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Post-Colonialism and International Relations

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Post-Colonialism and International Relations

Abstract

IR scholars accept that International Relations (IR) discipline is shaped by two dimensions: The first one is positivist/rational dimension that covers main stream theories of (neo)/realism and (neo)/liberalism which take their sources from the nature through observation and by testing this information. The second dimension includes critical, reflectivist, post-positivist and post-structural theories that critically stand against positivist/rational theories on the basis of their arguments excluding subjective and interpretivist knowledge. Moreover, this second dimension contains historical sociology, feminism, normative theories as well as post modernism and post-colonialism.
Theories of
International
Relations II
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2, 3
Editors
Prof.Dr. Tayyar ARI
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Elif TOPRAK
Authors
Prof.Dr. Tayyar ARI
Res.Assist. Özge Gökçen ÇETİNDİŞLİ
Prof.Dr. Yücel BOZDAĞLIOĞLU
Prof.Dr. Tayyar ARI
Res.Assist. Mehmet Ali AK
Prof.Dr. Muzaffer Ercan YILMAZ
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Bülent Sarper AĞIR
Prof.Dr. Esra HATİPOĞLU
Prof.Dr. Tayyar ARI
Res.Assist. Fatih Bilal GÖKPINAR
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8
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Development in Learning Technologies
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Graphic and Cover Design
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T.C.
ANADOLU
UNIVERSITY
PUBLICATION
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FACULTY OF
OPEN EDUCATION
PUBLICATION NO: 2688
Theories of International
Relations II
ISBN: 978-975-06-3511-3
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66
Chapter 4
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Chapter Outline
Introduction
Conceptual Framework
Post-Colonial Theory
Post-Colonial Scholars
Conclusion
Key Terms
Criticism
Modernism
Orientalism
Deconstruction
Discourse
Hybridity
Stereotyping
Subaltern
Learning Outcomes
Explain the differences and similarities
between decolonization, neo-colonialism and
post-colonialism
Define the meaning and scope of criticism of
post-colonialism
Explain the basic conceptual framework of
post-colonialism
Differentiate orientalist perspectives and
arguments of orientalism
Discuss theoretical and epistemological
approaches of post-colonialism
3
5
12
4
Post-Colonialism
67
Theories of International Relations II
INTRODUCTION
IR scholars accept that International Relations
(IR) discipline is shaped by two dimensions: e
first one is positivist/rational dimension that covers
main stream theories of (neo)/realism and (neo)/
liberalism which take their sources from the nature
through observation and by testing this information.
e second dimension includes critical, reectivist,
post-positivist and post-structural theories that
critically stand against positivist/rational theories
on the basis of their arguments excluding subjective
and interpretivist knowledge. Moreover, this second
dimension contains historical sociology, feminism,
normative theories as well as post modernism and
post-colonialism.
With the end of the bipolar system, the number
of the critiques of the main stream theories of IR
has gradually and steadily increased. Further,
the critical theories have become prominent
and improved our way of thinking about IR as
institutionalization began to expand all over the
world. Post-colonial theory has challenged value-
free knowledge in social sciences and specifically
in International Relations discipline, and has
highlighted the diiculties in getting objective
information in the reality of international relations
and therefore, has aimed to reconstruct the
objective assumptions (Arı, 2018: 585-595).
In the wake of the Second World War (WWII),
liberation movements were ignited by Asian and
African peoples against colonialists, in fact some
writings actually took the first step in the name
of post-colonialism as a term. However, those
studies did not evaluate the framework of post-
colonialism but formed a basis for this theory.
Post-colonialism emerged as an important concept
when critical approaches started to challenge the
classical thoughts in 1990s. However, modern
post-colonialist writers have taken reference
from some scholars such as Frantz Fanon, Aime
Cesaire and Albert Memmi who fought the war of
independence after WWII.
Post-colonial theory criticizes the Western
world due to their colonies in Asia and Africa.
Post-colonialism is a critical point of view against
colonial authority in terms of economic, social and
political aspects based on modernist arguments.
Modernist thoughts claim that there is only
one objective reality originating in Europe and
excludes the other perspectives. Furthermore, the
West has legitimated colonized Afro-Asian people
by using the modernist thought. erefore, post-
colonial thinking started to criticize the Western
domination in all areas.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
In order to better understand the post-
colonial theory, we need an in-depth analysis of
some concepts. ese concepts are modernism,
colonialism/imperialism, orientalism and
decolonization.
Modernism
e modern concept has always been used to
express the transition from old to new since the
5th century (Habermas, 1994: 31-32). From
the moment modernism moved from the idea
of God-centered to human-centered thinking,
its sole purpose has been to defeat nature and to
achieve a better and more beautiful life. At this
point, it is observed that good and beautiful are
Explain the basic criterion for classification of the
post-positivist theories.
1
Picture 4.1 The picture from the exhibition “The Desert
of Modernity” expresses, how architecture and urban
concepts were inuenced by the colonial rule in North
Africa, reecting the dilemma between decolonization
and modernization
Source: https://frieze.com/article/desert-modernity
Post-Colonialism
68
higher expectations and a world is imagined where
people live more comfortably, the welfare of people
is improving and diseases and poverty are absent.
Besides, it has been pragmatic and functional to
think that salvation ought to come for the world if
not eternity (Horkheimer, 2005:120).
Modernism allows the individual to exist as the
only unit within all social fields. It does not permit
the ontology of identities public representation
and the original formation of the subject at all. It
is shaped by the adaptation of scientific knowledge
to the process of production and consumption
in economy by separating space and time and in
this sense, it is quite deterministic. It retains a
deep underlying continuity with the optimistic
tradition of rationality, realism, and materialism.
In modernism, it is emphasized that the control
of nature and a system based on knowledge will
ensure human salvation (Harvey, 1999: 25).
Modernism constitutes universality of knowledge
which is one of the features of its expansion, and
is also one of the fundamental factors that create
its soul. e world becomes understandable,
predictable, changeable, and finally controllable
through universality (Oktay, 2010: 120). us, it
can be said that modernism is clearly a universal
construction, but it does not directly determine
the quality, but rather it has formed a form of
materialist and deterministic dominance over the
existence itself by constituting the form.
