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The Utilization of Agricultural Waste Biochar and Straw Compost Fertilizer on Paddy Plant Growth

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The agricultural environment continues to be used for inappropriate technology, reduced agricultural land, insufficient inputs (chemical fertilizers and inorganic pesticides), and air. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia because almost all residents use rice as a staple food. Rice straw is a source of organic material that is available after harvesting rice with a large enough amounts but the use of rice straw has only been used in paddy fields. This research is a field experiment followed by laboratory research with the following stages: (a) analysis of soil samples before the research was conducted at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University, (b) field experiments by planting Inpari 30 variety rice, biochar treatment and straw compost treated according to the combination of each plot treatment, and soil sample analysis at the end of the study to re-test the soil chemical properties after conducting research with biochar and straw compost. This research method uses factorial randomized block design (RBD) consisting of two factors, namely: Biochar and Straw Compost. The results of this study indicate that biochar space has an influence on plant growth, namely plant height and number of paddy tillers. Observations on rice growth were 28 day after planting (DAP), 35(DAP) and (DAP) to find out the effects of giving biochar and straw compost, it is necessary to conduct further research on the next planting season so that it can be recognized and applied to save the use of chemical fertilizers. The administration of biochar and straw compost affects plant growth, namely plant height and the number of tillers in each rice with higher yields. It would be even better by giving biochar and straw compost together with higher yields. Thus, it is hoped that further research will be carried out in the next rice planting season to see how much residue is giving biochar and straw compost to improve rice yields. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height 28 HST was significantly affected by biochar treatment with a significance value of 0.033. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height 35 HST was significantly affected by the treatment of straw compost with a significance value of 0.018. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height of 45 DAP was significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.019 while the treatment of straw compost had a very significant effect on plant height 45 DAP with a significance value of 0.001. The results of the variance analysis showed that the numbers of tillers 28 DAP were significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.013. The results of the variance analysis showed that the number of tillers 35 DAP and 45 DAP all had no significant effect by the treatment of biochar, straw compost, and interaction of biochar and straw compost because at plant age 35 DAP and 45 DAP the significance values were above 0.05.
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The Utilization of Agricultural Waste Biochar and Straw Compost
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1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
1
The Utilization of Agricultural Waste Biochar and Straw
Compost Fertilizer on Paddy Plant Growth
K Nisa
1
,
L Siringo-ringo1, Zaitun 2 and Muyassir 2
1
Department of Agriculture Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Teuku Umar University
Meulaboh, 23681, West Aceh, Indonesia
2Department of Agro technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University
Banda Aceh ,Indonesia.
*Corresponding author: khr.nisa@gmail.com
Abstract.
The agricultural environment continues to be used for inappropriate technology,
reduced agricultural land, insufficient inputs (chemical fertilizers and inorganic pesticides), and
air. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia because almost all residents use rice as a
staple food. Rice straw is a source of organic material that is available after harvesting rice with
a large enough amounts but the use of rice straw has only been used in paddy fields. This research
is a field experiment followed by laboratory research with the following stages: (a) analysis of
soil samples before the research was conducted at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of
Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University, (b) field experiments by planting Inpari 30 variety rice,
biochar treatment and straw compost treated according to the combination of each plot treatment,
and soil sample analysis at the end of the study to re-test the soil chemical properties after
conducting research with biochar and straw compost. This research method uses factorial
randomized block design (RBD) consisting of two factors, namely: Biochar and Straw Compost.
The results of this study indicate that biochar space has an influence on plant growth, namely
plant height and number of paddy tillers. Observations on rice growth were 28 day after planting
(DAP), 35(DAP) and (DAP) to find out the effects of giving biochar and straw compost, it is
necessary to conduct further research on the next planting season so that it can be recognized
and applied to save the use of chemical fertilizers. The administration of biochar and straw
compost affects plant growth, namely plant height and the number of tillers in each rice with
higher yields. It would be even better by giving biochar and straw compost together with higher
yields. Thus, it is hoped that further research will be carried out in the next rice planting season
to see how much residue is giving biochar and straw compost to improve rice yields. The results
of the variance analysis showed that plant height 28 HST was significantly affected by biochar
treatment with a significance value of 0.033. The results of the variance analysis showed that
plant height 35 HST was significantly affected by the treatment of straw compost with a
significance value of 0.018. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height of 45
DAP was significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.019
while the treatment of straw compost had a very significant effect on plant height 45 DAP with
a significance value of 0.001. The results of the variance analysis showed that the numbers of
tillers 28 DAP were significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value
of 0.013. The results of the variance analysis showed that the number of tillers 35 DAP and 45
DAP all had no significant effect by the treatment of biochar, straw compost, and interaction of
biochar and straw compost because at plant age 35 DAP and 45 DAP the significance values
were above 0.05.
