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Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary). A preliminary report

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The paper presents a preliminary report on a new ritual deposit of the European Hun period, discovered near Telki in central Hungary. The archaeological and archaeometric analysis of the finds is currently in progress. The assemblage is made up of elements of horse gear, personal adornments (the mounts of a shoeset and at least three belts) and weaponry. The analogies of the objects can be found in the supra-ethnic elite culture of the later Hun period in Europe. In view of its context, the assemblage is a structured deposit that was buried as part of a ritual. Comparable assemblages can be interpreted as tokens of the shared ideology of a newly emerging ‘imperial’ elite of the last phase of the Hunnic rule in Europe.
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A preliminary report.1,2
GerGely Szenthe – Viktória MozGai – eSzter horVáth – Bernadett Bajnóczi
The paper presents a preliminary report on a new ritual deposit of the European Hun period, discovered
near Telki in central Hungary. The archaeological and archaeometric analysis of the nds is currently in
progress. The assemblage is made up of elements of horse gear, personal adornments (the mounts of a shoe-
set and at least three belts) and weaponry. The analogies of the objects can be found in the supra-ethnic
elite culture of the later Hun period in Europe. In view of its context, the assemblage is a structured deposit
that was buried as part of a ritual. Comparable assemblages can be interpreted as tokens of the shared
ideology of a newly emerging ‘imperial’ elite of the last phase of the Hunnic rule in Europe.
The rst objects, found lying on the ground near
the Annalak hunting lodge (Fig. 1.), were presented
to the Hungarian National Museum by their nder,
Gábor Ehmann, in February 2016, who showed us
the exact ndspots of the artefacts he had found,
where we subsequently conducted an excava-
tion, during which additional objects came to light
(Fig. 2.). The site was investigated during two exca-
vation seasons in 2016 and 2018: aside from the
traces of a Celtic presence, most of the nds dated
to the fth century AD – the latter represent the rst
professionally excavated and documented Hun-pe-
riod sacricial assemblage in Hungary.
Until recently, ‘funerary sacricial deposits’ of the
European Hun period were interpreted as the mate-
rial relics of a funerary ritual of steppean origin and
as incontestable tokens of the presence of steppean
populations, specically of Huns. While the nds
from Telki most likely indeed represent the remains
of a funerary sacricial deposit, the assemblage itself
ne vertheless called for a fresh look at the very concept
and nature of these deposits. This re-examination is
en abled not only by the professional excavation and
by the eld documentation, an immense advantage
over the other similar assemblages, but also by the
various natural scientic analyses that are currently in
progress, some of which have already yielded a wealth
of new information about the objects themselves.
Telki Hill is the westernmost elevation of the hilly region encircling Budapest from the west, a location
accessible through a gulley from Zsámbék Valley (Fig. 3.). The site is located on a narrow plateau at the
1 This research was supported partly by the OTKA/NKFIH grant of Eszter Horváth (PD109234).
2 Supported BY the ÚNKP-18-4 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities.
Fig. 1.: Telki, the location of the site
Fig. 2.: The site during the rst days of the excavation
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
northern foot of the hill slope. The choice of loca-
tion for depositing the assemblage may have been
inuenced by the fact that Telki Hill is the rst
prominent landmark seen from the valley.
The nds laid at a depth of 0–50 cm and were
found in clusters over an approximately 18 m by
20 m large area (Fig. 4.). The nd clusters out-
lined a horseshoe-shaped area that had a more or
less northern orientation. The assemblage consists
of the elements of one or more sets of horse gear,
personal adornments (the mounts of a shoe-set and at least three belts) and some pieces of weaponry. The
south-easternmost artefact was the horse-bit (Fig. 5.). The articles found north of the horse-bit representing
the adornments of the headstall and the reins formed two clusters (Fig. 6.): they included double-headed,
garnet-inlaid and silver-gilt crescentic studs, small strap-ends, small silver buckles as well as a disc-shaped
and a lozenge-shaped pendant. Remains of the saddle and its strapping were found in the western clusters.