It was possible that modernism made an
appearance first itself and then spread swiftly first
to Europe and then all over the world as a result
of integration with capitalism. It is thought that
industrialization, with modernism, is essentially a
liberating force and a forward-looking phenomenon,
therefore Western societies oer a model that must be
followed by developing societies (Giddens, 2005:130-
131). According to Weber, reaching modernity is
expressed as the telos/ultimate aim of history and it is
stated that this is the destiny of all societies.
e meaning of the Industrial Revolution
is not the acceleration of economic growth, but
also the implementation of economic and social
transformation (Hobsbawm, 2003: 32). is
process is not only a social change, but also a cultural
imposition and was enforced with the rapidly
developing economic system because of its formative
(market-forming) character. Modernist possibilities
that would be constructed by universality, and were
based on positivist, rational and computable basis
have shown an unlimited and striking development.
Hence, the modernist way of thinking and its system
coincide with capitalism that has continuously grown
itself in every sense, thus it has come to exist a basic
algorithm that includes modern-nation state, modern
societies, modern powers and modern relations form
in the world (Ulusoy, 2016: 312-334).
Colonialism / Imperialism
Whatever impression of societies is meaningful to
other cultures, its development, progress and social
mobility are shaped according to those values. States
hegemonic, oppressive or destructive attitudes over
other states have changed military, economic and
cultural structures in time. Hence, some technically
backward regions where economy is based on
agriculture and craftmanship, have been subdued
by states that have more advanced techniques in the
same period, and this relationship has constituted
the basis of colonialism (Luraghi, 2000, 18).
Colonialism, as Europeans originally used the
term signified not ruling over indigenous people
or the extraction of their wealth, but primarily the
transfer of communities who sought to maintain
their own original culture, while seeking a better
life in economic, religious or political terms. In
Locke’s inuential formulation, those who did not
cultivate the land had no rights to it, but Roebuck
still confidently defined a colony as a land without
indigenous people whose inhabitants looked
to England as their mother country. erefore,
the appropriation of land and space meant
that colonialism was, as Said has emphasized,
fundamentally an act of geographical violence, a
geographical violence employed against indigenous
peoples and their land rights. (Said, 1993: 1-15)
Robert Young writes that colonialism “involved an
extraordinary range of dierent forms and practices
carried out with respect to radically dierent
cultures, over many centuries,” and lists examples
including (1) settler colonies such as British
North America and Australia, and French Algeria;
(2) administered territories established without
significant settlement for the purposes of economic
exploitation, such as British India and Japanese
Taiwan; and (3) maritime enclaves, such as Hong
Kong, Malta, and Singapore (Young, 2001: 17).
Theories of International Relations II
69
Marxist thinking draws a crucial distinction between modern colonialism and earlier colonialism,
while earlier colonialism adopts a non-capitalist figuration, modern colonialism was in existence alongside
capitalism in Europe. (Bottomore 1983: 81-85). Modern colonialism not only gained more than goods and
wealth from the countries that restructured the economies with the ow of human and natural resources
between colonized and colonial countries. It replaced both colonized and colonizer: e former is not only
slaves but also contract labor, servants, travelers; the latter is directors, soldiers, missionaries, scientists.
is ow occurred bidirectional, slaves and contract labor alongside with raw material were transferred
to goods manufacture that came up with dierent places to cover the demand in metropolis. At the same
time, colonies provided market which was the recipient of European goods (Loomba, 1999: 22).
In the modern world, then, we can distinguish colonization as the takeover of territory, appropriation
of material resources, exploitation of labor and interference with political and cultural structures of
another territory or nation, from imperialism as a global system. e distinction between pre-capitalist
and capitalist colonialisms is often made by referring to the latter as imperialism. e Oxford English
Dictionary defines ‘imperial’ as ‘pertaining to empire’, and ‘imperialism’ as the ‘rule of an emperor,
especially when despotic or arbitrary; the principal or spirit of empire; advocacy of what are held to be
imperial interests’ (Boehmer, 1995:3).
John A. Hobson was a liberal thinker and an economist who was one of the first writers to use the
concept of imperialism and even inspired Lenin’s development of the theory of imperialism. According
to him, imperialism stems from the wrong practices within capitalism, capitalists preferred to convert the
surplus of capital into reinvestment in order to make a profit outside their own country, since there was
excessive production but inadequate consumption in society. In other words, the investigation of new
investment and market opportunities for unused capital and non-consumable goods within the country
leads to imperialism (Arı, 2013: 287).
In the twentieth century, Lenin defined the word “imperialism’ dierently by linking it with the
development of capitalism, which is called as ‘the Highest stage of Capitalism (1947). Imperialism emerged
as the development and direct continuation of the fundamental characteristics of capitalism in general.
Lenin argued that an enormous superabundance was constituted by finance capitalism and industry in
the Western countries. However, while capital was limited, labour and manpower were abundant in the
colonies, therefore, it needed to move out and subordinate non-industrialized countries to continue its
own growth. Lenin predicted that the rest of the world would be absorbed by European finance capitalist
and this global system was called as ‘Imperialism’ (Lenin, 1999: 91-99).
According to Hans J. Morgenthau, imperialism is a chain of foreign policies aimed at changing power
relations between two or more states and destroying the status quo in their favor. He asserts it worth-
stressing not “what imperialism is” but rather “what imperialism is not”. Morgenthau, does not accept
Picture 4.2 The picture shows colonizer’s eect on indigenous people
Source: http://www.anthroencyclopedia.com/entry/colonialism-postcolonialism
Post-Colonialism
70
any attempt by states to increase their powers in the international arena as imperialism. erefore, every
activity that a nation carries out in order to increase its strength cannot be regarded as imperialism. He
defines that imperialism is reversing the power relation between two or more states and rebuilds the status
quo (Arı, 2013: 285).
Joseph A. Schumpeter rejects the perspective of imperialism based on the economic basis put forward
by Hobson and Lenin. Schumpeter acknowledges that imperialism is an expression of the desire for
unlimited expansion. He sees imperialism as an irrational behavior, such as nationalism, as a remnant
of atavistic social culture. Furthermore, Schumpeter emphasizes three reasons of modern imperialism,
which are the war machine, the aggression instinct, and the
export monopoly. In particular, aggression instinct is actually
considered a primitive character. In modern world’s export
monopoly imperialist expansionism is applied to seize new
markets. According to him, war and imperialism are irrational
behaviors, the basis of which are the remains of atavistic social
culture. (Arı, 2013: 293).
