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Trends in research related to the Dark Triad: A bibliometric analysis


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The aim of this study was to investigate trends in research related to the Dark Triad using a bibliometric analysis. Four main clusters were recognized on author keywords: Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, along with terms such are life history theory, mating, and morality), measurement (short Dark Triad measures and terms related to psychometrics), personality models (Big Five, Five Factor Model, HEXACO, and terms related to sadism and aggression), and mainly gender differences cluster. The measurement and personality models clusters gathered the latest research, but specifically studies containing terms related to short Dark Triad measures and sadism. Analysis of the indexed keywords revealed a similar organization of the clusters, but with a great prominence of clinical studies and methodological terms. The map of bibliographic coupling showed several relatively separated groups of authors with different focus in cited references, with Jonason, P.K. in the central position. However, a map of co-citation of authors revealed closeness of these separated groups, with Jonason, P.K. and Paulhus, D.L. with nearly equal number of citations.
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Dinić, B.M., & Jevremov, T. (2019). Trends in research related to the Dark Triad: A
bibliometric analysis. Current Psychology. Manuscript accepted for publication.
Trends in research related to the Dark Triad: A bibliometric analysis
Running head: Trends in research related to the Dark Triad
Bojana M. Dinić and Tanja Jevremov
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
This study was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological
Development of the Republic of Serbia [Grant ON179006].
Trends in research related to the Dark Triad: A bibliometric analysis
The aim of this study was to investigate trends in research related to the Dark Triad using a
bibliometric analysis. Four main clusters were recognized on author keywords: Dark Triad traits
(Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, along with terms such are life history theory,
mating, and morality), measurement (short Dark Triad measures and terms related to
psychometrics), personality models (Big Five, Five Factor Model, HEXACO, and terms related
to sadism and aggression), and mainly gender differences cluster. The measurement and
personality models clusters gathered the latest research, but specifically studies containing terms
related to short Dark Triad measures and sadism. Analysis of the indexed keywords revealed a
similar organization of the clusters, but with a great prominence of clinical studies and
methodological terms. The map of bibliographic coupling showed several relatively separated
groups of authors with different focus in cited references, with Jonason, P.K. in the central
position. However, a map of co-citation of authors revealed closeness of these separated groups,
with Jonason, P.K. and Paulhus, D.L. with nearly equal number of citations.
Keywords: Dark Triad traits; life history strategy, short Dark Triad measures; personality
models; gender differences; bibliometric analysis
The term Dark Triad was first used by Paulhus and Williams (2002) to describe a constellation of
three malevolent and socially toxic traits that could be found in a nonclinical population, such are
Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Machiavellianism refers to manipulative
interpersonal style, exploitation, and self-interest; narcissism is characterized by grandiosity,
entitlement, dominance, and superiority; while psychopathy is reflected in high impulsivity and
thrill-seeking along with low empathy and anxiety. Since then, there is growing literature and
extensive interest toward the Dark Triad (e.g., Furnham, Richards, & Paulhus, 2013). The Dark
Triad traits share some common characteristics and great effort has been invested in mapping the
core of these traits, including the exploration of its redundancy to some basic personality traits.
There are several proposals of the common core of these traits such arelife history strategy
(Jonason & Webster, 2010), callousness and manipulation (Jones & Figueredo, 2013),
disagreeableness (Miller et al., 2011), and dishonesty (Book, Visser, & Volk, 2015), but each of
the trait showed uniqueness in relations with different outcomes (e.g., Furnham et al., 2013).
The popularity of the Dark Triad was contributed to the development of two short measures:
Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) and Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones &
Paulhus, 2014). However, each dark trait is multidimensional and some authors suggested that
research would benefit if main features of each trait were considered (e.g., Sleep, Lynam, Hyatt,
& Miller, 2017).
The expansion of research on the Dark Triad has resulted in the appearance of other candidates
for inclusion into the dark constellation. The most prominent is inclusion of everyday sadism,
which along with the other three dark traits constitutes the Dark Tetrad (Chabrol, Van Leeuwen,
Rodgers, & Séjourné, 2009). Marcus and Zeigler-Hill (2015) provide overviews of other traits
that could be included in the dark constellation, such are spitefulness, greed, perfectionism, and
dependency, while Hodson, Hogg, and MacInnis (2009) underline that social dominance also
shares the callous-manipulative core and serves as a candidate for dark trait. It could be
concluded that the nomological network of dark traits spreads and captures other related
constructs from the subclinical domain.
When a growing expansion is noted, bibliometric analysis is commonly used to illustrate the
scientific production and research trends (e.g., Karakus, 2018; Sa’ed, Sweileh, Awang, & Al-
Jabi, 2018). Bibliographic mapping is a set of bibliometric techniques that offers a visual
representation of a particular scientific area, which could provide a better insight into the main
research directions, relations among them, and their development. That kind of knowledge can
improve both scientific communication and information retrieval. In addition, a clearer
representation of prominent research topics and authors’ activities could be a useful tool in
science policy and research management (Rafols, Porter, & Leydesdorff, 2010).
However, in spite of the variety of research themes and trends, bibliometric analyses applied to
the Dark Triad field are relatively rare. Although there is a study that explored trends in Dark
Triad research focusing on a specific area (i.e., business and accounting, see D'Souza & Jones,
2017), there is a conspicuous lack of studies in which large datasets are used and trends are
explored regardless of research domain. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one study in
which a bibliometric approach was applied to documents from both Web of Science - WoS and
Google Scholar databases, with no limit regarding the year of publishing (from 1985 to 2016),
including articles, books, book chapters, conference papers, and doctoral dissertations
(Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017). The results of this analysis showed that titles and abstract keywords
extracted from analyzed documents related to dark personality could be classified into three
clusters: Dark Triad psychopathology, individual approach, and affect and response topics. The
authors pointed out that research focus had shifted from psychopathology (up to 2012) to
subclinical psychology and a variety of nonclinical areas, including management and financial
behavior (after 2012).