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
2
1. Introduction
Technology, reduced agricultural land, insufficient inputs (inorganic chemical fertilizers and pesticides),
and water. Concerns about environmental pollution and degradation, the impact of the global economy,
and food needs continue to increase, resulting in the agricultural environment continuing to experience
changes in the future.
According to Fitri [1] each country has a goal to improve the development of the economy
including Indonesia. Indonesia is an agricultural country with a large portion of its population living
from the agricultural sector. Agriculture is a very important sector in Indonesia's economic growth
where agriculture has a contribution to both the economy and the fulfillment of basic needs of the
community. Agricultural development aims to provide food supply. One way to achieve this goal is by
increasing production where increasing production is a prerequisite for meeting people's food needs
especially rice. Rice is the most important food crop in Indonesia because almost all residents use rice
as a staple food. Rice is also a strategic food commodity that has a considerable influence on economic
stability especially the level of inflation, social stability and political stability.
Biochar contains high carbon (C) which is more than 30%. Biochar does not experience further
weathering so that when applied in the soil it can last for a long time to millions of years [2]. Research
using biochar with various age levels shows that biochar has greater adsorption properties over cations
through surface oxidation than through adsorption by ordinary organic matter. Although the new biochar
has a low adsorption capacity, the old ones show very high CEC [3]. Asai [4] in the 2007, rainy season
has also tested the effect of biochar administration on soil properties and grain yield of upland rice in
northern Laos. Biochar administration of 16 that -1 increases the hydraulic conductivity of the top soil.
In soils with low P availability biochar can increase grain yield. Besides, the response to N fertilization
increases with the addition of biochar. Rice straw is a source of organic material that is available after
harvesting rice with a large enough amounts, but the use of rice straw has only been used in paddy fields
only [5-9]. The provision of rice straw compost can increase C-organic and P-available Ultisol soil,
plant height, plant dry weight, N uptake and P uptake on maize plants. The administration of rice husk
ash can increase C-organic Ultisol soil and N uptake of corn crops. The interaction of compost and rice
husk ash had a significant effect on all variables of growth and production of sweet potato which
included variable stem length, number of branches, number of tuber leaves / plants, tuber weight or
tuber and tuber starch content [10-13].
2. Research Methodology
This research is a field experiment followed by laboratory research with the following stages:
i. Analysis of soil samples before the research was conducted at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory,
Faculty of Agriculture, Syiah Kuala University
ii. Field experiments by planting Inpari 30 variety rice, biochar treatment and straw compost
treated according to the combination of each plot treatment, and soil sample analysis at the end
of the study to re-test the soil chemical properties after conducting research with biochar and
straw compost.
This research method uses factorial randomized block design (RBD) consisting of two factors, namely:
Biochar and Straw Compost.
i. Biochar Factors: The biochar factor consists of 4 different doses: treatment without biochar,
biochar 5 tons / ha, biochar 10 tons / ha, and biochar 15 tons / ha.
ii. Straw Compost Factors: These consists of 3 different measures, namely treatment without
biochar, compost 10 tons / ha and compost 20 tons / ha. From the table, 12 combinations of
treatments were repeated (3) times, becoming 36 unit test units.
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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2.1 Data analysis. This can be analyzing by using the statistical models for factorial randomized block
design (RBD) are as equation (1) follows:
Y
ijk = μ + Kk + Fi + Bj + (FB)ij + εijk (1)
Where Yijk is the observation value in the experimental group to those who received a combination of ij
treatment (level i of biochar administration factor and j-level of straw compost), μ the average value
(mean) of hope. Next, Kk is the value of observing the influence of the group. FPi is the value of
observing the effect of straw composting on the level of I whereas Fj is a value of observing the effect
of biochar administration on the j-level. (FB) ij is the value of interaction observation of giving straw
compost at level i and giving biochar at level j and εijk is a randomized effect of experiment on the
experimental group that received a combination of biochar treatment at the level and the provision of
straw compost at the level of.
2.2 Data Collection Methods and Procedures
2.2.1 Preliminary Analysis of Soil Examples. Soil collection was carried out in a composite manner,
each composite consisting of 5 sample points taken diagonally at a depth of 0-20 cm (using a drill).