Edward Said and Orientalism
Orientalism is the term used by Edward Said based on the assesments of the attitudes and perspectives
of the Western scholars or Orientalists to legitimize colonial aggression by intellectually marginalized
and dominated Eastern peoples (Khan, 2011: 2). Edward Said also defines the term as: “Anyone who
teaches, writes about, or researches the Orient, which applies whether the person is an anthropologist,
sociologist, historian, or philologist either in its specific or its general aspects, is an Orientalist, and what
he or she does is Orientalism.” Actually, Said argues that imperial ideology began to be noticed by Eastern
peoples. Ideological and textual formations need to switch their main subjectivity. It can be analyzed
that East was marginalized by the Western world in literature, politics, social and economic life. Eastern
people first were colonized, then remembered as being “Other” with Orientalism in the Western form. In
Orientalism, Said has mentioned some examples of orientalism that are seen in the studies of European
scholars, philosophers, political theorists, poets, historians, travel writers and others (Said, 1979).
According to Said, the orientalist creates the Orient through his writing, in the process, and he helps in the
creation of a series of stereotypical images, according to which Europe (the West, the ‘self’) is seen as being essentially
rational, developed, humane, superior, virtuous, normal and masculine, while the Orient (the East, the ‘other’)
is seen as being irrational, backward, despotic, inferior, depraved, aberrant and feminine sexually (Macfie,2002:
8). Orientalists see
themselves as the
center of the world
and the other as
periphery: e center
was also privileged in
the history of sciences,
arts, and cultures,
while the periphery
was marginalized in the
context, also orientalist
creates and produces
something, but in
contrast, the periphery
only consumes
something that is being
provided by West. Picture 4.3 The picture is about the orientalist perspective that sees itself as a sovereign
Source: https://www.kanopy.com/product/knowing-country-british-orientalism
Identify similarities and dierences
between imperialism and colonialism.
2
Theories of International Relations II
71
Orientalism was constituted by the formation
of contradiction in discourse which is expressed
as a Euro-centrist perspective based on historical
pride and organic superiority. It raised the
importance of the following contradictions:
“White against Black”, “Reason against Magic”,
“Knowledge against Ignorance”,“Human rights
against Dignity”, “Life against Death” and “Being
against Nothingness”. ese contradictions cause
one to identify the other (Said, 1979).
It is useful for Said’s aim to mark Antonio
Gramsci’s concept of cultural hegemony which
is a form of Western cultural leadership, and
interested in Orientalism’s strength and durability.
e hegemony identified Europe as “us” and non-
Europeans as “them”. European hegemonic culture
and identity became superior to non-Western ones
in hierarchical status. Western hegemonic umbrella
was theorized to place Western consciousness at
the center of thought (Gramsci, 1971).
Michael Foucault’s arguments on knowledge
and power are significant for Edward Said’s
“Orientalism” concept. Said reveals a contradiction
in discourse between the Occident and the Orient.
According to this, Orientalist discourse transforms
the strange and exotic orient into a controllable and
intelligible phenomenon that can be defined. us,
the orientalist discourse has created a character
typology that has produced contrasting pairs like
“the rational Westerner” and “the irrational Oriental”
(Turner 1997: 21). Said argued that Foucault’s
discourse concept was of inestimable value in
studying the systemic discipline of Orientalism and
found the unity and continuity of Western discourse
on the orient by using inuencial factors which
are scholars, political elites, business authority in
colonial formation (Porter 1994: 153).
Picture 4.4 Edward Said was born in 1935 in Palestine
and moved to the U.S. in 1951. A Princeton and Harvard
alum, he became a literature professor at Columbia
University. In addition to writing about ction, Said
published many books on the Western cultural bias
evident in the rhetoric by which the Middle East was
surrounded most notably during 1978’s Orientalism. Said
strongly supported an independent Palestinian state. He
died in 2003 in New York City at the age of 67. (https://
www.biography.com/people/edward-said-40771)
Source: https://library.columbia.edu/news/
libraries/2009/20091202_said.html
Define the meaning and scope of Orientalism.
3
Decolonization
Decolonization is a technical concept containing
economic, social and political arguments in
modern history. Also, it is one of the most dramatic
process structuring the principles of the world
world order. e term “decolonization” emerged
by using anti-colonial ideology and by hampering
colonial power. e process of colonization
begins with the physical occupation of land and
domination on the indigenous people. (Collins,
2013) ere are two fields that were colonized:
“Physical and Mental”. e former is about
economic, political and technical oppression the
indigenous people suered the latter is relevant
social norms that contain culture, religion,
conscious, tradition, history etc. in their mind.
While indigenous people decolonized their society
and land from colonial power, they were interested
in physical survival, but this condition could not
change colonial mentality, and they survived their
own lands but not their own mind.
Post-Colonialism
72
POST-COLONIAL THEORY
Post-colonial theory is a post-modernist/
post-positivist/reectivist/critical theory in
international relations theory. is theory posits
a critical thinking toward modern and colonial/
imperial world. It urges to oer an alternative to
the Eurocentric stance and notions of Western
domination by challenging “western ideas” in
all areas namely literature, history, linguistic,
identity, gender. Although “Post” concept refers
to after colonialism, there are some discussions
about the fact that colonialism has not come to an
end, it just changes its shape in post-modern era
(Tepeciklioglu, 2013: 80- 97).
Moreover, some scholars have used the concept
“neo” to explain conditions after the independence
movements in 1950s and 1960s. Since then,
they have argued that colonial authority has not
been finished in terms of economics and politics.
Neo-colonialism meaning ‘new colonialism’ was
a term coined by Kwame Nkrumah, the first
President of Ghana, and the leading exponent of
Pan-Africanism in his book: Neo Colonialism: the
Last Stage of Imperialism by Kwame (1965). e
term has since been widely used to refer to any
and all forms of control of the ex-colonies after
political independence and new elites who often
were educated and trained by colonialist powers.