In this study, the exploration of research directions regarding dark traits involved several
additional analyses, as well as different samples of descriptors and documents which could be
more exhaustive and representative of the subject matter. Regarding the sample of descriptors,
the terms extracted from titles and abstracts used in previous research (Boonroungrut & Oo,
2017) often characterize a large degree of generality and the tendency that the same concept is
represented by different terms (Jevremov, 2013). Thus, in this study, the content of the
documents is represented by the types of keywords that could provide a more specific description
of the subject area author keywords, and those that are controlled by thesauri indexed
keywords. These two keyword types are meant to provide at least two distinct descriptions of the
documents. The first distinction between them is a higher level of standardization of indexed
terms, given that they are assigned to the records by a team of professional indexers according to
the corresponding controlled vocabularies (Joshi, 2016), while authors often use keywords that
are commonly understood and generally accepted, without consulting the thesauri (Rafferty &
Hidderly, 2007). The second difference refers to the content of the documents that they describe.
It can be assumed that indexed keywords offer descriptions based on the broader scientific
context depicted by the thesauri, while author keywords emphasize the actual content of a paper
and express what authors consider to be important keys to the article content (Jevremov, 2013;
Leydesdorff & Zaal, 1988). Previous research supported this distinction by finding low
consistency between authors and indexed keywords (e.g., Murphy et al., 2003). Because of this, it
is assumed that a more complete representation of the investigated area can be obtained by using
both keyword types and comparing the results they give.
In the case of the sample of documents, we used somewhat different sample than those used in
earlier research (Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017), in terms of the scientific database, publication type,
and selection criteria. First, we used documents from the Scopus database. It can be assumed that
the Scopus database would supply a more complete sample of documents than WoS because of
generally slightly better coverage of social sciences and humanities (Harzing & Alakangas,
2016), as well as more accurate data selection than Google Scholar because of better control over
the referred documents and the controlled indexing (Cecchino, 2010; Noruzi, 2005). Second, only
journal articles would be comprised in this analysis for at least two reasons. Firstly, unlike books
and book chapters, which generally provide an overview of previously obtained data, articles are
considered to be repositories of the latest empirical results and new knowledge. Therefore, they
are considered to be more adequate and accurate representations of the current research trends.
Secondly, in contrast to the majority of conference papers and book previews, articles contain
lists of references, which constitute data that are necessary for analyses based on citations.
Thirdly, it is assumed that the research trends in this area would be more correctly represented
and easily recognized if the analysis only focused on articles that are exclusively oriented
towards the Dark Triad or Dark Tetrad concepts. Thus, in order to obtain the most precise
selection of documents, the selection criteria should discriminate between articles related to all
dark traits and those related to only one particular dark trait.
Beside the keywords, in this research, the field of Dark Triad is represented by two additional
maps which were no previously explored. The first one is the map of bibliographic coupling
which represents the relations among authors based on their cited references. This map could
show different research groups and directions that form a research front in the Dark Triad
concept. The second one is the co-citation map of authors. This map could be a representation of
the base knowledge, which the actual researches share and rely on (Zhao & Strotmann, 2014). A
comparison of the authors' actual research activities and the authors’ recognition by their
contribution could offer a supplementary view on the dynamics in the Dark Triad field.
The concept of the Dark Triad has gained prominent popularity since its introduction, spreading
across different psychological disciplines. However, with the increasing popularity of the
concept, the worthwhile criticisms are also growing. Some of them pointed out the redundancy of
some members of the Dark Triad (e.g., Miller, Hyatt, Maples-Keller, Carter, & Lynam, 2016), or
its redundancy in relation to the personality trait related to antagonism (e.g., Vize, Lynam,
Collison, & Miller, 2016), while others pointed out methodological and psychometrical aspects of
treating the Dark Triad scores (e.g., Bertl, Pietschnig, Tran, Stieger, & Voracek, 2017) or
emphasized the need for multidimensionality of each dark trait (e.g., Sleep et al., 2017). At the
same time, the Dark Triad network is spreading and authors propose the inclusion of others traits
in this constellation (e.g., Marcus & Zeigler-Hill, 2015). Given the dynamic development of this
research area, the main aim of this study was to offer better insight into the research topics
associated with the Dark Triad by using the bibliometric analysis. Based on this analysis we
could map critical topics and domains of Dark Triad research, explore the amount of recognizing
the key problems related to Dark Triad research, as well as the lines of developments in this area.
In this analysis, two different samples of descriptors were used author keywords and indexed
keywords. The results could thus present two different “perspectives” on the Dark Triad themes,
and reveal the main research direction, along with the new directions in this domain. The
additional aim was to investigate research trends and schools related to the Dark Triad,
represented by the authors’ coupling based on similarities of their papers’ references and as a
network of authors’ co-citations. The distinction between research groups may provide further
insight into main research directions regarding the dark traits and help to explore their possible
cohesion or distinction.
Data samples
The sample of articles included 505 journal articles explicitly focusing on the dark traits, which
are referred in the Scopus database. All articles with “Dark Triad” OR “Dark Tetrad” terms
recognized in the title, abstract or keywords were selected. We collected information about their
descriptors, authors, references, the titles of the journals in which they were published and the
titles of the cited journals. The sample included articles published between the year of 2002,
when the term Dark Triad was introduced, and the end of 2018 year (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Frequencies of published articles per year.
The articles were published in 150 journals. The most common source of Dark Triad citations
was journal Personality and Individual Differences (44% of articles), and then Journal of
Research in Personality (2.5%) and Current Psychology (2.5%). Personality and Individual
Differences was also the most-cited journal, with 20% of the total number of citations (3609
citations out of 18026 in total). However, several personality journals were also relatively
frequently cited, like Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (7%) and Journal of
Research in Personality (5%). The sample included 799 different author keywords and 420
different indexed keywords assigned by the Scopus procedure (Burnham, 2006). The articles
from the sample were published by 982 different authors and co-authors and cited by 17505
different (co)authors.
