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The term "Industry 4.0" was initially coined by the German government which describes and encapsulates a set of technological changes in manufacturing and sets out priorities of a coherent policy framework with the purpose of maintaining the global competitiveness of German industry. Industry 4.0 has brought many professions to change. People are obligated to learn new, everyday tasks but now are also compelled to use hi-tech gadgets which are fast becoming the most important factor in their working life. In this paper, the general definition of Industry 4.0 will be discussed. Generally, Industry 4.0 refers to the means of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies including Cyber-Physical Systems, Internet of Things, big data and analytics, augmented reality, additive manufacturing, simulation, horizontal and vertical system integration, autonomous robots as well as cloud computing. It serves a role to help integrate and combine the intelligent machines, human actors, physical objects, manufacturing lines and processes across organizational stages to build new types of technical data, systematic and high agility value chains. All these components will also be discussed in this paper. Additionally, government initiatives by various countries toward Industry 4.0 will also be presented in this paper.
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Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, 14-Special Issue, 2018
ISSN 1943-023X
Received: 20 October 2018/Accepted: 15 November 2018
1379
An Overview of Industry 4.0: Definition,
Components, and Government Initiatives
S.I. Tay, Department of Production and Operation Management, Faculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti
Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. E-mail: hp170077@siswa.uthm.edu.my
T.C. Lee*, Department of Production and Operation Management, Faculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti
Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. E-mail: tclee@uthm.edu.my
N.A. A. Hamid, Department of Production and Operation Management, Faculty of Technology Management and Business,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. E-mail: aziati@uthm.edu.my
A.N.A. Ahmad, Department of Production and Operation Management, Faculty of Technology Management and Business,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. E-mail: aizat@uthm.edu.my
Abstract--- The term “Industry 4.0” was initially coined by the German government which describes and
encapsulates a set of technological changes in manufacturing and sets out priorities of a coherent policy framework
with the purpose of maintaining the global competitiveness of German industry. Industry 4.0 has brought many
professions to change. People are obligated to learn new, everyday tasks but now are also compelled to use hi-tech
gadgets which are fast becoming the most important factor in their working life. In this paper, the general definition
of Industry 4.0 will be discussed. Generally, Industry 4.0 refers to the means of automation and data exchange in
manufacturing technologies including Cyber-Physical Systems, Internet of Things, big data and analytics,
augmented reality, additive manufacturing, simulation, horizontal and vertical system integration, autonomous
robots as well as cloud computing. It serves a role to help integrate and combine the intelligent machines, human
actors, physical objects, manufacturing lines and processes across organizational stages to build new types of
technical data, systematic and high agility value chains. All these components will also be discussed in this paper.
Additionally, government initiatives by various countries toward Industry 4.0 will also be presented in this paper.
I.
Introduction Industry 4.0
Before Industry 4.0, there were three prior industrial revolutions that have led to changes of paradigm in the
domain of manufacturing: mechanization through water and steam power, mass production in assembly lines and
automation using information technology.
Industry 1.0 began around the 1780s with the introduction of water and steam power which helped in mechanical
production and improved the agriculture sector greatly. Next, Industry 2.0 is defined as the period when mass
production was introduced as the primary means to production, in general. The mass production of steel helped
introduce railways into the industrial system which consequently contributed to mass production at large.
During the 20th century, Industry 3.0 arose with the advent of the Digital Revolution which is more familiar
compared to Industry 1.0 and 2.0 as most people living today are familiar with industries leaning on digital
technologies in production. Perhaps Industry 3.0 was and still is a direct result of the huge development in
computers and information and communication technology industries for many countries (Liao et al., 2017).Industry
4.0 has brought change to many professions. People have always been obligated to learn new everyday tasks but
now are also compelled to use hi-tech gadgets which are fast becoming the most important factor in their working
life (Gorecky et al., 2014).
Industry 4.0 is being presented as an overall change by digitalization and automation of every part of the
company, as well as the manufacturing process. Big international companies that use concepts of continuous
improvement and have high standards for research and development will accept the concept of Industry 4.0 and
make themselves even more competitive in the market (Marcos et al., 2017).
This becomes possible by introducing self-optimization, self-cognition, and self-customization into the industry.
