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Media exposure and individuals’ emergency preparedness behaviors for coping with natural and human-made disasters

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... One important reason for this is the lack of effective communication of information to people who perceive the disaster risk to be of a low level. Media exposure is one of the most essential methods for residents to obtain disaster information [7,10]. With an increasing occurrence of global disasters, it is important to understand the types of media platforms that residents generally use to obtain disaster information and how frequently these platforms are accessed [11,12], especially for vulnerable rural households in developing countries. ...
... However, studies have found that residents in vulnerable communities (communities with limited resources and which are often threatened and impacted by earthquakes and their secondary this is the lack of effective communication of information to people who perceive the disaster risk to be of a low level. Media exposure is one of the most essential methods for residents to obtain disaster information [7,10]. With an increasing occurrence of global disasters, it is important to understand the types of media platforms that residents generally use to obtain disaster information and how frequently these platforms are accessed [11,12], especially for vulnerable rural households in developing countries. ...
... Because it is an important factor that affects residents' risk perceptions, disaster information is often incorporated into models as a control variable (e.g., [23,24]). However, few empirical studies have specifically focused on the impact that media exposure has on residents' risk perceptions of disasters [10,12] and few studies have explored the associations among traditional and new media exposure and residents' disaster risk perceptions [10]. Current studies take media exposure and residents' disaster experience as indicators that directly affect residents' disaster risk perceptions. ...
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For effective communication and management of disaster risks, it is important to explore how media exposure and disaster experience related to earthquake events affect residents' prospect ranks of disaster risk perceptions. Using survey data from 327 households located in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquake regions in China, the ordinary least square method was used to explore the associations among media exposure, severity of disaster experience, and residents' perception of prospect ranks of the possibility and severity of disasters. The results showed the following. (1) Rural households relied predominately on television broadcasts from traditional media, and on mobile phones and internet content from new media to obtain disaster information. From the residents surveyed, 90% believed that a disaster experience was serious, 82% considered that another major earthquake would seriously affect their lives and property, while approximately 40% of the residents did not believe there would be another major earthquake in the next 10 years. (2) Media exposure was negatively correlated with the perceived prospect ranks of the probability and severity of disasters, with traditional media exposure significantly negatively correlated with the perceived prospect ranks of the severity of disasters and new media exposure significantly negatively correlated with the perceived prospect ranks of the probability of disasters. Severity experience was significantly and positively correlated with the perceived prospect ranks of the probability and severity of disasters. (3) New media exposure moderated the relationship between residents' disaster experience and their perception of prospect ranks of the severity of disasters. This study can help deepen our understanding of disaster risk communication and better guide the practice of disaster risk management.
... Faced with the threat of disaster, residents will make behavioral decisions or have the willingness to make behavioral decisions. Empirical studies have shown that residents' disaster risk perception is closely related to their behavioral decisions or behavioral decision-making willingness (e.g., [1,22,25,29,30]). For example, Xu et al. [22] found that the probability and severity of disasters were significantly correlated with the intention to purchase earthquake insurance, and Peng et al. [1] showed that the probability and fear of disasters were significantly correlated with the intention to purchase disaster insurance. ...
... In addition, residents' "disaster prevention tendency" will also affect their behavioral decisions. Faced with the threat of disaster, residents participate in training organized by the community to learn disaster risks, prevention, and reduction strategies to allow them to make better behavioral decisions [8,30,33,34]. ...
... In addition, residents' "disaster prevention tendency" will also affect their behavioral decisions. Faced with the threat of disaster, residents participate in training organized by the community to learn disaster risks, prevention, and reduction strategies to allow them to make better behavioral decisions [8,30,33,34]. Additionally, many empirical studies have shown that residents' behavioral decisions, such as their willingness to purchase insurance or relocate, are closely related to their disaster knowledge and skills (e.g., [34]). ...
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There are many important factors to consider when creating robust, regional disaster prevention systems. These include rural households' knowledge and reported skills of earthquake disasters, disaster risk perception, awareness of disaster risk reduction, willingness to purchase insurance, and willingness to relocate to avoid disasters. However, few empirical studies have systematically established the theoretical research frameworks to analyze these factors. This study analyzed the data sampled from 241 rural households located in counties affected by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. A theoretical model was designed to investigate rural households' disaster risk perception and used path analysis to systematically analyze the mechanism of the factors stated above. The results showed that 53.11% of rural households had a stronger willingness to purchase disease insurance and 72.19% had a stronger willingness to relocate to avoid disasters. Risk perception, knowledge and reported skills, and awareness of disaster risk reduction were significantly correlated with a willingness to purchase disaster insurance. Risk perception and awareness of disaster risk reduction were significantly positively correlated with a willingness to relocate to avoid disasters. Knowledge and reported skills indirectly affected the willingness to purchase insurance and the willingness to relocate to avoid disasters through risk perception and awareness of disaster risk reduction. Risk perception could indirectly affect the willingness to purchase insurance and the willingness to relocate to avoid disasters through awareness of disaster risk reduction.
... Previous studies have enhanced the understanding of the driving factors of residents' disaster-preparedness behaviors. Fernandez et al. [21], Hoffmann and Muttarak [22], Goto and Picanço [23], and Grothmann and Reusswig [24] indicated that disaster risk perception capabilities can improve the disaster-preparedness behaviors of urban residents; Hong et al. [25], Kirschenbaum et al. [26] and Kusumastuti et al. [7] believed that disaster information acquisition is one of the key factors for urban residents' disaster preparedness decisions, enabling residents to judge the possibility and severity of disasters, learn the correct and effective disaster-preparedness behaviors based on the disaster information they obtain, and to change behavior decisions. Kim and Madison [27] and Onuma et al. [28] believed that disaster experience factors play an important role in urban residents' adoption of disaster-preparedness behaviors. ...
... Residents judge the possibility and severity of an earthquake based on received information, and thereby may change behavioral decisions. The timeliness and quality of information acquisition are particularly important [1,25,26,39,57,58]. (5) Media exposure. ...
... (5) Media exposure. Media exposure can influence emergency preparedness behavior by increasing social pressure and self-efficacy [59], or by increasing risk perception [25]. ...
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Earthquakes have strong negative impacts on the development of global economic society. Fortunately, these negative impacts can be reduced through earthquake-preparedness behaviors. However, existing studies mostly focus on the driving factors of disaster-preparedness behaviors among urban residents, while few studies consider such factors among rural residents. Based on survey data of earthquake-prone rural settlements in China, this study uses the probit model and the Poisson model to evaluate the quantitative impact of training on farmers’ earthquake-preparedness behaviors. The results show that: (1) disaster prevention and mitigation training can encourage farmers to engage in earthquake disaster-preparedness behaviors; that is, compared with farmers who have not participated in training, farmers who have participated in training have a 21.39% higher probability of adopting earthquake disaster-preparedness behaviors. (2) Disaster prevention and mitigation training can improve the extent of farmers’ adoption of earthquake disaster avoidance preparedness behaviors, namely, compared with farmers who have not participated in training, farmers who have participated in training adopt earthquake disaster-preparedness behaviors to a greater extent, presenting an increase of 0.75 items. Therefore, this study provides a helpful reference for improving disaster prevention and mitigation training policies for settlements at high risk of earthquakes.
... Among the most common factors measured include resident's disaster risk perception (e.g., Lazo et al. 2015;Lovreglio et al. 2016;Matyas et al. 2011;Siebeneck and Cova 2012), disaster experiences (e.g., Ngenyam Bang 2012;Lazo et al. 2015), personal and family social economic characteristics (e.g., Dash and Gladwin 2007;Lazo et al. 2015;Xu et al. 2017a), and evacuation behavior/willingness. Most of these studies assessed the source of disaster information (e.g., Hong et al. 2019;Peng et al. 2019a;Steelman et al. 2014;Xu et al. 2019a); however, few studies examined the correlation between information quality (credibility) and residents' evacuation willingness/behavior (Zhu et al. 2011). Many empirical studies have shown that the effective transmission of information (speed, channel and quality) before, during and after a disaster can change residents' disaster risk perception, thus affecting their behavioral decisions (Brenkert-Smith et al. (2013); Bunce et al. 2012). ...
... Many empirical studies have shown that the effective transmission of information (speed, channel and quality) before, during and after a disaster can change residents' disaster risk perception, thus affecting their behavioral decisions (Brenkert-Smith et al. (2013); Bunce et al. 2012). For example, effective information transmission can help residents learn disaster knowledge and escape skills, thus building public awareness of responsibility and safety culture (Hong et al. 2019;Lee 2011;Paek et al. 2010;Zhu and Yao 2019). Residents who have experienced disasters can learn disaster prevention and mitigation skills from the process of disaster information transmission, so as to make good preparation for future disasters (Hajito et al. 2015;Lindell and Perry 2012;Liu and Jiao 2018). ...
... However, to make a reasonable judgment on the probability and severity of disasters, residents should not only rely on their own disaster knowledge but on information obtained from various sources (public and private) that have high credibility. Therefore, in addition to the source of information, the quality (credibility) of information should also affect evacuation decisions (Hong et al. 2019;Zhu et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Information credibility is important for effective disaster communication, and its strength affects the evacuation willingness of residents. However, few reports have studied the correlation of information credibility and disaster risk perception with residents' willingness to evacuate during earthquake threats. Using survey data of 327 rural households located in four counties within earthquake-affected areas in Sichuan Province, this study systematically analyzed the credibility of public and private information about rural households, disaster risk perception and residents' evacuation willingness. After creating an ordinary least square regression model (OLS) to investigate the correlations of the above factors, the results showed that: (1) Both positive public information and negative private information were positively correlated with residents' evacuation willingness, and negative public information and positive private information were negatively correlated with residents' evacuation willingness; (2) the perceived severity of disaster was significantly correlated with residents' evacuation willingness, and the perceived probability of disaster was not significantly correlated with residents' evacuation willingness; and (3) both positive and negative public information indirectly affected residents' evacuation willingness through the perception of disaster severity. This study contributed to our understanding of the correlation of information credibility and disaster risk perception with evacuation willingness and provided important information for effective communication and disaster risk management.
... Next, the media has a very significant connection with tourism as it affects directly on the reputation of potential tourist destinations; hence, the influence on the choice of potential tourist destinations (Amara, 2012). Additionally, media exposure is one of the most important ways for tourists to judge and understand any risks information (Hong et al., 2019) as this may influence the tourists' risk perception. In this study, the hypothesis proved that media is the second strongest predictor of risk perception as it was positively associated with the risk perception. ...