Data analysis
For investigation of the subject area of the Dark Triad, the bibliographic mapping technique was
applied. Research themes were visually represented by maps of term co-occurrences, based on
co-occurrences of descriptors of the articles. In this kind of map, descriptors that frequently occur
together in articles are placed close to one another on the map and potentially show a research
topic. Based on the type of descriptor used, two network maps of terms were calculated. In one
case, author keywords were used, and in the other, indexed keywords were employed. In the case
of author keywords, the most frequent term, “Dark Triad”, which was included in all articles, was
omitted in order to get a clear picture of term clusters. The same strategy was used in the case of
indexed keywords in order to enable comparison of the results.
Research trends and schools were represented by network maps which showed the relations
among authors. Firstly, a map of bibliographic coupling of authors was calculated. This kind of
map shows relations among authors based on the similarity of the documents they cite. In other
words, it shows similarity of the schools or the previous knowledge the authors rely on. Relations
among authors on this type of map are presented in such a way that the authors who cite the same
documents are placed beside each other on the map. Secondly, a map based on a co-citation
analysis of authors was calculated. This map illustrates the relations among cited authors based
on their coincidence in the references, so that the authors who are frequently cited together are
located close to one another on the map. Such a map can potentially reveal different directions in
the already settled and established knowledge, represented by its authors.
The bibliographic units were represented by circles and stronger relations among them were
marked with lines. The size of a circle was proportional to the number of articles associated with
a particular term or author, except in the case of the co-citation map, where the size of a circle
was proportional to the number of citations. The colors of the circles represented cluster
membership on the network maps. Additionally, the maps of terms were shown in overlay
versions (Leydesdorff & Rafols, 2012), where the colors of the circles represented the average
year of publication.
Data were analyzed and visually represented using VOSviewer v.1.6.10 software (Van Eck &
Waltman, 2014). All maps were constructed using a method that assigned the publication to each
bibliographic unit (term, cited document, and cited author) with a fractional weight (Perianes-
Rodriguez, Waltman, & Van Eck, 2016) and by applying lin-log modularity method for each
unit’s normalization (Noack, 2009; Van Eck & Waltman, 2009).
Selection of the bibliometric units that are to be represented on the map is one of the possible
flaws of the bibliometric mapping technique, since it could affect the map’s layout in terms of
ease of interpretation and precision of subject representation. Namely, a map that represents only
highly frequent units could underrepresent some important topics. Conversely, a map that
insufficiently represents frequent units could be unclear and less interpretable. To minimize
arbitrariness in this decision, we used several directions. Firstly, we followed the general
recommendations according to which the number and type of bibliometric units can be taken into
account (Klavans & Boyack, 2006). Accordingly, we set higher thresholds for cited authors than
for authors and keywords. Secondly, we conducted preliminary analyses in which we varied the
minimum thresholds for occurrences and chose solutions that showed robust results and
improved visibility of the main trends. Thirdly, the solutions that proved to be very inconsistent
with different methods of normalization and units’ associations were discarded. The map of
author keywords represented 44 terms and the map of indexed keywords represented 47 terms
that occurred in no fewer than five articles in the sample; the map of authors included 36 authors
who had more than five publications in the sample; and the co-citation map of authors included
395 authors with more than 20 citations. Apart from the maps, a list of the most cited documents
with the number of their citations was extracted.
The scientific landscape of main research areas related to dark traits is represented in Figure 2,
based on the author keywords in the co-occurrence map. Four main clusters could be recognized
in this network: 1. Dark Triad cluster, which includes the three main dark traits
(Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and terms related to life history theory (e.g.,
mating, morality); 2. measurement cluster, which mostly includes psychometrics terms and short
scales of the Dark Triad; 3. personality models cluster, which contains terms Big Five, Five
Factor Model, and HEXACO, along with terms referred to other dark traits candidate, such is
sadism, and terms referred to malevolent behaviors related to dark traits (e.g., aggression,
bullying, infidelity). 4. mainly gender differences cluster, with terms related to evolutionary
psychology, but also with terms of other personality traits related to lack of behavioral control
(impulsivity, sensation seeking). The fourth cluster seems to be the least cohesive, as it gathers
terms from different approaches. Besides these four clusters, there is also one small and very
narrow cluster, which comprises only two terms - dark personality and leadership. The terms that
are related to the latest publications are mostly in the second cluster, and related to short Dark
triad measures, and in the third cluster, and related to sadism and the Dark Tetrad (see Figure A
Figure 2. Map of co-occurrence of author keywords without term "Dark Triad".
In comparison to the author keywords map, the map based on indexed terms is formed of more
general terms. The structure of isolated clusters is generally the same as that obtained in the
author keywords. Two clusters are very similar: the Dark Triad and the measurement clusters, but
with emphasis of clinical construct related to psychopathy - antisocial personality disorder.
However, the other two clusters favor age characteristics of the sample as the used research
method. Thus, one cluster gathers terms that refer to clinical studies, experimental studies,
behavioral research, and adult or student sample. Among non-methodological terms there are
sadism, aggression, impulsivity, morality. The terms in this cluster belongs to the newest
publications (see Figure B in Supplement). The other cluster gathers terms that refer to
personality tests, genetics and physiology, and samples other than students and adults (such are
younger or older samples, see Figure 3). In this cluster, terms related to physiology belong to the
newest publications.
Figure 3. Map of co-occurrence of indexed keywords without term "Dark Triad".
The map based on bibliographic coupling of authors shows several relatively distinct groups of
authors that represent different directions in the area of dark trait research (Figure 4). The central
group with the largest number of papers (over 40%) is clustered around Jonason, P.K., the second
group is clustered around Jones, D.N./Paulhus, D.L., and the third group is clustered around
Vernon, P.A. Considering the number of links toward the central position, it seems that a part of
the cited documents in other/smaller groups is similar to those in Jonason’s group. The group
around Miller, J.D, Lynam, D.R., and Campbell, W.K. appeared to be distinct from the others.