Analysis of initial soil samples prior to the study, was carried out on soil chemical properties.
2.2.2 Soil Processing. The first treatment carried out three weeks before planting using a rotary with a
depth of 20-25 cm. The second treatment is done one week before planting with rotary.
2.2.3. Planting Preparation. Before planting rice seeds, the experimental plot with a size of 5 m x 5 m
was made beforehand, this plot was made before NPK fertilizer was applied (15:15:15). To prevent
fertilizer seepage between treatment plots, each treatment plot is separated from one treatment to another
by using a dike. The water channel is made on the edge of the plot in such a way that the entrance water
gate is separated by the exit gate.
2.2.4 Rice Nursery. Seed treatment is carried out by means of seeds soaked in salt water (5 liters) of 3%
salt for 30 minutes; the seeds that float are discarded and then soaked with fresh water for 12 hours, then
pressed 2 x 24 hours. Nursery area of 5.0% of planted area.
2.2.5Planting. After the soil is processed to a suitable condition for rice cultivation, the Legowo 2: 1
system is planted with a distance of 20 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm, which is the distance according to the path
20.0 cm and distance by row 20.0 cm. Each hole is planted with 2 new rice stems removed from the
nursery. The age of rice planting is carried out 15 days after seedling (DAS). Then, plant simultaneously
in one day from all experimental plots.
2.2.6 Provision of Biochar, Compost Straw and Fertilization. The biochar treatment is given at the time
of final soil treatment, dried , sprinkled and immediately immersed in the soil evenly on the 20 cm
processing layer. Biochar and straw compost are given at the earliest before planting. NPK Basic
Fertilization is given according to the results of balanced fertilizer recommendations using PUTS carried
out with regard to fertilizer time and dosage, a week after planting. Then given additional Urea fertilizer
at 30 days after planting (DAP) and 45 DAP.
2.3 Maintenance
Maintenance of rice plants includes; control of plant pest organisms (OPT), weed control and water
regulation. To prevent pest attacks pesticides are used. Weed control is done manually by removing
weeds by pulling them by hand Weed weeding is done when monitoring weed growth, usually when the
rice is 25 DAP.
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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3. Result and Discussion
3.1 Products from Research
Before weaving rice, the product made in this study is first made. The activities that have been carried
out in this study are as follows:
3.1.1 Making Biochar
The making of biochar is done using a tool in the form of a modified drum for the combustion using a
little oxygen or the pyrolysis process and is assisted by using fan angina to speed up the process of
cooking into biochar husk charcoal. So, this can be show in figure 1 below:
Figure 1. Making of biochar from rice husk
3.1.2 Making Prebiotic Decomposer
The making of the prebiotic decomposer is done by using waste around the research location with the
aim of being easily available and easy to use by farmers at relatively low prices compared to having to
buy on the market. The prebiotic decomposer making materials use coconut water, fish head or fish
waste remnants decayed straw, decomposed sawdust, palm sugar residual production and palm oil bunch
waste. The production of prebiotic has been done 100% to speed up the process of making straw compost
and this composer can be visualized in figure 2.
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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Figure 2. Making of prebiotic of agricultural waste
3.1.3 Making Straw Compost
Making straw compost is done by mixing 50% of the basic ingredients of straw from the total straw
compost material and this can show in figure 3 until figure 7. The other supporting materials are rice
husk, husk ash, water hyacinth, sawdust, prebiotic decomposer and water. The manufacturing process
is carried out with each layer of material and given every layer of water and prebiotic decomposer. At
this time the manufacturing process is ongoing 50% waiting for the reversal process and perfect
decomposition process.
Figure 3. Making of straw compost from agricultural waste
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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Figure 4. Place for paddy nursery in the fields
Figure 5. Planting paddy after giving biochar and straw compost
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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Figure 6. Observation of paddy plant growth
Figure 7. Plant paddy 28 days after planting
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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After that, this plant result can be tabulated as in table 1.