The silver gilt sheet fragments covered with a scale pattern (Fig. 7.) were identied as saddle ornaments.
The lunular pendants and the small, silver-gilt pyramidal bells most likely decorated the saddle straps.
Lying between the above articles were various other objects forming two separate clusters. Eighth golden
mounts of a shoe-set were uncovered in situ in the southern cluster (Fig. 8.). The northern cluster comprised
Fig. 4.: Spatial distribution of the nds
Fig. 3.: The location of the site on the northern slope of
Telki Hill (3D terrain model by Nicklas Larson, Hungarian
National Museum)
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
the remains of two iron belt sets, a silver-gilt belt buckle with niello inlay and a short dagger in a scabbard
with golden mounts. The rectangular iron buckles, the slender iron belt mounts, the chape mount of the
dagger scabbard and the scabbard mouthpiece, a semi-circular mount, and a lozenge-shaped mount are all
decorated with garnet inlays. An 11 cm long socketed arrowhead was found some 2–3 m north of the belt
and the dagger (Fig. 9.).
Fig. 6.: Harness ornaments
Fig. 8.: The shoe-setFig. 5.: The snafe-bit and its details during conservation
Fig. 7.: Scale-ornamented mounts, presumably from the saddle Fig. 9.: The iron arrowhead
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
The parallels to the articles of the Telki assemblage reecting their cultural connections can be found in
various Hun-period assemblages whose date ranges from the late fourth to the middle third of the fth cen-
tury. In addition to formal similarities, the manufacturing techniques and the materials both reect cultural
connections spanning immense territories.
Comparable horse gear ornaments are relatively widespread in the European Hun period. Scale-ornamented
sheets were the customary decorations of saddles. However, the analogies of the other objects such as the horse-
bit, the lunular pendants, bells, small split-end strap-ends, garnet-inlaid gold studs and various other mounts were
distributed over an extensive territory during the Hun period and their use can be dated from the late fourth to the
mid-fth century. Most of them lead eastward to the steppe and to the northern fringes of the Caucasus, while
some parallels are also known from the Carpathian Basin (cf. Anke 1998; BónA 1991).
Finds indicative of similar footwear are known from the elite burials of the Hun period and the ensu-
ing era (e.g. Blučina, TihelkA 1963, 471, 489, Obr. 15) and from sacricial deposits (Brut, GABuev 2014,
125–126, Ris. 8–9; the number of lunular and triangular mounts suggests at least two sets in the Sze-
ged-Nagyszéksós assemblage: FeTTich 1953, Taf. I. 9–13).
The two rectangular iron buckles are Mediterranean types, which rst appeared in the Mediterranean and
the Danube region as early as the third quarter of the fth century (QuAsT 1993, 84–86, 135–136; the exem-
plars geographically closest to the Telki buckles come from the Gepidic cemetery at Szentes-Berekhát:
QuAsT 2001, 432–433). An exact counterpart to the scabbard mouthpiece (Fig. 10, in purple frame) can
Fig. 10.: Chemical composition of the gold objects (diagram: Viktória Mozgai)
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
be cited from the Pouan burial (third quarter of the fth century, kAT. MAnnheiM 2001, 145–146). The
silver-gilt niello-ornamented buckle (Fig. 11, in dark blue frame) is a well-known late Roman variant of
Gala-type military belt sets that were widely used both in Western and in Eastern Europe (kAzAnski 1993a,
120–124; nAGy 2004, 242–249). The large, socketed, barbed arrowhead (Fig. 9.) differs markedly from the
three-winged arrowheads used widely by steppean nomads during the fth century and has more in com-
mon with the form of late Roman specimens.
All in all, while the pieces of the horse gear can be dated to the late fourth and earlier fth century, the
actual date of the deposition and of the assemblage as a whole is obviously dened by the latest pieces,
namely the iron belt set and the shoe-set (Fig. 8.), which can be assigned to the middle third or to the third
quarter of the fth century. The initial phase of this broad date is consistent with the generally accepted
chronology of Hun-period sacricial assemblages.