We further explore the author keywords in obtained groups. Despites three key terms regarding
the Dark Triad, terms such as gender differences, Big Five, evolutionary psychology, life history
theory, mating, and DTDD prevail in the Jonason, P.K. group; in the Jones, D.N./Paulhus, D.L.
group, terms such as sadism, Dark Tetrad, HEXACO, and aggression are prevalent; in the
Vernon P.A. group, terms such as behavioral genetics, twin study, deception, and evolutionary
psychology are prevalent; while in the Miller, J.D. group, we observed a prevalence of terms
related to psychometrics (e.g., validity, assessment, and confirmatory factor analysis), the Big
Five, the Five Factor Model, and gender differences (see Table A in Supplement).
Figure 4. Map of bibliographic coupling of authors.
Unlike the domain of bibliographic coupling of authors where one dominant author is recognized
(Jonason, P.K.), the reference domain of cited authors is more balanced (Figure 5). Namely,
Paulhus, D.L. (1708 citations) has nearly as many citations as Jonason, P.K. (1716 citations).
These two most-cited authors are followed by Jones, D.N., Webster, G.D., Hare, R., Williams,
K.M., and Miller, J.D. (with 903, 630, 605, 567, and 550 citations, respectively).
Figure 5. Map of co-citation analysis of authors.
The list of the most-cited documents reveals the key articles for the main directions recognized in
the authors’ co-citation map (Table B in Appendix): one direction is gathering around Paulhus
and Williams (2002) article (cited 1013 times in this sample), and others mostly include Jonason,
P.K. research groups' articles with the centrality of Jonason and Webster (2010) article on the
Dark Triad Dirty Dozen instrument (cited 304 times in this sample).
Ever since the term Dark Triad was introduced mere 17 years ago, interest in the Dark Triad
constellation has been rapidly growing, but criticisms of this construct were also made. In this
study we focused on the scientific production and main research trends regarding the Dark Triad
and other recognized dark traits. The selected 505 journal articles were analyzed in terms of the
main and underlying themes, cited references and authors.
Results of the co-occurrence of author keywords showed that different research directions could
be recognized. These directions formed four main clusters. The first cluster contained the three
main dark traits along with evolutionary-based life history theory. Thus, the main author in this
area (Jonason, P.K.) suggested that the common element, that is, the “core” of the Dark Triad was
a fast and exploitive life history strategy (Jonason & Webster, 2010).
The second cluster contained the terms that referred to the psychometric approach and covered
topics regarding validity, reliability, and other related terms/concepts, as well as the two short
instruments of the Dark Triad (DTDD and SD3). This cluster also included terms such are
empathy, emotional intelligence, and revenge, which are common constructs outside the basic
personality traits in determining the validity of dark traits instruments. The newest terms in these
clusters mostly originated from the short Dark Triad measures, indicating the research trend
related to the cross-cultural validation of these instruments.
The third cluster represented the research perspective focused mostly on the basic personality
models, such as the Big Five Model, the Five Factor Model, and the HEXACO model, with an
emphasis on the traits that are mostly related to dark traits - Agreeableness and Honesty-
Humility. There are active lines of research about the “core” of the dark traits, which could be
linked to the basic personality traits. One group of authors suggested that the “core” of the Dark
Triad is Agreeableness (e.g., Miller et al., 2010; Vize et al., 2016), while due to the popularity of
the HEXACO model, another group suggested that Honesty-Humility may be the best candidate
for the explanation of the shared characteristics of the members of the Dark Triad (e.g., Book et
al., 2015, 2016). In line with the novelty of research on dark traits, this cluster also included other
members of dark traits, for instance, sadism. Sadism refers to the tendency towards intentionally
hurting others for pleasure or asserting dominance (e.g., O'Meara, Davies, & Hammond, 2011),
and it is related to aggressive behavior, bullying, internet trolling, and the like (e.g., Buckles,
Trapnell, & Paulhus, 2014). This line of the research regarding sadism and its behavioral
indicators was also recognized as newer.
The fourth cluster is the least cohesive, with the domination of terms such are gender differences,
evolutionary psychology, and deception, which could point to the evolutionary psychology
approach. Although some aspects of evolutionary psychology are included in the first cluster, the
results showed a clear distinction between life history theory and evolutionary theory, in general.
In this cluster, there are also terms related to personality traits that refer to a lack of behavioral
control (impulsivity, sensation-seeking), which is also often explored from the standpoint of
evolutionary psychology, along with gender differences. In general, it could be noted that two
clusters, the Dark Triad and the personality models, were similar to those found in previous
bibliometric study (Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017), while the clusters newly recognized in this study
were the measurement and the gender difference.
The map based on indexed keyword showed a similar picture, with recognizing the Dark Triad
and the measurement clusters. The difference between author and indexed keywords lies in the
fact that indexed keywords include more general terms, which is why terms that refer to sample
age and study method are more frequently found in the indexed keywords map. This result is a
possible consequence of the method of indexing in Scopus, which uses thesauri that covers
medicine and life sciences better than social sciences (Burnham, 2006). Thus, a cluster with
clinical, experimental, and behavior studies was recognized, with adults and students as the most
frequent sample, and this cluster gathered the newest publications. The other cluster included
studies conducted on non-student and non-adult samples (e.g., youth and elderly), with focus on
personality tests, genetics, and risk factors. It could be noticed that clinical studies and topics
were more visible compared to other psychological disciplines recognized on authors keywords
(e.g., evolutionary psychology). Thus, it seems that the trend of clinical research regarding the
Dark Triad is still sustainable, which is in line with the results of the previous study
(Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017).
This result suggests that author and indexed keywords are to some extent complementary and that
using both of them can improve article description and, consequently, their visibility in
information retrieval.
