ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

In this paper, we present a domain-specific, open access, reference ontology (ROMAIN) for the maintenance management domain. We use a hybrid approach, based on a top-down alignment to an open source top-level ontology, the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and a bottom up focus on classes that are grounded in maintenance practice. We constrain the scope of the ontology to the classes that are unique to the maintenance management practice, such as maintenance strategy, degradation, and work order management, rather than modeling the entire domain of maintenance. This approach reduces the scope of the development task and enables reasoning to be tested at a manageable scale. ROMAIN provides a unifying framework that can be used in conjunction with other BFO compliant sub-domain ontologies, such as planning and scheduling ontologies. The proposed ontology is validated using real-life data in the context of a use case related to evaluating the effectiveness of maintenance strategy.
Content may be subject to copyright.
preprint (0) 1 1
ROMAIN: Towards a BFO compliant
Reference Ontology for Industrial
Mohamed Hedi Karray a,*, Farhad Ameri b, Melinda Hodkiewicz cand Thierry Louge d
aLGP-INP-ENIT, Université de Toulouse, Tarbes, France
bDepartment of Engineering Technology, Texas State University, TX, U.S.A
cFaculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Australia
dCALMIP, Université de Toulouse-CNRS-INPT-INSA-UPS, UMS 3667, France
In this paper, we present a domain-specific, open access, reference ontology (ROMAIN) for the maintenance
management domain. We use a hybrid approach, based on a top-down alignment to an open source top-level ontol-
ogy, the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and a bottom up focus on classes that are grounded in maintenance prac-
tice. We constrain the scope of the ontology to the classes that are unique to the maintenance management practice,
such as maintenance strategy, degradation, and work order management, rather than modeling the entire domain
of maintenance. This approach reduces the scope of the development task and enables reasoning to be tested at a
manageable scale. ROMAIN provides a unifying framework that can be used in conjunction with other BFO com-
pliant sub-domain ontologies, such as planning and scheduling ontologies. The proposed ontology is validated using
real-life data in the context of a use case related to evaluating the effectiveness of maintenance strategy.
Keywords: Basic Formal Ontology, industrial maintenance, maintenance management
1. Introduction
The competitiveness and responsiveness of manufacturing firms depend, in part, on how effectively
they maintain their assets and ensure the availability of their resources. Maintenance is defined as “the
actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a required function”
(IEC, 2016, 2011). Almost all assets of any value need maintenance and, as a result, there has evolved
organizational structures and processes to manage maintenance with theory and practice to support its
delivery. Maintenance management practices are documented in Standards (IEC, 2016), textbooks (Kelly,
2006, 1997; Palmer, 1999) and by professional societies (SMRP, 2009; GFMAM, 2016).
Data are key to the effective and safe maintenance of assets over their life cycle. This data is generated
by, and drawn from, various sources such as maintenance management systems, design documentation,
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
1/0-1900/$ c
0 – authors (preprint).
2H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
original equipment manufacturer manuals, process control systems, third party service providers, risk
management assessments and failure investigations (Morello et al., 2010), to name just a few. However,
due to the heterogeneity of data sources and diversity of data types, unlocking the real value of data and
discovering the useful patterns of knowledge embedded in the maintenance data has always presented a
major challenge (Bendell, 1988; Karray et al., 2011; Knapp and Hasibether, 2011). Ontologies can effec-
tively address this challenge by semantic annotation, integration, consistency checking and organization
of data (Karray et al., 2010).
Nowadays most asset-owning organizations will have a Computerized Maintenance Management Sys-
tem (CMMS) whose data schemes conform to a common understanding of work flows in maintenance
practice. As a result, the way maintenance work is managed across different sectors such as defense, man-
ufacturing, and service, is remarkably consistent. The details of the work vary with the asset type but
the modeling entities and workflow processes are common. This makes maintenance an ideal candidate
for an ontology that can have wide-spread application as the classes used to describe the maintenance
management process and information are commonly used by the maintenance community.
Over the last 25 years, groups in industry, academia, and on standards committees have developed on-
tologies for engineering and asset management applications. These works include maintenance concepts
but do not focus on maintenance management practice and processes. As a result, there has been limited
uptake by maintenance practitioners (Hodkiewicz, 2018). There is a need for a reference ontology in the
maintenance domain that can serve as the overarching semantic model connecting various application
ontologies related to maintenance. The work proposed in this paper is positioned to fulfill this need.
In this paper, we present a reference ontology for industrial maintenance management. The reference
ontology developed in this work uses a top-level ontology. The development of ROMAIN started with
identifying the general terms most commonly used in maintenance practice and continued with the rep-
resentation of more complex entities in the domain. Although the ontology, in its current state, covers
most of the key notions specific to the maintenance domain, it can be extended in order to take account of
the technological and scientific advances. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We start with the
motivation involving a description of the maintenance management domain. An overview of the current
state of the art in ontology practice is provided in section 2, next followed by a critical review of previous
work related to maintenance in section 3. Section 4 is devoted to discuss best practices of ontology de-
velopment. The development approach for ROMAIN is then described and the structure of the ontology
is presented in sections 5 and 6. We evaluate ROMAIN against its design principles and validate it with
a use case related to measuring the effectiveness of maintenance strategy in section 7. Finally, we discuss
challenges and future directions.
2. Background of Maintenance Management
This section provides the definitions and the necessary background information related to some of the
important entities in maintenance management. As all assets are likely to fail at some time, there exists
a business function to maintain the asset so that the production process or service provided by the asset
can continue. This function is called maintenance management. The maintenance management process
follows a process such as that shown in Figure 1. Key steps in this process are developing maintenance
strategy and life plans, administration steps involving planning, procurement and scheduling, task exe-
cution, administration associated with cost and performance assessment and strategy optimization. The
steps in this process that are specific to maintenance are shown as shaded. Non-shaded steps contain pro-
cesses, such as planning, scheduling and cost management, that are commonly used in other functions in
an organization.
Maintenance management is not a core subject in many engineering curricula and the maintenance
world is largely impenetrable to those who have not worked in it as it has its own tribes, language and
customs (Reiman and Oedewald, 2004). With this in mind, core maintenance and work management con-
cepts are explained in the following section. Italics are used to identify concepts that will be represented
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 3
Fig. 1. Maintenance practitioner view of the management process, adapted from Coetzee (2004)
as classes in the domain ontology. These classes are drawn from maintenance practitioner texts and refer-
ences (Stuber, 2016; Coetzee, 2004; Kelly, 2006; Palmer, 1999).
Each asset has a primary function, this describes the main reason(s) for owning or using the asset. It
may also have a set of secondary functions due to the need to fulfill regulatory requirements and require-
ments concerning issues of protection, control, containment, comfort, appearance, energy efficiency, and
structural integrity (SAE, 2011). The maintenance action performed on an asset depends on the function
to be maintained and the consequence of a functional failure. Since the 1970s, the most common approach
to developing an asset’s maintenance plan is a process called Reliability-centered Maintenance (RCM).
In RCM, the emphasis is on identifying each functional failure and selecting an appropriate maintenance
strategy to manage each failure mode. The output of the RCM process is the identification of mainte-
nance strategies (IEC, 2011) and associated maintenance tasks for each maintainable item. A collection
of strategies and the associated tasks over the life cycle is called a maintenance plan. The concepts de-
scribed above for function, maintenance strategy, maintenance plan, and maintainable item are specific
to maintenance and need to be represented in a maintenance domain-specific ontology.
There are six types maintenance strategies in RCM. These are a) condition-based, b) fixed interval
restoration (also called scheduled restoration), c) fixed interval replacement (also called scheduled dis-
card), d) failure-finding, e) run-to-failure, and f) design-out (also called modification) (Moubray, 2007).
The strategy selected depends on failure behaviour and the consequence of failure. Following strategy se-
lection, a specific maintenance standard work procedure and interval are developed and this information
is stored in the CMMS. Some of the strategies, except run-to-failure and modification, are preventative or
predictive in nature. Individual preventative tasks are triggered at the appropriate time by the CMMS and
each instance is represented by a maintenance work order record (MWO). Corrective work is triggered by
afailure event on a component resulting from a non-conformity. The observed failure is documented using
amaintenance work notification as part of the work identification stage. Once work is identified, either
through failure events or actions triggered by maintenance strategies, then the work is planned and sched-
uled. Planning involves the procurement of parts and the organization of personnel, tools, other resources
and the availability of the asset. Once complete work can be scheduled. Finally, the value-adding step is
when the work is executed by maintenance personnel. After execution work there should be analysis of
the quality and effectiveness of the maintenance work and opportunities for improvement identified. We
4H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
suggest that the processes of planning, scheduling, and execution are generic to many industrial processes.
As a result they do not need to be developed specifically for this maintenance ontology. Instead existing
ontologies that are aligned to the same top-level ontology can be used to represent these processes.
3. Ontologies in Maintenance
Maintenance management can be viewed through two different lenses. The first is the view of mainte-
nance practitioners of the work management process described in the previous section. In this view, shown
in Figure 1, maintenance is a process in which work on many assets is identified, planned, scheduled, ex-
ecuted and analyzed. This view is seldom apparent to operators and owners and is almost entirely absent
in maintenance ontologies built to date.