The chemical composition of the objects and their decoration was determined using non-destructive analyt-
ical methods. The gold objects were manufactured from high-quality gold (> 90 wt%). Based on the gold,
silver and copper content, they form different groups, indicating the possible use of different ore sources
(Fig. 10.). The different chemical groups coincide with the different typological and chronological groups.
Objects with a gold content higher than 99 wt% were most probably produced by re-melting late Roman
gold coins (solidi).
The silver objects were made of high-quality silver (> 90 wt%). Copper was added intentionally as an
alloying element to increase the hardness of the soft silver (Fig. 11.). The objects can be grouped according
Fig. 11.: Chemical composition of the silver objects (diagram: Viktória Mozgai)
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
to their gold and lead content, indicating the possible use of different ore sources (Fig. 11.). Most of the
silver objects are embellished with re-gilding, indicated by the presence of mercury. A silver-gilt buckle is
decorated with niello inlay made of silver sulphide.
Golden objects decorated with gemstones, most often with red garnets, are typical elements of Hun-period
ritual deposits. Approximately forty objects representing ne polychrome metalwork were unearthed at
Telki, most of them crafted from gold. In the case of the two large belt buckles and the associated mounts,
the base metal is iron and only the cells are made of gold (Fig. 12.). The objects are decorated with some
230 inlays in all, of which no more than four are glass inlays (two whitish and two green plates), the rest
being predominantly red garnets. Most of the garnets are one millimetre thin, at-cut slabs, with carefully
polished surfaces and bevelled or straight-cut edges (Fig. 13.). The at slabs are mounted in cloisonné cell-
work or in a single cell. In order to enhance their optical effect, plain or patterned (cross-hatched) backing
foils were placed between them and the backing paste (Fig. 14.). The garnets are currently undergoing
gemmological and geochemical analyses in order to determine their geological sources (Fig. 15.). Based
on the preliminary results, most of the garnets are intermediate pyrope-almandine crystals originating from
placer deposits in Sri Lanka, known as Taprobane in the written sources, which were then transported to the
production sites via long-distance trade routes.
Fig. 12.: Golden cloisonné cellwork on the large iron buckle
(detail). Photo: Eszter Horváth
Fig. 14.: Pressed grid-patterned backing foil from
a triangular mount of the shoe-set. Photo: Eszter Horváth
Fig. 13.: Loose at-cut garnet from the large iron buckle.
Photo: Eszter Horváth
Fig. 15.: Mineral inclusions in one of the garnet inlays
of the mount with round pendant. Photo: Eszter Horváth
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
The deposition of the objects in small clusters and the roughly north to south alignment of the overall dis-
tribution of the nds was not mere chance, as most burials were oriented to the north during the Hun period
(ToMkA 2007, 256; nAGy 2004, 239). The overall impression from the position of the nd clusters relative to
each other is that their spatial patterning appears to roughly correspond to human body regions, with the head
to the north, surrounded by the elements of the horse gear on both sides. On the testimony of the objects, sev-
eral artefact sets of the same function were buried during the ritual; however, none were intact except for the
shoe-set. Several associated articles were found in the different clusters, indicating that the pits had been dug
simultaneously and that the broken or ripped-up objects had been deposited at the same time. The pre-deposi-
tional deliberate destruction of some of the assemblage’s artefacts such as the saddle mounts is quite obvious.
The sacricial deposits of the Hun period represent an important, but nevertheless little-known religious
practice regarding the ner details of the ritual (see szenThe manuscript). Here, we shall only discuss those
traits of the relevant Migration-period deposits that bear some resemblance to the features of the Telki
deposit and thus any conclusions drawn from the comparisons are strongly limited.
