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Abstract

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar, from which they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio became known as Weber’s constant and it is numerically equal to c√2, where c is very close to the speed of light. In 1857, another German physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff, used Weber’s constant to conclude that electric signals travel along a wire at the speed of light. A few years later in 1861, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell was working on the physical medium responsible for magnetic lines of force and he established a linkage between its transverse elasticity and Weber’s constant. On converting electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, Maxwell exposed the speed of light directly and he connected it to the transverse elasticity of the luminiferous medium. This paper sets out to establish the fundamental origins of the speed of light.
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The 1855 Weber-Kohlrausch Experiment
(The Speed of Light)
Frederick David Tombe,
Northern Ireland, United Kingdom,
sirius184@hotmail.com
14th April 2019
Abstract. In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch
performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar, from which they
established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This
ratio became known as Weber’s constant and it is numerically equal to c√2, where c is
very close to the speed of light. In 1857, another German physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff,
used Weber’s constant to conclude that electric signals travel along a wire at the speed
of light. A few years later in 1861, Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell was working
on the physical medium responsible for magnetic lines of force and he established a
linkage between its transverse elasticity and Weber’s constant. On converting
electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, Maxwell exposed the speed of light
directly and he connected it to the transverse elasticity of the luminiferous medium.
This paper sets out to establish the fundamental origins of the speed of light.
Electric Permittivity
I. Electric permittivity, ε, is a constant that is associated with dielectrics through
James Clerk Maxwell’s electric elasticity equation, D = εE, where D is the
electric displacement vector, and E is an externally applied electric force. A
form of this equation first appeared in the preamble to Part III of Maxwell’s
1861 paper, “On Physical Lines of Force”, [1], in connection with the concept
of displacement current. Electric permittivity can be measured experimentally
by discharging a capacitor. The ensuing electric current is measured, and the
electric permittivity is established through the standard electromagnetic
relationships. For details, see the appendix after the reference section at the end.
Electric permittivity is related to the speed of light through the equation,
µε = 1/c² (1)
Unlike electric permittivity, however, magnetic permeability, µ, has always
been a defined quantity. Even though Maxwell attributed the physical
significance of µ to the density of the sea of molecular vortices which he
believed constituted the luminiferous medium, he had no way of knowing its
absolute value. This however didn’t matter for his purpose since he was only
working with ratios, and in electrodynamic and electromagnetic units, µ is
unity.
2
The origins of equation (1) can be traced back to the year 1855 to an
experiment carried out by Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt
Kohlrausch, [2]. The experiment involved transferring a quantity of electricity
from a charged Leyden jar to a 13-inch ball that was coated with tin foil, and
then discharging the remainder through a conducting channel. The electrostatic
force generated by the charged ball was measured using a torsion balance, while
the magnetic force induced by the current due to the discharge of the Leyden
jar, was measured by the deflection of a compass needle in a galvanometer. The
purpose of the experiment was to determine the numerical value of the constant,
Cw, in Weber’s 1846 force law,
F = kq1q2/r2[1 − ṙ2/Cw2 + 2rr/Cw2] (2)
The idea was, that since the electrostatic force was measured using
electrostatic units of charge, while the magnetic force was measured using
electrodynamic units of charge, then the numerical ratio between the two forces
would yield the value of Cw, which was known as Weber’s constant.
The only term of major interest in equation (2) is the middle term on the
right-hand-side. This term, 2/Cw2, is the convective term, where = Vw. It’s a
magnetic force which is a kind of centrifugal force, [3], because it opposes an
electrostatic force of attraction. Weber considered Vw to be the mutual speed
between two charged particles, q1, and q2, distance r apart, and he saw Cw as a
reducing speed such that when Vw = Cw, then the electrostatic force would be
completely cancelled.
Because the experiment begins with two unknowns, Vw, and Cw, it follows
therefore that there will be a corollary to the discovery of the numerical value of
Cw. This corollary was never noticed though, perhaps due to the conviction that
electric current consisted in the equal and opposite flow of charged particles.
