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Relationship between Social Media Use and Sleep Quality in University Students

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Abstract

Social media (SM) is becoming increasingly important in the lives of young people and very little is known about its relationship with sleep disturbance. The sample of the study consisted of 204 students from a university in Turkey. The relationship between SM use and sleep disturbance in students was evaluated. Social Media Use Integration Scale (SMUIS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Sleep quality scale values of males were better than females. Evaluation of SMUIS demonstrated that females used SM more than males. With increasing income level sleep quality increased but SM usage level decreased. The sleep quality level of students who used SM for a long period of time was lower than that of short-term users. Sleep quality of the subjects who used SM less frequent during the day was better than frequent users. As the time spent on SM sites increased, the PSQI values were observed to be adversely affected. The use of SM can take the place of sleep directly; it may take a long time to stop it before sleeping. Our study demonstrated that sleep quality tended to reduce in participants who used SM for longer duration and spend more time for SM. Although sleep quality tended to decrease with increasing SM use in our study no significant relationship could be found between the scales. But there was a trend for decreasing sleep quality with increasing SM use. The adverse effects of SM use on sleep is controversial. More controlled use of SM and its positive effects on young people should be supported. SM may affect social relations including friendships and present different learning options. Planning the duration and times of the day SM is used can prevent negative effects of SM use on sleep quality of young people.
Available online: http://saspublisher.com/sjams/ 2960
Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS) ISSN 2320-6691 (Online)
Abbreviated Key Title: Sch. J. App. Med. Sci. ISSN 2347-954X (Print)
©Scholars Academic and Scientific Publisher
A Unit of Scholars Academic and Scientific Society, India
www.saspublisher.com
Relationship between Social Media Use and Sleep Quality in University Students
Aynaci Gulden1*, Yilmaz Kubra2
1Assistant Professor, Trakya University, Vocational School, Edirne, Turkey
2Expert, Trakya University, Vocational School, Edirne, Turkey
Original Research Article
*Corresponding author
Aynaci Gulden
Article History
Received: 01.08.2018
Accepted: 05.08.2018
Published: 30.08.2018
DOI:
10.21276/sjams.2018.6.8.3
Abstract: Social media (SM) is becoming increasingly important in the lives of young
people and very little is known about its relationship with sleep disturbance. The
sample of the study consisted of 204 students from a university in Turkey. The
relationship between SM use and sleep disturbance in students was evaluated. Social
Media Use Integration Scale (SMUIS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was
used. Sleep quality scale values of males were better than females. Evaluation of
SMUIS demonstrated that females used SM more than males. With increasing income
level sleep quality increased but SM usage level decreased. The sleep quality level of
students who used SM for a long period of time was lower than that of short-term users.
Sleep quality of the subjects who used SM less frequent during the day was better than
frequent users. As the time spent on SM sites increased, the PSQI values were observed
to be adversely affected. The use of SM can take the place of sleep directly; it may take
a long time to stop it before sleeping. Our study demonstrated that sleep quality tended
to reduce in participants who used SM for longer duration and spend more time for SM.
Although sleep quality tended to decrease with increasing SM use in our study no
significant relationship could be found between the scales. But there was a trend for
decreasing sleep quality with increasing SM use. The adverse effects of SM use on
sleep is controversial. More controlled use of SM and its positive effects on young
people should be supported. SM may affect social relations including friendships and
present different learning options. Planning the duration and times of the day SM is
used can prevent negative effects of SM use on sleep quality of young people.
Keywords: Sleep, Social media, Students, Young people.
INTRODUCTION
It appears that the use of the internet and
especially social media is becoming increasingly
important in the lives of young people. In recent years
95% of young people between 18-33 years of age report
active use of it. Social networking sites help to share
experiences and social relations and social media
programs are indispensable among young people [1,2].
Social media sites have quickly become a
central part of young people's lives, and now more than
90% use social media day and night. The use of social
media is growing rapidly and very little is known about
its relationship with sleep disturbance [3-5]. Decrease in
sleep quality is becoming more common in younger
ages. Many factors contribute to sleep disturbance in
young people. Evidence increasingly supports the
relationship between social media use and various
features of the young population, including sleep and
mental health [6-8]. Previous findings about the use of
the Internet also apply to use of social media
specifically; because young people are actively using
social media in 54% of their time. However, unlike
other uses of the internet social media may cause
stimulation at every hour of the day. This unique feature
is related to sleep quality due to two special reasons.