The structure of clusters based on authors and indexed keywords highlights critical topic
regarding dark traits research, and we could conclude that amount of research were mostly
focused on explanation of Dark Triad in the context of evolutionary theories or personality
models, or on cross-cultural validation of Dark Triad measurements. It should be noticed that
measurement cluster was not recognized in previous study (Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017) and
clearly represent the trend in Dark Triad research. In line with Furnham et al. (2010), areas of
mating, interpersonal and antisocial behavior are recognized. Area of clinical research is also
recognized, but we could notice that the structure of this area is different from previous study
(Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017) and that do not include terms related to mental disorders. Moreover,
clinical area is still active and gathering the newest publications. However, some areas of the
Dark Triad research were not clearly recognized (i.e., occupational psychology) compared to the
results of previous study (Boonroungrut & Oo, 2017).
Furthermore, some solutions of the concerns regarding Dark Triad research were recognized in
organization of indexed keywords, such are use of different methodological approaches and non-
convenience sample. This line of research represents the newest studies, and we could conclude
that authors recognize the need for multimethod approach and diversity of sampling approach.
However, other problems such are redundancy of dark traits, treatment of dark traits as
unidimensional, and statistical treatment of dark traits in multivariate approach, were not
recognized in obtained clusters. Thus, seems that authors invested in cross-cultural validity of
Dark Triad measurements and possibility to reduce Dark Triad on some basic trait or
evolutionary concept, while answers on other fundamental questions about status of each dark
trait were not recognized.
The map of bibliographic coupling showed that several research directions or schools could be
differentiated, with Jonason, P.K. in the center, which suggested that there was a partial similarity
in cited references among all authors, similar to those cited by Jonason, P.K. Apart from Jonason,
P.K. group, other author groups were recognized, such as the groups around Vernon, P.A., Jones,
D.N./Paulhus, D.L., and Miller, J.D. Analysis of keywords in each group suggested different
focus. For example, the Jonason, P.K. group mostly focused on life history and evolutionary
theory, gender differences, and mating, which suggested one direction of study of the dark traits.
On the other hand, the Vernon, P.A. group mostly focused on behavioral genetics, which
emphasizes the biological line of the dark traits research. The group around Jones, D.N./Paulhus,
D.L. mostly focused on sadism as the fourth member of the dark traits and malevolent behaviors,
such as aggression. The most distinct was the group around Miler, J.D., which mostly focused on
psychometric topics but also on the clinical perspective regarding the dark traits. It could be
noticed that the main criticism of the Dark Triad construct, its measures, and treatment of scores
comes from this group of authors (e.g., Miller et al., 2010; Vize et al, 2016). Thus, although very
similar base knowledge shared by each research group, each group have focus on different
research line towards dark traits. Future researcher should be aware of these authors groups in
exploring the topics of Dark Triad.
However, the map of co-citation analysis of authors seems more balanced and clearly indicates
two most-cited authors in this area, Jonason, P.K. and Paulhus, D.L., who are also among authors
of two short measures of the Dark Triad. This result reveals that while in the actual studies there
is a high level of concentration on one author, the knowledge base is characterized by greater
This study has several limitations. Firstly, the selected sample of documents reflects the
characteristics of the articles published in journals referred in the Scopus database and focuses on
the researchers of main dark traits taken together. Although such a sample was intentionally
selected, samples extracted from other databases could possibly yield different conclusions about
this scientific field. Secondly, like most visualization techniques, the technique we used suffers
from partial arbitrariness regarding the chosen method for setting the thresholds, weighting and
normalization. Although we opted for solutions that are generally recommended (Klavans &
Boyack, 2006; Perianes-Rodriguez, Waltman, & Van Eck, 2016) and showed robustness across
units’ associations and types of normalizations in this sample of data, these specificities could
affect the results.
In summary, the results of this study provide insight into new trends in the field of the Dark
Triad, suggesting the spread of Dark Triad network on other candidates, exploration of an
extended list of outcomes, and diversity of methodological approaches. Moreover, the results
provide useful information regarding the relatively distinct research groups in the study of the
dark traits, focusing on the evolutionary, genetic, or clinical perspective. The benefits of these
results for future authors would be to highlight the critical research themes and lines in study of
dark traits, as well as recognition of insufficiently investigated topics and issues which could be a
basis for future studies.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Ethical Statement
Authors state that the research meets all ethical requirements, and is adherent to the legal
requirements of the Institutional Review Board which are in agreement with the Declaration of
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Figure A. Map of co-occurrence of author keywords without term "Dark Triad", colored by
average publication year.
Figure B. Map of co-occurrence of indexed keywords without term "Dark Triad", colored by
average publication year.
Table A
The most frequent authors keywords in authors groups
Jonason, P.K.
Jones, D.N./Paulhus,
Vernon, P.A.
Miller, J.D.
dark triad (91)
dark triad (64)
dark triad (23)
dark triad (12)
narcissism (68)
machiavellianism (10)
narcissism (11)
machiavellianism (67)
psychopathy (34)
narcissism (10)
machiavellianism (10)
psychopathy (66)
narcissism (32)
psychopathy (10)
psychopathy (9)
gender differences
sadism (14)
behavior genetics (6)
validity (4)
big five (8)
hexaco (11)
deception (3)
assessment (2)
validity (7)
aggression (8)
psychology (3)
big five (2)
psychology (6)
dark tetrad (7)
twin study (3)
confirmatory factor
analysis (2)
life history theory (6)
honesty-humility (6)
antisocial behavior (2)
five factor model (2)
dark triad dirty dozen
big five (5)
empathy (2)
gender differences (2)
mating (5)
intelligence (5)
gender differences (2)
mating (2)
empathy (4)
video games (4)
aggression (1)
structural equation
modeling (2)
facial morphs (4)
agreeableness (3)
alexithymia (1)
suppression (2)
impulsivity (4)
dark personality (3)
antisocial personality
age differences (1)
measurement (3)
gambling (3)
big five (1)
antagonism (1)
Note. Weight occurrences are in the parenthesis.
Table B
The most cited articles
Number of
Paulhus, D.L., & Williams, K.M. (2002). The Dark Triad of personality:
Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in
Personality, 36, 556563.