But while that may well be the case, especially when a current is flowing
through an electrolyte, equation (2) above tells us that when the electrostatic
and magnetic forces are equal, then Vw must be equal to Cw, and so something
must be travelling in the discharge wire at speed Cw. Had Weber and
Kohlrausch used electromagnetic units of charge for the magnetic force, instead
of electrodynamics units, they would have concluded that the reducing speed,
Cw, was in fact very close to the speed of light. Instead, they thought that the
reducing speed was significantly greater than the speed of light.
In 1857, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, while studying the motion of electricity
in conducting wires, [4], identified, in German miles, what appeared to be the
speed of light, c, in the relationship Cw = c√2, and he linked this to the speed of
electric signals in the wire, although he did not suggest that this speed
represented the actual flow speed of electric current, but only that it represented
the propagation speed of any changes in the electric current. Kirchhoff was
attempting to link the signal speed to wave theory.
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While we all know that the electric particles that are involved in an electric
current travel at nowhere remotely near to the speed of light, the implication of
the Weber-Kohlrausch experiment is nevertheless that something much more
subtle must be the fundamental basis of electric current, and that even if
changes in electric current propagate in a wave-like form along a conducting
wire at a speed close to the speed of light, that this is only because they are
carried by the movement of a fluid which is itself flowing at that same speed.
As to what exactly this fluid is, we should look to the electrostatic field that
surrounds charged particles and consider that the inflowing or outflowing
aethereal electric fluid, which is the basis of this field, is the prime candidate.
A few years later, in 1861, in the paper already mentioned, [1], Maxwell
developed a model for the luminiferous medium based on the idea that space is
filled with tiny aethereal vortices that press against each other with centrifugal
force while striving to dilate, [5], [6]. Equation (77) in Part II is an electromotive
force equation containing a convective term, µv×H, which is nowadays unduly
credited to Lorentz. Then in Part III in a section on elasticity and electrostatics,
Maxwell set out to link the Weber-Kohlrausch ratio, Cw, to the transverse
elasticity of his sea of tiny vortices. When he converted this ratio from
electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units in order to get it into a workable
form, he explicitly isolated c, and like Kirchhoff before him, he noticed that c
was very close to the measured speed of light. But rather than linking this speed
to the circumferential speed of his vortices, Maxwell was focused on elasticity
and displacement, and he applied c to Newton’s equation for the speed of a
wave in an elastic solid. The full derivation is found in Part III, where he begins
by demonstrating the linkage between the dielectric constant and the transverse
elasticity. Equations (132) to (135) in this paper should leave nobody in any
doubt that Newton’s equation is the equivalent of both E = mc² and c² = 1/µε,
which are in effect one and the same equation.
In Part III, Maxwell does not resort to the specifics of the sea of molecular
vortices that he postulated in Part I of the same paper. Had he done so; he could
have linked c directly to the circumferential speed in his vortices. See
“Radiation Pressure and E = mc2, [7]. Nevertheless, Maxwell still established
that light is a transverse wave in the same medium that is the cause of electric
and magnetic phenomena.
Electric Current
II. Maxwell and Kirchhoff both used broadly the same equations of
electromagnetism in connection with the Weber-Kohlrausch numerical ratio,
but they came to different conclusions. In 1857, Kirchhoff concluded that an
electric signal travels along a conducting wire at the speed of light, whereas in
1861, Maxwell concluded that this speed is the speed of a wireless
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electromagnetic wave through space, and he believed space to be densely
packed with tiny aethereal vortices. The only way that these two seemingly
contradictory positions could be reconciled is if Maxwell’s aethereal vortices
constitute tiny electric circulations in which the circumferential speed is the
speed of light. See the paragraph below equation (5) in the next section. The
drift velocities of charged particles in an electric current are nowhere near the
speed of light, but the electric force field that drives them will have an
associated aethereal momentum field which will be. This will be the magnetic
vector potential A known to Maxwell as the electromagnetic momentum.
Maxwell identified A with Faraday’s electrotonic state. See “An Interpretation
of Faraday’s Lines of Force, [8].