Table 1: Average Plant Height from 12 treatment combinations
No treatment
combinations Replication I Replication II Replication III Average (cm)
1 B0 K0 54.10 54.57 57.41 55.36
2 B0 K1 62.77 55.55 56.10 58.14
3 B0 K2 58.58 56.62 63.20 59.47
4 B1 K0 59.79 55.03 60.34 58.39
5 B1 K1 62.37 54.58 58.00 58.32
6 B1 K2 59.68 58.57 62.44 60.23
7 B2 K0 55.42 52.88 59.66 55.99
8 B2 K1 56.78 57.23 60.48 58.16
9 B2 K2 56.63 57.54 58.24 57.47
10 B3 K0 60.18 54.40 59.16 57.91
11 B3 K1 59.07 59.74 61.39 60.07
12 B3 K2 63.05 59.35 64.43 62.28
Table 1 shows that the highest value of plant height in the treatment of biochar as much as 15 tons ha-1
and the provision of straw compost as much as 20 tons ha-1 were given together with an average plant
height of 62.28 cm. After that the high plant height was followed by the treatment of 5 tons ha-1 of
biochar and 20 tons ha-1 of straw compost together with an average plant height of 60.23 cm. The average
value of plant height without the administration of 55.36 cm of biochar and straw compost was the
control that had not been carried out at the research site. This can show in figure 8 and the results
tabulated in table 2.
Figure 8. Plant paddy 28 days after planting
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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Table 2: Average number of tillers from 12 treatment combinations.
No treatment
combinations Replication I Replication II Replication III Average (tillers)
1 B0 K0 15.30 15.40 15.73 15.48
2 B0 K1 16.07 15.70 16.13 15.97
3 B0 K2 17.33 15.10 17.40 16.61
4 B1 K0 16.57 16.93 17.20 16.90
5 B1 K1 16.93 17.43 16.83 17.06
6 B1 K2 15.20 15.33 19.43 16.65
7 B2 K0 17.00 16.50 18.97 17.49
8 B2 K1 17.33 16.70 19.30 17.78
9 B2 K2 17.30 16.40 19.90 17.87
10 B3 K0 16.93 14.73 19.83 17.16
11 B3 K1 18.03 20.00 17.50 18.51
12 B3 K2 17.83 19.13 18.70 18.55
Table 2 shows that the highest value of number of tillers in the treatment of biochar as much as 15 tons
ha-1 and the provision of straw compost as much as 20 tons ha-1 was given together with an average of
number of tillers of 18.55 tillers. After that the high of number of tillers was followed by the treatment
of 15 tons ha-1 of biochar and 10 tons ha-1 of straw compost together with an average plant height of
18.55 cm. The average value of number of tillers without the administration of 15.48 tillers of biochar
and straw compost was the control that had not been carried out at the research site. So, it can picturized
as figure 9 while table 3 until table 9 results for tests of between-subjects effects according to the tillers
and so on.
Figure 9. Plant growth with paddy number of tillers from 12 treatment combinations
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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Table 3: Dependent Variable Plant Height 28 DAP
Source Type III Sum
of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 184,874a 13 14,221 1,534 ,182
Intercept 83508,477 1 83508,477 9009,846 ,000
Replication 36,386 2 18,193 1,963 ,164
Biochar 96,785 3 32,262 3,481 ,033
Straw Compost 32,105 2 16,053 1,732 ,200
Biochar * Straw
Compost 19,598 6 3,266 ,352 ,901
Error 203,909 22 9,269
Total 83897,260 36
Corrected Total 388,783 35
a. R Squared = ,476 (Adjusted R Squared = ,166)
Table 4: Dependent Variable: Plant Height 35 DAP
Source Type III Sum
of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 171,115a 13 13,163 2,141 056
Intercept 119965,250 1 119965,250 19517,462 000
Replication 25,802 2 12,901 2,099 146
Biochar 39,152 3 13,051 2,123 126
Straw Compost 59,760 2 29,880 4,861 018
Biochar * Straw
Compost 46,402 6 7,734 1,258 316
Error 135,224 22 6,147
Total 120271,589 36
Corrected Total 306,340 35
a. R Squared = ,559 (Adjusted R Squared = ,298)
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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Table 5.
Dependent Variable: Plant Height 45 DAP
Source Type III Sum
of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 577,702a 13 44,439 12,917 000
Intercept 174160,156 1 174160,156 50624,886 000
Replication 415,890 2 207,945 60,446 000
Biochar 41,922 3 13,974 4,062 019
Straw Compost 75,305 2 37,653 10,945 001
Biochar * Straw
Compost
44,584 6 7,431 2,160 087
Error 75,685 22 3,440
Total 174813,543 36
Corrected Total 653,387 35
a. R Squared = ,884 (Adjusted R Squared = ,816)
Table 6.