First of all, the stimuli that come in during the night
have the potential to disturb sleep; because 86% of
young people sleep in bedrooms with phones. In young
ages sleep interruption due to incoming text messages is
reported and it is possible that social media stimuli
cause similar sleep disturbances [7-9]. Secondly, stimuli
that come constantly create significant pressure to reach
the social media 7/24 and contribute to the fear of being
unaware of what is happening. The number of young
adults who feel detached or guilty when they couldn’t
respond to a social media message immediately is
increasing. This unique feature of social media provides
more reasons to expect an association between it and
poor sleep quality [9,10].
In recent years, the number and popularity of
social networking sites on the Internet have increased.
Social networking and media environments offer people
new communication channels. Human beings who do
not want to be independent from the social environment
they live in were also communicating within their
community previously but today, as technology offers
Social media
Aynaci Gulden & Yilmaz Kubra., Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., Aug 2018; 6(8): 2960-2965
Available online: http://saspublisher.com/sjams/ 2961
new possibilities, this communication continues on
social networking sites [11].
In our study, the relationship between social
media use and sleep disturbance in university students
was evaluated. By examining sleep quality of university
students our aim was to contribute to the steps that
could be undertaken. We also evaluated whether social
media use affects daily activities of young people due to
sleep disturbances.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The universe of the study consisted of all
university students in Turkey and the sample of the
study consisted of 204 university students from a state
university in Edirne. "Personal Information Form" was
used to evaluate students' demographic information and
lifestyles. "Personal Information Form" included
questions about sleep hours, smoking and alcohol use,
eating habits, physical activities, and social media use
in addition to the demographic characteristics of
participants.
Social Media Use Integration Scale (SMUIS)
was used to assess social media use. The original scale
was developed by Jenkins-Guarnieri, Wright and
Johnson [28] and Turkish adaptation was made by
Akin, Ozbay and Baykut [27]. Turkish adaptation study
which included 247 university students showed CFA
results in two dimensions as in the original form of the
scale (social integration and emotional connection;
integration with social routines) [1].
To evaluate sleep quality Pittsburgh Sleep
Quality Index (PSQI) which is a commonly used
instrument to evaluate sleep and is believed to be valid
and reliable was used [2-4]. It includes 19 questions and
7 clinical themes. It includes subjective sleep quality,
sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency,
sleep disturbance, use of sleeping medication and
daytime sleepiness [5,6]. A PSQI total score equal to or
greater than 5 shows poor sleep quality with 90%
sensitivity and 67% specificity [5]. Sleep quality was
also studies with PSQI by Cole et al. In confirmation
analysis by these authors the scale was separated and
assessed in three factors. Factor 1 consisted of sleep
effectiveness (sleep duration and sleep efficiency);
Factor 2 consisted of sleep quality (subjective sleep
quality, sleep latency, and use of sleep medications);
and Factor 3 consisted of daytime dysfunction (sleep
disturbances and daytime dysfunction [7]. Turkish
validity and reliability study was performed by Agargun
et al. [8]. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version
of social media use scale was also established [1].
Data from two scales and personal information
form were assessed together; the relationship between
sleep quality and social media use was examined.
Factors affecting sleep were assessed. Ethics approval
was obtained from the University's scientific research
ethics committee and an informed consent form was
used to record all participants had been volunteered.
All statistical analyses to evaluate the collected
data were performed by SPSS 20.0 package program.
The data were summarized with appropriate descriptive
statistics. Mean and standard deviation were evaluated
for numerical variables; frequency and percentage were
evaluated for categorical variables. Normal distribution
of the data was tested by Shapiro-Wilk test. Bivariate
group comparisons were performed with Student’s t
test. One way analysis of variance was used for
comparison of multiple groups. Multiple comparisons
after one way ANOVA were evaluated with Bonferroni
test. Chi square test was used for the associations
between categorical variables. Level of significance for
all statistical analyses was accepted as 5%.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows demographic features of the
participants. This study is performed in university
students between 18-24 years of age. In this study ratio
of female students was 76% and males was 24%.
Although statistical significance could not be detected
sleep quality scale values of males (6.923.03) were
better than females (7.222.68). Evaluation of SMUIS
demonstrated that females (32.889.69) used social
media more than males (31.377.98). Evaluation of
change according to school type showed that students of
Applied Sciences Vocational School had better scores
than Health Sciences Nursing School in sleep quality
(6.982.67 vs 7.342.87) and higher level of social
media use (33.74 9.03 vs 31.119.48). Evaluation of
the place they stayed during school showed that the
levels of sleep quality and use of social media by
residents at home were higher than residents in the
dormitories although the difference was not significant
statistically. With increasing income level sleep quality
increased but social media usage level decreased. When
the statements they used to describe their health were
questioned; it was observed that both sleep quality
(10.03.03) and social media use (29.335.46) of those
who felt bad in their general life were lower than others.
