexion and leg press one-repetition maximum (1RM) and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Thirty men volunteered to participate in an RT programme, performed twice a week for 12 weeks. The study employed a within-subject design, in which one leg and arm trained at 20% 1RM (G20) and the contralateral limb was randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: 40% (G40); 60% (G60), and 80% 1RM (G80). The G20 started RT session with three sets to failure. After G20 training, the number of sets was adjusted for the other contralateral limb conditions with volume-matched. CSA and 1RM were assessed at pre, post-6 weeks, and post-12 weeks. There was time effect for CSA for the vastus lateralis (VL) (8.9%, 20.5%, 20.4%, and 19.5%) and elbow flexors (EF) (11.4%, 25.3%, 25.1%, and 25%) in G20, G40, G60, and G80, respectively (p > .05). G80 showed higher CSA than G20 for VL (19.5% vs. 8.9%) and EF (25% vs. 11.4%) at post-12 weeks (p < .05). There was time effect for elbow flexion and unilateral leg press strength for all groups post-12 weeks (p < .05). However, the magnitude of increase was higher in G60 and G80. In conclusion, when low to high intensities of RT are performed with volume-matched, all intensities were effective for increasing muscle strength and size; however, 20% 1RM was suboptimal in this regard, and only the heavier RT intensity (80% 1RM) was shown superior for increasing strength and CSA compared to low intensities.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using an internal versus external focus of attention during resistance training on muscular adaptations. Thirty untrained college-aged men were randomly assigned to an internal focus group (INTERNAL) that focused on contracting the target muscle during training (n = 15) or an external focus group (EXTERNAL) that focused on the outcome of the lift (n = 15). Training for both routines consisted of 3 weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Subjects performed 4 sets of 8–12 repetitions per exercise. Changes in strength were assessed by six repetition maximum in the biceps curl and isometric maximal voluntary contraction in knee extension and elbow flexion. Changes in muscle thickness for the elbow flexors and quadriceps were assessed by ultrasound. Results show significantly greater increases in elbow flexor thickness in INTERNAL versus EXTERNAL (12.4% vs. 6.9%, respectively); similar changes were noted in quadriceps thickness. Isometric elbow flexion strength was greater for INTERNAL while isometric knee extension strength was greater for EXTERNAL, although neither reached statistical significance. The findings lend support to the use of a mind–muscle connection to enhance muscle hypertrophy.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of training muscle groups 1 day per week vs. 2 days per week on neuromuscular performance and morphological adaptations in trained men with the number of sets per muscle group equated between conditions. Participants were randomly assigned in 2 experimental groups: 1 session·wk-1 per muscle group (G1, n = 10), where every muscle group was trained once a week with 16 sets or 2 sessions·wk-1 per muscle group (G2, n = 10), where every muscle group was trained twice a week with 8 sets per session. All other variables were held constant over the 8-week study period. No significant difference between conditions for maximal strength in the back squat or bench press, muscle thickness in the elbow extensors, elbow flexors, or quadriceps femoris, and muscle endurance in the back squat and bench press performed at 60% 1RM was detected. Effect size favored G2 for some outcome measurements, suggesting the potential of a slight benefit to the higher training frequency. In conclusion, both G1 and G2 significantly enhance neuromuscular adaptations, with a similar change noted between experimental conditions. Keywords: Split body routine; resistance training frequency; muscle hypertrophy; maximal strength.
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The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.
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Background Rest interval (RI) duration is an important resistance-training variable underlying gain in muscular strength. Recommendations for optimal RI duration for gains in muscular strength are largely inferred from studies examining the acute resistance training effects, and the generalizability of such findings to chronic adaptations is uncertain. Objective The goals of this systematic literature review are: (i) to aggregate findings and interpret the studies that assessed chronic muscular strength adaptations to resistance training interventions involving different RI durations, and (ii) to provide evidence-based recommendations for exercise practitioners and athletes. Methods The review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines with a literature search encompassing five databases. Methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Results Twenty-three studies comprising a total of 491 participants (413 males and 78 females) were found to meet the inclusion criteria. All studies were classified as being of good to moderate methodological quality; none of the studies were of poor methodological quality. Conclusion The current literature shows that robust gains in muscular strength can be achieved even with short RIs (< 60 s). However, it seems that longer duration RIs (> 2 min) are required to maximize strength gains in resistance-trained individuals. With regard to untrained individuals, it seems that short to moderate RIs (60–120 s) are sufficient for maximizing muscular strength gains.