In a wider frame, new elites tried to provide their
independent economic development and political
stability under the pressure of globalization.
However, people realized that independent
movements need resistance in the matters of
culture, language, psychology and ideology against
Western dominance. Neo-colonialism criticizes
that these movements did not succeed in fighting
against mental perspectives of colonialism, and
they just resisted to provide economic and political
sovereignty on their mainland. (Ashcroft, 2007:
146-147).
e post-colonial approach has begun to
find a place in the field with a new perspective in
understanding world politics and reecting the
feelings of the South. In this context, post-colonial
analyses provide many significant contributions
to understanding North-South relations. Post-
colonial theory approaches the issue with a dierent
understanding from traditional state-centered
military and diplomatic approaches (Abrahamsen,
2007:111). e mainstream theories that emerged
in Europe and continued in the United States made
it a habit to look at world politics from the window
of powerful states and continue to ignore the views
and opinions of poor and underdeveloped countries.
e post-colonial theory focuses on the ideas
and practices of the southern and marginalized
Picture 4.5 The picture is about resistance of decolonized people
Source: https://studybreaks.com/college/decolonization/
Theories of International Relations II
73
societies in response to the universalist, static, and
even elitist nature of Western-centered thought.
Postcolonial writers often study on identity,
culture, ethnicity and women’s issues, their colonial
relations and its current reections.
ere is no certain date of the beginning of the
post-colonial theory, but this theory generally could
be based on Frantz Fanon’s “Black Skin, White
Masks” (1952) and “e Wretched of the Earth”
(1961) books that were basic works on colonization
and psychological eects of colonialism. He focused
not only its eects on physical violence but also on
its mental eects on indigenous people. ose have
built awareness among other nations that made
anti-colonialist movements in Africa and Asia.
Post-colonial theory was inuenced by the issues
in “Orientalism” by Edward Said. Orientalism
carried out more scientific studies of post-colonial
theory. e work of Said sets out a very good
condition for the nature of identity formation in
post-colonialism and constituted a post-colonial
terminology. It caused imbalance between the West
and East by showing the superiority of the former.
Said applied the concepts of “the self ”, “orient”,
the other” and “occident” to show two distinct
cultures of West and East.
Post-colonial theory, like all other critical
approaches have gained significance by the end
of the bipolar system particularly following the
independence movements of the colonial people.
It began to become much more systematic and
theoretical, some scholars extended post-colonialist
area by analyzing some concepts. In this sense,
contemporary cases have been discussed in the
context of post-colonialism by writers on the basis
of their own culture. It would be confirmed with
their method and opinion about post-colonialism,
because the history of critical reading and
understanding has been a product of them.
Some scholars directly mentioned about post-
colonial theory in their conceptual frame, on the
other hand, some thinkers have been eective in
the progress of the post-colonialism as getting
to the sources of certain concepts. e inuence
of leading scholars on the construction of post-
colonial theory such as Michel Foucault and
Jacques Derrida is well-known. Furthermore, in
this chapter post-colonial theory will be elaborated
more, by examining the most important figures
respectively Frantz Fanon, Albert Memmi, Aime
Cesaire, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Homi
K. Bhabha. Post-colonialism will be analyzed
according to these scholars’ perspectives.
Prior to this, we need to examine the guiding
argument that designs theoretical framework of
post-colonialism, in this regard, we will focus on
scholars who inuenced post-colonialism in terms
of its constructive paradigm.
Michel Foucault emphasized the concept of
discourse that has been significant to construct
the ideological structure of post-colonialism.
Foucault linked knowledge with power, deciphered
Western secret interests in social, health, and
physical sciences (Bhabha, 1994; Scott, 1999).
Discourse, as a social construct, is created and
maintained by those who have the power and
means of communication. For example, those
who are in control of the decisions on who we
are and who we are by deciding what we discuss.
Foucault holds that truth, morality and meaning
are created through discourse. In every society
the production of discourse is at once controlled,
selected, organized and redistributed according to
a certain number of procedures (Weedon, 1997:
105). As observed by Foucault, language plays a
powerful role in reproducing and transforming
power relations among many dierent dimensions
such as class, culture, gender, disability etc. and is
sanctioned through the techniques and procedures
accorded value in the discovery of truth; the status
of those who are charged with saying what counts
as true. Discourse is interwoven with power and
knowledge to constitute the oppression of those
“others” in our society, serving to marginalize,
silence and oppress them. ey are oppressed not
only by being denied access to certain knowledge,
but by the demands of the dominant group within
the society for the other to shed their dierences
to become “one of us”. Control of knowledge is a
form of oppression only when certain groups have
access to certain knowledge. Discourse ultimately
serves to control not just what, but how subjects
are constructed. Language, thought, and desires
are regulated, policed, and managed through
discourse (Pitsoe, 2012).
Foucault also mentioned the concept of
ethnology. According to him, ethnology allows
the exercise of a kind of comparative homology
between cultures, one based on their all being made
Post-Colonialism
74
to conform to a fundamental Western model. As a
disciplinary practice of knowledge, it depends for
its existence on a power relation with European
hegemony (Young, 2001) e proper use of
ethnology comes not in studying other cultures but
in developing what Bhabha defines as one the key
tasks for the post-colonial critic, the development
of “a critical ethnography of the west” (Bhabha,
1991). Foucault’s Madness and Civilization
(1961) functioned as a founding study of the way in
which society has produced its forms of exclusion.
He argued that “the other” is marginalized from
the society, that is, “mad is separated from rational
person” in the context of social dynamics, because
mad could not produce his/her knowledge and
could not use any judiciously. In international
dynamics, mad represent colonized people who are
never allowed, or invited to speak as “the other” in
the international system.
Foucault emphasizes the role of discourse in the
structure of knowledge of objects as a part of the
formation of the scientific disciplines or construction
of knowledge and creation of categories such as
deviance, mental illness through which society is
organized. Foucault suggests primarily in discourse
the way in which a knowledge is constituted as part
of a specific practice whose knowledge is formed
at the interface of language and material world
(Young, 2001). He worked on practice of two
divided concepts by using linguistic contradictions
such as smart/mad, good/bad, innocent/criminal.
ese concepts identify the positive one against the
negative one, that is, the positive one “the self “and
the negative one generally become “the other” in
the society. At the same time, those underlie the
post-colonialist discipline by identifying advanced
side over subaltern culture.