The manufacturers will be able to communicate with computers rather than operate them. The schematic diagram of
overview for the industrial revolutions is illustrated in Figure 1.
Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, 14-Special Issue, 2018
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Received: 20 October 2018/Accepted: 15 November 2018
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II.
Definition of Industry 4.0
Figure 1: The Industrial Revolution
Industry 4.0 enables the manufacturing sector to become digitalized with built-in sensing devices virtually in all
manufacturing components, products and equipment. The analyzing of related data within a ubiquitous system with
the fusion of digital data and physical objects has the ability to transform every industrial sector in the world to
evolve much faster and with greater impact than any of the three previous industrial revolutions i.e. Industry 1.0,2.0
and 3.0(Mrugalka & Wyrwicka, 2017). Hence, Industry 4.0 is a contemporary issue that concerns today’s industrial
production as a whole and is meant to revolutionize it. In 2011, Germany introduced Industry 4.0 at the Hannover
Fair event, symbolizing the advent of a brand new era of industrial revolution. When the idea was first mooted,
extensive efforts were undertaken by the European manufacturing researchers and companies to embrace it. Their
interest in this project or concept is due to the fact that under Industry 4.0, production will become more efficient
and less costly. This is achieved by easy exchange of information and the integrated control of manufacturing
products and machines acting simultaneously and smartly in interoperability (Qin, Liu &Grosvenor, 2016). However,
different researchers have different perceptions on the true meaning of Industry 4.0. Table 1 shows the different
definitions of Industry 4.0 by different authors.
Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, 14-Special Issue, 2018
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Table 1: Summary of Definition of Industry 4.0
most of the authors outlined the meaning of Industry 4.0 to consist of key topics
related to Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT), industrial Internet and others. Besides that, some
of the authors concentrated Industry 4.0 on the cost factor and profitability with recently developed high-tech
information and intelligent services. From previous research on Industry 4.0,in the beginning the focus was mostly
on the sector of industrial manufacturing but currently many sectors such as automotive, engineering, chemical, and
electronics are beginning to implement Industry 4.0.In summary, Industry 4.0 is aggregating existing ideas into a
new value chain which plays a crucial role to transform whole value chains of life cycles of goods while developing
innovative products in manufacturing which involves the connection of systems and things that create self-
organizing and dynamic control within the organization. Industry 4.0 describes a future scenario of industrial
production that is characterized by new levels of controlling, organizing and transforming the entire value chain with
the life cycle of products,resulting in higher productivity and flexibility through three types of effective integration
which are horizontal, vertical and end-to-end engineering integration. Hence, these can predict product performance
degradation and autonomously manage and optimize product service needs and consumption of resources, then lead
to optimization and reduction of costs. Next, aspects of the creation of dynamic, real-time optimized and self-
organizing cross-company value networks through the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT),
artificial intelligence, additive manufacturing, cloud computing and others are added. All these components are
requirements and are parts of the visionary concept of Industry 4.0.
Author and
year
Definition
Kagermann ,
Wahlster &
Johannes.
(2013)
Industry 4.0 utilizing the power of communications technology and innovative inventions to
boost the development of the manufacturing industry.
Qin, Liu &
Grosvenor
(2016)
Industry 4.0 encourages manufacturing efficiency by collecting data smartly, making correct
decisions and executing decisions without any doubts. By using the most advanced
technologies, the procedures of collecting and interpreting data will be easier. The
interoperability operating ability acts as a ‘connecting bridge’ to provide a reliable
manufacturing environment in Industry 4.0. This overall consciousness gives Industry 4.0 the
most important aspect of artificial intelligent functions.
Schumacher,
Erol & Sihn,
(2016)
Industry 4.0 is surrounded by a huge network of advanced technologies across the value-chain.
Service, Automation, Artificial Intelligence Robotics, Internet of Things and Additive
Manufacturing are bringing in a brand new era of manufacturing processes. The boundaries
between the real world and virtual reality is getting blurrier and causing a phenomenon known
as Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS).
Schwab
(2016)
Industry 4.0 is differentiated by a few characteristics of new technologies, for example:
physical, digital, and biological worlds. The improvement in technologies is bringing significant
effects on industries, economies and governments’ development plans. Schwab pointed out that
Industry 4.0 is one of the most important concept in the development of global industry and the
world economy.