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The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the current body of literature and a meta-analysis to compare changes in strength and hypertrophy between low- versus high-load resistance training protocols. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scopus were conducted for studies that met the following criteria: 1) an experimental trial involving both low- (≤60% 1 RM) and high- (>60% 1 RM) load training; 2) with all sets in the training protocols being performed to momentary muscular failure; 3) at least one method of estimating changes in muscle mass and/or dynamic, isometric or isokinetic strength was used; 4) the training protocol lasted for a minimum of 6 weeks; 5) the study involved participants with no known medical conditions or injuries impairing training capacity. A total of 21 studies were ultimately included for analysis. Gains in 1RM strength were significantly greater in favor of high- versus low-load training, while no significant differences were found for isometric strength between conditions. Changes in measures of muscle hypertrophy were similar between conditions. The findings indicate that maximal strength benefits are obtained from the use of heavy loads while muscle hypertrophy can be equally achieved across a spectrum of loading ranges.
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Objective We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to determine if dietary protein supplementation augments resistance exercise training (RET)-induced gains in muscle mass and strength. Data sources A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and SportDiscus. Eligibility criteria Only randomised controlled trials with RET ≥6 weeks in duration and dietary protein supplementation. Design Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions with four a priori determined covariates. Two-phase break point analysis was used to determine the relationship between total protein intake and changes in fat-free mass (FFM). Results Data from 49 studies with 1863 participants showed that dietary protein supplementation significantly (all p<0.05) increased changes (means (95% CI)) in: strength—one-repetition-maximum (2.49 kg (0.64, 4.33)), FFM (0.30 kg (0.09, 0.52)) and muscle size—muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA; 310 µm² (51, 570)) and mid-femur CSA (7.2 mm² (0.20, 14.30)) during periods of prolonged RET. The impact of protein supplementation on gains in FFM was reduced with increasing age (−0.01 kg (−0.02,–0.00), p=0.002) and was more effective in resistance-trained individuals (0.75 kg (0.09, 1.40), p=0.03). Protein supplementation beyond total protein intakes of 1.62 g/kg/day resulted in no further RET-induced gains in FFM. Summary/conclusion Dietary protein supplementation significantly enhanced changes in muscle strength and size during prolonged RET in healthy adults. Increasing age reduces and training experience increases the efficacy of protein supplementation during RET. With protein supplementation, protein intakes at amounts greater than ~1.6 g/kg/day do not further contribute RET-induced gains in FFM.
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Twenty young women (20.3+1.5 years, 164+6 cm, 68.7+13.8 kg) without prior structured resistance training experience were recruited for this study. Body composition (BodPod), compartmental water (Bioelectrical Impedance), 7-site skinfold, and arm and thigh CSA were assessed pre- and post- 8 week training. Performance testing consisted of vertical jump, 3 kg chest pass initial velocity, squat 1RM and overhead press 1RM. Following 2 weeks of familiarization training, subjects were matched for body composition and relative squat strength, and randomly assigned to either a high- (HL: n=10; 4 sets of 5-7 repetitions) or moderate-load (ML: n=10; 2 sets of 10-14 repetitions) group that completed 6-7 exercises per day performed to momentary muscular failure. Training was divided into two lower and one upper body training sessions per week performed on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. There were no statistically significant main effects for group or group x time interactions for any variable assessed. Both HL and ML resulted in similar significant increases in lean body mass (1.5 + .83 kg), lean dry mass (1.32 + 0.62 kg), thigh CSA (6.6 + 5.6 cm), vertical jump (2.9 + 3.2 cm), chest pass velocity (0.334 + 1.67 m/s), back squat 1 RM (22.5 + 8.1 kg), and overhead press (3.0 + 0.8 kg). HL and ML also both resulted in significant decreases in percent body fat (1.3 + 1.3 %), total body water (0.73 + 0.70 L), and intracellular water (0.43 + 0.38 L). The results of this study indicate that both moderate- and high-load training are effective at improving muscle growth, body composition, strength and power in untrained young women.
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Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury. Current evidence indicates that both short and long inter-set rest intervals may be useful when training for achieving gains in muscle hypertrophy. Novel findings involving trained participants using measures sensitive to detect changes in muscle hypertrophy suggest a possible advantage for the use of long rest intervals to elicit hypertrophic effects. However, due to the paucity of studies with similar designs, further research is needed to provide a clear differentiation between these two approaches.
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Background Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. Methods All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. ResultsThe cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27–0.58; P < 0.001). Periodization model (β = 0.51; P = 0.0010), training status (β = −0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. Conclusion These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli appears to be vital for increasing maximal strength, and longer periods of higher training frequency may be preferred.