It would appear that several parallel cultural traditions of ritual deposition wholly independent of each
other can be distinguished during the fourth and fth century in Eastern and Central Europe, one of these
being the assemblages containing magnicent female jewellery of the elite of Germanic peoples (Goths and
Gepids, see BierBrAuer 1975 and QuAsT 2011; for similar assemblages from Eastern Europe, see kAzAnski
1993b, 228, Fig. 5; for the Szilágysomlyó hoards, see kiss 1999, 164–165). In contrast, the Telki assem-
blage can be best tted into a warrior and mounted nomadic steppean tradition. Nevertheless, the analogies
to deposits with a similar composition (weaponry, costume accessories, personal articles and horse gear)
but without a funerary context can all be found in Central Europe. On the Eastern European steppe, compa-
rable assemblages are mostly known from kurgans and kurgan cemeteries, either from barrows erected over
graves, or from ones lacking any human remains. According to the current scholarly consensus, the latter
contained the remains of the ritual feast (ToMkA 1986, 473–474, koMAr 2013, zAseckAjA 1994, 13–16). In
some cases, a kurgan was lacking, but the assemblage was accompanied by a cauldron, as at Makartet and
Höckricht (koMAr 2013, ledeBur 1838, 46–49). All other assemblages that can be regarded as ritual depo-
sits usually contained a single object such as a cauldron (MAsek 2017), a sword (isTvánoviTs kulcsár
2008, 286; isTvánoviTs – kulcsár 2013), a damaged saddle (similar nds are also known from settlement
contexts: Nyíregyháza, isTvánoviTs kulcsár 2014; Göd-Bócsaújtelep, Mráv 2003; Szederkény-Kuko-
rica-dűlő, nAGy 2007, 23; Sobari, PoPA 1997) or a few horse gear articles (Kapulovka, ruTkivskA 1970,
199–200). However, the cultural milieu of these nds differs substantially from those of the ritual deposits
resembling the one discovered at Telki. Among the latter, the largest comes from Szeged-Nagyszéksós on
the Hungarian Plain (FeTTich 1953), the others from Transdanubia: from the Pécs (hAMPel 1905, Bd. II.
370–383; AlFöldi 1932, 76, Taf. I–VII; Anke 2007, 298–301), Bátaszék (kovriG 1982) and Pannonhalma
area (ToMkA 1986), and one came to light at Katzelsdorf in Austria (nowoTny 2014, 236–237).
The three smaller assemblages from Pannonia contain virtually identical artefacts. In addition to the
horse-bit and the gold foil harness ornaments and gold foil decorations of the sword and a bow, resem-
bling the exemplar found at Pannonhalma, the Pécs assemblage contained a spearhead and arrowheads.
The Bátaszék assemblage also contained the gold foil decoration of the bow. The swords themselves have
survived at Pannonhalma and Bátaszék: in Pécs, the sword mounts and the sword pommel attest to the
presence of the weapon. The single artefact of uncertain function in the Bátaszék assemblage is the small
strap-end of gold foil, which may have been part of a harness set or of a shoe-set; the two small gold buckles
had either been used for the attachment of the weapons or for buckling the shoe straps.
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
The Szeged-Nagyszéksós assemblage contained a neck-ring, two swords, a dagger, two knives, two
harness sets, the gold sheets of a quiver, a whip, remains of personal adornments (buckles, shoe-set) and
the fragments and ornaments of several drinking vessels (kürTi 1988, 163–164, with the earlier literature,
and most recently kürTi 2007, 258–261). One important trait of the hoard is that traces of burning were
noted on several objects (FeTTich 1953, 19, Pl. I. 5; 20, Pl. I. 18, 23–25; 21, Pl. III. 18, Pl. IV. 7–8, Pl. VI. 2;
22, Pl. VI. 13–14; the metal vessels are shown on Pl. XV) and that the nds formed at least two, but most
probably three clusters, among which the drinking vessels represent a thematically wholly different and
well-distinguishable unit, which would bespeak a deposition as a spatially and functionally discrete group.
Despite important shared characteristics (BónA 1991, 169–171), a detailed analysis reveals striking dif-
ferences between the sacricial assemblages. The Telki assemblage and the related ones are characterised
by the presence of several artefacts/articles of the same type or of their fragments. It would appear that the
pre-depositional deliberate destruction of the objects is another common trait.