Dependent Variable: Number of tillers 28 DAP
Source Type III Sum
of Squares
df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 38,058a 13 2,928 2,109 059
Intercept 5083,690 1 5083,690 3663,121 000
Replication 10,715 2 5,357 3,860 037
Biochar 18,677 3 6,226 4,486 013
Straw Compost 1,312 2 ,656 473 630
Biochar * Straw
Compost 7,355 6 1,226 883 523
Error 30,532 22 1,388
Total 5152,280 36
Corrected Total 68,590 35
a. R Squared = ,555 (Adjusted R Squared = ,292)
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
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doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
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:
Dependent Variable:Number of tillers 35 DAP
Source Type III Sum
of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 30,939a 13 2,380 812 644
Intercept 10096,900 1 10096,900 3443,311 000
Replication 20,169 2 10,084 3,439 050
Biochar 7,536 3 2,512 857 478
Straw Compost 751 2 375 128 881
Biochar * Straw
Compost 2,483 6 414 141 989
Error 64,511 22 2,932
Total 10192,350 36
Corrected Total 95,450 35
a. R Squared = ,324 (Adjusted R Squared = -,075)
Table 8.
Dependent Variable: Number of tillers 45 HST
Source Type III Sum
of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Corrected Model 198,817a 13 15,294 2,040 068
Intercept 17897,980 1 17897,980 2387,949 000
Replication 143,674 2 71,837 9,584 001
Biochar 26,381 3 8,794 1,173 343
Straw Compost 10,704 2 5,352 714 501
Biochar * Straw
Compost 18,058 6 3,010 402 870
Error 164,893 22 7,495
Total 18261,690 36
Corrected Total 363,710 35
a. R Squared = ,547 (Adjusted R Squared = ,279)
4. Conclusion
This study can be concluded as follows;
i. Preparation of prebiotic decomposers in the form of liquid requires ingredients containing
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other elements by using bacterial decomposers to
accelerate the decomposition process.
ii. The composition of straw compost requires other ingredients besides straw, namely husk ash,
sawdust and prebiotic decomposers, water hyacinth. So that the elements needed by plants can
be fulfilled.
iii. The administration of biochar and straw compost affects plant growth, namely plant height and
the number of tillers in each rice with higher yields. It would be even better by giving biochar
1st South Aceh International Conference on Engineering and Technology
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 506 (2019) 012061
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/506/1/012061
13
and straw compost together with higher yields. Thus, it is hoped that further research will be
carried out in the next rice planting season to see how much residue is giving biochar and straw
compost to improve rice yields.
iv. The results of the variance analysis showed that plant height of 45 HST was significantly
affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.019, while the treatment of
straw compost had a very significant effect on plant height 45 HST with a significance value of
0.001. The results of the variance analysis showed that the number of tillers 28 HST was
significantly affected by the treatment of biochar with a significance value of 0.013. The results
of the variance analysis showed that the number of tillers 35 HST and 45 HST all had no
significant effect by the treatment of biochar, straw compost, and interaction of biochar and
straw compost because at plant age 35 HST and 45 HST the significance values were above
0.05.
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... Biochar applied at the rate of 1%, or 16 t ha À1 (tonne per hectare) equivalent was able to improve crop productivity and soil nutrient status (Speratti et al. 2018). Similarly, biochar of rice husk and straw compost (straw husk ash, sawdust, water hyacinth, and prebiotic decomposers) improved the rice straw's growth, i.e., plant height and the number of tillers with higher yields (Nisa et al. 2019). Furthermore, Tibouchina biochar elevated soil mineral concentration (Mg, K, Ca, and Zn), decreased soil acidity, increased soil microbiome species richness, and improved cassava growth (von Gunten et al. 2019). ...
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The increasing competition for available resources and inefficient use of those limited resources necessitates the need to improve the use of available resources. If these inefficacies are not corrected, the resource-poor farmers, mainly living in developing countries will be most affected. Yet these resource farmers contribute immensely for food production in developing countries. Smallholder farmers must be proactive and learn to adopt new strategies that can assist them in continuing farming with maximum use of limited agricultural resources and even wastes in agriculture. Several methods are available to improve the use of agricultural wastes, including non-agronomic benefits. Furthermore, we suggest the integration of waste resources, such as from both the trilogy of human–animal–crop wastes. Similarly, inexpensive techniques are encouraged among the farmers, including composting and vermicomposting of human–crop–animal wastes and/or slaughterhouse/abattoir wastes, biocharing of crop and animal wastes as various means of recycling/recovering nutrients in the soil system. Furthermore, the deployment of fungi could also improve the resource use efficiency through mushroom growth and sales, crop residue fermentation to enhance its feed value. Livestock farmers facing nutritional problems can apply microbes through fermentation to reduce antinutritional factors (lignin, tannins) in plants, and improve the safety of kitchen and dairy waste before feeding. Alternatively, farmers are encouraged to raise microlivestock (rabbits, snails, and grasscutters) on their farm to improve the use of resources. On a large scale, nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from cow urine, slurry, human feces, and fermentation of phytate rich plants with phytate on industrial scales is recommended. This chapter aims to provide insight into the methods by which farmers and industries, especially those in developing countries, can improve their available resources for agricuture and as livestock feeds.