... In this study, the hypothesis proved that media is the second strongest predictor of risk perception as it was positively associated with the risk perception. This result is consistent with studies such as Basolo et al. (2008), Zhu and Yao (2018) and Hong et al. (2019) that media exposure could significantly improve tourists' risk perception. This shows that when the tourists have more media exposure, they will be more aware of the risk they may face when they go travel during the pandemic. ...
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The COVID-19 outbreak has caused a global turmoil which restricted movement and consequently, diminishing domestic and international travel. One that is severely affected is ecotourism in National Parks, that involves visiting fragile, pristine and undisturbed natural areas. One of the major concerns for ecotourists in destination decision-making is travel risk that could affect their safety. This study aims to examine their risk perception and how it affects the behaviour of ecotourists in Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia. The data was collected from 406 respondents and analysed using structural equation modelling. It is concluded that risk perception affects tourists’ decision-making, whereby health and safety information preference is the strongest predictor, and media’s influence has a very significant connection. This study has the potential of contributing to the management of ecotourism destinations in times of crisis. It also fills the literature gap on risk perceptions of ecotourists’ during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... It is one of the important information channels for individuals to recognise and judge risks. 20 Some research pointed out that social media was related to fear and anger, and these emotions affect the relationship between social media and personal risk perception and behaviour. 21 understand the disaster situation and can view the communication content of the media theoretically and critically, while those with limited disaster experience rely more on the media content to help build their awareness of disaster, which can magnify their risk perception. ...
... 21 understand the disaster situation and can view the communication content of the media theoretically and critically, while those with limited disaster experience rely more on the media content to help build their awareness of disaster, which can magnify their risk perception. 20 In summary, social media has now become an important means of public interpersonal communication and information acquisition. Research on disaster risk management in the context of social media has received extensive attention from many researchers. ...
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Purpose: Taking COVID-19 as an example, this paper explores the mechanism of WeChat's impact on risk information transmission in social media and builds a model of WeChat's impact on public risk perception based on risk communication. Methods: Research primarily utilised the questionnaire survey method to collect and analyse public attitudes towards COVID-19 to achieve the research goals. We checked the adequacy of measurements and tested the hypotheses with regression analysis based on 801 participants in China. Results: The results indicated that the levels of the public WeChat COVID-19 risk information attention and trust had a significant positive impact on the public's risk perception and willingness of pandemic prevention. The improved public risk perception of COVID-19 as a mediator enhanced the public pandemic prevention ability, which allowed WeChat to play a more effective role in major disaster emergency.
... The items were modified based on the media exposure measurement of Hong, Kim, and Xiong [45]. "Traditional media consumption" refers to the frequency of reading printed materials (such as newspapers and magazines), listening to the radio, and watching TV to obtain information related to COVID-19 (3 items). ...
... Statistical Product and Service Solutions 22.0 (SPSS) (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) software was used as a statistical tool in this study. A Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test was used to determine the sampling adequacy of data that were to be used for factor analysis [45]. The principal component analysis method with varimax rotation and eigenvalues >1 for EFA was adopted. ...
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The COVID-19 epidemic has been confirmed as the largest scale outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and it has become a public health emergency of international concern. It exacerbated public confusion and anxiety, and the impact of COVID-19 on people needs to be better understood. Indeed, prior studies that conducted meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort research compared mental health before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic and proved that public health polices (e.g., city lockdowns, quarantines, avoiding gatherings, etc.) and COVID-19-related information that circulates on new media platforms directly affected citizen’s mental health and well-being. Hence, this research aims to explore Taiwanese people’s health status, anxiety, media sources for obtaining COVID-19 information, subjective well-being, and safety-seeking behavior during the COVID-19 epidemic and how they are associated. Online surveys were conducted through new media platforms, and 342 responses were included in the analysis. The research results indicate that the participants experienced different aspects of COVID-19 anxiety, including COVID-19 worry and perceived COVID-19 risk. Among the given media sources, the more participants searched for COVID-19 information on new media, the greater they worried about COVID-19. Furthermore, COVID-19 worry was positively related to safety-seeking behavior, while perceived COVID-19 risk was negatively related to subjective well-being. This paper concludes by offering some suggestions for future studies and pointing out limitations of the present study.
... Disaster preparedness refers to the measures taken by residents to avoid disasters [36][37][38]. Different studies have different entry points for the measurement of residents' preparedness to avoid disasters [39][40][41][42]. Existing research has focused on protecting residents' life safety by measuring their disaster preparedness (e.g., [32][33][34]). ...
... At the same time, many studies believe that the residents' preparedness for avoiding disasters is simply material preparation, which is measured from the perspective of residents' material preparation. Among them, the most common way to measure disaster preparedness is to ask residents whether they have prepared emergency disaster kits (flashlights, radios, clean water) (e.g., [35,36,45,46]), buy insurance (e.g., [24,25]), if they had an escape plan (e.g., [39][40][41][42]47,48]) and reinforce houses (e.g., [38,49]). In addition, some scholars have noted that in addition to material preparation, residents' disaster preparedness, conscious disaster risk management behavior is also an effective means to deal with disaster impact (e.g., [21]). ...
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Sichuan Province in China is one of the world's most earthquake-stricken areas. Wenchuan and Lushan Counties in Sichuan and other earthquake-stricken areas contain rural settlements subject to geological disasters and poverty. However, there is little research on the characteristics of disaster-preparedness behavior and whether these differ between professionals and the general public in rural settlements with high earthquake risk and poverty. Using survey data from 327 farmers in rural settlements affected by major earthquakes in Wenchuan and Lushan Counties, independent-sample t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to test for differences in the disaster-preparedness behaviors of professionals and the general public. The results show that (1) there were significant differences in emergency-disaster preparedness, knowledge and skills preparedness and overall disaster-prevention preparedness, and (2) there was no significant difference in physical disaster-prevention preparation. Based on these results, the study suggests policy directions for regional poverty alleviation, disaster prevention and reduction and disaster management.
... Journalists adopt new information from authorities and translate this information into newsworthy items for the public. In this process, the media can influence what people know and believe [23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. At the same time, public sentiments might also influence media coverage, as media outlets are likely to adapt their products to the interests and sentiments of the public [30]. ...
... With our results, we can only show similarities and differences between these two dynamics during an outbreak situation and hypothesize about associations between the two based on previous research. Previous research has shown associations between media reporting and public perceptions of risk and of institutions that are responsible for managing that risk [23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. We believe that our study provides useful additional insights by providing an integrated portrait of these interrelated social dynamics based on real-life data. ...
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Background From 2015 to 2018, the Netherlands faced an outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup W. To counter the rise in infections, the government introduced a catch-up menACWY vaccination campaign for teenagers in 2018 and 2019. The outbreak situation induced substantial media attention and a run on menACWY vaccines outside the vaccination campaign. This study aimed to gain insights into the dynamics of public perceptions of and responses to the outbreak and the menACWY vaccination, and into the media coverage about the outbreak. Methods Three repeated surveys ( N = 1110) between 2017 and 2019 were sent to parents of teenagers invited for a menACWY catch-up vaccination, other parents, and individuals with no under-age children. These surveys assessed IMD risk perceptions, attitudes towards the menACWY vaccination, trust in involved institutions, and willingness to vaccinate with the menACWY vaccine. Changes in the public perceptions and responses were studied with linear multilevel regression analyses. In addition, 103 national newspaper articles from the period 2017–2019 were thematically coded with themes about IMD and the menACWY vaccination. Results The survey results showed clear increases in perceived IMD severity, positive attitude towards the menACWY vaccination, and willingness to vaccinate over time. Perceived IMD vulnerability remained low across all three waves, and trust in involved institutions increased slightly. Differences between the survey groups were limited. The newspaper articles discussed the rise in infections extensively, the disease symptoms, and the possible fatal outcome of IMD. In addition, while many articles discussed the menACWY vaccine shortage, few discussed the safety or effectiveness of the vaccine. Conclusion The real-time insights into the interrelated dynamics of public perceptions, responses, and media coverage provide an integrated portrait of the social developments during this outbreak. The focus on IMD severity and the absence of doubt in the public discussion about vaccine safety may have played an important role in the societal response to this outbreak and the recommended vaccine.
... Organizational emergency preparedness efforts focus predominantly on changing employee behaviors in ways that build their capability to cope with hazard consequences (Ejeta et al., 2015). Hong et al. (2019) identified two patterns of preparedness behaviors: preparedness by individual and by cooperation. The former refers to preparations made by individuals themselves, while the latter refers to the preparations made through the collaboration of two or more individuals and agencies, such as participating in emergency skills training, emergency drills, and policy formulation. ...
... Building on this important foundation, a goal of our study was to assess the relationship of MHO staff' QoL with their EPBI. Drawing on previous studies (Kohn et al., 2012;Hong et al., 2019), we developed hypotheses for QoL's relationship with preparedness of different patterns, including EPNCBI and EPCBI. In some cross-cultural studies, Tomio et al. (2012), Strine et al. (2013), Gowan et al. (2014) and Hong et al. (2020) have identified a positive association between QoL and household (or individual) preparedness behaviors. ...
Purpose Enhancing the initiative and enthusiasm of emergency preparedness behaviors among Medical and Health Organization (MHO) staff is an effective measure to prevent and reduce losses from emergencies. In this study, emergency preparedness behavioral intentions were divided into noncooperative behavioral intentions (EPNCBI) and cooperative behavioral intentions (EPCBI) to discuss the impact brought by quality of life (QoL). The mediating effects of psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived organizational support (POS) were also considered. Design/methodology/approach A web-based questionnaire was used for MHO staff in China, and a structural equation analysis of the data collected from 243 participants was conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings The empirical results reveal that: (1) QoL had a positive effect on EPNCBI, PsyCap and POS; (2) PsyCap had a positive effect on EPNCBI and EPCBI; (3) POS had a positive effect on PsyCap and EPCBI; (4) PsyCap mediated the relationship between QoL and EPNCBI, and the relationship between POS and EPNCBI; (5) PsyCap and POS mediated the relationship between QoL and EPCBI. Practical implications Improving MHO staff’s QoL is an effective way to enhance positive behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, these findings could provide managers with valuable insight focusing their limited resources on enhancing the emergency preparedness of MHO staff by reinforcing the level of PsyCap and POS. Originality/value This study provides important updated considerations for the application of positive psychology in the field of emergency preparedness.
... If individuals were exposed to the media report of a certain disaster or negative event, their risk perception would increase (Sj€ oberg, 2000;Yim & Vaganov, 2003). Hong, Kim, and Xiong (2019) found that media exposure had a positive influence on risk perceptions of natural and human-made disasters. Fleming, Thorson, and Zhang (2006) found that news exposure had a positive effect on food safety risk perception. ...