Wang et al.,
(2016)
Industry 4.0 makes full use of emerging technologies and rapid development of machines and
tools to cope with global challenges in order to improve industry levels. The main concept of
Industry 4.0 is to utilize the advanced information technology to deploy IoT services.
Production can run faster and smoothly with minimum downtime by integrating engineering
knowledge. Therefore, the product built will be of better quality, production systems are more
efficient, easier to maintain and achieve cost savings.
Mrugalska &
Magdalena
(2017)
The modern and more sophisticated machines and tools with advanced software and networked
sensors can be used to plan, predict, adjust and control the societal outcome and business
models to create another phase of value chain organization and it can be managed throughout
the whole cycle of a product. Thus, Industry 4.0 is an advantage to stay competitive in any
industry. To create a more dynamic flow of production, optimization of value chain has to be
autonomously controlled.
Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, 14-Special Issue, 2018
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III.
Components of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 can be classified into three components. The first is horizontal integration. It brings the concept of a
new type of worldwide value chain networks. The second is vertical integration. The concept is to achieve
hierarchical subsystems at the production line to produce an easy to configure and high flexibility production line.
The last component is engineering integration along the whole value chain from the beginning to the end to assist in
the customization of products. The horizontal integration is described as one where a corporation should both
cooperate and compete with corporations that have similar characteristics to create an efficient production system.
Material, financial control and knowledge can be connected in all these companies easily. Therefore, new control
systems and models for business may appear (Wang et al., 2016). Vertical integration delivers the idea of a factory
that has various informational and physical subsystems, for example like production management, actuator and
sensor, value and corporate planning. It is important for the vertical integration of sensor and actuator signals along
various stages of the enterprise resource planning (ERP) level to ensure high flexibility and ease to configure
production lines. From this integration, the highly intelligent machines create an automated controlled system that is
able to be automatically reconfigured according to the various types of products. The large amounts of data collected
and processed enables the manufacturing system to be transparent(Wang et al., 2016). Lastly, End-To-End
engineering integration in a chain of activities throughout the product-centric value creation process involves aspects
such as customer requirement expression, product development and design, recycling, production engineering,
production services, production planning and maintenance. From end-to-end integration, every stage can be reused
for the same product model. Product design effects on services and production can be predicted by utilizing a
software tool in the chain to make sure the products are customizable (Wang et al., 2016).
IV.
Characteristics of Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is the future of global manufacturing. It is the era of automation, of the digitalized factory and
digitalized products the fourth phase of industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0. Nevertheless, the academics field is
still unable to define the approach as the Industry 4.0 is the basic term referring to the fourth industrial revolution.
This causes difficulty to distinguish its components. There are 9 characteristics for industry as shown in Figure 2
below.
Figure 2: Characteristics of Industry 4.0.
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Cyber-Physical System (CPS)
Industry 4.0 can be played as a Cyber-Physical System study where the advances and speed of development in
communication and calculation form the Cyber-Physical System and Industry 4.0. Each production system of CPS
has sensors installed in the entire physical aspects in order to connect the physical things with virtual models. Due to
Cyber-Physical System to be more common in society and occurs during interaction with humans, it must be
ensured that CPS behave stably and has a certain bearing when utilized with artificial intelligence (AI) (Mosterman
& Zender, 2015).CPS is also the foundation to create the Internet of Things (IoT) which can be combined to become
the Internet of Services (IoS).Hence, businesses will find it easier to establish global networks which joins the
warehousing systems, machinery and production facilities of CPS in the future(He, 2016).
Internet of Things (IoT)
Industry 4.0 is the new phrase for the combination of the present Internet of Things (IoT) technology and the
manufacturing industry. Industry 4.0 was initiated as a result of the combination of the Internet of Things (IoT) and
the Internet of Services (IoS) in the manufacturing process (Kagermann, Wahlster & Johannes (2013). Generally,
IoT can provide advanced connectivity of systems, services, physical objects, enables object-to-object
communication and data sharing. IoT can be achieved through the control and automation of aspects like heating,
lighting, machining and remote monitoring in various industries (Zhong et al., 2017).