The alternate view considers the requirements of a specific asset, how it should be maintained over its
life, its reliability and the risk that its failure presents to the organization. This view, shown in Figure 2,
takes an asset life cycle perspective that is primarily of interest to operators and owners of assets (ISO,
2014), rather than maintenance management practitioners. Ontologies that mention maintenance usually
have this perspective (Ebrahimipour and Yacout, 2016; Karray et al., 2012; Matsokis and Kiritsis, 2010;
Otte et al., 2018). Examples include the Product Life Cycle Management Ontology proposed by Matsokis
and Kiritsis (2010) and a more evolved version of this ontology focusing on the operating phase of the
life cycle and integrating concepts related to the maintenance field such as alarms, events, and activities
(Matsokis et al., 2010). Likewise, Karray et al. (2012) proposed IMAMO (Industrial Maintenance Man-
agement Ontology) as a modular ontology that decomposes the maintenance field to according stakehold-
ers’ views. Another notable ontology is CDM-Core, a publicly available manufacturing ontology, devel-
oped according to condition monitoring data model from ISO13372 (ISO, 2012) to semantically annotate
sensor data. The CDM-Core work focuses on an asset’s performance rather than on maintenance work
management but has useful descriptions of quality measures and a detailed verification process (Mazzola
et al., 2016). It is also to note that most of these ontologies do not use any axioms which prevents them
from being used effectively for reasoning and consistency checking services.
Ruiz et al. (2004) developed a semi-formal ontology that represents products, roles, activities, processes,
workflow, and actions related to software maintenance. Software failure modes and maintenance processes
are different from those of physical assets. Therefore, this work is not considered further here. Other
ontologies in the maintenance domain have been built for specific use cases such as for failure modes and
effects analysis (Ebrahimipour et al., 2010) and maintenance on a pneumatic values (Ebrahimipour and
Yacout, 2015).
Fig. 2. An asset-centric view of maintenance, commonly represented as a phase in one part of an asset’s life cycle
None of the ontologies mentioned above use a top-level ontology. We observe that when individual
groups develop domain ontologies that are focused on their specific local needs, the resulting ontolo-
gies are incompatible, isolated, and non-sharable. These problems are widely recognized in the ontology
sphere, where it is commonly assumed that they can be (or even are already being) addressed by the use
of sophisticated ontology mappings or similar technology (Arnold and Rahm, 2014). In our experience,
ontologies developed independently and on the basis of distinct sets of ontology development principles
(or even on the basis of no principles at all) remain in almost every case unmapped. Moreover, even where
mappings are created, they are rarely able to be updated in the needed ways because the ontologies on both
sides of the mapping-relation are themselves being changed independently and on asynchronous cycles.
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 5
The result is incremental decay of almost all existing mappings. We believe that the use of a top-level
ontology as well as a set of shared principles provide a common overarching framework that ensures con-
sistent development of ontologies across communities of researchers and ontology developers such as the
case of OBO Foundry in the biomedical domain (Smith et al., 2007).
There were some efforts related to development of the top-level ontology for process plant design engi-
neering in the 1990s. This was driven by the oil and gas and chemical industries. The resulting ontology is
documented in the ISO Standard 15926 (ISO, 2003) and described by Batres et al. (2007). The ISO 15296
Standard resulted in a number of applications relevant to the process plant design phase (Batres et al.,
2007) but has not resulted in the development of a domain-specific ontology for maintenance management
As part of manufacturing ontology suite, a Basic Formal Ontology (BFO; Arp et al., 2015) compliant
ontology of maintenance was proposed in the scope of CHAMP project (Otte et al., 2018). Because the
main focus of CHAMP project is on manufacturing processes and entities, the coverage of maintenance
in this ontology is limited and the maintenance terminology used drawn from less technical and reliable
sources such as Wikipedia. It is not apparent that there has been a review of the maintenance classes
against maintenance standards and practice.
4. Ontology Development Methodology
Ontologies have been widely used for knowledge representation as they provide a common vocabulary
for modeling a specific domain by capturing knowledge in a structured and formal way. Gruber (1995)
defined ontology as ‘an explicit and formal specification of a shared conceptualization’. The quality and
viability of an ontology depends on the methodology followed for ontology development. Also, the re-
quirements for an ontology is affected by how the ontology is positioned in the stack of ontologies ranging
from foundational ontologies to application ontologies. In this section, an overview of different types of
ontologies is provided to set the stage for positioning the proposed maintenance ontology as a reference
ontology. Best practices for ontology development are presented next. One of the novelties of the proposed
ontology is conforming with a top-level ontology. Therefore, the benefits of using top-level ontologies are
discussed toward the end of this section.
4.1. Types of Ontologies
Several classifications are presented in the literature to differentiate ontologies based on their level of
formality and generality. Top-level ontologies are generic ontologies that can be viewed as ontologies de-
scribing the top-level classes that can be used for building other ontologies. They enable interoperability
between domain ontologies that incorporate the same top-level ontology (Noy, 2004), thus facilitating
data integration and knowledge reuse. Examples of foundational ontologies include the Suggested Upper
Merged Ontology (SUMO; Pease, 2006), the Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineer-
ing (DOLCE; Masolo et al., 2002), the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO; Arp et al., 2015), the Unified Foun-
dational Ontology (UFO; Guizzardi and Wagner, 2010), Yet Another More Advanced Top-level Ontology
(YAMATO; Mizoguchi, 2010) and ISO15926 (ISO, 2003). A comparison between some of the previously
mentioned top-level ontologies can be found in the work by Mascardi et al. (2007). In contrast, domain
ontologies are only applicable to specific domains with a specific point of view. They describe the vocabu-
lary related to a particular area of knowledge (such as biology, environmental sciences, maintenance, etc.)
and use classes introduced in the top-level ontology. A reference ontology brings together the existing do-
main ontologies by providing canonical and precise definition of the common entities used in the domain.
Reference ontologies focus on rich and axiomatic representation of the intended meanings of common
terms in a domain (Andersson et al., 2006). For this reason, reference ontologies often go through several
rigorous quality checks according to principled methodologies. Reference ontologies are typically non-
proprietary and non-implementation-specific and can be adopted as a sort of standard in a community to
6H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
create application ontologies (Falquet et al., 2011). Application ontologies are specializations of reference
ontologies and they are created to accomplish some specified local tasks or applications.
4.2. Best practices in ontology building
According to Simperl et al. (2010), most ontology development works are based on an unprincipled
approach to ontology engineering which results in non-interoperable and inconsistent ontologies . For
the purpose of construction of any ontology, many works (Arp et al., 2015; Arpirez et al., 1998; Gruber,
1995), elaborate clearly principles to respect in order to design useful ontologies. Many of these principles
turn on the fact that, since ontologies are built to be shared between actors, it is beneficial if the ontologies
used in a given domain share a common upper layer of well-defined terms (Smith, 2006). This upper layer
should be domain neutral, since its aim is to represent the most general categories of entities and the most
general relations within and between them (Arp et al., 2015). The categories taken together must provide
the means to define classes whose instances can be found in any realm of reality. According to Smith and
Ceusters (2010), a reference ontology should cover the terminological content of the settled portions of
given scientific discipline. In practice the ontology building process is more efficient if key concepts are
defined according to a top-level ontology first rather than developing the ontology from the bottom up
and then trying to align it retrospectively to a top-level ontology. It is also important that each ontology
should have an is-a hierarchy having the structure of a directed rooted tree. Terms in the ontology should
be defined in a consistent manner. Finally, the ontology must be available to be used by all potential users
with few constraints.
4.3. Value of alignment to a Top level Ontology
When multiple maintenance ontologies are developed in relative isolation from each other by different
communities, disconnected information silos will be created. To ensure that different application ontolo-
gies employ comparable and mutually-understandable definitions and knowledge constructs, they need to
share a common top-level formal ontology. The use of a top-level ontologies facilitates the alignment be-
tween several domain ontologies and promote greater data interoperability through conformity to a com-
mon semantic model. Top-level ontologies also play the same role as libraries in software programming
tasks. These libraries of defined classes and relationships can be reused thereby reducing development
time. Using a top-level ontology also enables more effective quality assurance and governance when de-
veloping ontologies. The usage of top-level ontologies for integrating information and sharing knowl-
edge among heterogeneous sources has been motivated in various related works (Baumgartner and Rets-
chitzegger, 2006). Top-level ontologies have been used in various domains including situation awareness,
pervasive systems (Stevenson et al., 2009), biomedical information systems, government and US military
system (Semy et al., 2004), emergency management (Elmhadhbi et al., 2019) and manufacturing (Otte
et al., 2018).
4.4. Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)
BFO is a top-level ontology, which has been introduced to support information retrieval, analysis and
integration in diverse domains. BFO is at the core of the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology
(OBO) foundry1, which is an initiative aiming to develop interoperable ontologies based upon shared
principles and architecture. BFO establishes a common ground for ontology development and is the top-
level ontology used by OBO foundry ontologies.
The Industrial Ontologies Foundry (IOF)2is an initiative similar to OBO, dedicated to the development
of ontologies for industry. As part of IOF work, the choice of a relevant top-level ontology is under study.