... Crop wastes that constitute huge nuisance in highly productive regions could be converted to products with environmental, economical, and agricultural value. Biochar have been made from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) (Lefebvre et al., 2019); cotton husks, eucalyptus residue, sugarcane filtercake, swine manure (Speratti et al., 2018); rice straw (Nisa et al., 2019); cassava residues, corncobs, rice husk, sawdust, coffee husk, and Peanut (Billa et al., 2019); and walnut, loblolly pine wood, pine needle, palmwood, and nutshell (UC Davis Biochar Database, 2019). The pictorial representation of biochar preparation and its potential benefits is presented in Fig. 7. ...
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Previous and current agricultural practices have contributed to environmental pollution, which is further affecting food security, human health, and climate. Yet, agriculture cannot be eliminated, because, of its promising role in ending hunger, reducing poverty, improving nutrition, and achieving food security in low-middle income countries. Hence, there is a need for shift from ‘unclean’ practices to sustainable practices. Similarly, differences in pollution, among nations call for regional changes or intervention in agri-food practices to reduce global pollution. These practices are essential for African and Asian countries. Of the many methods proposed in this review, localized technology improvement and globalized sustainable intensification are of high impact models having the potential of mitigating greenhouse gases upto an extentof 30%. Various methods of achieving these measures include, but not limited to, the shift in management systems of crop and livestock production, encouraging agriculture and veterinary practices with less environmental impact and high adaptation, enabling nutrient recycling or recovery, resource-use efficiency, mitigation of nitrous oxide and methane from soil, implementation of integrated farming system and insect farming. Government agencies along with agri-food producers, processors, and farmers must be ready to change their current agricultural practices by adopting new methods. The review conclude that the sustainable agricultural production is possible through the use of low-priced local resources that are capable of increasing soil carbon storage, thus combating the pollution in countries with a transition economy.
... Crop wastes that constitute huge nuisance in highly productive regions could be converted to products with environmental, economical, and agricultural value. Biochar have been made from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) (Lefebvre et al., 2019); cotton husks, eucalyptus residue, sugarcane filtercake, swine manure (Speratti et al., 2018); rice straw (Nisa et al., 2019); cassava residues, corncobs, rice husk, sawdust, coffee husk, and Peanut (Billa et al., 2019); and walnut, loblolly pine wood, pine needle, palmwood, and nutshell (UC Davis Biochar Database, 2019). The pictorial representation of biochar preparation and its potential benefits is presented in Fig. 7. ...
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The area of agricultural wastes valorisation to fertilizers is attracting growing attention because of the increasing fertilizer prices of fertilizers and the higher costs of waste utilization. Despite the scientific and political interest in the concept of circular economy, few studies have considered the practical approach towards the implementation of elaborated technologies. This article outlines innovative strategies for the valorisation of different biobased wastes into fertilizers. The present work makes a significant contribution to the field of new ideas for waste biomass management to recover significant fertilizer nutrients. These results emphasize the importance of the biomass use as a base of renewable resources, which has recently gained special importance, especially in relation to the outbreak of pandemia and war. Broken supply chains and limited access to deposits of raw materials used in fertilizer production (natural gas, potassium salts) meant that now, as never before, it has become more important and feasible to implement the idea of a circular economy and a green deal. We have obtained satisfactory results that demonstrate that appropriate management of biological waste (originating from agriculture, food processing, aquaculture, forest, pharmaceutical industry, and other branches of industry, sewage sludge) will not only reduce environmental nuisance (reducing waste heaps), but will also allow recovery of valuable materials, such as nitrogen (especially valuable amino acids), phosphorus, potassium, microelements, and biologically active substances with properties that stimulate plant growth. The results reported here provide information on production of biobased plant protection products (bioagrochemicals) from agri-food waste. This work reports an overview of biopesticides and biofertilisers production technologies and summarizes their properties and the mechanisms of action.