The Nagyszéksós hoard is the single assemblage that contained highly valuable and prestigious metal
vessels. Burnt artefacts solely occurred in this assemblage in the Carpathian Basin. Nevertheless, in con-
trast to the Telki assemblage, the four other major assemblages are linked by the abundance of delicate gold
sheets. In view of its shoe-set, worn only by the crème de la crème of the elite (schMAuder 2002, 157–160,
hArhoiu 1997, 117–118), and the other articles arranged in groups, the Telki assemblage is closest to the
Nagyszéksós assemblage. Nevertheless, it differs from the other assemblages in that it lacks steppean weap-
onry and, in general, by the visibly minor signicance of weaponry. Yet, it is the weaponry and a few other
types in which the impact of late Roman culture can be discerned. If these are not simply coincidences,
which seems unlikely owing to the high number of artefacts in each assemblage, the similarities and the
differences can both be attributed to cultural factors.
The lack of any traces of burning and the composition of the Telki assemblage best recalls the assem-
blages from the Alanic cultural milieu of the northern Caucasus: for example, an assemblage whose compo-
sition has much in common with the ones from the Carpathian Basin was found in Kurgan 1 at Brut at some
distance from the grave (GABuev 2014). The parallels to the other pieces in the assemblage, particularly to
the horse gear ornaments, can likewise be cited from this milieu.
In view of the above, the Telki assemblage cannot be simply seen as reecting the ritual of a steppean
nomadic possibly Hunnic group. Aside from the Huns, the assemblage and its deposition rite could
equally well be associated with a Caucasian Alan, a Goth or an ofcer of Barbarian-Germanic stock who
had served in the late Roman army in Pannonia and had later entered the service of the Huns.
The redistribution of the immense riches of the aristocracy of the Hunnic Empire (BónA 1991, 55ff)
from the 420s, in the late phase of the Hunnic rule in Europe, led to the emergence of a spectacular ‘nou-
veau riche’ elite, who are also mentioned in the sources (BónA 1991, 93–121); during Attila’s reign, this
elite included not only Huns, but also the leaders of the subdued peoples. We know of the Gepidic Ard-
arich, of Valamir, Theodemir and Videmer, three Gothic brothers, and of the Scirian Edika, all mentioned
in the period’s histories, and the presence of a chancery elite of Latin origin also seems likely. This elite
was undoubtedly dominated by the military leaders. This military aristocracy, bound by common interests,
which expressed its social cohesion through a shared material and, probably, spiritual culture had probably
emerged by the close of the European Hun period. In our view, the Telki assemblage can be regarded as
part of the legacy of this imperial elite. Irrespective of its origins, the group performing the ritual had, to
all appearances, adopted and successfully mastered the sacricial rites practiced by the military elite of the
Hunnic Empire.
This aristocracy did not disappear after the disintegration of Hunnic power. Several magnicent assem-
blages, such as the one found at Blučina in Moravia (TihelkA 1963, 471, 489, Obr. 15) attest to the survival
of the culture that united the members of this elite. In this sense, it is not so important whether the Telki
assemblage was deposited during the Hun period or shortly afterwards. The sacricial rituals introduced
by the Huns and the Hunnic power were undoubtedly practiced for some time even after the Hun period
Gergely Szenthe et al. Ritual deposit from the Hun period from Telki (central Hungary)
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... 2 SPECTRO xSORT Combi hand-held XRF (15-50 kV, 21-50 µA, Rh-anode, 'Light Elements' built-in calibration [based on the Fundamental Parameters (FP) method] designed specifically for alloys, three millimetres in diameter measurement area, 60-second acquisition time). 3 Horse trappings of Szeged-Nagyszéksós (Giumlía-Mair 2013), Bátaszék (Fodor 2018) and Telki (Szenthe et al. 2019). The XRF analysis of the finds from Bátaszék and Telki and from Göd (Mráv et al. 2021) was performed by Viktória Mozgai (Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, RCAES, ELKH). 4 The assemblages of Árpás (Tomka 2001), Budapest-Zugló (Nagy 2003), Debrecen-Agrár park (Wieszner and Nagy 2021) and Pannonhalma (Tomka 1986), belonging to the 'gold plate horizon' , will also be analysed in the near future using the same instrument. ...