Centrifugal Force
III. Maxwell’s convective electromotive force is a centrifugal force of the form,
E = µv×H = F/q (3)
See equations (5) and (77) in his 1861 paper, [4]. It is a centrifugal force by
virtue of its origins in a sea of tiny aethereal vortices which are pressing against
each other while striving to dilate, as like the water presses on the walls of
Newton’s rotating bucket. The magnetic intensity H is a measure of the
vorticity or the angular momentum of the vortices. Electric particles at the edge
of the vortices have an angular momentum H = D×v where D is the
displacement of these particles from the polar origin in the centre, and where v
is their circumferential velocity. Substituting Maxwell’s electric elasticity
equation, D = εE, into H = D×v, leads to,
H = εv×E (4)
If we then substitute (3) into (4) we obtain,
E = εµv×(v×E) (5)
Since εµ is equal to 1/c2 and since H, v, and E, are mutually perpendicular,
then it follows that the circumferential speed of Maxwell’s tiny vortices is what
determines the speed of light.
If we now consider H in equation (3) to be a vector field in the vicinity of
an electromagnet, we can substitute a form of the Biot-Savart law such that v
becomes the mutual velocity as between an element of electric current in the
wire, to which will be ascribed a charge q1, and a charged particle with charge
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q2 that is moving in the magnetic field. If, based on the Biot-Savart Law, we
take H to be,
H = q1v×r
/4πr2 (6)
then in the special case where v is perpendicular to r
, and multiplying top
and bottom by ε, equation (3) becomes,
F = q1q2εµv2r
/4πεr2 (7)
Substituting εµ = 1/c2 leads to,
F = v2/c2(q1q2/4πεr2)r
(8)
so, when v = c, the magnetic force will be equal to the electrostatic force.
This confirms that Weber and Kohlrausch should have used electromagnetic
units for the magnetic force in their experiment, so that Cw wouldn’t have been
clouded by the √2 factor, and hence Vw in Weber’s force law would indeed
represent a reducing speed.
Equation (8) also identifies the physical context in which the middle term
on the right-hand-side of Weber’s force law, at equation (2), begins to take on a
higher degree of accuracy, providing that the mutual speed v is transverse, and
not radial as is implied by this law. As regards an important example of where
this magnetic force simultaneously equates with the electrostatic force, we will
take a closer look at the stability mechanism within the rotating electron-
positron dipoles that fill all of space and form magnetic lines of force.
Magnetic Force
IV. In the 2006 article entitled The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic
Field”, [9], it was argued that the electric particles that surround Maxwell’s tiny
vortices are in fact just a single positron and a single electron. In the equatorial
plane, the escape velocity relative to the electrostatic force has been exceeded
and they are hemmed into their circular orbits by centrifugal force pressing
inwards from the surrounding vortices. This centrifugal pressure must be
counterbalanced by electrostatic tension in the axial direction channelled along
the double helix. If electrons and positrons are sources and sinks in a primary
aethereal fluid, it is proposed that the rate of inflow and outflow will be
proportional to the vorticity. The magnetic intensity H (angular momentum)
will therefore determine the electrostatic charge in the axial direction. As such,
we cannot simply use Coulomb’s Law to calculate the spacing between the
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individual vortices, because Coulomb’s Law assumes that electrons and
positrons have a fixed charge. In the bound state within the double helix
alignment, their electric charge, which determines their magnetic charge, will
not however be fixed. It will be determined by their vorticity and hence by the
magnitude of the electric current that causes the magnetic field.
Figure 1. A close-up view of a single magnetic tube of force. Attraction along the tube is
caused by electrostatic attraction between the electrons and positrons. Repulsion laterally
between adjacent magnetic tubes of force is caused by centrifugal force. Within each rotating
electron-positron pair, the orbital speed is what determines the speed of light.
Maxwell never knew the size of his molecular vortices, but it would be
reasonable to assume that they are small enough to flow through the interstitial
spaces between the atoms and molecules of ponderable matter, as like water
flows through a basket. We could assume that the circumference of these
dipolar vortices is equal to half of the Compton wavelength for an electron,
since gamma radiation of this wavelength, or lower, can resonate with the
dipoles and split them apart, as has just been explained above. This would make
their diameter 0.3863 picometres, hence setting them at about one thousandth
the size of the average atom. The density of the vortex sea will however be
difficult to calculate because the balance between the electrostatic force in the
axial direction and the centrifugal force in the equatorial plane would point to
inter-particle spacings between neighbouring vortices on the femtometre scale.
Since this is very much less than their actual diameters, the magnetic lines of
force will in effect become tubes of force. Then on the issue of the density, as an
absolute minimum, if we were to simply consider only the diameter of the
vortices, the density of the vortex sea will already be into the region of fourteen
hundred times denser than lead, but it will surely be many orders of magnitude
yet higher than that still.