In “Discipline and Punish” book, Foucault
associates the existence of power to the birth of
crime and punishment for power is a necessity
for obedience of the masses. In modern times,
the type of punishment changed and it began to
be preferred in the form of labor camp instead
of prison (Arı, 2018: 489). He radically rejects
general truths accepted by all society, because these
truths are put by that time’s power that strives to
reconstruct the society. Post-colonialism also rejects
general Western thoughts that spread all over the
world. Furthermore, genealogy notion is a type
of an historical idea regarding knowledge-power
relations. Genealogy in a form beyond history aims
to historicize the things and thoughts excluded
from the history. According to Foucault, history is
about eternal reputation of the sense of dominance,
genealogy is a counter historiography aiming at
revealing the excluded processes and revealing the
teleological aspect of history (Arı, 2018: 499).
Jacques Derrida on the other hand, uses
the concept of deconstruction in his critique of
Western metaphysics or logocentrism essentially
as a stereotyped way of thinking based on Western
thought, but instead uses dichotomies such as in
/ out, male / female, present / absent, West / East.
In fact, each distinction represents a hierarchy
in which the first one is considered superior, the
other one represents the excluded and neglected
one. According to Derrida, Western thought is
based on dichotomies such as being / absence,
identity / dierence, domestic / international,
and not being understood without the opposite
one. Derrida draws attention to the fact that the
second concept in dichotomies could be superior
to the first and such distinctions are diicult. For
example, is it possible to draw the line precisely
between the presence and the absence? (Zehfuss,
2007). Derrida deconstructs the presence in
this sense because he thinks that there is no
way to isolate the presence from the absence.
us, deconstruction leads to question our
standard knowledge, and it is a political attitude
in this respect (Arı, 2018: 485). Likewise, post-
colonial formation tries to deconstruct modern
knowledge designed by Western ideology, and it
tries to provide localization of knowledge by using
pluralistic knowledge principle, that is, there is no
single truth/knowledge and was shaped according
to the subject and its culture.
Foucault and Derrida theoretically revealed the
main sources of post-colonialism. In this sense,
post-colonialist writers have created their subaltern
work by using these scholars’ concepts. In fact, they
have defended “the otherthat is marginalized by
Western enlightenment and argued that it should
be taken into consideration.
Most important figures of post-colonial theory
are examined in the following section:
Theories of International Relations II
75
POST-COLONIAL SCHOLARS
Frantz Fanon
Frantz Fanon is the pioneer of post-colonial
theory in terms of both problematisation and
terminology. e post-colonialist theory was
based on Fanons works that first analyzed and
revealed colonialism as a fundamental problem of
knowledge. Frantz Fanon concluded his indictment
of colonialism by pronouncing that Europe ‘is
literally the creation of the ird World’ in the
sense, its material wealth and labour come from
the colonies, ‘the sweat and the dead bodies of
Negroes, Arabs, Indians and the yellow races’ that
have fueled the ‘opulence’ of Europe (Fanon, 1963:
76–81). Fanons main claim is that it is the white
man who created the black man and the black man
himself who created the qualities of the black man.
In his approach and developed analysis; Marxism,
psychoanalysis, phenomenology and existentialism
are aecting factors. Fanon refuses to represent
the whole of humanity as created by the French
enlightenment in the 18th century, also applies
psychoanalysis on black people who were crushed,
exploited and humiliated. e world which
existed in the pre-modern period appear to be in
a regular order in which people could maintain
their lives has been systematically transformed into
gradual irregularities by the Western promises of
illumination and development and this disorder
has been used for their exploitation.
According to Fanon, it is necessary to play with the
order of the new world created by the colonial man
and to render his rules unworkable (Fanon, 1952).
Fanons analysis of the ‘national middle class
or ‘national bourgeoisie’ is his most important and
most prophetic contribution to understanding
the post-colonial society. Fanon was referring
to that portion of the colonized population who
had benefitted in the process from a European
education and were engaged as small businessmen,
doctors, lawyers, teachers and employees within
the colonial bureaucracy. e upward mobility of
this class was also inhibited by the racism inherent
in the colonial society. Consequently, they were the
first to begin organized nationalist agitation and
assumed the leadership of the emergent nationalist
organizations that began demanding independence
(Gordon, 1995).
Furthermore, Fanon’s thought is characterized
by three aspects. First, he proposes a radical anti-
imperialist theory, which emphasizes the central
significance of ‘race’ in the context of colonial
oppression; race is not a contingent determination
that could be subsumed under the general category
of class, but is a distinctive and autonomous form
of social, economic and political inequality. Second,
Fanon stresses the significance of the revolutionary
act as also a psychological and intellectual
transformation, which must accompany material
Picture 4.6 Frantz Fanon was born in the French
colony of Martinique on July 20, 1925. His family
occupied a social position within Martinican society
that could reasonably qualify them as a part of the
black bourgeoisie; Frantz’s father, Casimir Fanon,
was a customs inspector and his mother, Eléanore
Médélice, owned a hardware store in downtown Fort-
de-France, the capital of Martinique. Members of this
social stratum tended to strive for assimilation, and
identication with white French culture. Fanon was
raised in this environment, learning France’s history
as his own, until his high school years when he rst
encountered the philosophy of negritude learning from
Aime Cesaire about Martinique’s other renowned critic
of European colonization. Politicized, and torn between
the assimilationism of Martinique’s middle class and
the preoccupation with racial identity that negritude
promotes, Fanon left the colony in 1943, at the age of
18, to ght with the Free French forces in the waning
days of World War II. (https://www.iep.utm.edu/fanon/)
Source: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/sociology/
research/centres/socialtheorycentre/fanonevent/
Post-Colonialism
76
transformation, or the socialist reorganization of
production. ird, Fanon argues for individual
freedom as an essential component of a socialist
synthesis that should guarantee democratic
participation in the construction of socialism
(Hansen, 1996).
