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Abstract

Cultuurtoerisme vormt al tientallen jaren een belangrijke groeimarkt (UNWTO, 2018). De wens om door lokaal erfgoed, artefacten en levensstijlen iets over andere culturen te leren, zorgt ervoor dat elk jaar honderden miljoenen mensen op zoek gaan naar culturele belevenissen. In het verleden was deze drijfveer grotendeels gebaseerd op wat culturen achterlieten-de fysieke, tastbare elementen van gebouwd erfgoed. Vandaag de dag vormen historische steden nog steeds een van de belangrijkste bestemmingen voor cultuurtoeristen, net als ten tijde van de 'Grand Tour' (Towner, 1985). Niettemin hebben de groei van steden en de toename van stedelijke creativiteit en diversiteit voor veel nieuwe aspecten van cultuurbeleving gezorgd. Cultuurtoerisme is niet alleen meer gebaseerd op tastbaar erfgoed uit het verleden, maar ook op hedendaagse cultuur en creativiteit, de aantrekkelijkheid van buurten en het dagelijks leven. In dit paper gaan we in op recent onderzoek naar cultuurtoerisme en in het bijzonder op de achtergronden van mensen die een cultuurvakantie ondernemen en hun activiteiten ter plekke. Op basis van data uit het ATLAS-onderzoeksproject (2014) over cultuurtoerisme en het onlangs verschenen UNWTO rapport (2018) waarin de relaties tussen cultuur en toerisme centraal staan, worden de motieven van verschillende typen cultuurtoeristen en hun 'interactie' met de lokale cultuur beschreven. De ATLAS data zijn verzameld aan de hand van enquêtes met bezoekers van culturele attracties in verschillende landen. De centrale vraag die in dit paper centraal staat is of we nog steeds kunnen praten over cultuurtoerisme als een coherent marktsegment, of dat er sprake is van toenemende fragmentatie waardoor het steeds moeilijker is geworden om 'de' cultuurtoerist te onderscheiden. Met andere woorden, wie zijn de cultuurtoeristen en wat trekt hen naar de plaatsen die zij bezoeken?
Bestaat ‘de’ cultuurtoerist nog?
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Preprint versie van: Richards, G. en Bargeman, B. (2019) Bestaat ‘de’ cultuurtoerist
nog? Vrijetijdstudies 36(2), 37-41.
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1. Inleiding
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  "66 """
8".11.;%47  7"""
6/1"+601+
 7""" +B1G
 ++6%++""" 77 
<"$6+$6+8:001;:AG6

+<$7<6""" $67
 $'"
9&8.1:/;$.1:-H""H$6B1G" 7
<+$6 A,1 6""%<
7<7$6$6$II
"""7%8:00-;
"""    "
7  $
"""7%<+ """<6
+67$ 67  
6"7"""5+
77 767 ""
% 7 $67"
$"""<$8.1:/;
?2""":1@2""".1@?2""",1@=767
 "2""":1$""" 6 
$6""J67"J
"""  " $* 
 5""J J
+""" <"7+"2"""
.177 +77"+
"""<$67$ 
2"""+ +"$7+
K $ "
3. Van Cultuur 1.0 naar Cultuur 3.0
=""J +2""",1<$
"+""+8;=2""",1" $6""
"$67+$6$$"7"+
 %4"" 7 
""""+J 
$6 """"2""".1
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"   L"
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.1:M;
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?@" $<< 
+"<6
4. Onderzoeksresultaten
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7   """ '"67
"!><7<6  
$"""$"+ 
$ $<7%<$+"
"9&8.1:/;""" +"
$67:1G"""""+77
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 7 6"
$<7"" B1G
+
'$!><7
6<6"6 $67"$7
 +$$""%67
 767""+"
 M1G!""