Article
Traditional media (e.g., newspapers, radio, and television) and new media (e.g., the Internet, SNS, and mobile devices) are equally important in individuals’ access to political news about governmental performance and social problems. This study is aimed at examining the effects of political news media use on civil happiness. The mediation effects of public trust in government (GT) and their perceived social risks (PSR) are considered. Specifically, GT concerns people’s trust that government functions in the public interest and fulfills its promises, while PSR is individuals’ perception of the risks of social problems. A total of 3,561 samples were used in the final data analysis. In line with theoretical arguments, the empirical evidence showed that the influence of political news exposure through traditional media (PTMU) and new media use (PNMU) on happiness differed. For example, PTMU increased happiness by enhancing GT, but it was not the case in PNMU. PNMU decreased happiness by enhancing PSR; however, its effect on PTMU was insignificant. The results suggest that the accessibility of political news should be enhanced, and the level of public trust in the government should be increased to promote civil happiness.
... How often an individual or group of individuals check for the latest updates regarding warning and evacuation information is a sign of increased awareness and readiness to cope with the adverse effects of a potential hazard. A positive effect on risk perception due to being regularly exposed to media has been extensively verified as reported in Hong, et al. [75]. Staying up-to-date to the type of hazard allows citizens to adjust their behaviour when the hazard is approaching (i.e., stay home or go to a safer place) [76,77]. ...
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Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are vulnerable to sea-level rise and hydro-meteorological hazards. In addition to the efforts to reduce the hazards, a holistic strategy that also addresses the vulnerability and exposure of residents and their assets is essential to mitigate the impacts of such hazards. Evaluating the socioeconomic vulnerability of SIDS can serve the purpose of identification of the root drivers of risk. In this paper, we present a methodology to assess and map socioeconomic vulnerability at a neighbourhood scale using an index-based approach and principal component analysis (PCA). The index-based vulnerability assessment approach has a modular and hierarchical structure with three components: susceptibility, lack of coping capacities and lack of adaptation, which are further composed of factors and variables. To compute the index, we use census data in combination with data coming from a survey we performed in the aftermath of Irma. PCA is used to screen the variables, to identify the most important variables that drive vulnerability and to cluster neighbourhoods based on the common factors. The methods are applied to the case study of Sint Maarten in the context of the disaster caused by Hurricane Irma in 2017. Applying the combined analysis of index-based approach with PCA allows us to identify the critical neighbourhoods on the island and to identify the main variables or drivers of vulnerability. Results show that the lack of coping capacities is the most influential component of vulnerability in Sint Maarten. From this component, the "immediate action" and the "economic coverage" are the most critical factors. Such analysis also enables decision-makers to focus their (often limited) resources more efficiently and have a more significant impact concerning disaster risk reduction.
... For example, individuals must process information regarding one's personal risk for natural hazards (e.g., tornado, snowstorm, flood, wildfire). Studies indicate that the amount of information individuals receive [20], the way information is visually presented [21], and the framing of the information [22] can influence risk perceptions. Natural hazards also elicit a range of emotions [23]. ...
Article
Making judgments about whether one is prepared for a natural hazard (e.g., tornado, earthquake) involves processing information, experiencing emotions, and considering the short-term and long-term tradeoffs. However, few experimental investigations exist of momentary social cognitive factors that influence natural hazard likelihood and perceived response preparedness. Drawing on the Affect-as-Cognitive-Feedback approach, in which positive emotions (and anger) tend to validate thinking styles whereas negative emotions tend to invalidate them, the current work investigates how emotion and thinking styles interact to influence natural hazard judgments. In Study 1, participants completed a task to induce abstract or concrete thought and wrote about a happy or sad memory before making natural hazard likelihood and preparedness judgments. As expected, those under abstract thought and feeling happy judged natural hazards as more likely than those feeling sad. The opposite pattern emerged under concrete thought. Emotion and thinking styles also interacted to indirectly influence perceived preparedness via likelihood judgments. Study 2 participants under abstract or concrete thinking styles watched a happy, sad, or neutral video before completing the same judgments from Study 1 and rating their judgment confidence. High confidence individuals replicated the findings from Study 1, whereas low confidence individuals demonstrated the opposite pattern. In Study 3, a US national sample completed a global or local prime and wrote about an angry or sad memory before making the same judgments from Study 1. After controlling for age and prior natural hazard experience, emotion and thinking style interacted to influence perceived response preparedness.
... In emergency situations, residents are increasingly relying on social media to obtain and deliver information. Moreover, Basolo et al. [20]; Hong et al. [89] found in their study that social media exposure can significantly improve residents' cognition of disaster risk, so as to promote residents' preparedness for disaster avoidance. However, this study finds that the frequency of using social media is the lowest before, during and after disasters. ...
Article
Disaster information acquisition is a research hotspot in disaster risk management. However, most studies focus on residents' access to disaster information at a time point, such as the peak of the disaster. Few studies have considered information channel types and rates of access over the whole period of a disaster; i.e., from before the disaster until after evacuated residents have returned home. This study surveyed residents of 327 households affected by the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquake in Sichuan Province, China. The time chain of residents' disaster information acquisition is divided into five time points(such as 1) before the disaster, 2) when evacuation was decided, 3) when the disaster peaked, 4) after the peak but before the disaster was over, and 5) after the disaster was over), meanwhile, four kinds of the most common information channels are selected(such as government, relatives and friends, mass media, and social media). Rates of disaster information access at each time point were analyzed. The results show that: 1) In the whole period of disaster, social media is the most infrequently used information channel. 2) Relatives and friends is an important source of information. Although it has obvious drawbacks, the frequency of use has always been the highest. 3) When the disaster peaked, government is used more frequently than mass media. 4) In the time chain of disaster information acquisition, the frequency of residents' acquisition of information shows an increasing trend, but its growth rate shows a fluctuating state. The results of this study have important implications for the integration of multiple information channels and the establishment of a disaster information resource sharing system in the vast earthquake-stricken areas.
... With the development of Internet technology, more and more people are accustomed to using the Internet to search for risk information (Jin, Liu & Austin 2014). In this case, after the occurrence of major emergencies, on the one hand, online media quickly spread relevant information to satisfy the public's need for information (Bunz 2010) and improve their risk perception ability (Hong, Kim & Xiong 2019); on the other hand, online media also become main communication media of rumours, which leads to secondary public opinion risks (Huo, Huang & Fang 2011). After a major emergency, rumours or wrong information generated and propagated during communications amongst the public may easily cause panic or social instability. ...
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During a public emergency, which possibly evolves into a major public crisis, it is critical to quickly identify the main risk factors and assess the levels of risk, in order to efficiently manage the risks. In this study, about 40 000 emergencies in China over the past decade are investigated. Then, the five different types of risk factors are identified of these emergencies using the 5W1H methodology, including risk time (When), risk location (Where), risk population (Who), risk psychology (Why) and risk element (What), which lead to a risk matrix that is suitable for China’s national conditions. Based on this risk matrix, combined with expert knowledge, the Borda count and the analytic hierarchy process analysis, risk levels can be precisely assessed, solving ‘how to provide a solution’ (How), which provides decision-making guidance and facilitates prompt risk responses.
... Therefore, it would be more effective for the entire social platform industry to reach a consensus in this regard. Second, individual characteristics differ in discriminating information and emotions [57], and in general, education is inversely related to online social expression [58]. More educated people care about the content of information when they are exposed to it rather than the subjective emotions of others. ...
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Negative online public sentiment generated by government mishandling of pandemics and other disasters can easily trigger widespread panic and distrust, causing great harm. It is important to understand the law of public sentiment dissemination and use it in a timely and appropriate way. Using the big data of online public sentiment during the COVID-19 period, this paper analyzes and establishes a cross-validation based public sentiment system dynamics model which can simulate the evolution processes of public sentiment under the effects of individual behaviors and governmental guidance measures. A concrete case of a violation of relevant regulations during COVID-19 epidemic that sparked public sentiment in China is introduced as a study sample to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. By running the model, the results show that an increase in government responsiveness contributes to the spread of positive social sentiment but also promotes negative sentiment. Positive individual behavior suppresses negative emotions while promoting the spread of positive emotions. Changes in the disaster context (epidemic) have an impact on the spread of sentiment, but the effect is mediocre.
... Various studies support the social amplification of risk framework by showing a positive association between the number of media messages on a risk topic and perceived risks (Combs & Slovic, 1979;Frewer, Miles, & Marsh, 2002;Hong, Kim, & Xiong, 2019;Renn, Burns, Kasperson, Kasperson, & Slovic, 1992;Zhao, Rosoff, & John, 2019). One possible explanation for this association is that a large amount of media attention on a given topic may increase the availability of risk information in the receiver's mind, which, in turn, may cause an increase in risk perception (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973). ...
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This study aims to increase insights into the potential role of the media in the amplification and attenuation of modern risks in society, by studying the dynamics and contents of the newspaper coverage about the potential health risk posed by rubber granulate in the Netherlands. We thematically analysed 153 national newspaper articles about the risks posed by rubber granulate between September 2016 and February 2017. Our results suggest that newspaper coverage might have contributed to heightened public risk perceptions by presenting the negligible health risk as uncertain, focusing on controversy between authorities and experts, describing responses such as concerns, commotion, and adopted risk mitigation measures by members of the public, and by providing insufficient contextualization on whether hazardous substances in rubber granulate pose a threat to health. The risks posed by rubber granulate is one of the many modern risks that has become subject to heated and mediated public discussions. Our results provide in‐depth insights into important content elements in media coverage during such discussions and the impact of these elements on public perceptions. Public health institutes and other authorities might be able to mitigate the amplification of risks through media coverage by means of appropriate preparedness and response.
... Based on prior studies [6,7,52], 18 questions about disaster preparedness activities were incorporated into the survey. Specifically, seven of the questions were related to material preparedness (food, water, flashlight, emergency kit, radio, medicine, special needs) within a household, another seven about their planning and actions linked to disaster risk reduction (behavioral preparedness), and the last four about the participant's awareness of disaster protective actions (awareness preparedness). ...
Article
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Household preparedness is essential for resilience-building and disaster risk reduction. Limited studies have explored the correlations between place attachment, self-efficacy, and disaster preparedness, especially in the east Asian cultural context. This study investigates the mediating role of self-efficacy between place attachment and disaster preparedness based on data from the 2018 Shandong General Social Survey (N = 2181) in China. We categorized the preparedness behaviors into three specific clusters: material, behavioral and awareness preparedness. Multiple linear regressions and the Sobel Goodman tests were employed to estimate the correlations with the control of necessary confounding variables such as disaster experience, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. The results demonstrate that both the place attachment and self-efficacy are correlated with higher degrees of overall preparedness and all three types of preparedness, and self-efficacy plays a mediating role between place attachment and disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of promoting place attachment and self-efficacy in the advocacies and outreach activities of disaster preparedness.