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 7
Both DOLCE and BFO were used when developing proof-of-concept for IOF ontologies, as they are two
well-known top-level ontologies that are widely used in different domains (Guarino, 2017).
For ROMAIN, we consider the use of BFO as it has already been used successfully in OBO Foundry for
providing a common ground for several interoperable ontologies and it is in the process of becoming an
ISO Standard (ISO 21838-2). Additionally, BFO is sufficiently small and covers classes to model functions
and roles, which are necessary for engineering knowledge representation. Also, it is quality controlled
through aggressive review and reuse by a sizable community of users. ROMAIN imports portions of BFO
compliant mid-level ontologies such as Common Core Ontologies (CCO; CUBRC, 2014) and Information
Artifact Ontology (IAO; Ceusters, 2012).
Fig. 3. The structure of BFO 2.0
As shown in Figure 3, BFO 2.0 consists of two main categories of entities: continuants and occurrents.
Continuants are entities which continue to exist through time while maintaining their identity and have
no temporal parts but are associated with a history. A history names an entity belonging to the realm of
occurrents (which can have temporal parts). Occurrents are entities that occur, happen, unfold or evolve
with time. BFO:occurrent can be either an entity that unfolds itself in time, or it is the instantaneous
boundary of such an entity. Table 1 summarizes key categories encountered in BFO as defined by Arp
et al. (2015).
5. Reference Ontology of Industrial Maintenance (ROMAIN)
This section provides more details about the proposed maintenance ontology in terms of objectives,
requirements, and competency questions.
5.1. ROMAIN objectives
The scope of the current version of the ontology is limited to those classes and relationships needed to
represent various entities related to the maintenance management process as described in Section 2.
5.2. ROMAIN Requirements
According to what is discussed in the previous sections, the key requirements of the ROMAIN ontology
are listed as follows:
8H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
Table 1
BFO’s classes definitions
Class Definition
BFO:entity Anything that exists or has existed or will exist.
BFO:continuant An entity that continues or persists through time while maintaining its identity,
and has no temporal parts. It is a dependent or independent object.
BFO:occurrent An entity that occurs, happens, unfolds or develops in time: events or processes
or happenings.
BFO:independent continuant A continuant entity that is the bearer of qualities. It can maintain its identity and
existence through gain and loss of parts, dispositions and/or roles, and through
changes in their qualities.
BFO:generically dependent
An entity that is dependent on one or more other independent continuants that
can serve as its bearer. It is similar to complex continuant patterns of the sort
created by authors or through the process of evolution.
BFO:specifically dependent
An entity that depends on one or more specific independent continuants for its
existence. It exhibits existential dependence and has two subcategories: quality
and realizable entity.
BFO:process An occurrent entity that exists in time by occurring or happening, has temporal
parts, and always depends on at least one material entity. It can be partitioned
into temporal parts in different ways and at different levels of granularity.
BFO:quality A specifically dependent continuant that depends or inheres in an entity at all
and is fully exhibited or manifested or realized in that entity.
BFO:disposition A realizable entity whose bearer is some material entity.
BFO:function A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearerâ ˘
Zs physical make-
up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came
into being either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or
through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes
of a certain sort.
BFO:role A realizable entity which exists because the bearer is in some special physical,
social, or institutional set of circumstances in which the bearer does not have to
be, and is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the
bearer is thereby changed.
BFO:temporal region An occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference
The ontology has to be aligned with a top-level ontology and reuses classes from mid-level ontolo-
The ontology has to capture the core notions related to the domain of maintenance management.
The ontology has to use the established terminology of the maintenance management domain.
The ontology has to follow the design principles for ontology development.
5.3. Competency questions
Grüninger and Fox (1995) proposed competency questions (CQs) as a technique for defining the ontol-
ogy specifications. These CQs consist of a set of questions, stated in natural language, that the ontology
must be able to answer. Below are some of the examples of the CQs that ROMAIN, and its derivative
application ontologies, should be able to answer:
How many breakdown work orders were executed?
How many replace orders were executed before the expected replacement interval <x> of operating
What is the total cost of failures on the maintainable item <A> which should have no failures under
its scheduled restoration maintenance strategy?
Did any scheduled restorations occur before the target interval of <x> operating hours?
What is the cost of the work done initiated by an inspection?
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 9
6. ROMAIN structure
This section describes the core classes of ROMAIN. Figure 4 illustrates the structure of the ontology
using some of its main classes. Descriptions of the various classes and their relationships are given in the
sections below. We note that the prefix ’ROM’ is used to identify ROMAIN classes.
Fig. 4. The class diagram showing the relationships between some of the continuants, occurrents, and information entities
6.1. Relations in ROMAIN
Before introducing ROMAIN classes, we introduce the used relations in order to well understand the
definitions of these classes and their proprieties. There are two groups of relations in the proposed ontol-
ogy. The first group is composed of the relations specific to ROMAIN and the second group is composed
of the generic relations imported from other external ontologies. The Relations Ontology (RO; Smith
et al., 2007) in particular is used extensively. RO is a collection of relations intended primarily for stan-
dardization across ontologies in OBO Foundry. RO is developed in the context of this Foundry initiative
and, therefore, it is in compliance with BFO. Table 2 summarizes all relations used in ROMAIN.
6.2. Continuants
Continuants are the entities that continue or persist through time, such as objects and their functions
and qualities. There are three types of continuants in BFO, namely, generically dependent, independent,
and specifically dependent continuants that are discussed separately in the context of maintenance man-
agement in this section . The definitions of the ROMAIN’s generically dependent continuants, indepen-
dent continuants, and specifically dependent continuants are provided in Table 3, Table 4, and Table 5
6.2.1. Independent continuants
Independent continuants do not depend on other entities for their existence. Examples of independent
continuants in ROMAIN include the machines, equipment, devices, or components that become the sub-
jects of maintenance strategies and actions. They are considered to be instances of Artifact class in RO-
MAIN. An Artifact, a class imported from CCO, is an object that is designed by some agent to realize
10 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
Table 2
Terms used for ROMAIN’s relations
Relation Definition
is a entity A is a entity B means that A is subclass of B.
RO: bearer of a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a specif-
ically dependent continuant (the dependent), in which the dependent
specifically depends on the bearer for its existence.
RO: has role a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a role, in
which the role specifically depends on the bearer for its existence.
RO: has function a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a func-
tion, in which the function specifically depends on the bearer for its
RO: has part a core relation that holds between a whole and its part.
RO: is about A primitive (i.e. undefined) relationship between an information content
entity and some entity.
RO: prescribes For all classes T1 and T2, if T1 prescribes T2, then there is some in-
stance of T1, t1, that serves as a rule or guide to some instance of T2,
t2 (if T2 is a type of BFO:occurrent) or that serves as a model for some
instance of T2, t2 (if T2 is a type of BFO:continuant)..
ROM: has subject a relation between an occurrent and a dependent continuant in which the
dependent continuant is the reason to the appearance of the occurent.
RO: affects If p is a process and c is a continuant, then p affects c if and only if p
influences c in some manner, most often by producing a change in c.
RO: describes For all classes T1 and T2, if T1 describes T2 then there is some instance
of T1, t1 that presents the characteristics by which some instance of T2,
t2 can be recognized or visualized.
RO: has output a relation between a processual entity and a Continuant such that the
presence of the Continuant at the end of the processual entity is a nec-
essary condition for the completion of the processual entity.
RO: participates in a relation between a continuant and a process, in which the continuant
is somehow involved in the process.
RO: proceeds a relation between two occurents. Occurent x precedes occurent y if and
only if the time point at which x ends is before or equivalent to the time
point at which y starts.
RO: occurs on An instance level relation which holds between some processual entity
and some temporal region whenever the duration of the processual en-
tity is contained by the temporal region.
RO: is input of Inverse of has input, a relation between a processual entity and a Con-
tinuant such that the presence of the Continuant at the beginning of the
processual entity is a necessary condition for the start of the processual
ROM: violates A relation between a continuant and a directive ICE in which the con-
tinuant does not fulfill the directions expressed in the directive ICE.
certain functions. An Artifact is an asserted class that can assume different roles in maintenance scenario
and become an asset, a component, or a maintainable item as shown in Figure 5. These notions are further
defined in the following sections.
Asset An Asset, as an independent continuant, is an Artifact that has potential or actual value to an
organization (ISO, 2014). Asset is treated as a defined class in ROMAIN. It is formally defined as an
Artifact that bears an Asset Role for an organization.
Component AComponent is an Artifact that bears a Component Role. A Component Role is a role that
is borne by an Artifact when it become a part of another artifact, to provide a particular function.
Maintainable Item AMaintainable Item is an artifact when it bears the Maintainable Item Role in the
context of a maintenance strategy. An Asset can be a Maintainable Item or it can be composed of one or
more maintainable items. Each Maintainable Item has one or more functional failures. A single Compo-
nent can also become an instance of Maintainable Item. The selection of what is or what is not a Main-
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 11
tainable Item is a decision of the maintenance group and a result of maintenance strategy development
process. It depends on the resources and capabilities available at a specific site. For example, they may
choose to rebuild pumps, in which case the maintainable items will be the bearings and other items that
make up the pump. Or they may choose to send the pump to an external rebuild shop in which case the
pump is the maintainable unit.