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Biochar has been recognized as a potential media for soil amendment regarding its high surface area and retention capacity to slowly release nutrients to soils. However, the recycling of biochar after domestic water treatment towards agricultural application is still not well known. Therefore, this research studied the role of nutrient-loaded biochars produced from agricultural residues after canal water treatment as soil promoters for Gomphrena growth. Corncob, coconut husk, coconut shell and rice straw derived biochars were separately produced in a kiln (~378 °C) (namely CC, CH, CS and RS, respectively) and a pyrolysis reactor (500 °C) (namely CC-P, CH-P, CS-P and RS-P, respectively). The CH biochar was further modified with chitosan to improve its surface properties (labeled as CHC). The CH and CHC biochars after canal water treatment at lab and pilot scales are labeled as CH-column, CHC-column, CH-pilot and CHC-pilot, respectively. The loaded and unloaded biochars were further added in aquaculture sediment and loamy soil at 0.4, 0.7 and 1% mass ratio for Gomphrena growth. From the results, biochars amended in soil and sediment significantly improved seed germinations of Gomphrena, compared to control treatments. RS 0.4% amended in soil and sediment showed the highest seedling height (~2.5 cm) among all biochars, in accordance with its releases of K ⁺ , PO 4 ³⁻ and NO 3 ⁻ into solution at high concentrations. Gomphrena growth in sediment amended with CH-column 1.0% biochar was comparable to unloaded biochar, indicating that loaded biochar can provide nutrients without harming the plant. In addition, chitosan modification induced higher plant growth in sediment amended with CHC-column 1.0% than with unmodified biochar. Gomphrena germination was also improved in CH-pilot and CHC-pilot biochars amended in sediments with maximum seedling heights of 3.5 and 4.2 cm, respectively. This is likely due to the abilities of CH-pilot and CHC-pilot biochars to release N (NH 4 ⁺ , NO 3 ⁻ ) and total P of 0.106 and 0.111 mgN/L, and 0.770 and 0.637 mgP/L, respectively. This study revealed that the nutrient-loaded biochars can be used to sustain soil fertility through gradual releases of nutrients and thus promote the recycling of agricultural residues.
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This communication reports on separate research efforts in India and Indonesia to evaluate the effects that modifying methods of plant, soil, water and nutrient management could have on populations of soil organisms, particularly on those that can have beneficial consequences for crop growth and yield. Comparison of these parallel studies (Table 7) draws attention to the impacts that management can have on the soil biota, given that certain organisms are known to have positive implications for plants’ nutrition, health, and productivity. Data from the three studies show SRI management associated with some significant differences in soil microbial populations; higher levels of enzyme activity in SRI plant rhizospheres, indicative of increased N and P availability; and more soil microbial C and N, which would enlarge the nutrient pool for both plants and microbes. The studies reported, although more exploratory than conclusive, show enough similarity to suggest that SRI practices, which make paddy soils more aerobic and enhance soil organic matter, are supportive of enhanced populations of beneficial soil organisms. If this relationship is confirmed by further assessments, it could help researchers and practitioners to improve paddy production in resource-conserving, cost-effective ways. This review was written to encourage more studies to assess these kinds of soil biotic relationships and dynamics.
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Despite the recent interest in biochars as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing soil carbon sequestration, there is inadequate knowledge on the soil amendment properties of these materials produced from different feed stocks and under different pyrolysis conditions. This is particularly true for biochars produced from animal origins. Two biochars produced from poultry litter under different conditions were tested in a pot trial by assessing the yield of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Long Scarlet) as well as the soil quality of a hardsetting Chromosol (Alfisol). Four rates of biochar (0, 10, 25, and 50 t/ha), with and without nitrogen application (100 kg N/ha) were investigated. Both biochars, without N fertiliser, produced similar increases in dry matter yield of radish, which were detectable at the lowest application rate, 10 t/ha. The yield increase (%), compared with the unamended control rose from 42% at 10 t/ha to 96% at 50 t/ha of biochar application. The yield increases can be attributed largely to the ability of these biochars to increase N availability. Significant additional yield increases, in excess of that due to N fertiliser alone, were observed when N fertiliser was applied together with the biochars, highlighting the other beneficial effects of these biochars. In this regard, the non activated poultry litter biochar produced at lower temperature (450°C) was more effective than the activated biochar produced at higher temperature (550°C), probably due to higher available P content. Biochar addition to the hardsetting soil resulted in significant but different changes in soil chemical and physical properties, including increases in C, N, pH, and available P, but reduction in soil strength. These different effects of the 2 different biochars can be related to their different characteristics. Significantly different changes in soil biology in terms of microbial biomass and earthworm preference properties were also observed between the 2 biochars, but the underlying mechanisms require further research. Our research highlights the importance of feedstock and process conditions during pyrolysis on the properties and, hence, soil amendment values of biochars.