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The purpose of this study was to compare strength gains in the lower limbs, assessed by one maximum repetition (1RM) and isokinetic peak torque (PT), in young men undergoing a resistance training (RT) program. Twenty-seven young men performed resistance training twice a week for 11 weeks. Training involved two exercises for the lower body, two for the upper body and one for the midsection performed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions to momentary muscle failure. Before and after the training period, participants performed the 1RM test in the 45° leg press and knee extension PT in isokinetic dynamometry. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the changes in 1RM and PT, and the Bland-Altman test was performed to check for agreement between the strength changes of both tests. There were significant changes in 1RM and PT of 23.98% and 15.96%, respectively (p < 0.05). The changes in leg press 1RM were significantly higher than the ones in PT. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the tests were not equivalent. In conclusion, professionals and researchers involved in strength assessment should be aware that the results obtained by PT and 1RM are not equivalent when evaluating individual responsiveness and/or the efficacy of an intervention on muscle strength, as the results obtained show large variations and can be even conflicting.
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The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the current literature and elucidate the effects of total weekly resistance training (RT) volume on changes in measures of muscle mass via meta-regression. The final analysis comprised 34 treatment groups from 15 studies. Outcomes for weekly sets as a continuous variable showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.002). Each additional set was associated with an increase in effect size (ES) of 0.023 corresponding to an increase in the percentage gain by 0.37%. Outcomes for weekly sets categorised as lower or higher within each study showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.03); the ES difference between higher and lower volumes was 0.241, which equated to a percentage gain difference of 3.9%. Outcomes for weekly sets as a three-level categorical variable (<5, 5-9 and 10+ per muscle) showed a trend for an effect of weekly sets (P = 0.074). The findings indicate a graded dose-response relationship whereby increases in RT volume produce greater gains in muscle hypertrophy.
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We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether post-exercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SEM, 23 ± 1 y) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ~30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20-25 repetitions/set (n=24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (~75-90% 1RM, 8-12 repetitions/set, n=25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, DXA scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pre- and post-training. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (p < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR: 9 ± 1 vs. LR: 14 ±1 kg, p = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass, type I and type II muscle fibre cross sectional area increased following training (p < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute post-exercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute post-exercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised of 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was carried out pre- and post-study for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris via ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii,(p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. The present study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.
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Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). In healthy humans, MPS is more sensitive (varying 4-5 times more than MPB) to changes in protein feeding and loading rendering it the primary locus determining gains in muscle mass. Performing resistance exercise (RE) followed by the consumption of protein results in an augmentation of MPS and, over time, can lead to muscle hypertrophy. The magnitude of the RE-induced increase in MPS is dictated by a variety of factors including: the dose of protein, source of protein, and possibly the distribution and timing of post-exercise protein ingestion. In addition, RE variables such as frequency of sessions, time under tension, volume, and training status play roles in regulating MPS. This review provides a brief overview of our current understanding of how RE and protein ingestion can influence gains in skeletal muscle mass in young, healthy individuals. It is the goal of this review to provide nutritional recommendations for optimal skeletal muscle adaptation. Specifically, we will focus on how the manipulation of protein intake during the recovery period following RE augments the adaptive response.
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This investigation sought to determine the effect of resistance training to failure on functional, structural and neural elbow flexor muscle adaptation. Twenty-eight males completed a 4-week familiarization period and were then counterbalanced on the basis of responsiveness across; non-failure rapid shortening (RS; rapid concentric, 2 s eccentric), non-failure stretch-shortening (SSC; rapid concentric, rapid eccentric), and failure control (C, 2 s concentric, 2 s eccentric), for a 12-week unilateral elbow flexor resistance training regimen, 3 × week using 85% of one repetition maximum (1RM). 1RM, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and muscle activation (EMGRMS ) of the agonist, antagonist, and stabilizer muscles were assessed before and after the 12-week training period. The average number of repetitions per set was significantly lower in RS 4.2 [confidence interval (CI): 4.2, 4.3] and SSC 4.2 (CI: 4.2, 4.3) compared with C 6.1 (CI: 5.8, 6.4). A significant increase in 1RM (30.5%), MVC (13.3%), CSA (11.4%), and agonist EMGRMS (22.1%) was observed; however, no between-group differences were detected. In contrast, antagonist EMGRMS increased significantly in SSC (40.5%) and C (23.3%), but decreased in RS (13.5%). Similar adaptations across the three resistance training regimen suggest repetition failure is not critical to elicit significant neural and structural changes to skeletal muscle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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We made sex-based comparisons of rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolic signaling after a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise. Eight men (20 ± 10 yr, BMI = 24.3 ± 2.4) and eight women (22 ± 1.8 yr, BMI = 23.0 ± 1.9) underwent primed constant infusions of l-[ring-(13)C(6)]phenylalanine on consecutive days with serial muscle biopsies. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at rest and 1, 3, 5, 24, 26, and 28 h after exercise. Twenty-five grams of whey protein was ingested immediately and 26 h after exercise. We also measured exercise-induced serum testosterone because it is purported to contribute to increases in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) postexercise and its absence has been hypothesized to attenuate adaptative responses to resistance exercise in women. The exercise-induced area under the testosterone curve was 45-fold greater in men than women in the early (1 h) recovery period following exercise (P < 0.001). MPS was elevated similarly in men and women (2.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively) 1-5 h postexercise and after protein ingestion following 24 h recovery. Phosphorylation of mTOR(Ser2448) was elevated to a greater extent in men than women acutely after exercise (P = 0.003), whereas increased phosphorylation of p70S6K1(Thr389) was not different between sexes. Androgen receptor content was greater in men (main effect for sex, P = 0.049). Atrogin-1 mRNA abundance was decreased after 5 h recovery in both men and women (P < 0.001), and MuRF-1 expression was elevated in men after protein ingestion following 24 h recovery (P = 0.003). These results demonstrate minor sex-based differences in signaling responses and no difference in the MPS response to resistance exercise in the fed state. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that exercise-induced increases in MPS are dissociated from postexercise testosteronemia and that stimulation of MPS occurs effectively with low systemic testosterone concentrations in women.