Internet of Services (IoS)
Internet of Services acts as important components in the automotive industry. Activities are triggered through
data transfers in the information technology to make daily mobility safer, easier and pleasant. The Internet of
Services (IoS) acts as “service vendors” to provide services through the internet according to the types of
digitalization services. These services are available and on demand around business models, partners and any setup
for services. The suppliers provide and aggregate the services into additional value services as communication
among consumers can be received and accessed by them through various channels( Buxmann, Hess, & Ruggaber,
2009).
Big Data and Analytics
Under Industry 4.0, big data analytics is beneficial for predictive manufacturing and is an important direction for
industrial technology development through the rapid development of the Internet. This leads to huge amounts of
information produced and obtained daily where current processing and analysis is unable to cope using traditional
methods. Hence, big data has become a hot topic recently in Industry 4.0. Many other applications would be able to
gain additional values when existing techniques become more mature to handle big data. Big data is the utilization
of digital technology to conduct analysis. According to Forrester’s definition, “Big Data” can be divided into four
dimensions which are volume, variety, value and velocity(Witkowski, 2017).
Augmented Reality
Augmented Reality (AR) has begun to be considered as one of the most promising business that technological
companies should heavily invest in. This technology can bring huge support for maintenance works in business due
to reduced time needed for maintenance works and reduction of potential errors in maintenance works. It can predict
with high accuracy and allows the frequency of maintenance to be kept at low numbers by utilizing predictive
maintenance to prevent any unplanned reactive maintenance. This will reduce costs associated with doing too much
preventive maintenance(Masoni et al., 2017).
Autonomous Robots
Current robots have higher flexibility, advanced functions and are easier to operate in multitudes of fields. In the
near future, robots will interact with each other and collaborate actively with humans under the guidance of handlers.
These robots will be cheaper and more sophisticated in order to achieve better abilities compared to those currently
used in the manufacturing field.
Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)
Industry 4.0 is stimulating the utilization of advanced data technologies and smart production systems. Hence,
additive manufacturing is one of the crucial tools to embrace Industry 4.0. The implementation of new
manufacturing skills for the purpose of integrating information technologies plays a crucial role in the
competitiveness of the economy. The advancement of cyber technology has encouraged the transition to Industry 4.0.
The trend of looking for new materials available using additive manufacturing is increasing. Certain required
Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, 14-Special Issue, 2018
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characteristics of a material can be achieved by metallic constituents and smart materials. In fact, the implementation
of Industry 4.0 hugely depends on the capabilities of additive manufacturing (Dilberoglu et al,. 2017).
h) Cloud Computing (CM)
Cloud computing is a relatively new system logic that provides a huge space of storage for the user. A small
amount of money allows enterprises or individuals to access these resources. Over time, the performance of
technologies keep on improving, however, the functionality of machine data will continue to be stored into the cloud
storage system, allowing production systems to be more data-driven. Company limitations can be minimized since
more data sharing will occur across sites for production-related undertakings in the industrial revolution. Cloud
computing is slowly becoming a consideration by many companies during their data systems build. Even if software
was traditionally not kept in clouds, the amount of applications being developed in clouds is gradually increasing
(Xu, 2012).
Simulation
Simulation modelling is a way of running a real or virtual process or a system to find out or guess the output of
the modelled system or process. Simulations are done by using real-time data to represent the real world in a
simulation model, which include humans, products and machines. Therefore, operators are able to optimize the
machine settings in a virtual simulated situation before implementing in the physical world. This decreases machine
setup times and improves quality. Latest revolutions in the simulation modelling paradigm enable modelling of
manufacturing systems and other systems through the virtual factory concept. Furthermore, advanced artificial
intelligence (cognitive) on process control, including autonomous adjustments to the operation systems (self-
organization) can also be done through simulations (Rodič, 2017).
V.