Fanon states that there are two main reasons for
establishing the type of human being created by
the colonial phenomenon. e main cause of this
inferiority complex is economic immaturity and
the second is skin color dierence as inferiority
that black people think: “I am an inferior person
because my skin color is not white”. Fanon said
that the current existence, accumulation and
peace of European civilization are based on their
own labor but are largely based on the fact that
they have stolen or forcibly taken from the blacks,
and they must take up what is their right (Fanon,
1963).
Albert Memmi
e psychological eects of colonialism were
analyzed by Memmi in his book “Portrait of the
Colonial” (1957). According to Memmi, it is
not possible for the colonists to be unaware of the
illegitimacy of their position, but on the contrary,
the colonists demonstrate through their actions
that they are aware that their welfare has actually
been promoted through the misery of what they
colonize. Memmi, a member of one of the non-
Muslim families of Tunisia, put forward originally
the “dual refusal” and “dual responsibility” of his
life because, as Sartre points out, Memmi has a
slightly more privileged position than most of the
colonized because of his non-Muslim status, but
he has not yet been fully accepted by the colonists.
us, the problem of Memmi really is as Sartre
answered; Memmi is neither the colonialist nor the
colonized, or both. Memmi points at a simple fact:
If colonialist’s life standards are high, this is due to
the low level of the colonized people (2003).
Although he had a relatively privileged position
in the community he lived in, Memmi experienced
a dual exclusion from both the colonial and
the colonized. In his works he dealt with the
relationship between these two groups and with
one of the most important reference sources of
the postcolonial literature with his writings in this
field.
Aimé Césaire
Césaire, is one of the most important figures of
Martinique like Fanon and he deeply inuenced
contemporary postcolonial writers with his
opinions. “Discourse on Colonialism” (1955)
is his book which later became one of the most
fundamental works of post-colonial writing.
He advocates that the pseudo-humanism that is
actually the colonialist has got a fake understanding
of humanity. Pseudo-humanism makes the
colonialist uncivilized and brutal.
Cesaire uses the concept of Negro frequently in
his work and being black he argued that they need
simply awareness and this reality was identified by
him to accept the fate of black, history and culture.
Similar to what Fanon did in his book, “Black
Skin, White Masks”, he explored the reasons for
indigenous people to be alienated to their own
culture and, even were ashamed of being black
(ompson, 2002; 144).
Homi K. Bhabha
Bhabha has become one of the leading
voices in post-colonialism since the early 1980s.
His work is very diicult to understand at first
reading because of his complex writing style. It
can be argued that Bhabha is “something of a
master of political mystification and theoretical
obfuscation” (McLeod, 2000: 51).
Bhabha suggests that colonial authority is
necessarily rendered ‘hybrid’ and ‘ambivalent’
when it is imitated or reproduced, thus opening
up spaces for the colonized to subvert the master-
discourse. (Loomba, 1998). In his book “e
Location of Culture” (1994), Bhabha writes,
e objective of colonial discourse is to construe the
colonized as a population of degenerate types on the
basis of racial origin, in order to justify conquest and
to establish systems of administration and instruction
(Bhabha, 1994:70). Hence, we have seen the
emergence of colonial stereotypes that represent
colonized peoples in various derogatory ways.
However, in an inspired departure from Said’s
concept of Orientalism (Mondal, 2010).
Theories of International Relations II
77
e most important part where Bhabha is
dierent from Said and Spivak is that he considers the
colonial phenomenon as an opportunity for cultural
exchange, and, unlike Spivak, subaltern can actually
speak for themselves and this speech emerges as a
mimicry and is hybrid (Ashcroft, Griiths, 1989).
Mimicry is a process and experience and in fact there
is reproduction and development of oneself over its
center. Hybridity is the most natural consequence
of worldly practice. It should be considered among
cultures and especially between colonial cultures and
indigenous identities.
In Bhabha’s words: “Stereotyping is not only the
setting up of a false image which becomes the scapegoat of
discriminatory practices. It is a much more ambivalent
text of projection and introjections, metaphoric and
metonymic strategies, displacement, guilt, aggressivity;
the masking and splitting of ‘oicial’ and fantastic
knowledges” (Bhabha, 1986: 169). Bhabha points
out that the fantasies of the colonial stereotypes
often appear as horrors. e discourse of colonialism
is frequently populated with ‘terrifying stereotypes
of savagery, cannibalism, lust and anarchy’ (Bhabha,
1994: 72). In his essay ‘Of Mimicry and Man’,
Bhabha builds on these ideas and explores how the
ambivalence of colonized subject becomes a direct
threat to the authorities of the colonizers through
the eects of ‘mimicry’. Bhabha describes mimicry
as ‘one of the most elusive and eective strategies
of colonial power and knowledge’ (Bhabha, 1994).
Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak
Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak studies on
theoretical and terminological framework on
post-colonialism. Spivak was first known for
her work “De La Grammatology”, which was a
translation of Jacques Derridas work published in
1967, a theoretician of the contemporary French
philosopher and post-structuralism, and was a
turning point for the philosophy of continental
Europe, after successfully translating it from French
to English (Landry, Maclean, 1996). So, Spivak
was very inuenced by Derrida. It is not possible
to imagine Spivak without the deconstruction of
Derrida (Landry, Maclean, 1996: 1-2).
She developed and produced all of her analyzes
thanks to her reading about post colonialism and
with method and technique largely inuenced by
Derrida’s deconstruction method (Abdulkafor,
2015). Spivak comments on feminist theory
specifically with post-colonialist perspective
in addition to Derrida’s philosophy, reading
and method. She is known to contribute to
the problematizing of “Can Subaltern Speak
in post-colonial theory. Like Bhabha, Spivak
is also a researcher who came from subaltern
tradition in India. Spivak’s main contribution to
post-colonialism and her work famous in post-
colonialism is to explore and discuss whether or not
to speak of subaltern (Landry, Maclean, 1996: 5-6).
According to Spivak, the concept of subaltern
is concentrated on all exploited people, particularly
Hindu women, and there are two options of a
widowed Indian woman, who lost her husband,
one is the self killing tradition (Sati tradition) and
being inferior in the process of emancipation of
the contemporary world. Spivak is interested in
feminist side of post-colonialism, because subaltern
women are much more inferior than the others.
is is the only thing in Spivak’s perspective that
Picture 4.7 Homi K. Bhabha (b. 1949) is a literary
and cultural critic, inuential theorist of postcolonial
culture, and engaged advocate for the humanities.