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This study assessed variability in muscle size and strength changes in a large cohort of men and women after a unilateral resistance training program in the elbow flexors. A secondary purpose was to assess sex differences in size and strength changes after training. Five hundred eighty-five subjects (342 women, 243 men) were tested at one of eight study centers. Isometric (MVC) and dynamic strength (one-repetition maximum (1RM)) of the elbow flexor muscles of each arm and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the biceps brachii (to determine cross-sectional area (CSA)) were assessed before and after 12 wk of progressive dynamic resistance training of the nondominant arm. Size changes ranged from -2 to +59% (-0.4 to +13.6 cm), 1RM strength gains ranged from 0 to +250% (0 to +10.2 kg), and MVC changes ranged from -32 to +149% (-15.9 to +52.6 kg). Coefficients of variation were 0.48 and 0.51 for changes in CSA (P = 0.44), 1.07 and 0.89 for changes in MVC (P < 0.01), and 0.55 and 0.59 for changes in CSA (P < 0.01) in men and women, respectively. Men experienced 2.5% greater gains for CSA (P < 0.01) compared with women. Despite greater absolute gains in men, relative increases in strength measures were greater in women versus men (P < 0.05). Men and women exhibit wide ranges of response to resistance training, with some subjects showing little to no gain, and others showing profound changes, increasing size by over 10 cm and doubling their strength. Men had only a slight advantage in relative size gains compared with women, whereas women outpaced men considerably in relative gains in strength.
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Franco, CMdC, Carneiro, MAdS, Alves, LTH, Jú nior, GNdO, de Sousa, JdFR, and Orsatti, FL. Lower-load is more effective than higher-load resistance training in increasing muscle mass in young women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study was designed to investigate the impact of load (higher vs. lower) performed until or close to volitional fatigue on muscle strength (MS) and fat and bone-free lean mass (FBFM) in young women. To do this, 32 women performed resistance training (RT) in 1 of 2 conditions: lower-load RT (LL; n = 14, age = 24.3 6 4.8 years and body mass index [BMI] = 23.3 6 2.8 kg$m 22) and higher-load RT (HL; n = 18, age = 23.0 6 3.3 years and BMI = 22.4 6 3.3 kg$m 22). Leg FBFM (DXA) and MS (1 repetition maximum-unilateral leg extension [LE]) were evaluated before and after 9 weeks (the first week was used for familiarization) of RT. Both groups performed 3 unilateral exercises (LE, leg curl, and leg press), 3 sets per exercise, 60-90 seconds of rest between sets, 2 days per week. In the LL group, the loads used in the exercises were the loads necessary to perform 30-35 repetitions in the first set. For the HL group, the loads used were the loads necessary to perform 8-10 repetitions in the first set. The LL group showed higher RT volume than the HL. Both groups showed leg muscle mass gains (p , 0.05). However, the LL group was better [p = 0.032 and effect size (eta 2 = 0.14 [large]) than the HL group in leg FBFM gains (LL = 0.3 kg [IC 95%: 0.4 kg; 0.2 kg] and HL = 0.1 kg [IC 95%: 0.2 kg; 0.0 kg]). Both groups showed MS gains, without any difference between them (LL = 3.4 kg [IC 95%: 4.4 kg; 2.5 kg] and HL = 4.2 kg [IC 95%: 5.1 kg; 3.3 kg]; p = 0.239). Thus, lower-load RT is more effective than higher-load RT in increasing FBFM, but not MS in novice young women.