Government Initiatives
Industry 4.0 is defined as an amalgamation of advanced technologies where the internet is extensively used to
support certain technologies such as embedded systems. It serves a role to integrate and combine the intelligent
machines, human actors, physical objects, manufacturing lines and processes across organizational stages, building
new types of technical data, systematic systems and high agility value chains (Schumacher, Erol & Sihn,
2016).Germany launched the strategic initiative mooted in 2011 under its High-Tech Strategy 2020 with the purpose
to switch from centralized to decentralized networks which connect devices and equipments that communicate with
each other and able to respond accordingly to gain information for revolutionizing the manufacturing industry(Wang
et al., 2016). Kagermann, Wahlster & Johannes in 2013 had published the main ideas of the fourth industrial
revolution to construct the base for the Industry 4.0 manifesto. The study was published by the German National
Academy of Science and Engineering in 2013. The Public Private Partnership (PPP) for Factories of the Future (FoF)
deployed and initiated discussions on related topics of Industry 4.0 at the European level. In the United States of
America, the Industrial Internet Consortium (ICC)promoted Industry 4.0 (Liao et al., 2017). This new industrial
revolution provides scope for many of the basic ideas that had been widely implemented in many other countries.
Internationally, many governments have realized the trend and have taken action to react specifically to the impact
Industry 4.0 would bring to the manufacturing industry. Some of the governments’ plans are as stated below:
(a) In 2011, to make sure the United States of America (USA) will be well prepared for the next generation of
manufacturing revolution, USA President Barack Obama started a series of national-level actions, discussions and
recommendations, titled ‘Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP)’, (President’s Council of Advisors on
Science and Technology, 2014). AMP was an initiative undertaken to make more USA companies ready to invest
heavily in advanced technology. In 2017, the global programmable logic controller market was estimated at USD
8.491 billion and is expected to achieve USD 10.595 billion by 2023, registering a CAGR of 3.7% during 2018-
2023 (the forecast period).
(b) In 2012, an action plan known as ‘High-Tech Strategy 2020’ was passed by the German government. This
project grants billions of Euros each year to develop the latest technologies in the manufacturing industry (Liao et al.,
2017). In 2018, Volkswagen introduced the 48V progressive hybrid, VTG turbocharger and Miller combustion
process and mild hybrid diesel systems for its new vehicles.
(c) In 2013, the French government launched ‘La Nouvelle France Industrielle’. This program prioritized 34
sector-based ways in France’s industrial policy (Conseil national de l’industrie 2013). French start -up 2B1st
Consulting introduced at Hannover Messe a collaborative digital tool designed to help companies implement
Industry 4.0 solutions.
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(d) In 2013, a long term action plan for the manufacturing industry in the United Kingdom (UK) called the
‘Future of Manufacturing’ was implemented. This program refocused and rebalanced the policies to support the
resilience of UK manufacturing until 2050(Foresight, 2013). In 2018, Rolls-Royce is partnering with the Alan
Turing Institute to explore how Artificial Intelligence (AI) and analytics can be applied at scale to supply chains and
predictive maintenance regimes.
(e) In ‘Factories of the Future (FoF)’in 2014, the European Commission adopted a new contractual Public-
Private Partnership (PPP). A total of almost 80 billion Euros of funding for the consecutive 7 years in the period of
2014 to 2020 will be provided for the program Horizon 2020(European Factories of the Future Research Association,
2016). In 2018, the European Commission announced a new series of measures to put artificial intelligence (AI) at
the service of citizens and boost Europe’s competitiveness in the field with a budget of €20 billion by the end of
2020.
(f) ‘Innovation in Manufacturing 3.0’, a plan launched by the South Koreans in 2014 had emphasized four ways
and tasks for improvement of Korean manufacturing (Ministry of Trade Industry and Energy of South Korea, 2014).
As a result, Hyundai developed a new autonomous car, the Hyundai Genesis sedan, which is capable of tracking
moving objects, avoiding collisions, driving on narrow roads and recognizing traffic lights and speed limit signs.
(g) In 2015, China’s government launched two actions simultaneously i.e. the ‘Internet Plus’ and ‘Made in China
2025’ strategies. Ten major aspects in the sector of manufacturing are prioritized to boost the industrialization of
China (China State Council, 2015). In 2018, the Chinese government announced elimination of rules that required
car manufacturers such as General Motors to collaborate with a local company to open factories in China. China
anticipates the move will encourage foreign companies to bing more advanced technology into China to meet
demands for electric transportation.
(h) In 2016, the Singapore government launched its RIE 2020 Plan (Research, Innovation and Enterprise) with a
budget of $19 billion. The advanced manufacturing and engineering domain had identified eight key vertical
industries for the Plan (National Research Foundation 2016).In 2018, Singaporean companies are developing
machines that can help make slight tweaks to fully automate hydroponic farms and maximize crop yield.