Fig. 5. Different roles an artifact can bear in the domain of maintenance
6.2.2. Specifically Dependant Continuants
A specifically dependent continuant (SDC) is an entity that depends on other independent continuants
for its existence. Quality, function, and role are sub-types of this SDC class. Functions, in particular, are
directly used when representing a functional failure in an artifact since a failure is the termination of the
ability of an artifact to perform a required function. A failure is often a consequence of some change
or degradation in one or more qualities of the artifact or its parts. A failure can be attributed to one or
more nonconformities. A nonconformity is a deviation from a requirement. It is one of the core classes in
ROMAIN and is hence described in more detail below.
Nonconformity In general, nonconformity is non-fulfillment of a requirement or expectation. In RO-
MAIN, Nonconformity is formally defined as a specifically dependant continuant that inheres in a material
entity and deviates from a design specification. It can be a loss of quality, function, or capability in an item
that results from a degradation process. Each nonconformity can also trigger other degradation processes
that may cause more nonconformities in the same bearer or other external bearers. For example, reduced
traction in a tire ( degraded function = functional nonconformity ) can be the result of worn tire treads. In
this example, “shallow tread" is a physical change or a degraded quality that is the basis for the functional
nonconformity in the tire and “tread depth" is a quality borne by the tire that changes during the course of
“wear process". Both “shallow tread" and “reduced traction" can be regarded as instances of nonconfor-
mity class in connection with specific design requirements. Also, it should be noted that nonconformity is
a defined class since it is not an inherent characteristic of a quality or function.
6.2.3. Generically Dependant Continuants
In ROMAIN, the Information Content Entity (ICE) class, a subclass of generically dependent continu-
ant, is used for different purposes as shown in Table 3. Descriptive, designative, and directive ICE are the
three sub-types of ICE in ROMAIN that are imported from CCO. Descriptive ICEs are used to describe
various entities such as maintenance strategies, actions, work orders, and notifications. Directive ICEs are
used to describe plans and procedures, such as maintenance plan, through a set of prepositions. Mainte-
nance Work Order Record is an example of a descriptive ICE that describes a desired Maintenance Action.
It is also used to record the actual action taken and captures the costs and resources required and actually
used in the execution of the maintenance action. Figure 6 shows the main fields of a Maintenance Work
Order Record. While there are many data fields associated with a single maintenance work order record,
the ones listed in this figure are the most common fields. For example, most work order records contain
12 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
data fields that correspond to start date and system status code that are considered to be sub-types of date
identifier and code identifier, respectively. Maintenance Notification is a descriptive ICE that describes an
observed Nonconformity.
Fig. 6. Data fields associated with a maintenance work order record
Table 3
ROMAIN Generically dependent continuants
Common term (ROMAIN class label) Definition
Descriptive Information Content Entity (De-
scriptive Information Content Entity)
An IAO:information content entity that consists of a set of propositions
that describe some Entity.
Designative Information Content Entity (Desig-
native Information Content Entity)
An IAO:Information Content Entity that consists of a set of symbols
that denote some Entity.
Directive Information Content Entity (Directive
Information Content Entity)
An IAO:Information Content Entity that consists of a set of propositions
or images (as in the case of a blueprint) that prescribe some Entity.
Maintenance work order record (Maintenance
Work Order Specification)
An IAO:information content entity describing a desired
ROM:Maintenance Action
Maintenance notification (Maintenance Notifi-
An IAO:information content entity describing a ROM:Non-conformity.
Maintenance plan (Maintenance Plan Specifica-
An IAO:plan specification containing Maintenance Strategies and
Maintenance Standard Work Procedures for a ROM:Maintainable Item
over its lifecycle.
Maintenance strategy specification (Mainte-
nance Strategy Specification)
An IOA:information content entity describing the ROM:Maintenance
Strategy Type to manage a specific functional failure.
Maintenance strategy type (Maintenance Strat-
egy Type)
An IAO:information content entity resulting from ROM:maintenance
strategy development process for a ROM:Maintainable Item.
Maintenance schedule (Maintenance Schedule
An IOA:information content entity describing a list of
ROM:Maintenance Work Order Specification to be executed in a
defined BFO:one-dimensional temporal region (i.e. temporal interval).
Maintenance standard work procedure (Stan-
dard Work Procedure Specification)
An IAO:plan specification that describes the steps required for a specific
ROM:Maintenance Action.
Requirement (Requirement Specification) An IAO:information content entity that prescribes a need or expectation
to be met
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 13
Table 4
ROMAIN Independent continuant
Common terms (ROMAIN class descriptor) Definition
Asset (Asset) A CCO:artifact that bears an ROM:Asset Role.
Component (Component) A CCO:artifact that bears a ROM:Component Role.
Maintainable item (Maintainable Item) A CCO:artifact when it bears the ROM:Maintainable Item Role
Table 5
ROMAIN Specifically dependant continuant
Common term (ROMAIN class label) Formal Definition
Component role (Component Role) A BFO:role that is borne by an CCO:artifact(s) when it becomes a part
of another BFO:material entity, to provide a particular BFO:function.
Maintainable item role (Maintainable Item
A BFO:role borne by a group of one or more CCO:artifact(s) as an
output of a ROM:Maintenance Strategy Process.
Asset role (Asset Role) A BFO:role that is borne by an CCO:artifact to deliver potential or ac-
tual value to an CCO:organization
Function (BFO:function) A BFO:function is a disposition that exists through intentional design
in order to realize processes of a certain sort.
Non-conformity (Nonconformity) A BFO:specifically dependent continuant that inheres in a material en-
tity and deviates from a design specification.
6.3. Occurrent
Processes and events are the main types of occurrents in ROMAIN as shown in Table 6 and Figure 7.
Table 6
ROMAIN Occurrent
Common term (ROMAIN class label Formal Definition
Degradation process (Process Of Degradation) A BFO:process that results in the loss of a desired quality or function.
CCO:Stasis (State) A BFO:Process in which some BFO:independent continuant endures
and one or more of the dependent entities it bears does not change in
kind or intensity
Functional failure (State Of Failure) A ROM:state during which a CCO:artifact is unable to perform its
Degraded state (State Of Degradation) A ROM:state during which a CCO:artifact bears an undesirable
BFO:quality or BFO:function.
Maintenance action (Maintenance Action) A BFO:process to perform work on a CCO:artifact according to a
ROM:Maintenance Work Order Specification.
Triggering event (Triggering Event) A BFO:process resulting in an action.
Failure (Failure Event) A BFO:process that precedes the ROM:State of Failure.
Process of Degradation Artifacts can undergo a change in their specifically dependant continuants. The
Process Of Degradation is a process in which a desired quality, function, or capability is lost over time or
an undesirable quality, function, or capability is gained over time. The output of the Process Of Degrada-
tion is a Non-conformity that may or may not be observable. When a Non-conformity inheres in an artifact,
then the artifact enters the State Of Degradation. When an item is in State Of Degradation, it doesn’t
necessarily mean that the item is failed. However, degradation might lead to failure.
Failure Event In general, an event is treated as a process in BFO. A Failure Event is a process that
precedes a State Of Failure. When a Component is in State Of Failure it is unable to perform its intended
function. The relation between an event and a state is inspired here by the the point of view presented
by Galton (2012), in which a state can be initiated or terminated by an event. It should be noted that
failure event is not a temporal region to specify the moment that failure happens. Rather, it is a process
that occurs at some point in time or during a time interval. A failure event occupies a temporal region,
14 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
Fig. 7. The occurrents related to degradation and failure processes
either zero-dimensional or one dimensional. If the failure event is instantaneous, then it occupies a zero-
dimensional temporal region and if it takes place during an interval, then it occupies a one-dimensional
temporal region.
Triggering Event Triggering Event is a process. For example, it might be that a preset maintenance time
interval has been reached, resulting in initiation of a maintenance process as shown in Figure 8. This figure
also demonstrates how a fixed-interval repair strategy, as a directive ICE, can prescribe a triggering event.
6.4. Axioms
Axioms represents that facts that are always true in the domain. In ROMAIN, different types of class
axioms, including equivalent, subclass, and disjoint class axioms, have been used to impart more formality
to the ontology. Table 7 shows some examples of class axioms implemented in ROMAIN. The axioms are
represented using Manchester Syntax from OWL 2.0 as it is a more compact and readable representation.
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 15
Fig. 8. Relationships between a Maintainable item, maintenance strategy, and maintenance action
Table 7
Some examples of class axioms in ROMAIN
Axiom Description
Class: MaintainableItem EquivalentTo:
cco:Artifact AND ( hasRole SOME
Equivalent class axiom for Maintainable Item.
Class: Asset EquivalentTo: cco:Artifact
AND ( hasRole SOME Asset Role)
Equivalent class axiom for Asset.