+6.AG
67+L? >O@
6+6$ """ P
<67  <$<" ""
$<<677"""" 
+<6""+6677 "" +7
+<7"+J%7 
J <"  
678:001; +6 " 
8.11:;7 "+ 7
%<$777+$?""@
$$8:00M;$$+ 66
  <6$667+77
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""" <6<   (
2""":1.1,17"$7767 
?@%!><7<$67
$ ?@   H"H
 "" 7767
""+767+6$<7 
+6"$<7$67"""<6
=  """77  
67" 67%
""" 
 <+?+676@
$  89Q'2.1:/;
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R"":   $   
89Q'2.1:/;
5. Conclusies
=.A6!""" >68.1:B;
""" <67 76767
7 $67+
$?@""""+
$$$  67
7$ ""$7
% $"""
 67 ?@"""7
$47""" 
 $  ""6<6
7$6+  +$6 7  
7""" $ 7
"&<667 
 $7$ 7<
+77<7""6"""
+7""6"+<"7"<6
 <  $$6L
$$""""
$87; J
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"$"$6$7$
 7767$ %
""77676
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8.1:,;2""" =7+8';Routledge handbook of
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8.1:-;"+S+
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""""ETourism Management, 27:.10>:..,
"8.11.;U"V"  
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"T8.1:M;Reinventing the local in tourism: Producing,
consuming and negotiating place.)2+"$
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>  """"
 '"Sustainability 2018:1,0.,
):1,,01*":1::,0.,
%8.1:,;")R $!52=
7+8';Routledge handbook of leisure studies8::1>::0;&(*+
Q7)"
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Research, 238B;0B/>0A1
+P8:0/A;")7" Annals of
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:0:
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... Researchers are also confronted with major challenges in dealing with the new forms of cultural tourism. It is increasingly difficult to find 'the' cultural tourist (Richards and Bargeman, 2019) in the face of the growing diversity of tourist tastes and the broad supply of cultural experiences. ...
... There are many other new cultural practices that attract cultural tourists, including craft beer, literary tours, gastronomic experiences, creative tourism and even becoming a 'tourist in your own city' (Richards, 2017). As Richards (2021) also argues in Rethinking Cultural Tourism, it is increasingly difficult to analyse 'cultural tourism' as a homogenous concept, or to talk about 'the' cultural tourist (Richards & Bargeman, 2019). Instead, we arguably need to focus on a series of cultural practices undertaken by tourists, which link to a growing field of contexts. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The growth of 'mass cultural tourism' has been stimulated by the growing numbers of tourists consuming cultural attractions, particularly in historic cities. Whereas in the past destinations had the challenge of trying to sell themselves to visitors and generate interest among a broad public, just before Covid-19 the challenge became trying to manage a growing flood of tourists in search of culture. Cities also had to change their thinking about marketing (cultural) tourism, as residents in many places began to complain about 'overtourism', or even became 'tourismphobic'. This presentation considers the implications of the growing overlap between tourism and culture in recent decades, and asks whether we need to develop a new understanding of what cultural tourism is, and analyses the growing range of cultural practices it embraces.
... In fact, 'cultural overtourism' may be disappearing just as fast as it has emerged. The current fragmentation of cultural into a series of niches such as creative tourism, gastronomic tourism or literary tourism, is raising the question of whether 'the cultural tourist' still exists (Richards and Bargeman, 2019), and challenging the position of traditional cultural institutions such as museums (Figure 1). Cultural tourism is also being transformed through new technologies. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to review the development of the relationship between culture and tourism over the past 75 years and outline some future developments over the coming 75 years. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a review of previous major work on cultural tourism. Findings Tourism and culture have been drawn inexorably closer over the years as culture has become one of the major content providers for tourism experiences, and tourism has become one of the most important income streams for cultural institutions. In the future, this is likely to change, as cultural institutions find it increasingly difficult to maintain their authority as the dominant producers of local, regional and national culture and as tourism becomes increasingly integrated into the everyday culture of the destination. Practical implications Cultural institutions will need to change their relationship with tourism as flows of tourists become more prevalent and fragmented. Social implications The authority of high cultural institutions will be eroded as tourists increasingly seek authenticity in the culture of everyday life and the ‘local’. Originality/value This study reviews the dynamics of the cultural field and sketches the long-term future development of the relationship between tourism and culture.
Book
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This bibliography is a work in progress rather than a comprehensive listing of cultural tourism research sources. All suggestions for additional references gratefully received. In line with the multilingual nature of ATLAS, we are happy to receive suggested references in languages other than English, preferably with an English language translation of the title. The latest revision includes references from the volume Rethinking Cultural Tourism (Edward Elgar, 2021).
Preprint
Full-text available
This is the 2019 update of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism bibliography, which is a work in progress rather than a comprehensive listing of cultural tourism research sources. All suggestions for additional references gratefully received. In line with the multilingual nature of ATLAS, we are happy to receive suggested references in languages other than English, preferably with an English language translation of the title. The latest revision includes references from the UNWTO report Tourism and Culture Synergies (2018).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.