The presence of this dense sea of electron-positron dipoles throughout all of
space, not only acts as the medium for the propagation of light, but it also
causes a compound centrifugal force to act upon all bodies in motion, [10], [11],
and this is what gives rise to Newton’s first law of motion and the inertial path.
The inertial forces on the large scale are a product of the inertial path and not, as
is wrongly taught in the modern literature, a product of making observations
from a rotating frame of reference. The electron-positron sea causes the inertial
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forces, and hence contributes to the shape of the planetary orbital paths, as
opposed to causing dissipative friction.
It’s only within the context of this dense sea of rotating electron-positron
dipoles that Maxwell and Kirchhoff can be reconciled, and Maxwell and Weber
partially reconciled. More specifically, it’s probably only on the scale of an
individual rotating electron-positron dipole that we can use an inverse square
law of distance in the Biot-Savart law, because it’s only on this scale where the
centrifugal force arises as a transverse interaction between two electric
monopoles. On the large scale, inertial centrifugal force obeys an inverse cube
law in distance, which is characteristic of a dipole field.
The speed of electric current should not be confused with the drift velocity
of the charged particles in a conducting wire, which is many orders of
magnitude less. Electric current is fundamentally a flow of the primary aethereal
electric fluid from which everything is made, while the speed of light is tied up
with the circumferential speed of the rotating electron-positron dipoles, [7]. In
order to connect it all together, the general position is that the speed of electric
current is the average speed that the electric fluid flows between a source and a
sink, whether in the case of the electric current flowing between the two
terminals in a conducting circuit or between a positron and a neighbouring
electron in the all-pervading electron-positron sea, [12].
Conclusion
V. The speed of light, which arises in connection with both electromagnetic
radiation and electric current, is a product of the velocity field of the electric
field, [13], [14]. It is the average speed with which the ancient electric fluid flows
from positive source particles towards negative sink particles. This is so in the
case of the electric fluid emerging from one terminal of a battery and flowing
back into the other terminal, and it is also the case with electromagnetic
radiation in space where the electric fluid flows between neighbouring electrons
and positrons. Space is densely packed with tiny dipole pairs like two-pin power
points, each pair consisting of an electron in mutual orbit with a positron,
circulating at the speed of light.
The velocity field is more correctly the momentum field A known as the
magnetic vector potential, [8]. It is Maxwell’s displacement current. It exists
everywhere in space. In the steady state it is undergoing fine-grained circulation
such that ×A = B, where B is the local magnetic flux density. In the dynamic
state, angular acceleration of an electron-positron dipole leads to an overflow of
electric fluid into the neighbouring dipole at that same average speed, [12]. This
is the principle behind transverse electromagnetic waves.
In a conducting wire, where we normally denote A by the symbol J, the
electric fluid imparts its acceleration to charged particles, but not its velocity.
8
When accelerating it would push positive particles along with it, while negative
particles would eat their way towards the source. The motion of charged
particles in an electric current is merely secondary to a more fundamental flow
of electric fluid at average speeds in the order of the speed of light. The idea of
the existence of such an electric fluid is not new, but it was abandoned in favour
of the belief that electric current is in fact a flow of charged particles. The two
ideas are not however mutually exclusive, but the absence of the electric fluid in
modern physics is a major omission.
References
[1] Clerk-Maxwell, J., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical Magazine, vol. XXI,
Fourth Series, London, (1861)
http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf
[2] Weber, W., and Kohlrausch, R., “Elektrodynamische Maassbestimmungen insbesondere
Zurueckfuehrung der Stroemintensitaetsmessungen auf mechanisches Maass”, Treatises
of the Royal Saxon Scientific Society, Volume 5, Leipzig, S. Hirzel, (1856)
See chapters 5, 6, and 7 in this link,
https://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~assis/Weber-in-English-Vol-3.pdf
Prof. A.K.T Assis has written an excellent summary of this work in an article entitled “On
the First Electromagnetic Measurement of the Velocity of Light by Wilhelm Weber and
Rudolf Kohlrausch”.
https://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~assis/Weber-Kohlrausch(2003).pdf
Weber and Kohlrausch wrote a short precis of their paper, and this can be found in
Poggendorf’s Annalen, vol. XCIX, pp. 10-25. An English translation of this precis is
presented in the appendix at the end of Prof. Assis’s paper.