Jonason, P.K., & Webster, G.D. (2010). The Dirty Dozen: A concise measure of
the Dark Triad. Psychological Assessment, 22, 420432.
Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2005). Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism
in the Five-Factor model and the HEXACO model of personality structure.
Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 15711582.
Furnham, A., Richards, S.C., & Paulhus, D.L. (2013). The Dark Triad of
personality: A 10 year review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7,
Jakobwitz, S., & Egan, V. (2006). The Dark Triad and normal personality traits.
Personality and individual differences, 40, 331339.
Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): A
brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21, 2841.
O'Boyle, E.H.Jr., Forsyth, D.R., Banks, G.C., & McDaniel, M.A (2012). A meta-
analysis of the dark triad and work behavior: A social exchange perspective.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 557579.
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Newly developed, web-based, open-repository concepts, such as community-augmented meta-analysis (CAMA), provide open access to fulfill the needs for transparency and timeliness of synthesized evidence. The main idea of CAMA is to keep meta-analyses up-to-date by allowing the research community to include new evidence continuously. In 2021, the Leibniz Institute for Psychology released a platform, PsychOpen CAMA, which serves as a publication format for CAMAs in all fields of psychology. The present work serves as a tutorial on implementing and using a CAMA in PsychOpen CAMA from a data-provider perspective, using six large-scale meta-analytic data sets on the dark triad of personality as a working example. First, the processes of data contribution and implementation of either new or updated existing data sets are summarized. Furthermore, a step-by-step tutorial on using and interpreting CAMAs guides the reader through the web application. Finally, the tutorial outlines the major benefits and the remaining challenges of CAMAs in PsychOpen CAMA.
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... Such visual representations can enhance science communication and facilitate future information retrieval processes, two important foundations of scientific progress (Dinić & Jevremov, 2021). ...
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... ). Eindimensionale Kurzskalen stehen jedoch auch in Verruf, wichtige Aspekte komplexer, mehrdimensionaler Konstrukte zu unterschlagen(Dinić & Jevremov, 2021;Hunter et al., 1982;C. M. Kowalski, Rogoza et al., 2021;Krasko & Kaiser, 2022;O'Hair & Cody, 1987;Persson, 2019;Persson et al., 2017a;Rose, Crowe et al., 2022;Sharpe et al., 2021;G. ...
... The question of the invariance of antagonistic traits' measures across cultural and linguistic contexts is key in contemporary personality research, in light of the recent popularity and proliferation of research on such measures across several countries (Dinić & Jevremov, 2021;Jonason, Foster, Egorova, et al., 2017). In this regard, Jonason, Foster, Oshio, and colleagues (2017) suggested that antagonistic personality traits are sensitive to life history strategies that distinguish and differentiate between cultural contexts. ...
The present research tested the dimensionality and cross-cultural differential item functioning of the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4; Paulhus et al., 2021) in samples of university students (total N = 804) from Italy (N = 268), Romania (N = 313), and the United Kingdom (N = 223), respectively. Multidimensional Item Response Theory was used to model the data and ordinal logistic regression for differential item functioning analyses. The results showed that a four-factor model was the best fit for the data. However, the model showed metric non-invariance between the three samples, as well as non-negligible differential item functioning for several items in each of the four factors, in line with findings from previous research on cultural differences in antagonistic traits. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
The aim of this study was to investigate current trends in research of math anxiety (MA) through bibliometric perspective. Three main clusters were formed based on author keywords: cognitive correlates (working memory, attention, numerical cognition, mental arithmetic), psychological factors and effects (self-concept and self-efficacy, motivation, confidence, attitudes), and educational context (PISA, measurement, gender differences, math achievement, math education, assessment). Analysis of the index keywords revealed somewhat different organization with two dominant clusters: the experimental cluster in which the most frequent are psychophysiological measures and terms and the correlational cluster in which the topics of MA psychosocial factors are most represented. The map of bibliographic coupling showed several relatively separated groups of authors with different focus in cited references. However, a map of co-citation of authors revealed closeness of these separated groups, with Beilock, S. L. and Ashcraft, M. H. by far the most-cited authors in this field.
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Environmental concerns are top priorities for all nations in the globe today. Organisations must thus address these problems given the ongoing pressure on them to take action that is environmentally friendly. One industry that has a negative impact on the environment is logistics. Logistics activities have greatly risen as a result of globalisation. The logistics market will reach USD 6,300 billion on a global scale by 2024, with a compound annual growth rate of 4.9% from 2019 to 2024. In order to improve the environment and reduce carbon emissions, manufacturing companies are implementing new strategies and green regulations. Green logistics has recently gained popularity in wealthy nations. Despite being in developing nations, it is still in its early stages and requires more attention. The lack of promotion and adoption of green techniques in logistics by developing nations had been questioned. For the Indian manufacturing sector, the current study focuses on green logistics drivers, challenges, practices and performance metrics (especially in the oil and gas sector). Because it is a well-known industry that generates a significant amount of carbon emissions, the oil and gas sector was chosen for the research study. This industry’s downward vertical includes the main logistics functions, such as marketing and wholesaling and has never been centred on green logistics. The implementation of the green logistics practices is governed by a number of drivers and barriers that both enable its implementation and may serve as obstacles. These factors must be thoroughly explored because they are the most important ones. This study’s main goal is to provide a conceptual framework for green logistics that will apply to the logistics activities carried out by the Indian manufacturing industry (oil and gas) and the impact they have on economic and environmental performance. In the context of the oil and gas industry, the key green logistics drivers that could facilitate the adoption of green logistics practises have been thoroughly researched. By outlining the finest green logistics methods and factors that the sector should take into account, this study is further developed. The officials and managers who work for the downward logistics of the oil and gas industry were selected for the study and the survey questionnaire was employed as the research tool. Finally, using structural equation modelling, the effects of these green logistics practises on economic and environmental performance have also been researched and examined (SEM). When developing various rules and incentives for the Indian manufacturing sector to encourage the adoption of green logistics practices, this report would be crucial for the government. The results of this study about various green logistics activities may be related to creating a long-term plan for the industrial sector. The research will be helpful to future researchers, practising managers, governmental organisations, academic institutions and the Indian manufacturing industry as a whole.