... Generally, the interviewees stated there was a lack of adequate disaster-related information and would like that relevant authorities to provide such information. Chinese migrants relied on information they actively sourced through nonofficial channels, which may lead to problems like refusal to information provision, miscommunication, fake news, incomplete information delivery and misleading information (Hong et al., 2019). Cultural differences resulted in Chinese migrants more inclined to seeking help within the Chinese community, at both transnational and national levels. ...
Article
Migrants can be disproportionately impacted by disasters due to their increased vulnerability. Knowledge of Chinese migrants' perceptions and experiences in the face of hazards and disasters is limited. This qualitative descriptive study explored Chinese migration in relation to disasters and disaster risk reduction in New Zealand. Semi‐structured interviews with 22 Chinese migrants living in Auckland were conducted and data were thematically analysed. Participants displayed strong transnationalism via the creation of ‘mini‐China’ and conceptions of China as their ‘mother’ country and New Zealand their ‘step‐mother’ country. Chinese migrants compared their experiences of disasters in China to those in New Zealand, with many expressing difficulties with accessing information and not trusting New Zealand government authorities, particularly given how the approach contrasts to China's more ‘hands on’ approach. Fear of losing life and property and responsibility to their family were key factors underpinning Chinese migrants' decision to prepare for a disaster. Participants shared insights to guide disaster risk reduction efforts from a community level and expressed a willingness to participate in disaster preparedness organised by agencies involved in disaster risk reduction. The findings indicate capacities of Chinese migrants that planners can leverage and highlight important cultural nuances that need attention in future planning.
... Moreover, negative fear information stimulates protective actions and increases risk awareness [34]. Effective conveying of accurate disaster information to residents through reliable channels increases the level of disaster risk awareness, increases safety knowledge and skills, improves safety behaviors, and enhances individuals' risk perceptions, which ultimately influence their behavioral decisions [35]. Therefore, higher safety awareness and alertness of individuals during emergencies is associated with stronger risk perception ability, and enhances behavioral characteristics for safe evacuation [36]. ...
Article
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Non-adaptive evacuation behavior refers to a safety risk that cannot be disregarded throughout the evacuation process. In order to lower the risky behavior of evacuation, enhancing people’s psychological states and behaviors plays a significant role. This study developed a conceptual model connecting risk communication and non-adaptive evacuation behavior by analyzing the interaction between risk communication, risk perception, emotional exhaustion, and non-adaptive evacuation behavior. The structural equation model was adopted to analyze the 557 questionnaires collected, by which the findings demonstrated that risk communication has a negative impact on non-adaptive evacuation behavior, which is also indirectly affected by risk perception and emotional exhaustion. With the aim to prevent non-adaptive evacuation behavior during the evacuation process, enterprises and organizations can adjust the behavior level, psychological state, and physiological condition of individuals from the perspectives of risk communication, risk perception, and emotional exhaustion.
... Therefore, weight perception is indeed a partial mediator between the understanding of BMI and weight loss. Hong [98] proved that risk perception plays a mediating role between media exposure and emergency preparedness cooperation. Similarly, the risk perception of the construction workers for interior decoration may also be a mediator between individual characteristics, personal knowledge, social influence factors, and coping behavior. ...
Article
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To reduce harm caused by occupational health risks of construction workers exposed to working environments, especially those for interior decoration, it is crucial for them to actively recognize and prevent these risks. Therefore, how to improve their occupational health risks perception and regulate their coping behaviors should be of great concern. However, most prior studies target construction worker safety, and little research focuses on risk analysis from the psychological level of workers. Hence, construction workers’ occupational health risk perception level and coping behavior level in Nanjing and the influencing factors were analyzed through statistical analysis with 341 valid questionnaires. Bootstrapping was applied to test the mediating effects of risk perception on the proposed factors and coping behaviors. This study revealed that construction workers have a high-level of occupational health risk perception, yet low-level coping behavior. Gender, age, education level, and unit qualification cause differences in individual risk perception level. Personal knowledge and group effects significantly affect the level of risk perception, which subsequently affect coping behavior. Education level, monthly income, and personal knowledge influence the coping behavior through risk perception. Recommendations were put forward for risk perception and coping behavior improvement from the perspectives of construction workers themselves, enterprises, and governments. This study sheds new light for research areas of occupational health and risk management and provides beneficial practice for improving construction workers’ responses to occupational health risks.
... Media coverage and publicity are the main communication channels to arouse public awareness of smog pollution [27]. Hong, Kim, and Xiong [28] stated that media exposure could positively enhance public disaster risk awareness and emergency preparedness behaviour. Contrarily, negative information from mass media may elevate a reader's anxiety and negative emotions towards such a threat [29]. ...
Article
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This study examines the behavioural intentions of international tourists travelling to Beijing when faced with smog pollution. An extended MGB (model of goal-directed behaviour) was employed as the theoretical framework by integrating mass-media effect and perception of smog. The role of mass-media effect and perception of smog were considered as new variables in the international tourist’s decision-making process for travel to Beijing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to identify the structural relationships among research variables. Our research results showed a strong correlation between positive anticipated emotion and desire. The mass-media effect is a significant (direct) predictor of both the perception of smog and behavioural intention. The Chinese government could attach great importance to the mass-media effect to reduce the negative impact caused by smog pollution on inbound tourism.
... Similar to previous studies [55][56][57][58], risk perception was measured using four items: (1) "Do you worry about yourself or your family being affected by a hurricane or flooding"; (2) "Do you worry about yourself or a family member being hurt in an earthquake"; (3) "Do you worry about your own or your family's work environment resulting in injury or illness"; (4) "Do you usually worry about yourself or your family being involved in a traffic accident?". All the items used a scale ranging from 1 (not at all worried) to 5 (extremely worried). ...
Article
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The impact of internet use on quality of life (QoL) has become an increasing focus of academic research. This paper aims to explore the internal influencing mechanisms of internet use (i.e., leisure-oriented internet use (LIU); work-oriented internet use (WIU)) on QoL, with a focus on the multiple mediating effects of risk perception and internet addiction. We constructed a theoretical framework from a psychological perspective and tested the hypotheses using hierarchical regression analysis with a sample of 1535 participants. The results showed that: (1) LIU had a positive effect on QoL, while WIU did not have a significant impact on QoL; (2) both risk perception and internet addiction had a negative influence on QoL; (3) risk perception positively impacted internet addiction; (4) risk perception and internet addiction had multiple mediating effects on the relationship between internet use and QoL.
... The measurement items of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were adapted from the questionnaire of Ajzen (2006) [50]. [53]. The respondents scored with a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from "1 = strongly disagree" to "5 = strongly agree". ...
Article
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Medical and Health Organization (MHO) staff’s emergency preparedness awareness and behaviors are essential variables that affect public health emergency response effectiveness. Based on the theory of psychological capital and the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study discusses the mechanism of the psychological characteristics of MHO staff on their emergency preparedness behavioral intention (EPBI). To verify the research model, we conducted a web-based questionnaire survey among 243 MHO staff from China and analyzed the data using the structural equation modeling software, AMOS 24.0 (IBM, New York, United States). The empirical results reveal that psychological capital significantly affected cognitive processes theorized by TPB. This study suggests that the positive psychological capital of MHO staff should be developed and managed to improve their EPBI.
... Finally, as already outlined in the PADM, individual characteristics can impact the processing of weather warning messages. Prior experience with severe weather as well as experienced personal harm impact subsequent appraisal of risk and the implementation of preparedness behavior [81][82][83][84][85][86]. Sociodemographic variables, such as age or gender, play a role in risk appraisal in connection with weather warnings and protective measures: female gender and higher age are factors that are associated with higher compliance [12,87,88]. ...
Article
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Background: Warning apps can provide personalized public warnings, but research on their appraisal and impact on compliance is scarce. This study introduces a virtual city framework to examine affective reactions when receiving an app-based warning, and subsequent behavioral intentions. Methods: In an online experiment, 276 participants (M = 41.07, SD = 16.44, 62.0% female) were randomly allocated to one of eight groups (warning vs. no warning, thunderstorm vs. no thunderstorm, video vs. vignette). Participants were guided through a virtual city by a mock-up touristic app (t1). Then, the app issued a warning about an impending thunderstorm (t2), followed by a virtual thunderstorm (t3). The virtual city tour was presented via vignettes or videos. ANCOVAs were used to investigate trajectories of momentary anxiety, hierarchical regressions analyzed the impact of momentary anxiety on information seeking. Results: Participants who received a warning message and were confronted with a thunderstorm showed the highest increase in momentary anxiety, which predicted information seeking intentions. Conclusions: The findings underscore the importance of affective appraisal in processing warning messages. The virtual city framework is able to differentiate the impact of warning versus event in an online context, and thus promising for future warning research in virtual settings.
... The public can contribute to epidemic prevention in several ways, including self-health monitoring and mask use, and as both users and producers of risk information [27,28]. Although the existing studies provide some fundamental public health emergency response strategies for governments to respond to COVID-19 [29][30][31][32], and have increasingly focused on the importance of incorporating citizens in influenza preparedness, mitigation, response, and prevention [33,34], these studies do not link together the government-initiated action and the role of the public and are insufficient to help government cope with challenges from COVID-19 [34]. The response to COVID-19 is different from traditional influenza management efforts because the period of a pandemic is significantly more extended than that of other hazards and should be categorized as an extreme context in which several extreme events are likely to occur and result in intolerable consequences. ...
Article
A review of the disaster literature indicates that emergency responses to pandemics are often understudied; the current COVID-19 crisis provides an important opportunity to improve awareness and understanding about this and other contagious and disruptive diseases. With this in mind, this study examines Taiwan's response to COVID-19 because it was successful in spite of a high probability of contagion. The paper first explores the assertion that cognition, communication, collaboration, and control are vital for effective disaster response; it then indicates the need to consider two additional Cs: confidence (trust of government's competency) and coproduction (public participation in disaster transmission prevention). The paper also conducts a qualitative descriptive study of the Taiwan government's response timeline with examples of each of these concepts in action. To further illustrate the need for the two additional Cs, survey data illustrate how public confidence serves as a pivot between government's COVID-19 response and citizen coproduction in COVID-19 transmission prevention.
... How often an individual or group of individuals check for the latest updates regarding warning and evacuation information is a sign of increased awareness and readiness to cope with the adverse effects of a potential hazard. A positive effect on risk perception due to being regularly exposed to media has been extensively verified as reported in Hong, et al. [75]. Staying up-to-date to the type of hazard allows citizens to adjust their behaviour when the hazard is approaching (i.e., stay home or go to a safer place) [76,77]. ...