While easily understood as a postcolonial theorist,
the range of his interests means it is perhaps better
to characterize his work in terms of vernacular or
translational cosmopolitanism. Born in Bombay, Bhabha
was educated and taught in British universities, before
moving to the University of Chicago and ultimately
Harvard, where he teaches in the Department of English
and is director of the Humanities Center. Developing
the work of psychoanalytic and post-structuralist
thinkers, Bhabha has been a profoundly original voice
in the study of colonial, postcolonial, and globalized
cultures (http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/
document/obo-9780190221911/obo-9780190221911-
0057.xml)
Source: https://president.mla.hcommons.
org/2016/12/02/homi-k-bhabha/
Post-Colonialism
78
combines feminism and post-colonial basis. An
important detail for the women of India at the
center of Spivak’s work is the separation of the first
world women and the third world women on fate,
grievances and rights, and the first world women is
close to the metropolitan, that is, the third world
women is the lowermost in class system. According
to Spivak, the feminist ideology as a main stream is
universal and masculine, this is wrong to understand
real feminist ideology (Loomba, 1998: 190).
Sati tradition (also called suttee) is the practice
among some Hindu communities by which a recently
widowed woman either voluntarily or by use of force
or coercion commits suicide as a result of her husband’s
death. e best-known form of sati is when a woman
burns to death on her husband’s funeral pyre. However
other forms of sati exist, including being buried alive
with the husband’s corpse and drowning.
Spivak is best known for her contemporary
cultural and critical theories to challenge the
“legacy of colonialism” and the way readers engage
with literature and culture. She often focuses on
the cultural texts of those who are marginalized by
dominant Western culture: the new immigrant;
the working class; women; and other positions of
the subaltern. ere is a separation point between
Bhabha and Spivak related to the discussion
whether subaltern can speak or not. While Bhabha
defends that subaltern can speak, Spivak asserts
that subaltern cannot speak yet because of firstly
“sati” tradition. Spivak adds that subaltern cannot
speak also due to not having their own history
(Ashcroft, Griiths, Tiin, 1989: 175-176).
In essence the problem for Spivak that exists
in the world is the social existence and habit style
based on male domination, in this respect, the
elites, colonialists and Westerners resemble men and
the subaltern are like “Sati” women (Spivak, 2010:
66-111). e importance of Gayatri Chakravarty
Spivak’s work and its contribution to post-colonial
theory is the development of a new interpretation
of feminist terminology in post-colonialism.
Spivak has been faithful when using psychoanalytic
method to historiography, cultural and women/
gender problems (Ozdemir, 2017: 262).
Critiques of Post-Colonialism
e first part of the criticism is related to the
title of post-colonialism. -Post- is used to form
words that indicate that something takes place
after a particular date, period, or event (Collins
dictionary). e critique mentioned the word
“post” and what it denotes after colonialism and
what happened in the World. e question is,
whether colonialism was really over. Which aspects
of colonialism are over or do continue? Because the
liberation of the colonies did not mean economic
independence, it happened only in terms of political
liberation. We still know that Western states are
exploiting developing countries with transnational
companies today. ese countries are still poor
and economically committed to the World Bank
and International Monetary Fund, which means
that they are still politically dependent on Western
states. Moreover, developing countries have been
inuenced as a cultural dimension from Western
Picture 4.8 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (born 24
February 1942) is an Indian theorist, philosopher and
University Professor at Columbia University, where
she is a founding member of the school’s Institute for
Comparative Literature and Society. She is best known
for the essay “Can the Subaltern Speak?” considered
a founding text of postcolonialism; and for her
translation of, and introduction to, Jacques Derrida’s
De la grammatologie.) (https://www.poemhunter.com/
gayatri-chakravorty-spivak/biography/)
Source: (https://today.appstate.edu/2015/09/18/gayatri-
spivak)
Explain the dierences between Homi Bhabha
and Gayatri Chakravarty Spivak in post-colonial
theory.
4
Theories of International Relations II
79
countries with globalism spreading through
technological developments such as the Internet.
People living in developing countries can reach
Western culture even if the Westerners are not there.
Disinformation has spread towards the developing
countries in the form of popular culture. It causes
cultural alienation. In other words, colonialism still
continues economically, politically and culturally in
today’s world. erefore, the word “post” must be
reconsidered in this context (Mutman, 2010: 3-4).
Furthermore, the second challenging question
is which period was analyzed by post-colonialism.
It is worth noting that if Orientalism and the first
texts of Homi Bhabha and Gayatri Spivak were
read carefully, it is clear that they studied about
colonialism texts and relations between colonizer and
colonized not post-colonialism but pre-colonialism.
Another part of the criticism is that there are some
dierences between people living in underdeveloped
countries and immigrants from third world in
metropolitan countries. e modes of living, status
and consumption of them are dierent. Immigrants
are exposed to alienation, working at cheapest works,
discrimination etc. However, a substantial part of
immigrants has the chance to obtain status with
upward mobility in sociological statement. On the
other hand, in the ird World or underdeveloped
countries, there are often violent forms of political
oppression and heavy economic exploitation, which
can be termed almost as a class “apartheid” and upward
mobility is more severely limited or determined by
Western countries (Mutman, 2010: 6-7).
Moreover, “hybridity” and “purity” concepts
must be reexamined. What refers to post-colonial
subjects? In recent readings, hybridity has been used
generally as subject of post-colonialism and studies
are continuing more through use of hybridity
concept as a post-colonial subject. Hybridity is
a mixture of the culture of immigrant and people
living in developed countries and it represents in fact
a new community who has got social adaptation on
cultural facts. Hybridity is that post-colonial subjects
obtain partially their freedom in there, thus they
are not anymore pure post-colonial subjects. e
Hybrid is also now settled in developed countries
and constitute a new identity. erefore, post-
colonialism texts turn a blind eye to main stressed
subjects who represent purely colonized people in
the third world (Dirlik,1994).