Aynaci Gulden & Yilmaz Kubra., Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., Aug 2018; 6(8): 2960-2965
Available online: http://saspublisher.com/sjams/ 2962
Table-1: Demographic features, PSQI, and SMUIS values of the participants in the study
N
%
PSQI
P
SMUIS
Standard
Deviation
P
Gender
Male
49
24.0
6.92
.301
31.37
7.976
.072
Female
155
76.0
7.22
32.88
9.693
School
Vocational School
95
46.6
7.34
.511
31.11
9.482
.867
Applied Sciences Vocational School
109
53.4
6.98
33.74
9.028
Place of residence
Home
36
17.6
7.08
.111
31.19
8.190
.348
Dormitory
168
82.4
7.16
32.80
9.535
Income Status
Low
28
13.7
7.18
.987
32.93
10.303
.176
Medium
168
82.4
7.15
32.73
9.110
High
8
3.9
7.00
26.50
9.103
The word used to indicate health status
Poor
6
2.9
10.0
<0.001*
29.33
5.465
.779
Medium
58
28.4
7.74
32.69
9.804
Good
113
55.4
7.06
32.81
8.523
Very good
27
13.2
5.59
31.59
12.007
*indicates statistically significant difference
We found that 96.6% of the young people in
our study were actively using social media sites and the
level of social media usage was high. As summarized in
Table 2, the sleep quality level of those who used social
media for a long period of time was lower than that of
short-term users (7.222.85 vs 6.882.45) and their
SMUIS score was higher (33.729.27 vs 27.888.02).
Sleep quality of the subjects who used social media less
frequent during the day was better than frequent users
(6.482.42 vs 7.222.80). As the time spent on social
media sites increased, the PSQI values were observed to
be adversely affected. Mean SMUIS score was higher
(35.77) in these subjects as expected. Sleep quality of
the subjects who used social media mainly at home was
better than the subjects who used outside (6.742.91 vs
7.322.71). No difference was observed according to
electronic devices they used.
Table-2: Evaluation of the subjects according to social media usage and sleep quality
N
%
PSQI
Standard
Deviation
P
SMUIS
Standard
Deviation
P
Social media membership
Yes
197
96.6
7.15
2.798
.177
32.80
8.957
.142
No
7
3.4
7.14
1.773
24.43
15.317
Duration of social media usage
Less than 3 years
42
20.6
6.88
2.452
.261
27.88
8.022
.108
More than 3 years
162
79.4
7.22
2.845
33.72
9.269
Frequency of use of social media sites
More than once every day
183
89.7
7.22
2.799
.708
33.49
9.101
.130
Once or less every day
21
10.3
6.48
2.421
24.00
6.458
Time spent on each entry to social
media sites
An hour or less
140
68.6
7.01
2.818
.985
31.03
8.706
.203
More than an hour
64
31.4
7.44
2.648
35.77
9.828
The most common place to connect to
social media sites
Home
58
28.4
6.74
2.905
.509
30.71
9.427
.827
Outside
145
71.1
7.32
2.710
33.39
9.026
The device used to connect to social
media sites
Computer
12
5.9
7.42
2.610
.431
32.92
9.150
.673
Phone
192
94.1
7.13
2.782
32.49
9.346
Aynaci Gulden & Yilmaz Kubra., Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., Aug 2018; 6(8): 2960-2965
Available online: http://saspublisher.com/sjams/ 2963
Table 3, summarizes the relationship between
duration and frequency of social media use and PSQI
values of study participants. Although not statistically
significant sleep quality of subjects using social media
for a shorter period of time and less frequently were
better than subjects using for a longer duration and
more frequently (6.22 vs 7.26).
Table-3: Association between PSQI and duration and frequency of social media use
DURATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE
FREQUENCY OF SOCIAL MEDIA USE
PSQI
N
P
Less than 3 years
More than once a day
7.06
33
.703
Less than once a day
6.22
9
3 years or more
More than once a day
7.26
150
Less than once a day
6.67
12
*indicates a statistically significant difference
Table-4: Association of duration of social media use and time spent on each entry with PSQI
DURATION OF SOCIAL
MEDIA USE
TIME SPENT ON EACH ENTRY TO
SOCIAL MEDIA SITES
PSQI
N
P
Less than 3 years
1 hour or less
6.80
30
.480
More than 1 hour
7.08
12
3 years or more
1 hour or less
7.07
110
More than 1 hour
7.52
52
In table 4 duration of social media use and
time spent on each entry to social media sites were
evaluated together. Although there wasn’t a statistically
significant difference sleep quality of the participants
who used social media for less than 3 years and spend
less than 1 hour at each entry to these sites was better
than participants who used social media for more than 3
years and spend more than 1 hour at each entry.