... Several studies have also identified factors that can influence both risk perception and preparedness. For example Hong et al. [40] have shown that media exposure positively impacts risk perception and preparedness. Similarly, gender and education level also have an impact on people's risk perception and preparedness level [15]. ...
Article
Pakistan is located in one of the most earthquake-prone regions of the world. The 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake (Mw 7.6) resulted in massive destruction of the infrastructural facilities and significant social losses. In order to develop effective strategies to reduce the social, environmental, and economic losses from future destructive earthquakes, it is important to assess the level of earthquake preparedness in this region. This study evaluates potential association between perceived risk and earthquake preparedness at the household level in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of Rawalakot – a city located in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) region. Based on the Yamane method, 400 samples from urban, peri-urban, and rural study areas were collected using the random sampling technique. Primary data was collected from face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires. An index-based approach was used to determine risk perception and preparedness indices. The overall level of risk perception and its important dimensions (fear, awareness, trust, and attitude) were quantified using a set of appropriate indicators. Linear regression model were used to find the significant variance in any relationship between risk perception and preparedness. The results revealed that risk perception is significantly influenced by the fear of future earthquakes, expected breakdown of supplies, and expected damage of the house structures. The study also found that risk perception and its various dimensions may significantly influence earthquake preparedness. The findings of this study can be used by the relevant authorities to devise integrated risk awareness and preparedness programs at the household level.
... Many studies have shown that disaster experience is an important factor in shaping risk perception (Bustillos Ardaya et al., 2017;Sun and Han, 2018;Venable et al., 2020). Disaster experience directly or indirectly influences residents' perceptions of disaster risk (Tian et al., 2014), and individuals with sufficient disaster experience have an immediate understanding of the disaster situations (Hong et al., 2019). Most research results show that residents' disaster experience is positively significantly correlated with their disaster risk perception (Lo and Cheung, 2015;Xu et al., 2019a). ...
Article
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Few studies have examined people’s subjective perceptions of risk after secondary disasters. This study selected 12 towns in the areas where secondary geological hazards (SGH) occurred after the Wenchuan earthquake as the survey research areas and obtained a total of 957 valid samples to assess the risk perceptions of residents and the factors influencing them 10 years after the disaster. Using four indicators (possibility, awareness, apprehension, and impact) to construct the Resident Risk Perception Index (RRPI), the results show that residents in the affected areas have high, moderate, and low-risk perceptions of SGH at 27.59, 48.38, and 24.03% respectively. The study found that people who suffered in the past from geological disasters had a higher risk perception. Perceptions of secondary geological hazard risk varied significantly with age, education, marital status, and experience. It was also found that residents in the 30–40 age group have the highest risk perception, young people in the 20–30 age group have the highest risk awareness, and older people over 60 are more fearful of SGH. The study recommends awareness campaigns and adequate disaster preparedness exercises to improve the risk perception of local people, especially to foster ownership of learning about disasters among residents.
... According to statistics, from 2018 to 2020 in China, disasters caused a total of 398 million disasters, 2089 deaths, 60, 289, 000 ha of crops affected, and direct economic losses of 961.7 billion yuan [3]. The occurrence of disasters not only causes the direct loss of life and property of social members, but also may cause a wide range of environmental, social, psychological and political indirect losses [4]. Community, as the ...
Article
Traditional community disaster prevention and mitigation relies on the top-down management mode led by the government and ignores the important role played by the participation of peasant households and communities in grass-roots disaster risk management. Based on the sampling survey data of 327 households in the disaster threatened area, An ordered multi-classification logistic regression model was constructed to explore the relationship between farmers' place attachment, community trust and community participation (CP), and further test the mediating effect of community trust on the relationship between place attachment and CP. The results showed that:(1) the self-score of farmers' CP behavior was in the middle level. place attachment was relatively high, with the mean scores of place identity and place dependence being 4.15 and 4.17 respectively. Farmers' community trust is at a high level, among which organizational trust score is the highest with an average of 4.37, and emotional trust score is the lowest with an average of 3.97. (2) Both farmers' local attachment and community trust are positively correlated with their social participation, and community trust has a partial mediating effect between Place attachment and community participation. This study analyzes the correlation between local attachment, community trust and community participation in disaster threatened areas, which can provide support for the construction of community resilience disaster prevention system and improve the comprehensive ability of communities to resist and reduce disaster loss.
... Ontake eruption and other volcanic calamities on online platforms (such as Twitter). Previous studies suggest that media exposure positively influences people's emergency preparedness behavior and risk perception (Hong et al. 2019). Hence, the dominant frame in media anniversary coverage is one of the determining factors affecting emergency preparedness behavior. ...
Article
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This paper studies the news coverage of the 2014 Mt. Ontake eruption disaster from 2015 to 2019, and the public response to the fifth anniversary coverage. Information on the issues regarding the risk of low-frequency disaster events such as volcanic eruption is brought into the public largely through the media. Unless there is a volcano nearby, there are few opportunities to discuss volcanic disaster prevention, and enhance volcanic risk perception. Therefore, the media agendas on volcanic risk are an indicator of what people know about volcanic disaster preparedness. This study quantitatively analyzed the 2014 Mt. Ontake eruption reports of national, regional, and local newspapers to reveal their topic distributions. In addition, the anniversary gained intense public attention due to the large amount of media coverage. It was a significant opportunity for society to discuss volcanic risk. By observing people’s online responses to the anniversary coverage, a trend could be identified. We found a significant difference in media attention among the three newspaper types. The local newspaper covered four topics relating to volcanic risk in a well-balanced way, but the national and regional newspapers paid greater attention to one or two topics. Many online comments presented the view that a mountaineering should be done at individuals’ own risk, and volcano shelters would be ineffective for averting volcanic disasters. The anniversary coverage unintentionally contributes to stigmatizing or scapegoating a certain group, rather than promoting risk communication in the public sphere on the Web. With the onset of the information and communication information technology era, an online dialogue regarding disaster awareness and prevention is important. A volcano disaster risk communication strategy on the Web should be developed.
... Keywords such as "preventive behavior", "theory of planned behavior", "health belief model" and "health communication" indicate that the pandemic may have helped people increase their knowledge of emergency preparedness to varying degrees. Pre-education can help shape behavior, and it can also enhance the public's understanding of protective behavior in disaster events [46,47]. The last cluster indicates the need to pay attention to the psychological and behavioral effects of social media. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in December 2019 has spread globally. The ongoing psychological and behavioral effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, which poses a major challenge to humanity, are of concern to researchers. To understand the academic community’s attention, focus and research collaboration on psychological and behavioral research during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a macro analysis using a bibliometric approach. Using the topic selection strategy of TS = (“COVID-19” OR “coronavirus disease 2019” OR “SARS-CoV-2” OR “2019-nCoV”) AND TS = (“behavio*”) AND TS = (“psycholog*”), 2096 high-quality research articles and reviews were downloaded as data from the Web of Science core collection on 16 November 2021. Through analysis and visualization, the following conclusions are drawn in this study: (1) The popularity and importance of psychological and behavioral research under COVID-19 has increased significantly and needs further attention; (2). Related research focuses on eight hotspots, with quarantine, health care workers, the elderly, students, pregnant women, family, consumers, social media and emergency preparedness knowledge as the focus of the research object; and (3) Research collaboration is relatively high at the author, organizational and national levels. However, low-income countries need to get more attention. Furthermore, this article would help researchers make decisions for the research of psychological and behavioral issues under COVID-19 and planning for future prospects to contribute to academic development and applied methodology.
... The above studies mainly focus on surging demand forecasting, resource scheduling, and response measures, mostly based on deductive reasoning modeling methods or static contingency plans, lacking experimental design and experimental studies that integrate multiple uncertainties. Due to the randomness, complexity, and uncertainty of disaster evolution [16], it is difficult for the existing methods to accurately describe and predict the dynamic surging emergency product demand and effectively improve the manufacturing system. To address the above research issues, we propose a parallel simulation and optimization framework (Section 3) based on the theories of RSS and PeMS (Section 2). ...
Article
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The outbreak of unconventional emergencies leads to a surge in demand for emergency supplies. How to effectively arrange emergency production processes and improve production efficiency is significant. The emergency manufacturing systems are typically complex systems, which are difficult to be analyzed by using physical experiments. Based on the theory of Random Service System (RSS) and Parallel Emergency Management System (PeMS), a parallel simulation and optimization framework of production processes for surging demand of emergency supplies is constructed. Under this novel framework, an artificial system model paralleling with the real scenarios is established and optimized by the parallel implementation processes. Furthermore, a concrete example of mask shortage, which occurred at Huoshenshan Hospital in the COVID-19 pandemic, verifies the feasibility of this method.
... An important cognitive bias for the evaluation of flood risks is the availability heuristic, which implies that the perceived probability of an event is related to the ease of recall. Direct experience or salient media footage (Hong et al., 2019) may therefore inflate subjective probabilities of certain events. This bias can be particularly powerful in combination with strong affective feelings toward risk, such as worry (Loewenstein et al., 2001). ...
Article
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Many individuals experience problems understanding and preparing for low-probability/high-impact risk, like natural disasters and pandemics-unless they experience these events, yet then it is often too late to avoid damages. Individuals with recent disaster risk experience are, on average, better prepared. This seems to be mediated through emotions and a better understanding of the consequences. In this study, we use immersive virtual reality (VR) technology to examine whether a simulated disaster can stimulate people to invest in risk reducing measures in the context of flooding, which is one of the deadliest and most damaging natural disasters in the world. We investigate the possibility to boost risk perception, coping appraisal, negative emotions and damage-reducing behavior through a simulated flooding experience. We find that participants who experienced the virtual flood invest significantly more in the flood risk investment game than those in the control group. The investments in the VR treatment seem to decrease after four weeks but not significantly so.
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Environmental Disasters and Individuals’ Emergency Preparedness: In the Perspective of Psychology and Behavior that was published in IJERPH. Environmental disasters are becoming more frequent. These disasters not only include the most common natural disasters, but also include man-made disasters, such as public health, accident disasters, etc., which have caused greater damage to human society and cities. Because of the limitations of a single government-led model in emergency response, the emergency preparedness of communities, families and individuals are more important. In particular, the emergency preparedness psychology and behavior of individuals directly determine whether or not they can effectively protect themselves and their families in the first time of disaster. This Special Issue focuses on environmental disasters and individuals’ emergency preparedness in the perspective of psychology and behavior.