Class: StateOfFailure SubClassOf:
(precededBy SOME ProcessOfFailure) AND
(hasParticipant SOME Artifact )
Every State of Failure is preceded by a Process of Fail-
ure and has at least one Artifact participant
Class: ProcessOfDegradation SubclassOf:
(precedes SOME StateOfDegradation) AND
(hasOutput SOME Nonconformity)
Every Process of Degradation precedes a State of
Degradation and has a Nonconformity as the output
7. Validation, Verification and Discussion
Ontology verification is the ontology evaluation which compares the ontology against the ontology
specification document (ontology requirements and competency questions cf. section 5) thus ensuring
that the ontology is built correctly (Suarez-Figueroa and Gómez-Pérez, 2008). In other words, it allows
us to answer the question “are we producing the ontology right?”. Ontology validation is the ontology
evaluation that compares the meaning of the ontology definitions against the intended model of the world
aiming to conceptualize. In other words, it permits to answer the question “Are we producing the right
ontology?". Hence, in order verify and validate a reference ontology as ROMAIN, we estimate that we
need to consider a real industrial context and real data set. In the following section, we examine the
competency questions listed in Section 5.3 according to the maintenance strategy effectiveness use case
by using real-life data.
16 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
7.1. Use case: maintenance strategy effectiveness
Our motivating question is to determine how effective the selected maintenance strategy is in practice.
Having an effective maintenance strategy will reduce unanticipated events leading to improved uptime,
reduced costs and more effective use of maintenance resources. Common manifestations of ineffective
strategy are assets failing before their scheduled restoration or discard times and assets being replaced or
restored while they are still functional. In addition, the execution of the strategy can be ineffective. For
example if assets with on-condition tasks are failing unexpectedly then the on-condition task is obviously
not effective at detecting the deterioration. Once ineffective tasks are identified, engineers can investigate
and understand why the strategy is ineffective. Currently the process to investigate maintenance strategy
effectiveness is triggered by observations by maintenance personnel after an unexpected failure event. The
investigation, usually done by an engineer or maintenance planner, requires access to data in a number of
locations. For example, specific work order records, preventative maintenance strategy and work history
in the CMMS (all stored in different tables), failure investigations in Excel or Word files, RCM analysis
(also usually in Excel file). It can take days or even weeks to pull together the right data and perform
the analysis. A major issue is that most of the data is stored as unstructured, free text. As a result some
pre-processing of the unstructured free text using natural language processing or rule-based methods may
be required.
The data for this maintenance strategy evaluation use case comes from the CMMS used by an operator
of Heavy Mobile Equipment (HME), one of the most expensive maintainable items is the engine. We have
records of all tasks executed on the engines of four identical HME assets in their first 18,000 operating
hours. We show an extract of these records in Figure 9. We aligned the data schema with ROMAIN
classes and then we manually instantiated this part of data via the Protégé editor in order to use it in our
In this table, columns 1, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are as-downloaded from the CMMS. Data in columns 2, 3
and 4 have been added by the engineer to assist with analysis. While the data represented may seem
straightforward to analyze, the engine is only one of many maintainable units on this asset, and operators
can own, tens to thousands of assets that might benefit from maintenance strategy effectiveness analysis.
Therefore, automation of this process is an inevitable necessity.
The competency question ‘how many breakdown orders were executed?’ is straightforward and would
be usually done by an engineer generating a pre-configured report for EQ1 engine from the CMMS, add
in columns 2-4, and then use PivotTables in Excel to filter the data. This exercise then needs to be repeated
for each sub-system of interest each time the analysis needs to be done. Some engineers will use Excel
macros to help. In contrast, the SPARQL query for this first competency question is presented in figure
10, with its associated result (the SPARQL query language can be used to express queries across diverse
data sources). Breakdown orders are triggered by failure events, which are zero-dimensional temporal
regions. Therefore, counting the number of breakdown orders comes down to counting the number of
failure events, expressed in the request in figure 10.
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 17
Fig. 9. All work order records associated with work on the engine of heavy mobile equipment EQ1 over its operating life to
23,000 hours
Fig. 10. SPARQL query for first competency question
The competency question ‘did any scheduled repairs or restoration occur before the target interval of
<x> operating hours?’ The RCM process of this maintainable item has identified a fixed interval restora-
tion task at 8,000 operating hours and a fixed interval replacement task at 16,000 operating hours. Assum-
ing a window of + or – 500 hours as being acceptable we can see that the first fixed interval restoration
18 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
task at 7,683 hours is acceptable but the second one at 15,155 operating hours was not executed. We know
it was not executed because there are no actual costs associated with the work. We also note that there is a
fixed interval replacement task that occurred at 14,788 hours. There are two alarming issues here. The first
is that the replacement work occurred at 14,788 operating hours, well short of the expected 16,000 hours.
The second issue is that there are duplicate fixed interval tasks in the CMMS system and one (the fixed
interval restoration task at 16,000) hours should be removed as there is a fixed interval replacement also
at 16,000 hours. Obviously, the planner has ignored the fixed interval restoration task generated by the
CMMS at 15,155 hours but the task is still being generated in the CMMS system and should be removed.
Since the records at 14,788 and 15,155 will be identified in the analysis, the duplicate can be removed.
The SPARQL request for this second competency question is presented in Figure 11. The results show
the identifier of the work order, the identifier of the event triggering the work order, and the value of
operating hours at which the work order occurred. The first step of the request consists of querying the
events triggering scheduled work orders (first line of the query). Then, work orders related to those events
are identified (second and third line of the query). Finally, only the work orders with less than 16,000
cumulative hours are kept in the results. The results present the identifier of the work orders and the events
in the ontology, together with the cumulative hours value for each work order.
Fig. 11. SPARQL query for second competency question
The ability to write a single SPARQL query which can be run for a list of assets at different functional
locations over the existing methods is significantly more efficient and transparent to current engineering
practice. As mentioned earlier, the current approach is to have an Excel spreadsheet and pivot table for
each query. Version control is difficult to manage and the number of Excel sheets quickly grows to be
unmanageable. Not to mention that the process of cutting and pasting, organizing and making pivot tables
is laborious and prone to human error.
The SPARQL queries presented in this section have been run on a version of ROMAIN containing the
work orders presented in figure 9. The results presented in figure 11 (WO16, WO5, WO14) refer to the
17th, 6th, and 15th lines of figure 9.
7.2. Evaluation of ROMAIN according to best practices and principles
In evaluating the ROMAIN ontology we consider the requirements listed in 5.2. The ontology is aligned
with a top-level ontology, the BFO. Therefore, it can be aligned and extended with classes from BFO
compliant mid-level ontologies such CCO and IAO as shown in Figure 12. This figure also shows how
BFO-aligned ontologies for activities in the maintenance management process that use processes such as
planning, scheduling and costing, can be tailored to maintenance by reference to ROMAIN concepts.
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 19
Fig. 12. A mapping of the relationships between BFO-compliant ontologies to enable development of an ontologies for main-
tenance management activities. [The arrow sense shows the sense of import, e.g. CCO imports BFO, and ROMAIN imports
The ROMAIN ontology captures core notions and terminology related to maintenance management as
demonstrated by the alignment to authoritative maintenance literature (Coetzee, 2004; Kelly, 2006; IEC,
2011, 2016) as well as maintenance practitioner input. Finally the ontology follows the design principles
discussed above.
The main challenge in the development of a BFO-conformant ontology for maintenance has been the
absence of tried, tested and accepted BFO-aligned classes and relations for the engineering domain. In
2017, an international group of volunteers started the Industrial Ontology Foundry (IOF) with the objective
of developing open and principles-based reference ontologies for the manufacturing domain. While work
on this is underway, the group has not yet reached the point of agreeing on some of the classes that are
used in the ROMAIN ontology described here. As a result, the ROMAIN authors have made judgments
based on views in the IOF community that have not yet stabilized.
One challenge has been the use of the class of maintenance action and whether this is an Information
Entity as in a description of the work to be done, or a process in the doing of the work. In ROMAIN we
place Maintenance Action in the occurrent section of the ontology but describe the work to be done in a
Maintenance Work Order Specification as a directive information entity.
Another challenge has been related to defining a condition or state of a component. In maintenance we
have the notion of a component degrading. Maintenance is defined as the “actions intended to retain an
item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a required function" (IEC, 2016). Hence mainte-
nance actions are dependent on the state of the component and the effect of this state its ability to perform
a required function. In ROMAIN we have defined two states, a State of Failure and a State of Degradation.
These are sub-classes of process class. Transition into a State of Degradation is represented by a process
described by a Triggering Event. The triggering event class proved to be important in resolving issues
around describing this transition. The transition between a State of Failure and a State of Degradation
remains challenging as it depends on defining a function and the level for that required function. For ex-
ample, one person may decide that the tire tread should be 0.4 mm deep but another that 0.8 mm deep is
necessary. A tire tread depth of 0.6 mm will be regarded as in a State of Degradation by the first but a
State of Failure by the second. We expect dealing with transitions to be an area of fertile discussion in the
future. For ROMAIN, the main challenge has been the immature status of the application of the BFO as
a top-level ontology in engineering. While we are committed to the importance of exploiting foundation
ontologies in our work, there are challenges in BFO concerning some aspects such as the definition of
Generically Dependent Continuant, mereology and constitution. All of these challenges have been bought
to the attention of the BFO community.