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of resistance training to volitional failure at low (30% 1 repetition maximum (RM)) or high (80%1RM) loads on gains in muscle size and strength in young women. Thirteen women (age: 29.7 ± 4.7years; height 166.7 ± 6.4cm; weight 64.2 ± 12.2kg) completed 2 training sessions per week for 6 weeks and muscle strength (1RM), muscle thickness (ultrasound) were measured before and after training. Training comprised 1 set to volitional failure of unilateral leg extensions and bicep curls with each limb randomly assigned to train at either 80% 1RM or 30% 1RM. Increases in muscle thickness [arms: 6.81 ± 3.15% (30% 1RM), 5.90 ± 3.13% (80% 1RM) and legs: 9.37 ± 5.61% (30% 1RM), 9.13 ± 7.9% (80% 1RM)] and strength [arms: 15.4 ± 12.2% (30% 1RM), 18.26 ± 12.2% (80% 1RM) and legs: 25.30 ± 18.4 (30% 1RM), 27.20 ± 14.5 (80% 1RM)] were not different between loads. When resistance exercise is performed to volitional failure gains in muscle size and strength are independent of load in young women.
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The present paper endeavored to elucidate the topic on the effects of morning vs. evening resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy by conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies that examined time of day-specific resistance training. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines with searches conducted through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The Downs and Black checklist was used for the assessment of the methodological quality of the included studies. Studies that examined the effects of time of day-specific resistance training (while equating all other training variables, such as training frequency and volume, between the groups) on muscle strength and/or muscle size, were included in the present review. The random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses explored: (1) the differences in strength expression between morning and evening hours at baseline; (2) the differences in strength within the groups training in the morning and evening by using their post-intervention strength data from the morning and evening strength assessments; (3) the overall differences between the effects of morning and evening resistance training (with subgroup analyses conducted for studies that assessed strength in the morning hours and for the studies that assessed strength in the evening hours). Finally, a meta-analysis was also conducted for studies that assessed muscle hypertrophy. Eleven studies of moderate and good methodological quality were included in the present review. The primary findings of the review are as follows: (1) at baseline, a significant difference in strength between morning and evening is evident, with greater strength observed in the evening hours; (2) resistance training in the morning hours may increase strength assessed in the morning to similar levels as strength assessed in the evening; (3) training in the evening hours, however, maintains the general difference in strength across the day, with greater strength observed in the evening hours; (4) when comparing the effects between the groups training in the morning vs. in the evening hours, increases in strength are similar in both groups, regardless of the time of day at which strength assessment is conducted; and (5) increases in muscle size are similar irrespective of the time of day at which the training is performed.
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Training frequency is considered an important variable in the hypertrophic response to regimented resistance exercise. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies designed to investigate the effects of weekly training frequency on hypertrophic adaptations. Following a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scoups, and SPORTDiscus databases, a total of 25 studies were deemed to meet inclusion criteria. Results showed no significant difference between higher and lower frequency on a volume-equated basis. Moreover, no significant differences were seen between frequencies of training across all categories when taking into account direct measures of growth, in those considered resistance-trained, and when segmenting into training for the upper body and lower body. Meta-regression analysis of non-volume-equated studies showed a significant effect favoring higher frequencies, although the overall difference in magnitude of effect between frequencies of 1 and 3+ days per week was modest. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that resistance training frequency does not significantly or meaningfully impact muscle hypertrophy when volume is equated. Thus, for a given training volume, individuals can choose a weekly frequency per muscle groups based on personal preference.
Article
Damas, F, Barcelos, C, Nóbrega, SR, Ugrinowitsch, C, Lixandrão, ME, Santos, LMEd, Conceição, MS, Vechin, FC, and Libardi, CA. Individual muscle hypertrophy and strength responses to high vs. low resistance training frequencies. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this short communication was to compare the individual muscle mass and strength gains with high (HF) vs. low (LF) resistance training (RT) frequencies using data from our previous study. We used a within-subject design in which 20 subjects had one leg randomly assigned to HF (5× per week) and the other to LF (2 or 3× per week). Muscle cross-sectional area and 1 repetition maximum were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of RT. HF showed a higher 8-week accumulated total training volume (TTV) (p < 0.0001) compared with LF. Muscle cross-sectional area and 1 repetition maximum values increased significantly and similarly for HF and LF protocols (p > 0.05). This short communication highlights that some individuals showed greater muscle mass and strength gains after HF (31.6 and 26.3% of individuals, respectively), other had greater gains with LF (36.8 and 15.8% of individuals, respectively), and even others showed similar responses between HF and LF, regardless of the consequent higher or lower TTV resulted from HF and LF, respectively. Importantly, individual manipulation of RT frequency can improve the intrasubject responsiveness to training, but the effect is limited to each individual's capacity to respond to RT. Finally, individual response to different frequencies and resulted TTV does not necessarily agree between muscle hypertrophy and strength gains.