CONCLUSION
Post-colonial theory is a theory that emerged
as a critique of Western enlightenment. It resisted
imperial and colonial ideologies that legitimize the
superiority of the West in the international arena.
e modernist perspective that emerged in the
West revealed the validity of objective knowledge
and development of the technique of the West are
based on this knowledge. us, Western knowledge
constituted supremacy over the world, thus, the
West looked at some places outside of West was
defined as backward. en, they began to establish
colonies for exploitation which were the economic
dimension of this domination, the exploitation was
not only economic but also cultural and political.
e post-colonial theory focuses on the cultural
dimension of exploitation and it examines the
exploitation of mind, consciousness, language and
religion of indigenous people. Postcolonial studies
are interested mostly in subaltern part of society, in
this sense, they have tried to reconstruct the society
and raise consciousness.
Moreover, Frantz Fanon, Aime Cesaire, Alpert
Memmi formed a resistance against the colonists.
ey formed the framework of “what needs to be
done” in meaningful post-colonial studies. Even
writers like Derrida and Foucault do not directly
say anything about post-colonialism. However,
they drew the theoretical framework of post-
colonial theory with Foucault’s discourse and
Derrida’s deconstruction it concepts. erefore,
Derrida and Foucault argued “how needs to be
done”. Edward Said indicated “what position
colonized people are in” in his Orientalism book.
After all, Homi Bhabha and Gayatri Chakravarty
Spivak determined post-colonialist thought in
terms of their own culture, and the elements used
in post-colonial perspective.
When it comes to critiques of post-colonialism
which focus on the word -post- , it was
problematized whether these analyses discussed
-post- colonialism or -pre- colonialism. Also
there are some dierences between immigrants in
developed countries that constitute hybridity and
people living in third world countries in terms of
status, economic and political independence with
very limited upward mobility etc.
Theories of International Relations II
85
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Zehfuss, Maja, (2007). Derrida Negotiating the Legacy. UK, Edinburgh University Press.
Thesis
Abstract In the nineteenth century, British power held control over many countries of the world. It was undoubtedly proved to be very cruel towards the indigenous people, bringing about brutality and oppression. The Caribbean islands are one of the territories where the English ruled and exploited the people and their lands. Caribbean women suffered even more because they experienced another level of dominance imposed on them by men; patriarchal society, itself, is colonization for them. The present study aims at investigating the issue of double colonization in Jean Rhys's WideSargasso Sea. This novel is considered as a masterpiece of Caribbean resistance literature as well as a narrative of female fall down in a male-dominated society. For this purpose, the postcolonial feminist theory is used to examine how the main character in Wide Sargasso Sea, Antoinette is doubly subjected by colonialism and patriarchy. In doing so, an analytical method is conducted to analyze the different forms of oppression the creole protagonist is subjected to throughout the novel, and which of these forms lead to her madness. This study reveals that women are not genetically fragile and weak but the different cultural, emotional or physical factors they face contribute to this fragility. Thus, colonial and patriarchal forms of subjugation, as the two are inextricably entwined, are responsible for the identity crisis and mental breakdown of Antoinette in the Wide Sargasso Sea. Keywords: Double colonization, colonialism, patriarchy, identity crisis, Wide Sargasso Sea.
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Uluslararası ilişkiler alanında yaşanan hızlı değişim bu alandaki teorik tartışmaları da sürekli kılmaktadır. Uluslararası ilişkilerde, toplum bilimlerinin diğer alanlarında olduğu gibi tek bir teori ile tüm dış politika ve uluslararası ilişkileri analiz etme mümkün değildir. Bu durum uluslararası ilişkilerin kendine özgü nedenleri kadar toplum bilimlerin genel niteliğinden de kaynaklanmaktadır. Temelinde insan olgusuna dayanan toplum bilimi, incelediği alanın ve ögenin değişkenliğine ayak uydurmak zorunda kalmaktadır. Bu nedenle siyasal bilimlerde ve uluslararası ilişkilerde teorik tartışmaların geçmişini devlet olgusunun ortaya çıkışına kadar geri götürmek mümkündür. Bu durum insanın ve onu etkileyen olguların sürekli değişmesinden ve bu alana uygulanabilecek genel teorilerin geliştirilmesinin doğa bilimleri kadar kolay olmamasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Doğa bilimlerindeki düzenlilikler, bu alana uygulanabilecek genel teori ve yasaların ortaya konmasına olanak sağlarken, aynı durum toplum bilimleri, siyasal bilimler ve uluslararası ilişkiler için söz konusu olamamaktadır.
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Gerek Uluslararası İlişkiler disiplini gerekse uluslararası ilişkiler pratiği ciddi dönüşümler ve değişimler geçirmektedir. Soğuk Savaşın sona ermesi ve Sovyet Bloğunun dağılması dünyayı daha entegre bir bütün haline getirmiştir. Küreselleşme olgusu, bütün sorunların küresel boyutta ele alınarak tartışılmasını ve ortak çözümler üretilmesini zorunlu kılmıştır. İdeolojik savaş sona ermekle beraber dünya nüfusu yeni tehdit unsurlarıyla yüzyüze kalmıştır. Aslında bunların bazıları Soğuk Savaşın tortuları, bazıları ise Soğuk Savaşın gölgesinde kalmış sorunlardır. Artık yoksulluk, açlık, göç, terörizm, etnik milliyeçilik ve nükleer silahların yayılması insanlığın yüzleşmek zorunda olduğu sorunlardır. Bu çerçevede diaspora, medya, kamuoyu ve STK (NGO)’lar siyaset yapma sürecinde daha da etkili hale gelmişlerdir.
Article
How have nations and nationhood become the dominant form of political organization today? What is the role of culture in nationalism? In what ways have the ideological development of nationalisms in the post-colonial world shaped understandings of contemporary political problems such as the rise of radical Islam, communalism, and the failure of secular-liberal democracy? This book offers the first comparative study of two highly significant anti-colonial nationalisms. Its close analysis of nationalist discourse in India and Egypt is situated within a new theoretical framework for studying nationalism, based on a trenchant critique of theorists such as Benedict Anderson, Ernest Gellner, Eric Hobsbawm and Anthony Smith.