20 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
Defining the notion of nonconformity also presented a challenge when developing the ontology. Non-
conformity is the violation of both articulated and unarticulated requirements. However, representation
of unarticulated requirements is not possible as they are not specified in design specifications and tech-
nical documents. Therefore, we had to limit the formalization of the notion of nonconformity to explicit
requirements only. Additionally, nonconformity is a multifaceted entity as it can be an undesired quality
or function. Therefore, we had to directly classify it under Specifically Dependant Continuant such that
it covers different types of nonconformities. Perhaps application ontologies may need to create more spe-
cific classes of nonconformity depending on their needs. Finally, in many cases, nonconformity is real-
ized when an item lacks a function but stating ’A lacks B’ is difficult due to the constraints imposed by a
realist approach. There are workarounds for this situation but it needs to be stated outside of OWL since
it involves instance-to-class relations (Ceusters et al., 2007).
The subject of causality has always been a challenging subject for ontologists and they have adopted
different approaches for handling this subject philosophically and ontologically (Galton, 2012). In the do-
main of maintenance, proper formulation and elucidation of the notion of causality is essential for effec-
tive root-cause analysis. Usually conjunction of multiple states of degradation may cause the maintainable
item to enter the state of failure. Defining causality links between various states, processes, and events
need further analysis. Also, there are different types of causal relations such as affecting, enabling, and fa-
cilitating between various entities that need to be delineated formally when creating a reference ontology
for maintenance.
Like others before us, developing a coherent set of axioms has proved challenging. These have to be
selected carefully as there are many hidden dependencies in maintenance management. These will be
more fully considered in future work.
One of the unique aspects of this project was including a maintenance expert in the development team.
As a results, the semantics of the ontology was aligned early on with the established standards and models
in the field. One of the pitfalls of most ontology development projects is involving domain experts towards
the last stages of design process only for test and validation purposes. We used GitHub as the platform for
collaborative ontology development. The issue tracking mechanism of GitHub was particularly useful for
suggesting revisions and tracking changes. The ontology is available on github3.
8. Conclusion
This work presents the first building blocks of ROMAIN, a BFO-compliant reference ontology for
maintenance management. We intend to expand this work further while making it open for others to de-
velop a set of ROMAIN compliant modules covering other processes and applications in maintenance.
Extension of this initial work will allow the community to move towards an expanded reference ontol-
ogy for maintenance management. It is intended to help stimulate developments in maintenance-related
domain ontologies considering using BFO as a top-level ontology (as explained in fig 12). One of the
strengths of the adopted methodology for ontology development in this work was relying on real-life
maintenance data for testing and evaluating the ontology. We believe conforming to the vocabulary that is
widely used by maintenance professionals and practitioners is a major catalyst for widespread acceptance
and uptake. As the ontology evolves, some of the less generic classes of the ontology might be moved to
the application-specific extensions of the ontology, thus leaving the core classes application-agnostic.
Authors would like to thank members of the IOF (Industrial Ontologies Foundry) community for their
many useful comments.
H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN 21
Melinda Hodkiewicz thanks the BHP Fellowship for Engineering for Remote Operations and
the Australian Research Council through the Industrial Transformation Research Program (Grant
No.IC180100030) for their support.
Ameri, F., Urbanovsky, C. & McArthur, C. (2012). A systematic approach to developing ontologies for manufacturing service
modeling. CEUR Workshop Proceedings,886, 1–14.
Andersson, B., Bergholtz, M., Edirisuriya, A., Ilayperuma, T., Johannesson, P., Gordijn, J., Grégoire, B., Schmitt, M., Dubois,
E., Abels, S., et al. (2006). Towards a reference ontology for business models. In International Conference on Conceptual
Modeling (pp. 482–496). Springer.
Arnold, P. & Rahm, E. (2014). Enriching ontology mappings with semantic relations. Data & Knowledge Engineering,93, 1–18.
Arp, R., Smith, B. & Spear, A. (2015). Building ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology. Cambridge USA: MIT Press.
Arpirez, J., Gómez-Pérez, A., Lozano, A. & Pinto, H.S. (1998). 2Agent: An ontology-based WWW broker to select ontologies.
In Workshop on Applications of Ontologies and PSMs, Brighton, England.
Batres, R., West, M., Leal, D., Price, D., Masaki, K., Shimada, Y., Fuchino, T. & Naka, Y. (2007). An upper ontology based on
ISO 15926. Computers & Chemical Engineering,31(5-6), 519–534.
Batres, R., Fujihara, S., Shimada, Y. & Fuchino, T. (2014). The use of ontologies for enhancing the use of accident information.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection,92(2), 119–130.
Baumgartner, N. & Retschitzegger, W. (2006). A survey of upper ontologies for situation awareness. In Proc. of the 4th IASTED
International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering, St. Thomas, US VI (pp. 1–9).
Bendell, T. (1988). An overview of collection, analysis, and application of reliability data in the process industries. IEEE Trans-
actions on Reliability,37(2), 132–137.
Borgo, S., Guarino, N. & Masolo, C. (1996). Stratified ontologies: the case of physical objects. In Proceedings of ECAI-96
Workshop on Ontological Engineering (pp. 5–15).
Ceusters, W. (2012). An information artifact ontology perspective on data collections and associated representational artifacts.
In MIE (pp. 68–72).
Ceusters, W., Elkin, P. & Smith, B. (2007). Negative Findings in Electronic Health Records and Biomedical Ontologies: A Realist
Approach. International Journal of Medical Informatics,76(3), 326–333.
Coetzee, J.L. (2004). Maintenance. Victoria Canada: Trafford Publishing.
CUBRC (2014). Common Core Ontologies for Data Integration.
Doerr, M. (2003). The CIDOC conceptual reference module: an ontological approach to semantic interoperability of metadata.
AI magazine,24(3), 75.
Ebrahimipour, V., Rezaie, K. & Shokravi, S. (2010). An ontology approach to support FMEA studies. Expert Systems with
Applications,37(1), 671–677.
Ebrahimipour, V. & Yacout, S. (2015). Ontology-based schema to support maintenance knowledge representation with a case
study of a pneumatic valve. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems,45(4), 702–712.
Ebrahimipour, V. & Yacout, S. (2016). Ontology modeling in physical asset integrity management. New York: Springer.
Elmhadhbi, L., Karray, M.H. & Archimede, B. (2019). Toward the use of upper level ontologies for semantically interoperable
systems: An emergency management use case. In Enterprise Interoperability VIII (Vol. 9). Springer. Chapter 11.
Falquet, G., Métral, C., Teller, J. & Tweed, C. (2011). Ontologies in urban development projects. Springer Science & Business
Galton, A. (2012). States, processes and events, and the ontology of causal relations.
GFMAM (2016). Maintenance Framework. London, England.
Gruber, T.R. (1995). Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing? International journal of human-
computer studies,43(5-6), 907–928.
Grüninger, M. & Fox, M.S. (1995). The role of competency questions in enterprise engineering. In Benchmarkingâ ˘
and practice (pp. 22–31). Springer.
Guarino, N. (2017). BFO and DOLCE: So Far, So Close... COSMOS+ TAXIS.
Guizzardi, G. & Wagner, G. (2010). Using the unified foundational ontology (UFO) as a foundation for general conceptual
modeling languages. In Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications (pp. 175–196). Springer.
Hodkiewicz, M. (2018). Working towards a Siri for Maintenance. In Mastering SAP conference, Gold Coast, Australia.
IEC (2011). AS IEC 60300.3.11 Dependability management Application guide - Reliability-centred Maintenance. Geneva
IEC (2016). AS IEC 60300.3.14 Dependability management Application guide - Maintenance and maintenance support. Geneva
ISO (2003). ISO 15926 Industrial automation systems and integration – Integration of life-cycle data for process plants including
oil and gas production facilities – Part 2: Data model. Geneva Switzerland.
ISO (2012). ISO 13372 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Vocabulary. Geneva, Switzerland.
ISO (2014). ISO 55001 Asset Management – Management systems – Requirements. Geneva Switzerland.
Karray, M.H., Chebel-Morello, B. & Zerhouni, N. (2012). A formal ontology for industrial maintenance. Applied Ontology,7(3),
22 H. Karray et al. / ROMAIN
Karray, M.H., Morello, B.C. & Zerhouni, N. (2010). Towards a maintenance semantic architecture. In Engineering Asset Lifecy-
cle Management (pp. 98–111). Springer.
Karray, M.-H., Chebel-Morello, B., Lang, C. & Zerhouni, N. (2011). A component based system for s-maintenance. In Industrial
Informatics (INDIN), 2011 9th IEEE International Conference on (pp. 519–526). IEEE.
Kelly, A. (1997). Maintenance organization and systems. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Kelly, A. (2006). Strategic maintenance planning (Vol. 1). Oxford: Elsevier.
Kiritsis, D. (2013). Semantic technologies for engineering asset life cycle management. International Journal of Production
Research,51(23-24), 7345–7371.
