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Basel-Stadt ist mit rd. 200.000 Einwohnern der flächenmäßig kleinste Kanton der Schweiz, weist jedoch mit rd. 5.200 EW/ km² im Kantonsgebiet und rd. 7.500 EW/km² im Stadtgebiet die mit Abstand höchste Einwohnerdichte in der Schweiz auf (vgl. Köln: rd. 2.700 EW/ km²). Der Hauptort Basel ist ein national bedeutsames Zentrum für die chemische und pharmazeutische Industrie. Darüber hinaus nimmt das Gebiet des Kantons Basel-Stadt durch die Lage am Rhein und die Nähe zur Grenze eine tragende Rolle im Güterverkehr ein.
Between 10% and 20% of road transport performance in cities is attributable to freight transport. The external costs caused by freight transport are significantly higher than those of other forms of transport. This means that urban logistics are disproportionately responsible for problems caused by traffic such as congestion, accidents and emissions. At the same time, forecasts assume further urban growth, growing traffic volumes and increasing freight traffic. So, without measures taken, the situation seems likely to worsen rather than to improve. Cities are trying to counteract these dynamics with instruments of city logistics. Besides political measures, Trends such as digitalization, electrification and automation are also expected to contribute to sustainable logistics. However, the positive effects are questionable due to structural and technological hurdles. For this reason, this thesis examines the possibility of shifting the flow of goods to the underground of cities. Shifting freight flows into the urban underground can bring great advantages for a city, as it allows the bundling of good flows and the reduction of external effects on the surface. By means of a description of historical examples and current projects, the effects, potentials and risks of underground logistics tunnels are described. The findings are then examined by using Vienna as an example and transferred to a model in which the potential for relocation and the contribution of an underground freight system to sustainable urban logistics is assessed. Finally, the results will be related to parameters of other projects and fields of further research. It is shown that with a total network of 150 km, about 70% of the deliveries could be shifted underground. Especially by including utilities in tunnels accessible for maintance, the construction seems economically feasible in the middle and long term. In fostering new and sustainable means of transportation on the last mile, an underground logistics system can significantly reduce the external effects, in a prototypical system in Vienna by up to 70%.
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