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Over the last two decades, the behavioural finance literature has extensively relied on personality type to explain the non-rational behaviour of investors. This study considers Dark triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) to explain its influences on investment preference and perceived success in investment. A primary survey was conducted on 227 individuals who invest in securities. Dark triad was measured using 27 items Short Triad Scale (SD3). The data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. The investment preference was evaluated by asking the respondents about their preferred investment avenues, individuals were asked how they evaluate their investment success. Personality variables were grouped into high, average and low based on the mean responses to the items under each variable. The results of the study indicate that individuals with low and average levels of psychopathy and low-level narcissism preferred investing only in mutual funds, bonds and equity. It was also found that Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy and dark triad, all have a significant impact on investment preference. The dark triad also significantly impacted success, especially for those individuals who perceived their investment strategy as ‘Very Successful’. This study helps financial advisors to suggest appropriate portfolios or investment avenues based on their personalities.
Abstract Purpose This study aims to know the tactician role of financial technology (FinTech) in the field of accounting and auditing through contextualized systematic literature review by using bibliometric analysis. Design/methodology/approach The qualitative bibliometric analysis includes studies from 2017 to 2021 using the Scopus and Web of Science databases, which yielded 277 published papers with the keywords, FinTech accounting and auditing. The contextualized systematic literature review greatly helped in clarifying the content within each cluster. Findings The study identified the tactician role of fintech primarily in the accounting and auditing professional field. Fintech is still in its inception, with continual development and implementation taking place especially, in the auditing field. The findings also confirm that FinTech can produce a confluence between various research areas, including accounting, auditing, business finance, economics, management and business field. Research limitations/implications The study describes the tactician role of FinTech and its huge possibility for future study in the accounting and auditing field among professionals, academics and regulators. Practical implications This study be able to help accounting professionals, policymakers and government regulators to establish policy development, as this research emphasizes the tactician role of FinTech in the accounting and auditing field. Social implications FinTech in accounting and auditing might add to the existing field of FinTech in the IR4.0 era that give benefits to different players such as policymakers, governments, researchers, FinTech entrepreneurs and practicing professionals. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, little focus has been given about FinTech in the accounting and auditing field using bibliometric analysis. The insights of systematic literature review provide researchers on FinTech among practicing professionals and offer opportunities for further scientific endeavours.
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This study aims to identify the publications on psychological capital in social sciences and to identify the features of these publications. Firstly, the Social Sciences Citation Index database was searched for all the publications on "psychological capital" in social sciences. Web of Science categories were selected for social sciences related disciplines to retrieve the most related papers. The retrieved publications were examined in relation to their citations, citation links, co-occurrences of author keywords, bibliographic coupling of the journals,
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Dark Triad Personality becomes one of social and developmental psychology researchers’ interest nowadays; however, this field of studies is, in the beginning, started from last decade. To visualized the researchers’ done to address the trend or gap of knowledge for future research was the aim of the present study. Systematic review with bibliometric network analysis was applied with 377 articles from Web of Science and 171 articles from Google Scholar-time spent used from 1985 to 2016. The results showed that dark triad personality was interpreted into 3 cluster triads; Narcissism, Psychopathy and Machiavellianism respectively. To address the trend of study, dark triad studies were associated with individual differences, psychological disorders and cyber activities including some inventories and creative behaviors; however, comparing the occurrence percentage, Google scholar database provided one time bigger in number related dark triad key terms than Web of Science. The study trend has changed from mental illness patients and abnormal psychology factors to various behavioral issues of normal people including in management and financial behavior since 2012. Keywords: Dark triad personality; Systematic Review; Bibliometric; Network Analysis
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Background Social media, defined as interactive Web applications, have been on the rise globally, particularly among adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the trend of the literature related to the most used social network worldwide (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, and Instagram) in the field of psychology. Specifically, this study will assess the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, author productivity, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. Methods Publications related to social media in the field of psychology published between 2004 and 2014 were obtained from the Web of Science. The records extracted were analysed for bibliometric characteristics such as the growth in publications, citation analysis, international collaboration, emerging topics and the mapping of frequent terms in publications pertaining to social media in the field of psychology. VOSviewer v.1.6.5 was used to construct scientific maps. ResultsOverall, 959 publications were retrieved during the period between 2004 and 2015. The number of research publications in social media in the field of psychology showed a steady upward growth. Publications from the USA accounted for 57.14% of the total publications and the highest h-index (48).The most common document type was research articles (873; 91.03%). Over 99.06% of the publications were published in English. Computers in Human Behavior was the most prolific journal. The University of Wisconsin–Madison ranked first in terms of the total publications (n = 39). A visualisation analysis showed that personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology were continual concerns of the research. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the global trends in the research related to social media in the psychology field. Based on the raw data from the Web of Science, publication characteristics such as quality and quantity were assessed using bibliometric techniques over 12 years. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in this topic. The most preferred topics related to social media in psychology are personality psychology, experimental psychology, psychological risk factors, and developmental psychology.
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The Dark Triad (DT) is a collection of overlapping aversive personality profiles constituting psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism. Debates remain regarding the optimal way to examine the unique outcomes associated with each construct, with several scholars advocating partialing these profiles in multiple regression analyses (i.e., removing their shared variance). The present paper details the pitfalls inherent in this approach by comparing the convergence and divergence of relations derived from raw and residualized DT composite scores. In Sample 1 (N = 393), DT scores were examined to determine the extent to which their raw and residualized components manifested similar relationships with the Five-Factor Model and the DSM–5 Section III personality disorder traits. In Sample 2 (N = 542), the same approach was taken in relation to an array of associated behaviors (e.g., antisocial behavior, promiscuity). Findings from Samples 1 and 2 demonstrate that the use of residualized (vs. raw) coefficients presents important interpretative challenges for both narcissism and Machiavellianism. This study illustrates the substantial interpretive difficulties that can arise when using findings from residualized analyses (e.g., multiple regression) to build nomological networks around Dark Triad constructs. We argue that bivariate relations be given preferential treatment, given their more direct ties to the assessments, and that if multivariate approaches are to be used, they must be accompanied by strong theory about the components of DT constructs.