[3] Assis, A.K.T., “Centrifugal Electrical Force”, Communications in Theoretical Physics,
18, pp. 475-478 (1992)
http://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~assis/Commun-Theor-Phys-V18-p475-478(1992).pdf
[4] Kirchhoff, G.R., “On the Motion of Electricity in Wires, Philosophical
Magazine, Volume XIII, Fourth Series, pp. 393-412 (1857)
https://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~assis/Weber-Kohlrausch(2003).pdf pages 280-282
[5] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, pages
100-102, (1910)
“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing an
immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether appears to
possess, and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to the presence
of these whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is continually striving to
dilate, and so presses against the neighbouring whirlpools.”
9
[6] O’Neill, John J., “PRODIGAL GENIUS, Biography of Nikola Tesla”, Long Island, New
York, 15th July 1944, Fourth Part, paragraph 23, quoting Tesla from his 1907 paper “Man’s
Greatest Achievement” which was published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel,
“Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary
substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous
ether - which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence,
in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into
infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the
motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance”.
http://www.rastko.rs/istorija/tesla/oniell-tesla.html
http://www.ascension-research.org/tesla.html
[7] Tombe, F.D., Radiation Pressure and E = mc2 (2018)
http://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
Mathematical%20Physics/Download/7324
[8] Tombe, F.D., “An Interpretation of Faraday’s Lines of Force” (2019)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332249473_An_Interpretation_of_Faraday's_Lines
_of_Force
[9] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field” (2006)
Galilean Electrodynamics, vol. 24, Number 2, p.34 (March/April 2013)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6371
[10] Tombe, F.D., “The Coriolis Force in Maxwell’s Equations” (2010)
Galilean Electrodynamics, vol. 25, Number 2, p.22 (March/April 2014)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/3161
[11] Tombe, F.D., “Magnetic Repulsion and the Gyroscopic Force” (2015)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays-
Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/5887
[12] Lodge, Sir Oliver, “Ether (in physics)”, Encyclopaedia Britannica,
Fourteenth Edition, vol. 8, pp. 751-755 (1937)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-
Journals/Historical%20PapersMechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/4105
In relation to the speed of light, The most probable surmise or guess at present is that the
ether is a perfectly incompressible continuous fluid, in a state of fine-grained vortex
motion, circulating with that same enormous speed. For it has been partly, though as yet
incompletely, shown that such a vortex fluid would transmit waves of the same general nature
as light waves i.e., periodic disturbances across the line of propagationand would
transmit them at a rate of the same order of magnitude as the vortex or circulation speed”
[13] Tombe, F.D., “The Deeper Physical Nature of Electric Current” (2022)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/363887411_The_Deeper_Physical_Nature_of_Elec
tric_Current
10
[14] Tombe, F.D., “The Commonality between Light and Electric Current” (2022)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/364337354_The_Commonality_between_Light_an
d_Electric_Current
Appendix
The Experimental Determination of Electric Permittivity
A capacitor is discharged using a vibrating switch unit at a frequency f. The discharge current
I is measured using a sensitive galvanometer. The capacitance equations are C = εA/d and Q
= CV, where ε is electric permittivity, C is capacitance, A is the area of the capacitor plates, d
is the separation distance between the plates, Q is charge, and V is the applied voltage. Since
Q = I/f, we can combine these equations into ε = Id/fVA, and since V is known, we can
numerically evaluate ε, which in SI units comes out to be 8.85 × 1012 farad metre−1.
There has been a tendency since 1983 for the textbooks to avoid treating the
experimental determination of electric permittivity ε. In that year, the International Bureau of
Weights and Measures, BIPM, decided to define the metre in terms of the speed of light,
resulting in the fact that the speed of light itself has now become a defined quantity. This
tautology has resulted in the absurd situation whereby equation (1) in section I above
becomes an equation linking three defined quantities and hence loses all its physical
significance. It is not widely known that the speed of light only enters Maxwell’s equations
through the 1855 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment. In fact, it is a common error to believe the
complete opposite, which is that equation (1) is a consequence of Maxwell’s equations. In
modern textbooks, the significance of the speed of light has been shifted away from the
Weber-Kohlrausch experiment and placed within the realm of Einstein’s theories of relativity
instead. The decision on the part of BIPM to make the speed of light a defined quantity might
possibly be interpreted as a decision to consolidate Einstein’s theories of relativity within the
established system of units and to divert attention away from the involvement of a physical
medium in the propagation of light waves.