No statistically significant difference was
found for the correlation between SMUIS and PSQI (p;
0.353). But there was a trend for decreasing sleep
quality with increasing social media use.
DISCUSSION
Many studies have associated duration of
internet use with poor sleep quality [12-15]. Our study
evaluated social media use and sleep quality. Previous
finding that social media use is more strongly
associated with poor sleep because of the higher
emotional investment in social media than other uses of
the Internet is supported [10]. This is thought to be due
to higher duration of social media use in bed and shorter
sleep durations. Social media use and poor sleep quality
may be associated because there is anxiety about
staying away from social interaction when not
connected to social media and this anxiety prevents
relaxing before sleep [10].
There are studies which focused on the fact
that social media use decreases sleep quality because it
induces a continuous desire to control what is
happening and affects behaviour [16]. There are several
possible mechanisms underlying the relationship
between SM use and sleep disturbances. SM use may
decrease sleep quality directly by 3 ways [17]. First, the
use of SM can take the place of sleep directly; it may
take a long time to stop it before sleeping so that the
sleeping period may be reduced. Second, the use of SM
may promote emotional, cognitive and / or
physiological stimulation; watching a video or entering
a discussion just before bedtime can contribute to the
deterioration of sleep. Third, bright light emitted by
devices used to connect to SM sites can delay circadian
rhythms [18]. Each of these may reduce sleep quality.
It has also been seen that those who have
difficulty falling asleep or who has a poor sleep quality
may find using SM as a pleasurable way of recovering
themselves from the troubles of sleep. Actually, there is
evidence that showed longer times spent on internet or
SM in subjects with sleeping problems [19]. Using SM
to help falling asleep is a widespread practice among
adolescents [20,21]. Although the studies did not
evaluate SM specifically, considering common use of
SM, adolescents are observed to use SM as an adjunct
to falling asleep like TV games or PC games. Decreased
sleep quality may cause increased SM use which may
aggravate sleep problems. Compared with more passive
activities such as watching TV and reading books SM
includes many stimulating interactions; this may be
more stimulating and intriguing and thus potentially
more harmful for sleep [20-24]. Our study demonstrated
that sleep quality tended to reduce in participants who
used social media for longer duration and spend more
time for SM.
Although sleep quality tended to decrease
with increasing SM use in our study no significant
relationship could be found between PSQI and SMUIS
scales. However, there is a need for obtaining more
results. The adverse effects of SM use on sleep are
controversial. More controlled use of SM and its
positive effects on young people should be supported.
Studies have demonstrated that young people know
social media and see SM as an indispensable part of
Aynaci Gulden & Yilmaz Kubra., Sch. J. App. Med. Sci., Aug 2018; 6(8): 2960-2965
Available online: http://saspublisher.com/sjams/ 2964
everyday life. When used appropriately and in case of
necessity the Internet increases skills and knowledge of
students [22-26]. Similarly SM can encourage
technology to integrate effectively into a variety of
learning environments. Social media may affect social
relations including friendships and present different
learning options. Planning the duration and times of the
day SM is used can prevent negative effects of SM use
on sleep quality of young people.
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Günümüzde internetin yaygınlaşması ile birlikte, sosyal ağlar ve sosyal medya ortamları insanoğlunun vazgeçilmez paylaşım alanları olmuştur. Gelinen bu süreçte kişilerarası iletişim de yüz yüze yapılmaktan çok, sosyal medya üzerinden gerçekleşmeye başlamıştır. Dolayısıyla iletişim zamanla yüz yüze olmaktan çıkarak, sosyal medya aracılığıyla gerçekleşir hale dönüşmüştür. Çalışmada sosyal medyanın yaygınlaşmasıyla birlikte, kişilerarası iletişime katkısının ne yönde olduğunu, kişilerarası iletişim aracı olarak sosyal medyanın nasıl kullanıldığını ve sosyal medya hakkındaki görüşlerin neler olduğunu araştırmak amaçlanmıştır. Amaçlara ulaşabilmek için Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Halkla İlişkiler ve Tanıtım Bölümü öğrencileri arasından 100 öğrenciye anket uygulanmıştır. Anketten elde edilen bilgileri somutlaştırabilmek için de 10 öğrenci ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda ankete katılan tüm öğrencilerin interneti, biri dışında hepsinin de sosyal ağları kullandıkları tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmada ayrıca sosyal medyanın kişilerarası iletişime olumlu ve olumsuz katkıları olduğu görüşlerine sahip olan öğrencilerin, sosyal medyayı kişilerarası iletişimde bir araç olarak kullandıkları bilgisine ulaşılmıştır.
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