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Objetivo: Caracterizar a pesquisa científica do Dark Triad, elucidando o direcionamento dessa temática, no contexto empresarial e contábil, no período de 2012 a 2014. Método: Para essa investigação, utilizou-se o levantamento sociobibliométrico como estratégia de pesquisa, com base na observação de conteúdos, em duas fontes: Portal Periódicos Capes e o Web Science Knowledge. A amostra do estudo totalizou 90 artigos e foram ilustrados por redes científicas. Ao final, foi elaborada a taxonomia dos 12 trabalhos que convergiram para a discussão do constructo Dark Triad. Resultados: Sobre o direcionamento dos artigos, o Narcisismo é o mais explorado e associado à liderança e tomada de decisão empresarial. A Psicopatia atrai atenção dos pesquisadores quanto ao comportamento aversivo do líder no meio corporativo. O Maquiavelismo tem maior ênfase em investigações relacionadas à manipulação. Especificamente à área contábil, a maioria associa os traços a comportamentos antiéticos com propensão a fraudes nos relatórios financeiros. Contribuições: Os resultados apontaram oportunidades de pesquisas com os traços do Dark Triad, especialmente pela interdisciplinaridade e relevância científica desta temática, ainda pouco explorado pelos pesquisadores da área contábil. Ademais, merecem a atenção de líderes, no sentido de refletirem suas atitudes e dos seus funcionários no ambiente empresarial. Palavras Chave: Dark Triad, Narcisismo, Maquiavelismo, Psicopatia, Contexto Empresarial, Contabilidade.
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The evolution of the electronic agethe world's scientific community has been publishing an enormous number of papers in different scientific fields. In such environment, it is essential to know which databases are equally efficient and objective for literature searches. It seems that two most extensive databases are Web of Science and Scopus. Besides searching the literature, these two databases used to rank journals in terms of their productivity and the total citations received to indicate the journals impact, prestige or influence. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive comparison of these databases to answer frequent questions which researchers ask, such as: How Web of Science and Scopus are different? In which aspects these two databases are similar? Or, if the researchers are forced to choose one of them, which one should they prefer? For answering these questions, these two databases will be compared based on their qualitative and quantitative characteristics.[3]
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**Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Volume 36 Issue 6 November - December 2017** Dark triad personality becomes one of social and developmental psychology researchers’ interest nowadays; however, this field of studies is, in the beginning, started from last decade. To visualized the researchers’ done to address the trend and gap of knowledge for future research is the aim of the present study. Systematic review with bibliometric network analysis was used with 377 articles from Web of Science and 171 articles in Google Scholar time spent used from 1985 to 2016. The results showed that dark triad personality was interpreted into 3 cluster triads; Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism respectively. To address the trend of study, dark triad studies were associated with individual differences, psychological disorders and cyber activities including some inventory and creative behaviors; however, comparing the occurrence percentage, Google scholar database provided one time bigger in number related dark triad key terms than Web of Science. The study trend has changed from mental illness patients and abnormal psychology factors to a various group of normal people including in management and financial behavior since 2012. Keywords: Dark triad personality; Systematic Review; Bibliometric; Network Analysis
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Since its emergence 14 years ago the dark triad (DT), composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, has become an increasingly popular research focus. Yet questions remain over whether the DT components are sufficiently distinct from another. We examined the nomological networks of each DT component through a meta-analysis of the available literature on the DT. We conducted 3 separate analyses—an examination of the average intercorrelations among the DT components (k = 156), an examination of similarities in each DT component’s nomological network (k = 159), and an examination of the effect sizes between DT components and 15 outcome categories (k range = 7 to 42). Our results indicate that the nomological networks of psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap substantially while narcissism demonstrated differential relations compared with psychopathy and Machiavellianism. These results remained relatively constant after controlling for DT assessment approach. We argue that the current literature on Machiavellianism may be better understood as a secondary psychopathy literature. Future directions for DT research are discussed in light of our meta-analytic results.
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Understanding the nature of ‘‘evil’’ has been challenging for a number of reasons. A productive psychological approach to this problem has been to study antisocial traits associated with negative outcomes. One such approach has grouped together three antisocial personalities known as the ‘‘Dark Triad’’: Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. Researchers have proposed various models to account for the common core of these antisocial personalities – a core that might well be considered the psychological equivalent of the core of ‘‘evil’’ – and these models have not been directly compared, to date. We conducted two studies (total N > 700) to compare the utility of the various models using Canonical Correlation Analyses (CCAs). Results confirm that the HEXACO personality model (and, in particular, the Honesty–Humility factor) is not only the most theoretically parsimonious model, it also best accounts for the empirical overlap between these constructs that represents the core of the Dark Triad. Results also support the idea that the core of the Dark Triad represents an alternative life history strategy.
The Dark Triad of personality has received considerable attention since its introduction to the literature. However, this personality configuration has been assumed to be merely based on observed positive intercorrelations between narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, whereas the underlying factorial structure has not yet been thoroughly investigated. This study set out to test the factorial structure of the Dark Triad, and further examined one proposed conceptual extension, namely the Dark Tetrad, with trait sadism included. A large, community-based sample (N = 2463, 56% women, mean age = 41.4 yr.) completed self-report measures of the adverse personality traits narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism. Structural equation modelling indicated a better fit for a single latent Dark Core, as compared with assuming the Dark Triad traits as independent constructs. Adding sadism did not improve the explanatory value of the construct. These findings suggest that aversive personalities may best be represented by a single Dark Core of personality.