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A pot trial was carried out to investigate the effect of biochar produced from greenwaste by pyrolysis on the yield of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Long Scarlet) and the soil quality of an Alfisol. Three rates of biochar (10, 50 and 100 t/ha) with and without additional nitrogen application (100 kg N/ha) were investigated. The soil used in the pot trial was a hardsetting Alfisol (Chromosol) (0-0.1 m) with a long history of cropping. In the absence of N fertiliser, application of biochar to the soil did not increase radish yield even at the highest rate of 100 t/ha. However, a significant biochar x nitrogen fertiliser interaction was observed, in that higher yield increases were observed with increasing rates of biochar application in the presence of N fertiliser, highlighting the role of biochar in improving N fertiliser use efficiency of the plant. For example, additional increase in DM of radish in the presence of N fertiliser varied from 95% in the nil biochar control to 266% in the 100 t/ha biochar-amended soils. A slight but significant reduction in dry matter production of radish was observed when biochar was applied at 10 t/ha but the cause is unclear and requires further investigation. Significant changes in soil quality including increases in pH, organic carbon, and exchangeable cations as well as reduction in tensile strength were observed at higher rates of biochar application (> 50 t/ha). Particularly interesting are the improvements in soil physical properties of this hardsetting soil in terms of reduction in tensile strength and increases in field capacity
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar application (CA) on soil physical properties and grain yields of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in northern Laos. During the 2007 wet season, three different experiments were conducted under upland conditions at 10 sites, combining variations in CA amounts (0–16 t ha−1), fertilizer application rates (N and P) and rice cultivars (improved and traditional) in northern Laos.CA improved the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the top soil and the xylem sap flow of the rice plant. CA resulted in higher grain yields at sites with low P availability and improved the response to N and NP chemical fertilizer treatments. However, CA reduced leaf SPAD values, possibly through a reduction of the availability of soil nitrogen, indicating that CA without additional N fertilizer application could reduce grain yields in soils with a low indigenous N supply. These results suggest that CA has the potential to improve soil productivity of upland rice production in Laos, but that the effect of CA application is highly dependent on soil fertility and fertilizer management.
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The aim of this work was to investigate changes in molecular form and surface charge of black carbon (BC) due to longtermnatural oxidation and to examine how climatic and soil factors affect BC oxidation. Black C was collected from 11 historical charcoal blast furnace sites with a geographic distribution from Quebec, Canada, to Georgia, USA, and compared to BC that was newly produced (new BC) using rebuilt historical kilns. The results showed that the historical BC samples were substantially oxidized after 130 years in soils as compared to new BC or BC incubated for one year. The major alterations by natural oxidation of BC included: (1) changes in elemental composition with increases in oxygen (O) from 7.2% in new BC to 24.8% in historical BC and decreases in C from 90.8% to 70.5%; (2) formation of oxygen-containing functional groups, particularly carboxylic and phenolic functional groups, and (3) disappearance of surface positive charge and evolution of surface negative charge after 12 months of incubation. Although time of exposure significantly increased natural oxidation of BC, a significant positive relationship between mean annual temperature (MAT) and BC oxidation (O/C ratio with r = 0.83;P < 0.01) explained that BC oxidation was increased by 87 mmole kg Cˉ1 per unit Celsius increase in MAT. This long-term oxidation was more pronounced on BC surfaces than for entire particles, and responded 7-fold stronger to increases in MAT. Our results also indicated that oxidation of BC was more important than adsorption of non-BC. Thus, natural oxidation of BC may play an important role in the effects of BC on soil biogeochemistry.
Technologies for energy use of rice straw: International Rice Research Notes
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Gadde,B.,C.Menke, Werner Siemers, and Suneerat Pipatmanomai. 2007. Technologies for energy use of rice straw: International Rice Research Notes 32(2): 5-14
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Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Kompos Jerami Padi dan Pupuk Nitrogen terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Jagung Manis (Zea mays saccharata Sturt
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