Purpose: A linear dose-response relationship between resistance training (RT) volume and hypertrophy/strength has been proposed when ≤10-12 weekly sets are implemented. The present study aimed to understand the impact of low-to-high weekly RT volume on muscular adaptations in trained young males over 6-weeks of RT. Methods: RT-experienced males (n=49) were randomly allocated to a LOW (n=17), moderate (MOD; n=15) or HIGH (n=17) volume group, performing 9, 18 or 27 weekly sets of biceps RT, respectively, for 6-weeks. RT was performed once (LOW) or twice (MOD and HIGH) weekly. Post-exercise protein intake was controlled with both dietary intake and external training volume recorded. Prior-to and following RT, assessments of biceps muscle thickness (MT) via ultrasound, isometric and one repetition maximum (1RM) strength were performed. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (baseline characteristics) and repeated measures ANOVA (within and between group pre-to-post change) Results: MT significantly increased in all groups (4.3±7.9%, 9.5±11.8% and 5.4±6.3% for LOW, MOD, HIGH, respectively, p<0.05) as did 1RM strength (p≤0.001 for all). Isometric strength increased significantly in HIGH only (8.5±15.1%, p<0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in MT or indices of strength. However, effect size estimates revealed the magnitude of response was 'moderate-to-large' for MOD and HIGH when compared with LOW. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that 9 weekly sets of biceps-focused RT, performed in one weekly session, is sufficient to increase MT, whilst 18-27 sets, performed over two weekly sessions, may confer greater strength increases.
Article
A key variable within resistance training (RT) is that of repetition duration; the time (seconds; s) taken to perform the concentric and eccentric muscle actions of a repetition. Research has produced equivocal results with regards to strength and muscle mass increases whilst many studies have created parity in the number of repetitions though there has been a disparity in load used and time-under-load (TUL). The purpose of this study was to compare load, and TUL matched groups performing resistance exercise using differing repetition durations. Fifty-nine male and female participants were randomised in to 3 groups; 2s:4s (n=18), 10s:10s (n=20) and a group which performed a 30s eccentric, 30s concentric and 30s eccentric muscle actions (e.g. 1.5 repetitions; n=21). Participants were supervised in 1-on-1 RT sessions 2 d.wk-1 for 10 weeks. Outcomes were 10-repetition maximum (RM) and predicted 1RM for chest press, leg press and pull-down exercises, as well as body composition, upper arm and thigh muscle mass and fasted blood glucose. Analyses revealed significant increases in strength for all exercises but no between-group differences, and no statistically significant time course changes for the other variables. Repetition duration does not affect the increases in strength in trained participants where exercise is performed to momentary failure. Since time constraints and perceived difficulty are often cited barriers to exercise, it is important to recognise that the low-volume (single-set), machine-based protocol employed herein produced worthwhile strength increases in trained participants.
Article
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of resistance training (RT) frequencies of five times (RT5), thrice- (RT3) or twice- (RT2) weekly in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young men. Were used a within-subjects design in which 20 participants had one leg randomly assigned to RT5 and the other to RT3 or to RT2. 1 RM and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at baseline, after four (W4) and eight (W8) RT weeks. RT5 resulted in greater total training volume (TTV) than RT3 and RT2 (P = .001). 1 RM increased similarly between protocols at W4 (RT5: 55 ± 9 Kg, effect size (ES): 1.18; RT3: 51 ± 11 Kg, ES: 0.80; RT2: 54 ± 7 Kg, ES: 1.13; P < .0001) and W8 (RT5: 62 ± 11 Kg, ES: 1.81; RT3: 57 ± 11 Kg, ES: 1.40; RT2: 60 ± 8 Kg, ES: 1.98; P < .0001) vs. baseline (RT5: 45 ± 9 Kg; RT3: 42 ± 11 Kg; RT2: 46 ± 7 Kg). CSA increased similarly between protocols at W4 (RT5: 24.6 ± 3.9 cm², ES: 0.54; RT3: 22.0 ± 4.6 cm², ES: 0.19; RT2: ES: 0.25; 23.8 ± 3.8 cm²; P < .001), and W8 (RT5: 25.3 ± 4.3 cm²; ES: 0.69; RT3: 23.6 ± 4.2 cm², ES: 0.58; RT2: 25.5 ± 3.7 cm²; ES: 0.70; P < .0001) vs. baseline (RT5: 22.5 ± 3.8 cm²; RT3: 21.2 ± 4.0 cm²; RT2: 22.9 ± 3.8 cm²). Performing RT5, RT3 and RT2 a week result in similar muscle strength increase and hypertrophy, despite higher TTV for RT5.