Chapter
The article examines the psychological approach to the phenomenon of environmental safety, including the example of students’ perception (n = 557) of a specific environmental problem—global warming. Environmental safety is understood as a human sense of its security in interaction with the natural environment, formed on the basis of the assessment of the environment as not threatening with destructive environmental impacts, as well as the search for resources to confront the emerging dangers of a natural-tech nature. Factor analysis method justified environmental safety structure presented by the following components: cognitive (representations of nature and opportunities to influence environmental problems), affective (feeling defenseless in the face of environmental threats), value-oriented (environmental values and their relationship with values in other life spheres) and behavioral (possible behavioral strategies to solve conservation problems). The study found an average level of students’ concerns about global environmental issues. With the importance of environmental values, many of them have insufficient levels of cognitive and behavioral components of environmental safety. Attitudes to climate change are linked to perceptions of other global environmental problems, but are inferior to a number of them, such as waste disposal, radioactive contamination, and environment-related diseases. At the same time, students with a higher level of concern about climate warming demonstrate a stronger desire to adhere to the rules of pro-environmental behavior in their daily behavior.
Article
Purpose of the study: This study aims to identify the determinants of the behavior of people living in polluted rivers in Terengganu. Methodology: This study was conducted in a quantitative approach using a survey method for data collection. A total of 373 respondents were selected by cluster sampling. The study site was held at ten rivers that were considered polluted in Terengganu. Instruments used to collect the data were questionnaire form and analyzed with software, namely IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS). Main Findings: The findings show that knowledge and exposure to environmental messages through the media is a dominant factor influencing respondents’ behavior on river conservation. Applications of this study: The study is expected to raise awareness and change people’s behavior in addressing issues of environmental degradation, especially for sustainable, healthy rivers, and better quality of life. This is because the river is clean, healthy, and of good quality to ensure the well-being of the community. Novelty/Originality of this study: Studies on factors that determine environmental behavior by researchers have often focused on studies of personal variables (e.g., knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs) and thus ignore the direct role of situational variables as they are emphasized. Therefore, a comprehensive study should be conducted to build or change human behavior towards the environment.
Conference Paper
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There may be numerous situations that challenge the communication skill competency of newly graduated nurses in the Pediatric unit. Newly qualified nurses employed in a specialized unit like Pediatrics need effective communication skill training because of the complexity of dealing with both a desperate, dedicated parent and a child with medical needs. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a communication skill training program for new graduate nurses in dealing with clinical communication challenges in the General Pediatric units. Purposive sampling was used for the recruitment of the participants. A two-day communication skill workshop was conducted using (1) brief presentations; (2) video on effective communication skills; (3) small group experiential learning using role play simulation based on real clinical experiences of participants; and (4) debriefing. Participants completed questionnaire after the workshop. Thirty-two participants completed the two-day workshop. The questionnaire response shows that the training was useful, would be helpful for their daily pediatric nursing practice and would recommend the training to Pediatric staff. Qualitative feedback was greatly positive. Overall the communication skill workshop is highly valued by the participants in improving confidence in communication skills.
Article
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We investigated the effects of evacuation experience on autobiographical memory, sensory-perceptual re-experiencing, emotions, and personal consequentiality of a natural disaster one year after. A total of 601 individuals participated, living nearby the area of the largest fire in modern times in Sweden. It was shown that evacuated (first-hand experience) compared to not-evacuated (second-hand experience) participants thought and talked more about the fire. Evacuated residents also mentally traveled back and re-lived the disaster more; as well as saw the fire, heard its sound, smelled it more, and felt more anxious, enraged, and emotionally strong. Moreover, evacuated compared to not-evacuated participants estimated that their life and view of the world had changed due to the natural disaster. All this suggests that the psychology of dramatically charged events, such as natural disasters, differs notably between individuals “being there” and those “hearing the news”, indicating a factual flashbulb memory as a result of the first-hand experience.
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This study explores how the preventive behaviors of restaurant customers towards COVID-19 are shaped by exposure and attention to media coverage, thereby connecting the issues of community anxieties and business resilience during crises. Ways in which media exposure and attention predict COVID-19 preventive behaviors were examined, as these relate to emotional fear responses and cognitive risk perceptions. An online survey was administered in Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic to test the proposed research framework. A total of 366 responses were collected using convenience sampling, and structural equation modeling was deployed to examine the hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that consumer fears and risk perceptions were positively influenced by media coverage of COVID-19. Moreover, fear positively affected individual risk perceptions, and risk perception positively influenced restaurant preventive behaviors. Risk perception was also identified as a mediator between a) media exposure and restaurant preventive behaviors and b) media attention and restaurant preventive behaviors.
Article
Objective Community characteristics, such as collective efficacy, a measure of community strength, can affect behavioral responses following disasters. We measured collective efficacy 1 month before multiple hurricanes in 2005, and assessed its association to preparedness 9 months following the hurricane season. Methods Participants were 631 Florida Department of Health workers who responded to multiple hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. They completed questionnaires that were distributed electronically approximately 1 month before (6.2005-T1) and 9 months after (6.2006-T2) several storms over the 2005 hurricane season. Collective efficacy, preparedness behaviors, and socio-demographics were assessed at T1, and preparedness behaviors and hurricane-related characteristics (injury, community-related damage) were assessed at T2. Participant ages ranged from 21-72 ( M ( SD ) = 48.50 (10.15)), and the majority were female (78%). Results In linear regression models, univariate analyses indicated that being older ( B = 0.01, SE = 0.003, P < 0.001), White ( B = 0.22, SE = 0.08, P < 0.01), and married ( B = 0.05, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) was associated with preparedness following the 2005 hurricanes. Multivariate analyses, adjusting for socio-demographics, preparedness (T1), and hurricane-related characteristics (T2), found that higher collective efficacy (T1) was associated with preparedness after the hurricanes ( B = 0.10, SE = 0.03, P < 0.01; and B = 0.47, SE = 0.04, P < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion Programs enhancing collective efficacy may be a significant part of prevention practices and promote preparedness efforts before disasters.
Article
Pendahuluan: Indonesia adalah wilayah yang potensial terjadi bencana alam (disaster), seperti gempa bumi, tsunami, erupsi gunung berapi, banjir, tanah longsor dan lain lain. Untuk menghadapi semua bencana di atas, Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Center (MDMC) telah memiliki program One Muhammadiyah One Respon (OMOR). Hanya saja, evaluasi programnya belum maksimal sehingga berpotensi meningkatnya jumlah korban bencana alam dan kerugian ekonomi. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya evaluasi untuk mencegah semua dampak yang telah disebutkan. Tujuan: penelitian untuk mengevaluasi kegiatan OMOR dan meningkatkan kesiapsiagaan masyarakat dalam menghadapi bencana alam. Metode: desain penelitian ini adalah mixed method dengan pendekatan survey dan FGD (Focus Group Discussion). Pada tahap survey peneliti mengevaluasi dokumen berupa contex, input, process dan product. Setelah itu diikuti dengan FGD yang melibatkan sejumlah 15 orang dari 14 organisasi otonom. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kabupaten Magelang, pada bulan maret-september 2019. Hasil: hasil survey menunjukan bahwa variabel evaluasi contex sebesar 43% (keberadaan dokumen yang sudah direncanakan), variabel input sebesar 42,8% (yang sudah dilakukan secara spesifik dalam program), variabel process sebesar 34,2% (pelaksanaan program sesuai perencanaan) dan 44,4% (variabel product luaran telah melakukan penyelesaian laporan program secara tuntas). Hasil FGD mendukung bahwa perencanan, pelaksanaan maupun laporan kegiatan program OMOR perlu dimaksimalkan kembali. Kesimpulan: penanggulangan bencana perlu disusun Rencana Kontinjensi dan anggaran yang melibatkan amal usaha Muhammadiyah dengan melakukan kajian resiko bencana, pelaksanaan yang terkoordinasi dengan MDMC dan monitoring kegiatan.
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This study examined how the quality of life (QoL) affects an individual’s disaster preparedness behavior (PB); furthermore, it also considered and examined the mediating effects of trust in government (GT) and the moderating effects of self-efficacy (SE). One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to test the differences in QoL, GT, SE, and PB, by socio-demographic, and the study hypotheses were verified by using hierarchical regression analysis based on 1682 samples. The Johnson–Neyman technique was used to test the conditional effects of SE on QoL and PB. All the hypotheses presented in this study were supported: (1) QoL had a positive effect on PB; (2) QoL had a positive effect on GT; (3) GT had a positive effect on PB; (4) GT mediated the relationship between QoL and PB; (5) SE moderated the relationship between QoL and PB. Specifically, when SE was high, the positive relationship between QoL and PB increased; (6) SE moderated the relationship between GT and PB. Specifically, when SE was high, the positive relationship between GT and PB increased; and (7) SE moderated the indirect effect of QoL on PB. Specifically, when SE was high, the mediating effect of GT on the relationship between QoL and PB increased. This study makes significant contributions in terms of identifying the mechanisms of QoL on PB based on the moderated mediation model. Improving individuals’ QoL is not only an important societal goal, but also an effective way to enhance people’s positive behavioral outcomes. Therefore, QoL improvement should be considered in the top-level design of government policies, and it should also be regarded as an important indicator of government performance assessment.
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Background: Preparedness for disasters and emergencies at individual, community and organizational levels could be more effective tools in mitigating (the growing incidence) of disaster risk and ameliorating their impacts. That is, to play more significant roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Preparedness efforts focus on changing human behaviors in ways that reduce people’s risk and increase their ability to cope with hazard consequences. While preparedness initiatives have used behavioral theories to facilitate DRR, many theories have been used and little is known about which behavioral theories are more commonly used, where they have been used, and why they have been preferred over alternative behavioral theories. Given that theories differ with respect to the variables used and the relationship between them, a systematic analysis is an essential first step to answering questions about the relative utility of theories and providing a more robust evidence base for preparedness components of DRR strategies. The goal of this systematic review was to search and summarize evidence by assessing the application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness across the world. Methods: The protocol was prepared in which the study objectives, questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sensitive search strategies were developed and pilot-tested at the beginning of the study. Using selected keywords, articles were searched mainly in PubMed, Scopus, Mosby’s Index (Nursing Index) and Safetylit databases. Articles were assessed based on their titles, abstracts, and their full texts. The data were extracted from selected articles and results were presented using qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: In total, 2040 titles, 450 abstracts and 62 full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, whilst five articles were archived from other sources, and then finally, 33 articles were selected. The Health Belief Model (HBM), Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theories were most commonly applied to influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), floods, and earthquake hazards. Studies were predominantly conducted in USA (13 studies). In Asia, where the annual number of disasters and victims exceeds those in other continents, only three studies were identified. Overall, the main constructs of HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers), EPPM (higher threat and higher efficacy), TPB (attitude and subjective norm), and the majority of the constructs utilized in Social Cognitive Theories were associated with preparedness for diverse hazards. However, while all the theories described above describe the relationships between constituent variables, with the exception of research on Social Cognitive Theories, few studies of other theories and models used path analysis to identify the interdependence relationships between the constructs described in the respective theories/models. Similarly, few identified how other mediating variables could influence disaster and emergency preparedness. Conclusions: The existing evidence on the application of behavioral theories and models to disaster and emergency preparedness is chiefly from developed countries. This raises issues regarding their utility in countries, particularly in Asisa and the Middle East, where cultural characteristics are very different to those prevailing in the Western countries in which theories have been developed and tested. The theories and models discussed here have been applied predominantly to disease outbreaks and natural hazards, and information on their utility as guides to preparedness for man-made hazards is lacking. Hence, future studies related to behavioral theories and models addressing preparedness need to target developing countries where disaster risk and the consequent need for preparedness is high. A need for additional work on demonstrating the relationships of variables and constructs, including more clearly articulating roles for mediating effects was also identified in this analysis.