(i) In Malaysia, the government aggressively took action by undertaking various efforts in helping industry
players to embrace Industry 4.0 through the implementation of automation and smart manufacturing. In Budget 2017,
the government highlighted several new incentive packages to accelerate the growth and adoption of manufacturing
and Industry 4.0 in Malaysia. For instance, Supermax Corporation Bhd. was a glove manufacturing industry which
under the automation and Industry 4.0 in manufacturing will be supported by the government through incentive
programmes to spur the growth of the industry. Former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Datuk Seri Najib Razak
initiated the government’s plan to implement TVET in industries. This is to assist the development of Industry 4.0 in
the future by increasing the capabilities of the workforce. Under this program, the government allocated RM50
million to improve the caliber and the competitiveness of the workforce to help in the economic development of the
nation. This budget is allocated from 30% of the Human Resources Development Fund (HRDF) funds specifically
for the purpose of TVET.
In short, the government’s plans above show that developing countries are significantly focused on the
advancement of technologies and the fact that industry 4.0 can bring many positive impacts to a nation’s
development. As the physical world, biological world and digital world keep on converging, advanced technologies
and phases will provide opportunities for citizens to interact with their government and voice their opinions and
even circumvent the supervision of oppressive public authorities.
VI.
Conclusion
In a nutshell, Industry 4.0 is the future of global manufacturing which aggregates existing ideas to a new value
chain which plays a crucial role to transform whole value chains of life cycle of goods while developing innovative
services and products in the manufacturing industry which involves the connection of systems to things that creates
self-organizing and dynamic control within an organization. Industry 4.0 describes a future scenario of industrial
production that is characterized by the aspects of a new level of controlling, organizing and transforming the entire
value chain with the life cycle of products,resulting in higher productivity and flexibility through three types of
effective integration which are horizontal, vertical and end-to-end engineering integration. Hence, these can predict
product performance degradation and autonomously manage and optimize product service needs and consumption
of resources which lead to optimization and reduction of costs. Next, the creation of dynamic, real-time optimized
and self-organizing cross-company value networks through the Cyber-Physical Systems(CPS), Internet of Things
Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 10, 14-Special Issue, 2018
ISSN 1943-023X
Received: 20 October 2018/Accepted: 15 November 2018
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(IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), additive manufacturing, cloud computing and others are added. It is hoped that
with the proper guidance and technical skills, more and more manufacturing companies in Malaysia will implement
Industry 4.0 in their business.
Acknowledgement
The authors gratefully acknowledge Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia and Ministry of Higher Education for
the financial support provided for this research through Research Grant Scheme, TIER 1 Vot U880 and GPPS Vot
H044.
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... Upstream and downstream companies should also understand this momentum. We consider its presence as a comprehensive change, involving automation and digitization of every part of the company to develop, improve and make it more competitive in the industrial market (Tay et al., 2018;Fernández-Miranda et al., 2017). Kamsu et al. (2004) pioneered a positive study of global trade relations in electronics and information and communication technology (ICT). ...
... Industry specialization 4.0 (Source:Tay et al., 2018). ...
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... Different countries have adopted different approaches to achieving industry 4.0 according to the geographical context. Tay et al. (2018) chronicled the various initiatives by the USA, Germany, France, UK, European Commission, South Korea, China, Singapore and Malaysia to achieve industry 4.0. ...
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Globally, the construction industry has a tradition of late technology adoption. This has been a significant challenge in optimal performance and productivity. The fourth industrial revolution has changed many sectors in recent times through the adoption of various emerging technologies. The construction industry is also tagging along in technological adoption in a bid to be more productive and smart. However, little attention has been paid to the construction industry in developing countries. This study adopted a quantitative approach to articulating the key challenges to the implementation of the emerging technologies in the construction industry in developing countries. The study area adopted is Nigeria. Fifty-six structured questionnaires were administered to industry professionals through random sampling. The data collected was analysed. The study findings revealed that the most critical impediments are classified under workforce, management and legislation. The study concluded with recommendations for overcoming the identified challenges and achieving construction industry 4.0.