Article
We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (p<0.001) muscle strength [LFRT and HFRT: bench press = 5.6 kg (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.9 - 9.4) and 9.7 kg (95%CI: 4.6 - 14.9) and squat = 8.0 kg (95%CI: 2.7 - 13.2) and 12.0 kg (95%CI: 5.1 - 18.1), respectively] and lean tissue mass (p = 0.007) [LFRT and HFRT: total body lean mass = 0.5 kg (95%CI: 0.0 - 1.1) and 0.8 kg (95%CI: 0.0 - 1.6), respectively] with no difference between groups (bench press, p = 0.168; squat, p = 0.312 and total body lean mass, p = 0.619). Thus, HFRT and LFRT are similar overload strategies for promoting muscular adaptation in well-trained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of a high- versus a moderate-training frequency on maximal strength and body composition. Methods: 28 young, healthy resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either: 3x/week (3x; n=16) or 6x/week (6x; n=12). Dependent variables (DVs) assessed at baseline and after the 6-week training intervention included: squat 1RM (SQ1RM), bench press 1RM (BP1RM), deadlift 1RM (DL1RM), powerlifting total (PLT), Wilk's coefficient (WC), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Data for each DV was analyzed via a 2x2 between-within factorial repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was a main effect for time (p < 0.001) for SQ1RM (3x: + 16.8 kg; 6x: + 16.7 kg), BP1RM (3x: + 7.8 kg; 6x: + 8.8 kg), DL1RM (3x: + 19 kg; 6x: + 21 kg), PLT (3x: + 43.6 kg; 6x: + 46.5 kg), WC (3x: + 27; 6x: + 27.1), and FFM (3x: + 1.7 kg; 6x: + 2.6 kg). There were no group x time interactions or main effects for group. Conclusion: The primary finding was that 6-weeks of resistance training lead to significant increases in maximal strength and fat-free mass. Additionally, it appears that increased training frequency does not lead to additional strength improvements when volume and intensity are equated. Practical Application: High frequency (6x/wk) resistance training does not appear to offer additional strength and hypertrophy benefits over lower frequency (3x/wk), when volume and intensity are equated. Coaches and practitioners can therefore expect similar increases in strength and lean body mass with both 3- and 6-weekly sessions.
Article
This study investigated the effects of a 10-week resistance training to failure on neuromuscular adaptations in young women. Eighty-nine active young women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) repetitions to failure (RF; three sets of repetitions to failure); 2) repetitions not to failure with equalized volume (RNFV; four sets of 7 repetitions); and 3) repetitions not to failure (RNF; three sets of 7 repetitions). All groups performed the elbow flexor exercise (bilateral biceps curl) and trained 2 days per week using 70% of 1RM. There were significant increases (p<0.05) in muscle strength after 5 (15.9% for RF, 18.4% for RNF, and 19.9% for RNFV) and 10 (28.3% for RF, 26.8% for RNF, and 28.3% for RNFV) weeks of training, with no significant differences between groups. Additionally, muscular endurance increased after 5 and 10 weeks, with no differences between groups. However, peak torque (PT) increased significantly at 180°.s-1 in the RNFV (13.7%) and RNF (4.1%) groups (p<0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the RF group (-0.5%). Muscle thickness increased significantly (p<0.05) in the RF and RNFV groups after 5 (RF: 8.4% and RNFV: 2.3%) and 10 weeks of training (RF: 17.5%, and RNFV: 8.5%), whereas no significant changes were observed in the RNF group (3.9 and 2.1% after 5 and 10 weeks, respectively). These data suggest that short-term training of repetitions to failure do not yield additional overall neuromuscular improvements in young women.
Article
Purpose: To determine if muscle growth is important for increasing muscle strength or if changes in strength can be entirely explained from practicing the strength test. Methods: Thirty-eight untrained individuals performed knee extension and chest press exercise for 8 weeks. Individuals were randomly assigned to either a high-volume training group (HYPER) or a group just performing the one repetition maximum (1RM) strength test (TEST). The HYPER group performed 4 sets to volitional failure (~8-12RM) while the TEST group performed up to 5 attempts to lift as much weight as possible one time each visit. Results: Data are presented as mean (90% CI). The change in muscle size was greater in the HYPER group for both the upper and lower body at most but not all sites. The change in 1RM strength for both the upper [difference of -1.1 (-4.8, 2.4) kg] and lower body [difference of 1.0 (-0.7, 2.8) kg for dominant leg] was not different between groups (similar for non-dominant). Changes in isometric and isokinetic torque were not different between groups. The HYPER group observed a greater change in muscular endurance [difference of 2 (1, 4) repetitions] only in the dominant leg. There were no differences in the change between groups in upper body endurance. There were between group differences for exercise volume [mean (95% CI)] of the dominant [difference of 11049.3 (9254.6, 12844.0) kg] leg (similar for non-dominant) and chest press with the HYPER group completing significantly more total volume [difference of 13259.9 (9632.0, 16887.8) kg]. Conclusion: These findings suggests that exercise volume nor the change in muscle size from training contributed to greater strength gains compared to just practicing the test.