5th October 2022 amendment
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... The Speed of Light I. In the year1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch performed what was perhaps the most historically significant of all experiments in the fields of optics and electromagnetism, [1], [2], [3], because it connected the optically measured speed of light to purely electric and magnetic effects that ostensibly had no connection to optics. The theory behind the experiment centred on the force law, F = kq 1 q 2 /r 2 [1 − ṙ 2 /C w 2 + 2rr̈/C w 2 ] ...
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In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar and they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio, which became known as Weber's constant, was measured numerically to be c√2, where c was very close to the speed of light. Since this experiment had nothing to do with optics, the question then arises as to whether they had perhaps actually measured the speed of electric current, which just happens to be close to the speed of light for the reason that the speed of light is in turn determined by the speed of electric current within the context of the medium for the propagation of light. We must establish the physical commonality between light and electric current.
... The 1855 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment, [14], [15], concerns the transition between an electrostatic field and a magnetic field during the discharge of a Leyden jar (capacitor). Had Weber used electromagnetic units of charge instead of electrodynamic units, he could have reasonably deduced that electric current flows at a speed close to the speed of light. ...
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While it is generally accepted that electric current involves the motion of electric charge through conducting channels, there is observable evidence in the field of pulse transmission, that electric current exhibits wave-like behaviour, and that two electric pulses can pass right through each other in opposite directions along the same wire. An attempt will be made to reconcile these two seemingly contradictory natures of electric current.
... I. Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves [1]. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831Maxwell, ( -1879, who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. ...
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Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-1879), who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. The physical medium in question was known to Maxwell as the luminiferous medium although Einstein later referred to it as a Lichtäthers (luminiferous aether). Maxwell provided us with a reasonably clear picture of what the physical structure of this medium would need to be. He proposed that all of space is filled with a sea of molecular vortices comprised of tiny aethereal whirlpools, each surrounded by electric particles. This was an idea, which according to Tesla in 1907, had in essence, long been known to men of old.
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In our approach we have combined knowledge of Old Masters (working in this field before the year 1905), New Masters (working in this field after the year 1905) and Dissidents under the guidance of Louis de Broglie and David Bohm. Based on the great works of Wilhelm Wien and Max Planck we have presented a new look on the “Wien Peaks” and the Planck Distribution Function and proposed the “core-shell” model of the photon. There are known many “Wien Peaks” defined for different contexts. We have introduced a thermodynamic approach to define the Wien Photopic Peak at the wavelength λ = 555 nm and the Wien Scotopic Peak at the wavelength λ = 501 nm to document why Nature excellently optimized the human vision at those wavelengths. There could be discovered many more the so-called Wien Thermodynamic Peaks for other physical and chemical processes. We have attempted to describe the so-called Planck oscillators as coupled oscillations of geons and dyons. We have decomposed the Planck distribution function in two parts. Inspired by the Bohm Diffusion and the Bohm Sheath Criterion we have defined the plasma coupling constant that couple oscillations of geons and photons. The difference of the Planck least action of photons and the least action of geons might define the Barrier of Determinacy that create a limit for the resolution in the Microworld. We have newly formulated the Hubble cooling constant and inserted it into the Newton-Zwicky Cooling Law of photons for the description of the cooling of old photons. This proposed view on Planck´s Oscillators might open a new way for the description of “Heat” and “Light” processes.
