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ON BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION: A NEW VIEW Incompleteness of and Flaws in Darwinism, J-B Lamarck, and a New Epistemology

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This is the second paper, in a 2-paper sequence by this author, the first being that of ref. [4], where the fundamentals of a New Epistemology were set. Its major tenets are employed here in the field of Evolutionary Biology. The part of Biology that is tied to Darwinian Evolution (species and speciation) is re-examined and critiqued. Major flaws and the hidden religiosity of Darwinism are exposed, providing the predicate for the new suggested theory. Major themes put forward include the modern Metrology based proposition that a specimen’s Architecture and Anatomy are quantitatively unique fingerprints, not exactly replicated by any other specimen. Further, they can’t be accurately measured. A thesis is advanced that specimens are the elementary units of Evolution, forming genealogical lineages. Lineages contain complex genealogical micro and macro sequences of specimens. Sequences evolve through self-structuring forming evolutionary quanta. Specimens act under decision-making quanta, according to observer. Furthermore, specimens exhibit an ability to speculate. Core ideas are placed within the context of a New Epistemology, and rely on concepts from its four pillars: Nonlinear Dynamics, Fuzzy Sets Theory, Quantum Mechanics, and modern Metrology.
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... The objectives of this relatively short paper, which can be viewed as an Addendum to the author's paper "On Imperfections", are twofold: first, to elaborate further on certain basic themes analyzed in previous papers by this author, see refs: [1], [2], [3], [4], on Mathematics, Logic and Linguistics including the general topic of imperfections (incompleteness, ambiguities, contradictions, paradoxes, circular reasoning, etc.) within the framework of the NE, when addressing subjects of NSR. To do so, a search is undertaken towards a derivation of more fundamental notions than those that are axiomatically presumed to govern the foundations of Logic and Linguistics, as well as Mathematics. ...
... In Under the proposed new framework, scale and space-time are not "more precisely estimated"; they are simply "accounted for", within their corresponding context (Ecology, a notion to be further elaborated on in a bit, and further expanded from work found in refs. [1], [2], [3]). Approximations, as pointed out in these three references, particularly ref. [3], are part of the unavoidable (major) imperfections any observer's modeling (VR) and theorizing about NSR are beset under Classical Mathematics, Logic and Linguistics. ...
... A search for the fundamentals in image formation, and the derivation of meaning from the processing of images and elementary mental computing, throws the analysis back into Archeological and Anthropological as well as Paleontological and Geological time periods, where evolutionary paths (the multiple courses of Evolution, as discussed in ref. [2]) were set among different (what conventional Biology refers to as) "Life" forms and functions. Similarly, the analysis of instruments and instrumentation for the purpose of observation reaches back to Archeological and Anthropological times and spaces, where tools were produced and used by various Life forms, including (what is commonly referred today as) "humans". ...
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... This is the first of a 2-paper sequence by this author; the second paper is found in ref. [1]. Here, in this short paper, which deals with core subjects in all Sciences and the Humanities, new avenues are shown to open up in the field of Epistemology. ...
... Also, within this framework, the essence of Pure and Applied Mathematics and their applicability in Sciences are also reexamined. Ubiquitous heterogeneities; A new view of Time; Differing (slightly or drastically) speculative theories and observations of qualitatively equivalent phenomena and events; An inherent and unavoidable lack of precision; These are elements that are to an extent highlighted as embedding universal principles in Sciences, Social, Natural or Biological, new insights that have far reaching implications, including a new perspective in the field of Evolutionary Biology, as in ref. [1]. ...
... And neither should it be, unless scrutinized more in depth. As we shall see, this is especially so in the field of Biology and Biological Evolution, see ref. [1]. The four fields of Science and Mathematics employed here to anchor and form the outlines of this New Epistemology, may not be the only ones. ...
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