Article
Introduction: It has been suggested that disparities in effort and discomfort between high- and low-load resistance training might exist, which in turn have produced unequivocal adaptations between studies. Methods: Strength responses to heavier- (HL; 80% maximum voluntary isometric torque; MViT) and lighter- (LL; 50% MViT) load resistance training were examined in addition to acute perceptions of effort and discomfort. Seven men (20.6 ±0.5years; 178.9 ± 3.2cm; 77.1 ±2.7kg) performed unilateral resistance training of the knee extensors to momentary failure using HL and LL. Results: Analyses revealed significant pre- to post-intervention increases in strength for both HL and LL, with no significant between-group differences (P> 0.05). Mean repetitions per set, total training time, and discomfort were all significantly higher for LL compared to HL (P< 0.05). Discussion: This study indicates that resistance training with HL and LL produces similar strength adaptations, however, discomfort should be considered before selecting training load. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) at high- and low-intensities performed to muscle failure or volitional interruption on muscle strength, cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA) and muscle activation. Thirty-two untrained men participated in the study. Each leg was allocated in one of four unilateral RT protocols: RT to failure at high (HIRT-F) and low (LIRT-F) intensities, and RT to volitional interruption (repetitions performed to the point in which participants voluntarily interrupted the exercise) at high (HIRT-V) and low (LIRT-V) intensities. Muscle strength (1-RM), CSA, PA and muscle activation by amplitude of the electromyography (EMG) signal were assessed before (Pre), after 6 (6W) and 12 (12W) weeks. 1-RM increased similarly after 6W (range: 15.8 - 18.9%, ES: 0.41- 0.58) and 12W (range: 25.6 - 33.6%, ES: 0.64 - 0.98) for all protocols. All protocols were similarly effective in increasing CSA after 6W (range: 3.0 - 4.6%, ES: 0.10 - 0.24) and 12W (range: 6.1 - 7.5%, ES: 0.22 - 0.26). PA increased after 6W (~3.5) and 12W (~9%; main time effect, P < 0.0001), with no differences between protocols. EMG values were significantly higher for the high-intensity protocols at all times (main intensity effect, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, both high- and low-intensity RT performed to volitional interruption are equally effective in increasing muscle mass, strength and PA when compared to RT performed to muscle failure.
Article
German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been used for decades by weightlifters to increase muscle mass. To date, no study has directly examined the training adaptations following GVT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a modified GVT intervention on muscular hypertrophy and strength. Nineteen healthy males were randomly assign to 6 weeks of 10 or 5 sets of 10 repetitions for specific compound resistance exercises included in a split-routine performed 3 times per week. . Total and regional lean body mass, muscle thickness, and muscle strength were measured before and after the training program. Across groups, there were significant increases in lean body mass measures, however greater increases in trunk (p = 0.043; ES = -0.21) and arm (p = 0.083; ES = -0.25) lean body mass favored the 5-SET group. No significant increases were found for leg lean body mass or measures of muscle thickness across groups. Significant increases were found across groups for muscular strength, with greater increases in the 5-SET group for bench press (p = 0.014; ES = -0.43) and lat pull-down (p = 0.003; ES = -0.54). It seems that the modified GVT program is no more effective than performing 5 sets per exercise for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. To maximize hypertrophic training effects it is recommended that 4-6 sets per exercise be performed, as it appears gains will plateau beyond this set range and may even regress due to overtraining.
Article
Daily undulating periodization (DUP) is a growing trend, both in practice and in the scientific literature. A new form of DUP, flexible daily undulating periodization (FDUP), allows for athletes to have some autonomy by choosing the order of their training. The purpose of this study was to compare an FDUP model to a traditional model of DUP on powerlifting performance in resistance-trained men. Twenty-five resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: FDUP (N = 14) or DUP (N = 11). All participants possessed a minimum of 6 months of resistance training experience and were required to squat, bench press, and deadlift 125, 100, and 150% of their body mass, respectively. Dependent variables assessed at baseline and after the 9-week training program included bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, powerlifting total, Wilks Coefficient, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Dependent variables assessed during each individual training session were motivation to train, Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (Session RPE), and satisfaction with training session. After the 9-week training program, no significant differences in intensity or volume were found between groups. Both groups significantly improved bench press 1RM (FDUP: +6.5 kg; DUP: +8.8 kg), squat 1RM (FDUP: +15.6 kg; DUP: +18.0 kg), deadlift 1RM (FDUP: +14.8 kg; DUP: +13.6 kg), powerlifting total (FDUP: +36.8 kg; DUP: +40.4 kg), and Wilks Coefficient (FDUP: +24.8; DUP: +26.0) over the course of study (p = <0.001 for each variable). There was also a significant increase in FFM (FDUP: +0.8 kg; DUP: +0.8 kg) for both groups (p = 0.003). There were no differences in motivation to train, session RPE, or satisfaction with training session measurements between groups (p = 0.369-0.702, respectively). In conclusion, FDUP seems to offer similar resistance training adaptations when compared with a traditional DUP in resistance-trained men.