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Objects manufactured from pressed gold, gilded silver or copper alloy plates are characteristic assemblages from the Late Hunnic period (5th century AD, 420/430). In this study, horse trappings that belong to the ‘pressed gold plate horizon’ from three archaeological sites in the Carpathian Basin (Léva, Nyíregyháza-Oros and Pécsüszög) were analysed non-destructively by using a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The main aims were to determine the chemical composition and the gilding technique used, and to attempt to prove whether the groups in an assemblage are from the same set. The results of the chemical analyses give us the opportunity to confirm whether damaged or presumably lost objects of an assemblage were replaced or repaired. According to the results obtained, the objects were manufactured from gold (Pécsüszög), gilded silver (Nyíregyháza-Oros) or gilded unalloyed copper plates (Léva). Later, replacements can be distinguished based on their chemical composition and manufacturing quality. Two types of gilding were observed: fire gilding with the presence of mercury (Léva), and leaf gilding (Nyíregyháza- Oros).
... Non-destructive handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (hXRF) is one of the most popular elemental analytical methods in the fields of archaeology and cultural heritage (Shackley 2012;Frahm and Doonan 2013;Zlateva 2017), and it is often utilised in the analysis of archaeological and historical metal objects, particularly in the elemental analysis of precious metal objects (e.g. Karydas et al. 2004;Cesareo et al. 2008;Melcher et al. 2009;Parreira et al. 2009;Asderaki-Tzoumerkioti and Karydas 2011;Pardini et al. 2012;Mass and Matsen 2013;Zori and Tropper 2013;Lehmann et al. 2014;Živković et al. 2014;Mozgai et al. 2017;Mozgai et al. 2018;Horváth et al. 2019a;Szenthe et al. 2019;Mozgai et al. 2020). XRF is a simultaneous, multi-element analytical method, whereby the concentrations of most elements of the periodic table (Z = 12-92, from Mg to U) can be determined (major, minor and trace elements). ...
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This study details the non-destructive chemical analysis of composite silver objects (ewers, situlas, amphora and casket) from one of the most significant late Roman finds, the Seuso Treasure. The Seuso Treasure consists of fourteen large silver vessels that were made in the fourth–early fifth centuries AD and used for dining during festive banquets and for washing and beautification. The measurements were systematically performed along a pre-designed grid at several points using handheld X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results demonstrate that all the objects were made from high-quality silver (above 90 wt% Ag), with the exception of the base of the Geometric Ewer B. Copper was added intentionally to improve the mechanical properties of soft silver. The gold and lead content of the objects shows constant values (less than 1 wt% Au and Pb). The chemical composition as well as the Bi/Pb ratio suggests that the parts of the composite objects were manufactured from different silver ingots. The ewers were constructed in two ways: (i) the base and the body were made separately, or (ii) the ewer was raised from a single silver sheet. The composite objects were assembled using three methods: (i) mechanical attachment; (ii) low-temperature, lead-tin soft solders; or (iii) high-temperature, copper-silver hard solders. Additionally, two types of gilding were revealed by the XRF analysis, one with remnants of mercury, i.e. fire-gilding, and another type without remnants of mercury, presumably diffusion bonding.
... Furthermore, the cross-guards of the spathae discovered in Pannonhalma ( Tomka 1986, 438-441, Fig. 18; Bóna 1993, 250, Fig. 58.) and Katzelsdorf (Austria) (Müller & Nowotny 2018, 955-956, Abb. 3.) as well as the dagger mouthpiece from Telki ( Szenthe et al. 2019, Fig. 10.) were decorated with more massive and compact cloisonné cellworks. ...