Knapp, M. & Hasibether, F. (2011). Material master data quality. In Concurrent Enterprising (ICE), 2011 17th International
Conference on (pp. 1–8). IEEE.
Kuraoka, K. & Batres, R. (2003). An Ontological Approach to Represent HAZOP Information. Process Systems Engineering
Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
Mascardi, V., Cordì, V. & Rosso, P. (2007). A Comparison of Upper Ontologies. In Woa (Vol. 2007, pp. 55–64).
Masolo, C., Borgo, S., Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., Oltramari, A. & Schneider, L. (2002). The wonderweb library of foundational
Matsokis, A. & Kiritsis, D. (2010). An ontology-based approach for Product Lifecycle Management. Computers in industry,
61(8), 787–797.
Matsokis, A., Karray, H.M., Chebel-Morello, B. & Kiritsis, D. (2010). An ontology-based model for providing semantic main-
tenance. IFAC Proceedings Volumes,43(3), 12–17.
Mazzola, L., Kapahnke, P., Vujic, M. & Klusch, M. (2016). CDM-Core: A Manufacturing Domain Ontology in OWL2 for
Production and Maintenance. In KEOD (pp. 136–143).
Mizoguchi, R. (2010). YAMATO: yet another more advanced top-level ontology. In Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian On-
tology Workshop (pp. 1–16).
Molina, R., Unsworth, K., Hodkiewicz, M. & Adriasola, E. (2013). Are managerial pressure, technological control and intrinsic
motivation effective in improving data quality? Reliability Engineering & System Safety,119, 26–34.
Morello, B., Karray, M. & Zerhouni, N. (2010). New Persepctives of Maintenance Systems: Towards S-Maintenance. Proceed-
ings from the IMS2020 Summer School on Sustainable Manufacturing,26, 223–236.
Moubray, J. (2007). Reliability-centered Maintenance RCM II (2nd. ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Noy, N.F. (2004). Semantic integration: a survey of ontology-based approaches. ACM Sigmod Record,33(4), 65–70.
Otte, J.N., Rudnicki, R. & Smith, B. (2018). Final Report For Coordinated Holistic Alignment of Manufacturing Processes
(CHAMP). New York: University of Buffalo.
Palmer, D. (1999). Maintenance planning and scheduling handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.
Pease, A. (2006). Formal representation of concepts: The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology and its use in linguistics. Ontolin-
guistics. How Ontological Status Shapes the Linguistic Coding of Concepts.
Rajpathak, D.G. (2013). An ontology based text mining system for knowledge discovery from the diagnosis data in the automo-
tive domain. Computers in Industry,64(5), 565–580.
Reiman, T. & Oedewald, P. (2004). Measuring maintenance culture and maintenance core task with CULTURE-questionnaire—
-a case study in the power industry. Safety Science,42(9), 859–889.
Ruiz, F., Vizcaíno, A., Piattini, M. & García, F. (2004). An ontology for the management of software maintenance projects.
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering,14(03), 323–349.
SAE (2011). SAE JA1012 A guide to the Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) Standard. London.
Schulz, S., Balkanyi, L., Cornet, R. & Bodenreider, O. (2013). From concept representations to ontologies: a paradigm shift in
health informatics? Healthcare informatics research,19(4), 235–242.
Semy, S.K., Pulvermacher, M.K. & Obrst, L.J. (2004). Toward the Use of an Upper Ontology for U . S . Government and U . S .
Military Domains : An Evaluation Military Domains : An Evaluation.
Simperl, E.P.B., Mochol, M. & Bürger, T. (2010). Achieving Maturity: The State of Practice in Ontology Engineering in 2009.
IJCSA,7(1), 45–65.
Smith, B. (2006). Against idiosyncrasy in ontology development. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications,150, 15.
Smith, B. & Ceusters, W. (2010). Ontological realism: A methodology for coordinated evolution of scientific ontologies. Applied
ontology,5(3-4), 139–188.
Smith, B., Ashburner, M., Rosse, C., Bard, J., Bug, W., Ceusters, W., Goldberg, L.J., Eilbeck, K., Ireland, A., Mungall, C.J., et al.
(2007). The OBO Foundry: coordinated evolution of ontologies to support biomedical data integration. Nature biotechnology,
25(11), 1251.
SMRP (2009). SMRP Best Practice - Maintenance |& Reliability Body of Knowledge (5th. ed.). Atlanta, GA: Society of Main-
tenance and Reliability Professionals.
Stevenson, G., Knox, S., Dobson, S. & Nixon, P. (2009). Ontonym: a collection of upper ontologies for developing pervasive
systems. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Context, Information and Ontologies (p.9). ACM.
Stuber, A. (2016). The Maintenance Framework. Global Forum on Maintenance and Asset Management.
Suarez-Figueroa, M.C. & Gómez-Pérez, A. (2008). First attempt towards a standard glossary of ontology engineering terminol-
... Therefore, we first propose a method to develop a multistage manufacturing system DT model specifically for multiclass fault diagnostics. Given that an ontology is usually required to develop an effective DT model for fault diagnostics but many organizations do not currently have an ontology [22,23], our proposed method utilizes natural language processing (NLP) data-tagging technique to mine the fault cause-and-effect relationships directly from maintenance log data. Additionally, considering the challenge of developing high-fidelity simulation models that mimic the behavior of a machine with fine granularity, we utilized co-simulation of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) simulator and discrete-event simulation (DES) model to actualize a DT model. ...
... A reconfigurable assembly line DT model that uses ontology to describe the properties of the virtual layer's five dimensions, namely geometric, rule, behavior, physical, and capability, was proposed in Reference [52]. Many organizations, however, do not have ontologies, as most ontology development approaches proposed in the literature have had very limited acceptability in industry [22,23]. We propose mining fault events and their effects directly from qualitative data sources, such as maintenance log data (or maintenance work order (MWO)), and corrective and preventive action (CAPA) report in this work. ...
... Sensors 2022, 22, 1430 ...
Full-text available
Smart manufacturing systems are being advocated to leverage technological advances that enable them to be more resilient to faults through rapid diagnosis for performance assurance. In this paper, we propose a co-simulation approach for engineering digital twins (DTs) that are used to train Bayesian Networks (BNs) for fault diagnostics at equipment and factory levels. Specifically, the co-simulation model is engineered by using cyber–physical system (CPS) consisting of networked sensors, high-fidelity simulation model of each equipment, and a detailed discrete-event simulation (DES) model of the factory. The proposed DT approach enables injection of faults in the virtual system, thereby alleviating the need for expensive factory-floor experimentation. It should be emphasized that this approach of injecting faults eliminates the need for obtaining balanced data that include faulty and normal factory operations. We propose a Structural Intervention Algorithm (SIA) in this paper to first detect all possible directed edges and then distinguish between a parent and an ancestor node of the BN. We engineered a DT research test-bed in our laboratory consisting of four industrial robots configured into an assembly cell where each robot has an industrial Internet-of-Things sensor that can monitor vibrations in two-axes. A detailed equipment-level simulator of these robots was integrated with a detailed DES model of the robotic assembly cell. The resulting DT was used to carry out interventions to learn a BN model structure for fault diagnostics. Laboratory experiments validated the efficacy of the proposed approach by accurately learning the BN structure, and in the experiments, the accuracy obtained by the proposed approach (measured using Structural Hamming Distance) was found to be significantly better than traditional methods. Furthermore, the BN structure learned was found to be robust to variations in parameters, such as mean time to failure (MTTF).
... Further, ontologies enable interoperability [11] and therefore have a high potential to improve processes and save costs in various industries [9,4,14]. However, most of the ontologies are developed independently, which makes them incompatible, non-shareable, and severely limits their potential applications [8]. These issues can be addressed either directly by developing a shared ontology (or standardised development process) or through an ontology alignment. ...
... This ontology includes various concepts related to the structure of equipment to be maintained -spare parts, failure detection, events, material resources, maintenance actors, technical documents, equipment states, and equipment life cycle. Another manufacturing maintenance ontology, ROMAIN [8] is similar in scope to IMAMO. It is built basing on the common Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) [2]. ...
Full-text available
With advancements in technology and big data availability, industries are struggling with data interoperability and knowledge representation. Ontologies have a great potential to solve such problems. However, the lack of standardisation prevents the widespread adoption of ontologies in different manufacturing domains. We investigate the possibility of preparing ontology alignment for manufacturing maintenance. This paper provides an overview of the available ontologies in this domain. We also provide an openly available alignment between IMAMO (maintenance ontology) and CDM-Core (process ontology): https://
... As Fig. 2 sketches out, ORMA imports ROMAIN (Karray et al., 2019) and the IOF-maintenance ontology (, which are domain specific reference ontologies, i.e. a higher level of specialisation of an ontology for specific domains. ...
... Occurrence, Severity, Detectability, must be modelled. All these classes are inheritance of designative_information_content_entity since they are symbols denoting entities (Karray, 2019). Fig. 4 reports the class diagram of this part of ORMA. ...