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In our approach we have combined knowledge of Old Masters (working in this field before the year 1905), New Masters (working in this field after the year 1905) and Dissidents under the guidance of Louis de Broglie and David Bohm. Based on the great works of Julian Schwinger and John Archibald Wheeler we will study properties of geons formed by fusion of two soft x-ray particles (dyons) in the Schwarzschild gravitation core in our Sun at temperature 16 * 106 K. There are now several Teams that are able to achieve this fusion temperature in their special instruments (Tokamak, HL-2M Tokamak, Wendelstein 7-X, NIF, etc.) and to study properties of those formed geons. Thermal geons are with us all the time but they are very deeply hidden in our experiments. We have newly introduced Mareš - Šesták constant as the ratio of geon momentum to heat quantum of geon. The key information to enter into the World of geons was the empirical formula of David Bohm - the very well-known Bohm diffusion. From this formula we have extracted the amplitude, wavelength, frequency, quantum of the geon action, displacement law for geons, etc. It was found that geons are highly sensitive to the magnetic field strength. At a low magnetic field strength, the “inflation of geons” can occur. This effect could explain the Superheating of the Solar corona and the observed Heating of the Earth during two last centuries influenced by the changes in the Earth´s magnetic field. Geon engineering might modify the geon volume through the magnetic field strength. On the other hand, we were stimulated by the works of Mordehai Milgrom and Eric Verlinde and derived the Milgrom-Verlinde constant describing the gravitational field strength leading to the Newtonian gravitational constant on thermodynamic principles. The quantum of the geon momentum might open a new way how to understand gravitational phenomena. Can it be that Nature cleverly inserted geons into our experimental apparatuses and into our very-well known Old Formulae? We want to pass this concept into the hands of Readers of this Journal better educated in the Mathematics, Physics, and Thermodynamics.
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In our approach we have combined knowledge of Old Masters (working in this field before the year 1905), New Masters (working in this field after the year 1905) and Dissidents under the guidance of Louis de Broglie and David Bohm. Based on the great experimental work of Robert Pound, Glen A. Rebka and J.L. Snider we have proposed a squeezing of the super-elastic double-helix photon in the gravitational field. We have newly defined the squeeze rate of that photon particle on the helical path. We have inserted this squeeze rate into the very-well old formulae of Newton, Soldner, Gerber and Einstein and might glimpse traces of the quantum gravity. The squeeze rate of photons can be studied in details using the Great instrument - the Advanced LIGO - located on the surface of the Earth (USA, Italy, Japan). The observed strains on the level 5*10-19 should be caused by the gravitational field of our Earth. The observed strains on the level 5*10-22 should be caused by the gravitational fields of the Moon and the Sun. We estimate that the experimental value of the gravitational constant G studied by the LIGO instrument can achieve the accuracy to the level of ppb (parts per billion) after the removal of those strains from the measured signal and the removal of the gravitational influences of the Earth, the Moon, the Sun, Venus and Jupiter. To study the squeeze effect on a bigger scale we propose to analyze the Pioneer anomaly where Pioneer´s photons have been flying around the planets in our Solar system causing the squeeze effect - the anomalous blueshift. Similarly, we can study cosmic microwave photons flying around the objects in our Solar system that might create “the axis of evil” - temperature fluctuations in the CMB map (Wien displacement law). Can we prepare in our Solar system “tired” light by frequent blueshift - redshift transitions? Can it be that Nature cleverly inserted the squeeze rate into our very-well known Old Formulae? We want to pass this concept into the hands of Readers of this Journal better educated in the Mathematics and Physics.
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In our approach we have combined knowledge of Old Masters (working in this field before the year 1905), New Masters (working in this field after the year 1905) and Dissidents under the guidance of Louis de Broglie and David Bohm. In our model the quantum particle is represented as the Huygens-de Broglie’s particle on the helical path (full wave) guided by the Newton-Bohm entangled helical evolute (Bohmian Pilot Wave). These individual Huygens - de Broglie particles in the Young - Feynman double - slit experiment react with Wilhelm Wien’s photons that are always present inside of the apparatus (Wien’s displacement law). Wilhelm Wien’s photons form collectively the Wien filter guiding the Huygens - de Broglie particles through the double - slit barrier towards a detector (BohEmian Pilot Wave). The interplay of those events creates the observed interference pattern. In the very well-known formula describing the intensity of double-slit diffraction patterns we have newly introduced the concept curvature κ of the Huygens - de Broglie particle and thus giving a physical interpretation for the Newton - Bohm guiding wave (the Bohmian Pilot Wave): for photons κ = π/λ, for electrons κ = 2π/λ. Moreover, we have introduced into that formula the expression λmax from the Wien’s displacement law to describe geometry of the double - slit barrier. We propose to modify the value λmax by the change of the system temperature. There is a second experimental possibility - we can insert into those slits filters to remove Wien’s photons while the Huygens - de Broglie particles continue towards a detector - we should observe the particle behavior. The similar situation might occur in the Mach - Zehnder interferometer. In this case the individual Huygens - de Broglie particle reacts in the first beam splitter with the Wien photon: the Huygens - de Broglie particle goes through one path while the Wien photon goes through the second path. In the second beam splitter they interact again and create the interference pattern on one detector. We can experimentally modify the resulting interference pattern in the Mach - Zehnder interferometer - by the temperature change of the system or by inserting filters to remove Wien’s photons from one or both paths. Can it be that Nature cleverly creates those interference patterns while the Bohmian pilot wave and the BohEmian pilot wave are hidden in plain sight? We want to pass this concept into the hands of Readers of this Journal better educated in the Mathematics and Physics.