... In the development of Industry 4.0, it is also one of the factors that makes everything digital (Tay et al., 2018). Every cultural product also faces a digital generation that easily accepts digital information (Harari, 2018). ...
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The research aimed to save the traditional Balinese Barong dance motion patterns and convert them into digital animation. Using the mask was a uniqueness and as one of the characteristics of the traditional dance. Some problems arose in today's global situation: the challenge of eroding local society cultures to be replaced by global cultures. Another factor was the new generation, who loved technology and digitization. The research showed how to make traditional art that had recommendations in new digital media 3D animation. This was necessary to increase interest for the new generation about traditional culture and the creation of digital archives that were easily accessible to learn and develop in this traditional culture. The method was applied qualitatively through approach practice-led research by making experimental data on the dance motion pattern of the head of Barong Bali. Then observations were made and described in animation science, resulting in an academic understanding of motion and 3D digital media production. The results of the research consist of Barong Bali motion pattern in 3D, descriptive explanation of movement patterns, and the process of creating 3D animation digital archives. All of this is expected as recommendations for ways to produce digital archives 3D Animation of another Indonesian traditional culture.
... There was a change in the industrial paradigm from manufacturing dominance to information, technology, and the automation of work. Using technology and computerization has been carried out since the third industrial revolution, but significant changes in companies, including industrial processes, occurred in the industrial revolution 4.0 (Tay, Lee, Hamid & Ahmad, 2018). industrial revolution 4.0 has fundamentally changed our life, work, and relate to one another, marked by the development of the internet of/Things, new technologies in data science, artificial intelligence, robotics, cloud, three-dimensional printing, and nanotechnology, which came so fast. ...
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During the decade, the Indonesians faced many economic challenges. Whether in the form of the industrial revolution 4.0 to the COVID19 pandemic. These challenges have led to economic transformation, starting from the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. The success of this structural transformation is measured by the contribution of the agricultural, manufacturing, and service sectors to national income and employment. This study aims to analyze the transformation of the economic structure towards national income and employment with the Industrial Revolution 4.0 and Covid 19. This research is explanatory with a non-parametric correlation method. The analytical tool in this study is the Spearman correlation which is used to see changes in the transformation of the economic structure and employment in Indonesia. The type of data used is secondary data from BPS Indonesia. This study divides the economic sector into 17 main sectors by BPS Indonesia. The results showed a change in the structure of the Indonesian economy, although manufacturers were still the sector that contributed the most to Indonesia's national income. This also occurs in employment. There is a change in Indonesia's employment structure, although the largest absorption is still in the agricultural sector. JEL: O14, O15, J21.
... (STEFANINI, 2019) mentioned that five characteristics bring difference for industry 4.0 including decentralization (separated by functions but connected by systems), interoperability (the ability of a system to work and the usage of the other system's segment), virtualization (the act of creating a virtual instance rather than a physical presence), real-time response (generate prompt outcome to make quick responses to problems and can predict based on instant data derived) and modularity (allows production line activity to make changes immediately) (Tay, Chuan, Aziati, & Ahmad, 2018, pp. 1380-1382. ...
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COVID has changed manufacturers in fundamental ways. Manufacturing businesses were brought to a standstill during COVID. They were already dealing with increasing disruptions due to trade wars, epidemics, and material shortages before the massive COVID-related disruptions. As guidelines for opening plants safely came out, manufacturers repurposed their production lines to target high-demand products such as respirators, respirator parts, medical PPE, and hand sanitizers. Manufacturers that pivoted successfully identified many enablers that helped them pivot quickly, including rapid decision making, organizational flexibility, employee know-how and skills, and digital technologies as key enablers. Beyond COVID, manufacturers are investing in several strategies to survive future disruptions and respond to shifting buyer expectations of manufactured products. This paper considers the business challenges faced by manufacturers and examines enabling technology and business model solutions to address these challenges. Finally, we discuss how these may shape future manufacturers as they rethink their business and operating models while investing in new products, services, and engaging customer experiences.
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Best Paper Award 2018 of IJPR (55th Volume Anniversary: 15 Free to Access Papers IJPR) It was made free to access for the duration of 2018, exclusively via this page: http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/est/tprs-55-anniv?utm_source=TFO&utm_medium=cms&utm_campaign=JMQ04737
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