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Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to place-specific dimensions of one's own identity and may be linked to spatial-biases, it is hypothesized that place attachment negatively moderates the relation between environmental risk perception and prevention behaviours enacted to cope with environmental risks. Two studies were conducted in two Italian cities exposed to low and high flood risk. Results show that, even though higher levels of risk perception may exert a positive effect in improving people's willingness to cope with an environmental risk, this effect is weaker when it is associated with strong place attachment. Findings suggest that affect-based cues, such as place attachment, diminish environmental risk coping intentions and actions when associated with high risk perception. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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This study merges insights from cultivation and uses and gratifications to examine the relationship between environmental concern, five forms of television viewing, and pro-environmental behaviors. This research considers both the direct effects of various forms of television viewing and their potential mediating roles in the relationship between environmental attitudes and behaviors. Analysis of 1999 and 2000 DDB Life Style Study data reveals that television news and nature documentary use are predicted by environmental concern and contribute to pro-environmental behaviors, whereas three forms of entertainment television use are not consistently linked to these variables. Implications for future research are discussed.
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Despite considerable effort and expenditure on public hazard education, levels of disaster preparedness remain low. By integrating and expanding on natural hazards and health research on protective behaviour, this paper proposes a social cognitive model of disaster preparedness. The model describes a developmental process that commences with factors that motivate people to prepare, progresses through the formation of intentions, and culminates in decisions to prepare. Following their critical appraisal, variables implicated at each stage are identified and their role in the preparedness process described. The implications of the model for the conceptualisation and assessment of preparedness is discussed, as is its implications for risk reduction and communication strategies.
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Purpose – This paper aims to examine household preparedness in response to disasters and the role of non-profit organizations in the public's preparedness. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses the context of hurricane preparedness of Central Florida residents, using the mail survey method as a data collection tool. Findings – The findings of the study emphasize the importance of household and individual preparedness in response to natural disasters, specifically to hurricanes. If individuals are not ready, then nobody is ready. The paper finds that households, even with significant experience of disasters, can be complacent in response to disasters. Originality/value – The paper focuses on household preparedness and emphasizes that the emergency management community needs to make a significant effort in training households.
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Baron and Kenny's procedure for determining if an independent variable affects a dependent variable through some mediator is so well known that it is used by authors and requested by reviewers almost reflexively. Many research projects have been terminated early in a research program or later in the review process because the data did not conform to Baron and Kenny's criteria, impeding theoretical development. While the technical literature has disputed some of Baron and Kenny's tests, this literature has not diffused to practicing researchers. We present a nontechnical summary of the flaws in the Baron and Kenny logic, some of which have not been previously noted. We provide a decision tree and a step-by-step procedure for testing mediation, classifying its type, and interpreting the implications of findings for theory building and future research. (c) 2010 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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The Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) is a multistage model that is based on findings from research on people's responses to environmental hazards and disasters. The PADM integrates the processing of information derived from social and environmental cues with messages that social sources transmit through communication channels to those at risk. The PADM identifies three critical predecision processes (reception, attention, and comprehension of warnings or exposure, attention, and interpretation of environmental/social cues)--that precede all further processing. The revised model identifies three core perceptions--threat perceptions, protective action perceptions, and stakeholder perceptions--that form the basis for decisions about how to respond to an imminent or long-term threat. The outcome of the protective action decision-making process, together with situational facilitators and impediments, produces a behavioral response. In addition to describing the revised model and the research on which it is based, this article describes three applications (development of risk communication programs, evacuation modeling, and adoption of long-term hazard adjustments) and identifies some of the research needed to address unresolved issues.
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Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.
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Procedures for examining whether treatment effects on an outcome are mediated and/or moderated have been well developed and are routinely applied. The mediation question focuses on the intervening mechanism that produces the treatment effect. The moderation question focuses on factors that affect the magnitude of the treatment effect. It is important to note that these two processes may be combined in informative ways, such that moderation is mediated or mediation is moderated. Although some prior literature has discussed these possibilities, their exact definitions and analytic procedures have not been completely articulated. The purpose of this article is to define precisely both mediated moderation and moderated mediation and provide analytic strategies for assessing each.
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The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.
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This research investigates the cognitive perceptual process that homeowners go through when faced with the decision to protect themselves from the risk of wildfires. This decision can be examined by looking at the interaction between the integrated protection motivation theory-transtheoretical model and different levels of homeowners' subjective knowledge related to wildfire risks. We investigated the role of motivation, decision stages of risk readiness, and subjective knowledge on the number of risk-mitigating actions undertaken by homeowners living in high-risk communities. The results indicate that homeowners who are in an early or precontemplative stage (both low and high subjective knowledge) as well as low knowledge contemplatives are motivated by their perceived degree of vulnerability to mitigate the risk. In contrast, high knowledge contemplatives' potential behavioral changes are more likely to be motivated by increasing their perceptions of the severity of the risk. Risk-mitigating behaviors undertaken by high knowledge action homeowners are influenced by their perceptions of risk severity, self-efficacy, and response efficacy. In contrast, the low knowledge action homeowners engage in risk reduction behaviors without the influence of any of the PMT variables; demonstrating their motivation to emulate others in their community. These results have implications for the type of information that should be used to effectively communicate risks in an effort to influence the diverse homeowner segments to engage in risk-reduction behaviors.
Book
Grounded in theoretical principle, Media Effects and Society help students make the connection between mass media and the impact it has on society as a whole. The text also explores how the relationship individuals have with media is created, therefore helping them alleviate its harmful effects and enhance the positive ones. The range of media effects addressed herein includes news diffusion, learning from the mass media, socialization of children and adolescents, influences on public opinion and voting, and violent and sexually explicit media content. The text examines relevant research done in these areas and discusses it in a thorough and accessible manner. It also presents a variety of theoretical approaches to understanding media effects, including psychological and content-based theories. In addition, it demonstrates how theories can guide future research into the effects of newer mass communication technologies. The second edition includes a new chapter on effects of entertainment, as well as text boxes with examples for each chapter, discussion of new technology effects integrated throughout the chapters, expanded pedagogy, and updates to the theory and research in the text. These features enhance the already in-depth analysis Media Effects and Society provides.
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This study investigates individuals' behavioral intention on city smog. A conceptual model based on the theoretical framework of protective action decision model is proposed in this study to investigate the determinants of individuals' behavioral intention. A face-to-face survey is conducted among residents in two cities with different smog levels to collect empirical data. Results show that the residents of the city with high smog level present low risk perception of smog. Risk perception positively affects behavioral intention. Resource-related attributes play a moderating role in the relationship between risk perception and behavioral intention. Moreover, individuals with low levels of education and income intend to take actions. Implications of the findings are also discussed.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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This study investigated the impact of media coverage of a health issue (skin cancer) on judgements of risk to self and others and the role of related communication processes. Consistent with predictions derived from the impersonal impact hypothesis, the effects of mass communication were more evident in perceptions of risk to others rather than in perceptions of personal risk. Perceptions of personal risk were more strongly correlated with interpersonal communication. However, as suggested by media system dependency theory, the relationship between mass communication and beliefs was complex. The impact of mass communication on both personal and impersonal perceptions was found to be moderated by self-reported dependence on mass mediated information. The effect of this two-way interaction on perceptions of personal risk was partially mediated through interpersonal communication. Results point to the interdependence of mass and interpersonal communication as sources of social influence and the role of media dependency in shaping media impact.
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This paper explores the hypothesis that contextual environments (media exposure and social exposure) and biospheric value orientation are important antecedents to the attitude-intention-behavior model (Ajzen, 2001, 2002) in the context of environmental psychology. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of 2106 (1073 males and 1025 females) high school students in Hong Kong. A path analysis demonstrates that adolescents’ social exposure and media exposure are associated with biospheric value orientation. The biosperhic value orientation is found to mediate between the contextual variables (media exposure and social exposure) and environmental attitude. This environmental attitude, in turn, mediates the relationship between this value orientation and behavioral intention to act environmentally. Results show that both adolescents’ behavioral intention and degree of social exposure are associated with their environmental behavior. Overall, this article provides empirical support for the proposed path model. The article concludes by presenting theoretical and practical implications for future research in environmental psychology.
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People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural hazard: Perceived risk (i.e., perceived threat likelihood and severity) and perceived protection responsibility. We expanded this research by differentiating the influence of these factors on different types of wildfire preparedness (e.g., preparations for evacuation vs. for defending the house) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire. A survey completed by 1,003 residents of wildfire-prone areas in Perth, Australia, revealed that perceived risk (especially risk severity) and perceived protection responsibility were both positively associated with all types of preparedness, but the latter did not significantly predict preparedness after controlling for other predictors and demographics. Also, the two new expectancy-based factors were significantly associated with all types of preparedness, and remained significant predictors of some types of preparedness after controlling for other predictors and demographics: the expectation of being able to rely on an official fire warning and expecting to lose electricity both still predicted less preparedness around house resilience, and expecting to lose water still predicted increased planning preparedness. We discuss public policy implications that follow from this research.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowledgments Part I. Theory and Historical Context: 1. The generalized other: social influence in contemporary American politics 2. Beyond personal Influence: the rise of impersonal associations 3. The origin of perceptions of mass collectives: mass media's role Part II. Effects of Perceptions of Mass Experience: 4. The politicization of personal and collective experience 5. Connecting the personal and the political: media as facilitator or inhibitor? Part III. Effects of Perceptions of Mass Opinion: 6. When does success succeed? A review of the evidence 7. The social psychology of impersonal influence from collective opinion 8. The role of collective opinion in individual judgment: processes and effects Part IV. Conclusion 9. Impersonal influence and the mass society tradition Appendix: Methodology References Index.