Full-text available
Jewellery, dress accessories and other personal ornaments made of precious metal and decorated with gemstones were representative elements (prestige objects) of Migration-period supra-regional fashion in Europe. Due to their valuable materials and impressive appearance, these polychrome artefacts are highlighted items in art albums and exhibition catalogues as the key objects of the period. Their vast majority represents high standard of workmanship even from a modern perspective. A small minority comprises, however, objects of lower or even poor quality, falling below the standard. This paper focuses on these exceptions. Dozen finds showing low-quality workmanship are collected, analysed and interpreted below, with special attention to their technical features, material compositions as well as their functions as status indicator. Our results indicated that the poorly-made objects were produced in workshops of local significance following and imitating high-standard models. The observed technological features pointed out that their makers were inexperienced in techniques requiring meticulous work and precision. The analytical data revealed, however, that they were dominantly made of high purity gold with a composition of partly or wholly identical to that of the technically outstanding items. Apparently, the high social status was not so demanding on the workmanship, rather the quality of the processed gold.
A szakmai érdeklődésre való tekintettel közreadott beszámoló egy olyan régészeti lelőhelyet mutat be, amely a Közösségi Régészeti Program keretei között zajlott terepbejárás során került elő. Az ekkor felfedezett aranytárgyak kiemelkedő jelentősége miatt a későbbiekben a helyszínen ásatást is végeztünk, aminek eredményei alapján egy újabb hun kori áldozati leletegyüttest azonosíthattunk. A terepmunka és e kézirat leadása között eltelt három hónap alatt megindult adatgyűjtés és feldolgozás a jelenleg is folyamatban lévő természettudományos vizsgálatok miatt semmiképpen sem tekinthető lezártnak, véglegesnek.
The current report was born as a response to widespread professional interest. It provides an account of a site discovered during a field survey trip organised within the Community Archaeology Programme. As we found exceptional golden artefacts, we have decided to conduct an excavation on the site. That resulted in the identification of a new Hunnic-period sacrificial assemblage. The processing of the obtained data and collecting additional information for interpretation, started in the past three months between the end of the fieldwork and the submission of the manuscript, is by no means complete as scientific analyses are still in progress.
The discovery of a fragment of a Hunnic cauldron by a metal detectorist acted as the springboard of this study, in which various aspects of Hunnic cauldrons are discussed: their findspots and find contexts, their typology, their dating and their origins. Questions regarding the broader cultural context of Hunnic cauldrons in the Roman and the Hunnic Empires are also addressed, as are their functional, ritual and social dimensions. The archaeological findings are complemented by metallographic analyses that shed light not only on the composition of the cauldron, but also on its possible use.
Аланские княженские курганы в. н.э. у села Брут в северной Осетии. Vladikavkaz. hAMPel
Аланские княженские курганы в. н.э. у села Брут в северной Осетии. Vladikavkaz. hAMPel, J. 1905
Die frühe Völkerwanderungszeit in Rumänien
Die frühe Völkerwanderungszeit in Rumänien. Archaeologia Romanica I. Bukarest. isTvánoviTs, E. -kulcsár, V. 2008
Fürstliche Funde aus der Hunnenzeit von Szeged-Nagyszéksós
  • B Kürti
B. Kürti, Fürstliche Funde aus der Hunnenzeit von Szeged-Nagyszéksós. In: B. Anke -H. Externbrink (ed.), Attila und die Hunnen (Stuttgart 2007) 258-261.
Két késő római fegyveres sír az aquincumi canabae nyugati szélén
  • E Nowotny
Két késő római fegyveres sír az aquincumi canabae nyugati szélén. Budapest Régiségei XXXVIII, 231-315. nowoTny, E. 2014
Hunnenzeitliche Waffen im Depotfund von Katzelsdorf
  • Verbogen Und Verborgen
Verbogen und verborgen. Hunnenzeitliche Waffen im Depotfund von Katzelsdorf. In: Lauermann, E. (Hrsg.), Schatzreich Asparn. Ur-und Frühgeschichte und Mittelalterarchäologie in Niederösterreich. Asparn -Zaya, 236-239.