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The magnetic field is solenoidal, yet the Biot-Savart Law which is the textbook equation for the magnetic field, indicates the existence of a singularity owing to the fact that it involves an inverse square law in distance. This dilemma is solved within the context that an individual magnetic line of force constitutes a double helix of sinks and sources closed on itself to form a toroidal ring vortex.
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The Coriolis force is a consequence of Newton's first law of motion and it can be observed in a radial force field as a transverse deflection of the radial component of the motion by an amount required to conserve angular momentum. It is a physical reality most commonly associated with atmospheric cyclones, but it can also be observed deflecting the effect of gravity on a comet or causing a pivoted gyroscope to defy gravity. In a paper which he wrote in 1835 in connection with water wheels, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to its mathematical formula 2mv×ω as the "compound centrifugal force". This is an interesting choice of name which suggests that it is the sum of two centrifugal forces, yet without giving any indication as to how this might be. The physical origins of the Coriolis force will now be traced to differential centrifugal pressure in the dense background sea of tiny aethereal vortices which serves as the medium for the propagation of light.
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A summary of how Maxwell used the experimental result of the 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment in order to establish that light is a transverse wave in the same elastic solid that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. 1856 was the first historical connection between the speed of light and electromagnetism.
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It will be argued that if Pythagoras’s Theorem can hold outside of three dimensions, then the only possibility might be in the special case of seven dimensions, but that even this would be highly doubtful.
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The historical linkage between optics and electromagnetism can be traced back to the year 1855, when Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch, by discharging a Leyden Jar (a capacitor), demonstrated that the ratio of the electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge is equal to c√2, where c is the directly measured speed of light. Although not initially aware of the connection to the speed of light, Weber interpreted c√2 as a kind of mutual escape velocity for two elements of electricity in relative motion, such as would enable the induced magnetic force to overcome the mutual electrostatic force. A few years later, James Clerk Maxwell converted this ratio from electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, hence exposing the speed of light directly. On connecting Weber’s ratio to the dielectric constant in an all-pervading elastic solid, Maxwell concluded that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. The differing perspectives of Weber and Maxwell can be reconciled by linking the speed of light to the circumferential speed of the electric particles surrounding the tiny molecular vortices that Maxwell believed to be the constituent units of the luminiferous medium. If we consider these molecular vortices to be tiny electric current circulations, mutually aligned along their rotation axes to form magnetic lines of force, magnetic repulsion can then be explained in terms of centrifugal pressure acting sideways from these field lines. And if these molecular vortices should take the more precise dipolar form of an electron and a positron in mutual orbit, we can then further explain magnetic attraction, this time in terms of the more fundamental electrostatic force being channeled along the double helix of electrons and positrons that forms a magnetic line of force.
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The counterintuitive gravity defying behaviour that is exhibited by a pivoted gyroscope suggests the involvement of an active spin-induced force, similar in nature to the magnetic force, F = qv×B. The phenomenon of gyroscopic stability exhibits a strong spin-induced reactance which cannot be accounted for by the moment of inertia alone. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic repulsion will be investigated.
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We calculate the force on a point charge moving within a charged spherical shell spinning with according to Weber's law. We compare this result with the one given by Lorentz's law and show that Weber's law predicts an extra centrifugal electrical force and an extra inertial electrical force. We give orders of magnitude for these forces and propose some experiments to test the existence of these terms.