Article
One of the most perplexing problems in risk analysis is why some relatively minor risks or risk events, as assessed by technical experts, often elicit strong public concerns and result in substantial impacts upon society and economy. This article sets forth a conceptual framework that seeks to link systematically the technical assessment of risk with psychological, sociological, and cultural perspectives of risk perception and risk-related behavior. The main thesis is that hazards interact with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural processes in ways that may amplify or attenuate public responses to the risk or risk event. A structural description of the social amplification of risk is now possible. Amplification occurs at two stages: in the transfer of information about the risk, and in the response mechanisms of society. Signals about risk are processed by individual and social amplification stations, including the scientist who communicates the risk assessment, the news media, cultural groups, interpersonal networks, and others. Key steps of amplifications can be identified at each stage. The amplified risk leads to behavioral responses, which, in turn, result in secondary impacts. Models are presented that portray the elements and linkages in the proposed conceptual framework.
Article
Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of “unnatural risk” considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5–10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30–40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude.
Article
Italy is a country highly vulnerable to floods and landslides. The present study aims to investigate disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk in a group of people living in an alpine valley in the north of Italy. Four hundred seven adult residents in nine communities exposed to hydrogeological risk were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. Participants were asked about the adoption of a set of protective behaviors that can prevent negative consequences of floods. Perception of flood risk was assessed by means of a one-dimensional scale that was developed and validated by the authors. Items included in this scale asked participants to estimate likelihood of occurrence of different flood consequences and to express feelings of worry associated to them. Socio-demographic and experiential information on respondents were also collected. Overall, results showed that most of respondents were fairly well prepared to deal with a future flood disaster. Correlational and regression analyses indicated that disaster preparedness was positively associated with risk perception. In accordance with literature, there was not a significant relation between likelihood judgments and adoption of protective behaviors, while feelings of worry were associated with disaster preparedness. Authors interpret their results in relation to the socio-environmental characteristics of the studied communities. Theoretical, empirical and practical implications of the findings are also discussed.
Article
Are risks social constructions of different societal actors that can be checked at best against standards of consistency, cohesion and internal conventions of deduction, but cannot claim any validity outside of the actor's logical framework? Or are technical estimates of risk representations of real hazards that can and will affect people as predicted by the statistical values, regardless of the beliefs or convictions of those who conduct the assessments? Which of the two sides one takes determines the legitimate function of risk perception for management purposes. The paper argues that both extremes, the constructivist and the realist perspective, miss the point, as risks are always mental representations of threats that are capable of claiming real losses. Over the last two decades, risk analysts have dealt with both sides of risk in an additive fashion. In times in which risk management has been under serious pressure to demonstrate effectiveness and cost-efficiency, the parallel approach of pleasing the technical elite and the public alike has lost legitimacy. In order to integrate risk assessment and perception, the paper analyses the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to risk analysis and highlights the potential contributions that the technical sciences and the social sciences can offer to risk management. Technical assessments provide the best estimate for judging the average probability of an adverse effect linked to an object or activity. First, public perception should govern the selection of criteria on which acceptability or tolerability are to be judged. Second, public input is needed to determine the trade-offs between criteria. Third, public preferences are needed to design resilient strategies for coping with remaining uncertainties. A public participation model is introduced that promises an integration of analytic knowledge and deliberative process involving those who will be affected by the respective risk.
Article
Education has been considered a key means of changing people's risk perception of or attitude toward, nuclear technology. Major efforts have been and will continue to be expended to educate the public in this regard. However, the early experimental studies indicated that empirical support was lacking for the arguments that opposition toward nuclear energy stems from ignorance and greater information will change attitudes. At the same time, some studies indicated the positive effect of education in changing people's attitude. This study reviewed the theories of attitude formation and change, risk perception, and their relationship with the public's nuclear education, and attempts to explain the seemingly conflicting findings. Suggestions for future educational efforts were also made.
Article
Global policies on disaster risk reduction have highlighted individual and community responsibilities and roles in reducing risk and promoting coping capacity. Strengthening local preparedness is viewed as an essential element in effective response and recovery. This paper presents a synthesis of available literature on household preparedness published over the past 15 years. It emphasizes the complexity of preparedness, involving personal and contextual factors such as health status, self-efficacy, community support, and the nature of the emergency. In addition, people require sufficient knowledge, motivation and resources to engage in preparedness activities. Social networks have been identified as one such resource which contributes to resilience. A predominant gap in the literature is the need for evidence-informed strategies to overcome the identified challenges to household preparedness. In particular, the construct of social capital and how it can be used to foster individual and community capacity in emergency situations requires further study.
Article
Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members' contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks.
Article
BACKGROUND:: In response to the evolving nature of potential disasters, both human made and natural, this research identifies predictors of individual emergency preparedness and compliance with government requests. METHODS:: A survey of a nationally representative sample of US adults (1629 respondents) revealed which emergency supplies and plans they had in place; their perceived level of preparedness and that of their local health care system; the likelihood of 7 terrorist and 4 naturally occurring events, whether they would evacuate their home; shelter in place at home and work; be quarantined, vaccinated, or take medication; and whether they believed that these actions would increase their chances for survival. RESULTS:: Having supplies was predicted by being male, older, wealthier, and white, living in the western United States, and being exposed to national news. Having plans was related to living in the western United States, having children, and being exposed to national news. Compliance was associated with being female and ill. Holding demographic factors constant, preparedness and compliance with government requests were associated with the perceived likelihood of a natural but not a terrorist event, the perceived efficacy of requested actions, and belief in one's local health care system. CONCLUSIONS:: A focus on natural as opposed to terrorist events and people's perceived efficacy of emergency actions and local health care systems may increase their preparedness and compliance with government requests.
Article
Unlike other species, humans cooperate in large, distantly related groups, a fact that has long presented a puzzle to biologists. The pathway by which adaptations for large-scale cooperation among nonkin evolved in humans remains a subject of vigorous debate. Results from theoretical analyses and agent-based simulations suggest that evolutionary dynamics need not yield homogeneous populations, but can instead generate a polymorphic population that consists of individuals who vary in their degree of cooperativeness. These results resonate with the recent increasing emphasis on the importance of individual differences in understanding and modeling behavior and dynamics in experimental games and decision problems. Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments that complement both theory and simulation results. We find that our subjects fall into three types, an individual's type is stable, and a group's cooperative outcomes can be remarkably well predicted if one knows its type composition. Reciprocal types, who contribute to the public good as a positive function of their beliefs about others' contributions, constitute the majority (63%) of players; cooperators and free-riders are also present in our subject population. Despite substantial behavioral differences, earnings among types are statistically identical. Our results support the view that our human subject population is in a stable, polymorphic equilibrium of types.
Article
In the last decade, we have witnessed a significant increase in disaster preparedness and crisis communication efforts. This stands in sharp contrast with paucity of research that deals with the public's comprehension of disaster information and related decision-making. The objective of this paper is to outline a theoretical and methodological framework for research on lay comprehension of crisis information. The proposed framework integrates two bodies of research: (1) cognitive science literature on comprehension and decision-making and (2) studies of the effects of anxiety on performance. The paper reviews selected works and methods from both fields, discussing how cognitive perspective could be extended to include emotional factors. We also discuss how further research integrating the proposed framework with public health communication perspective could: (1) provide insights for developing effective disaster communication and (2) inform the development of technological support for disaster communication and for education of lay people and health professionals.
Article
Increasing individual preparedness for disasters, including large-scale terrorist attacks, is a significant concern of public health planners. As with natural disasters, individuals can help protect their health and safety by preparing for the emergency situation that may follow a terrorist event. Our study describes variations in preparedness among the population of Los Angeles County after the September 11, 2001 and subsequent anthrax attacks. In 2004, the data were analyzed from the Los Angeles County Health Survey, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population in Los Angeles County fielded October 2002 through February 2003. Overall, 28.0% of respondents had emergency supplies, and 17.1% developed an emergency plan in the past year in response to the possibility of terrorism. Factors associated with having emergency supplies included African American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1-3.1) and Latino (AOR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0-2.4) race/ethnicity; having a household dependent aged<or=18 years (AOR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-2.0); being born outside the United States (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-2.9); some college or trade school education (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-2.9); and higher perceived likelihood of a bioterrorist attack (AOR=2.2, 95% CI=1.6-3.0). Factors associated with having an emergency plan included African American (AOR=2.6, 95% CI=1.5-4.6) race/ethnicity; having a household dependent aged<or=18 years (AOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.6-3.5); and physical disability (AOR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.7). Some groups were more likely to adopt some, but not all, recommended preparedness activities. Identifying subpopulation differences in preparedness is important since different public health messages, programs, and distribution channels are required for different subgroups.
Article
Experts on the risk of flooding have developed very detailed maps for different parts of Switzerland that indicate the types of damage possible and the probabilities of adverse events. Four categories of risk severity are defined on the maps, ranging from high risk to no risk. Based on these existing maps, we selected respondents for a mail survey, some from areas high in risk and others from low-risk regions. Respondents answered several questions related to flood risk perception and preparedness. Survey results showed that respondents' risk perceptions were correlated with the experts' risk assessments. Respondents who lived in areas designated "no risk" by the experts had lower perceptions of risk than respondents who lived in areas with higher levels of designated risk. With regard to concrete prevention behavior, no differences between people living in different risk areas were observed. Survey results further suggest that many inhabitants do not know that flooding maps exist for their region. Results suggest that in some regions people overestimate the risks associated with flooding. Consequently, some people are more afraid of flooding than is justified by the facts. Some people show prevention behavior that most likely is superfluous. However, in other regions people underestimate the risks associated with flooding. These people do not show prevention behavior, and they are not well prepared for an adverse event. Furthermore, results suggest that respondents' experiences with flooding are positively related to their perceptions of flood risk. Findings of the present study are in line with the availability heuristic.
Health behavior and health education: Theory, research and practice
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Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Lewis, F. M. (2002). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Wiley & Sons.
Household emergency preparedness: A literature review
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Levac, J., Toal-Sullivan, D., & O'Sullivan, T. L. (2012). Household emergency preparedness: A literature review. Journal of Community Health, 37(3), 725-733.
Disaster risk reduction: Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming. Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
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Twigg, J. (2004). Disaster risk reduction: Mitigation and preparedness in development and emergency programming. Overseas Development Institute (ODI).
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction
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UNISDR (2009). UNISDR terminology on disaster risk reduction. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.
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Y. Hong, et al. Journal of Environmental Psychology 63 (2019) 82-91