Full-text available
Planning maintenance strategies in advance with respect to the installation and running of manufacturing assets positively affects operational expenditure during their usage. However, the early stages of the asset lifecycle are poor of operational data. Thus, domain knowledge of experts, related to the asset, the process and production requirements, is the primary source to determine which maintenance strategy better fits in a specific context. Hence, ontology-based systems represent a relevant help in this direction. In this work, given the importance of the criticality analysis (CA) for maintenance planning, the CA is analyzed from an ontological perspective to automatically associate a maintenance strategy to the asset under analysis. Moreover, to unveil the power of CA, its multi-attribute nature is considered, including not only availability as guiding criterion, but also quality and energy. The developed ontology-based CA allows to (i) semantically align all involved experts, and (ii) potentiate the analysis through reasoning capabilities. Finally, preliminary results from an industrial case in a food company are shown.
... An EIS uses AI technologies to change the classical maintenance strategy approaches that are based on the knowledge of the mean time between failures (MTBF) to the knowledge of system degradation incidences (Hoang et al. 2020;Karray et al. 2019). This change entails continuous monitoring of sensors' readings and analytics of degradation (Elsheikh et al. 2019;Taha et al. 2019;Shaban et al. 2015). ...
Full-text available
A sustainable and reliable machining process is the main goal of seeking machine digitization. Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Cyber-Physical System (CPS) combined with Artificial Intelligence are used for process control. This has become more essential in the case of machining of high-cost aerospace materials and critical product specifications. In this paper, a novel self-healing mechanism was developed to recover a CNC machine from producing parts that do not conform, to surface roughness’s specifications. The machine settings are reconfigured autonomously and online to recover from the effect of tool wear and to keep the surface roughness within the design specifications. The proposed self-healing mechanism is based on a pattern recognition algorithm called Logical Analysis of Data (LAD). This algorithm generates patterns that characterize the out-of-specification state, and provides a corrective setting within the recovery patterns of the within-specification state by using various distance approaches. The developed self-healing mechanism is composed of three modules: CPS model of the CNC machine (module 1), classification into, out of, or within-specification states (module 2), and a self-healing controller (module 3) that is activated if the state of out-of-specification is found by module 2. The three modules are software. The current hardware system of the machine is not altered. The proposed self-healing is applicable and integrable to CNC machines with a wide range of machining parameters of feed rate from 20 mm/min to 750 mm/min and spindle speed from 15,000 RPM to 35,000 RPM. To validate the developed mechanism, a deep learning artificial model was developed on physical data to emulate the CNC milling machine in a CPS simulation environment, and test runs were executed. The proposed self-healing mechanism was evaluated under several simulation runs that covered the ranges of CNC machine settings. The measure of performance of the proposed mechanism is the out-of-specification clearing time. The test runs show that the proposed self-healing mechanism was able to clear the out-of- specification state and to recover the within-specification state in less than five seconds, with the best distance metric approach. The results of the time response for each test run are reported.
... BFO has been successfully used by the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry (Arp et al., 2016). BFO is also used along with the Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering (DOLCE) by the Industrial Ontologies Foundry (IOF) to develop proofof-concept ontologies (Karray et al., 2019;Sanfilippo et al., 2019). The future reuse and alignment of OMSSA to IOF ontologies motivated the selection of BFO as top-level ontology. ...
Full-text available
Within maintenance management activities, engineers need to select maintenance strategies so to carry out the technical maintenance actions. A single equipment is composed of several components with different failure modes. There should be a maintenance strategy for each of them; while some of the components can be run-to-failure applying corrective maintenance, some others cannot afford a failure, and preventive or predictive strategies should be implemented. Selecting and assessing maintenance strategies is a complex task for which information from many sources should be retrieved. Information from a Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis, a cost–benefit-risk analysis, Computational Maintenance Management Systems, is often used by engineers to select and assess maintenance strategies. A selected strategy is often not evaluated over time to check its effectiveness. The strategy may need adjustments or substituted by a more efficient one, for example, a condition-based strategy substituting a time-based one. To facilitate maintenance strategies selection and assessment, the current study proposes an Ontology model for Maintenance Strategy Selection and Assessment (OMSSA). OMSSA serves as a formal terminology framework in maintenance strategies that can be used to develop smart computational agents that can help in the decision-making process for selecting and assessing maintenance strategies. To facilitate its future reuse and integration with other ontologies in the industrial domain, OMSSA builds following the state-of-the-art in ontology development by using a top-level domain-neutral ontology, the Basic Formal Ontology.
... Only a few researchers have created BN from ontology in manufacturing domain. This is partly because creating an ontology itself is not an easy task and most approaches proposed in the literature have had limited practical success due to lack of scalability and interoperability, resulting in limited domain-wide acceptability [41,42]. ...
Full-text available
Bayesian Network (BN) models are being successfully applied to improve fault diagnosis, which in turn can improve equipment uptime and customer service. Most of these BN models are essentially trained using quantitative data obtained from sensors. However, sensors may not be able to cover all faults and therefore such BN models would be incomplete. Furthermore, many systems have maintenance logs that can serve as qualitative data, potentially containing historic causation information in unstructured natural language replete with technical terms. The motivation of this paper is to leverage all of the data available to improve BN learning. Specifically, we propose a method for fusion-learning of BNs: for quantitative data obtained from sensors, metrology data and qualitative data from maintenance logs, corrective and preventive action reports, and then follow by fusing these two BNs. Furthermore, we propose a human-in-the-loop approach for expert knowledge elicitation of the BN structure aided by logged natural language data instead of relying exclusively on their anecdotal memory. The resulting fused BN model can be expected to provide improved diagnostics as it has a wider fault coverage than the individual BNs. We demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method using real world data from uninterruptible power supply (UPS) fault diagnostics.
... Also, in this case, several initiatives foster the interoperability between these systems (Kiritsis, 2013). For example, ROMAIN (Karray et al., 2019) or the IOF-maintenance ontology ( provide asset-centric ontologies for maintenance; to this end, the ISO 15926 is a relevant normative, combined with the ISO 13xxx family on condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. ...
Full-text available
The present work considers information and data as a cornerstone for an effective Circular Manufacturing (CM). Focusing on complex industrial assets it also postulates the relevance to develop CM strategies having both the perspective of the Original Equipment Manufacturer, or asset provider, and the asset user. In this scope, a particular emphasis is given on enterprise information systems interoperability as enabler: for CM strategies to be effective, data are required to be exchanged between various enterprise information systems (EIS) hold by the two parties. Therefore, the mapping of data required for each CM strategy along the product/asset lifecycle is performed, and an overview of the EIS interoperability for CM enhancement is discussed, leveraging on ontologies concept.
... An ontology based on BFO would be in a position to represent these impacts by representing, within a single framework, both the design and the real, material environment in which it is to be realised. There is a wide range of domain ontologies already developed in BFO terms, including an environment ontology (Env19, s.d.), a maintenance Ontology (Karray, Ameri, Hodkiewicz, & Louge, 2019), a skill ontology (Ski19, s.d.), digital construction ontologies (Dig21, 2021) and others (BFO21, 2021). ...
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process for managing construction project information in such a way as to provide a basis for enhanced decision-making and for collaboration in a construction supply chain. One impediment to the uptake of BIM is the limited interoperability of different BIM systems. To overcome this problem, a set of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) has been proposed as a standard for the construction industry. Building on IFC, the ifcOWL ontology was developed in order to facilitate representation of building data in a consistent fashion across the Web by using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). This study presents a critical analysis of the ifcOWL ontology and of the associated interoperability issues. It shows how these issues can be resolved by using Basic Formal Ontology (ISO/IEC 21838-2) as top-level architecture. A set of competency questions is used as the basis for comparison of the original ifcOWL with the enhanced ontology, and the latter is used to align with a second ontology – the ontology for building intelligent environments (DOGONT) – in order to demonstrate the added value derived from BFO by showing how querying the enhanced ifcOWL yields useful additional information.
Industrial collaborative robots will be used in unstructured scenarios and a large variety of tasks in the near future. These robots shall collaborate with humans, who will add uncertainty and safety constraints to the execution of industrial robotic tasks. Hence, trustworthy collaborative robots must be able to reason about their collaboration’s requirements (e.g., safety), as well as the adaptation of their plans due to unexpected situations. A common approach to reasoning is to represent the knowledge of interest using logic-based formalisms, such as ontologies. However, there is not an established ontology defining notions such as collaboration or adaptation yet. In this article, we propose an Ontology for Collaborative Robotics and Adaptation (OCRA), which is built around two main notions: collaboration, and plan adaptation. OCRA ensures a reliable human-robot collaboration, since robots can formalize, and reason about their plan adaptations and collaborations in unstructured collaborative robotic scenarios. Furthermore, our ontology enhances the reusability of the domain’s terminology, allowing robots to represent their knowledge about different collaborative and adaptive situations. We validate our formal model, first, by demonstrating that a robot may answer a set of competency questions using OCRA. Second, by studying the formalization’s performance in limit cases that include instances with incongruent and incomplete axioms. For both validations, the example use case consists in a human and a robot collaborating on the filling of a tray.
Full-text available
Over the last decade, life cycle management has made leaps and bounds not just enhancing but also creating newer interactivity with the modelling world. A digital twin (DT) monitors the condition of the mirrored entity through life, providing a holistic overview of both its functionality and operability. Whilst DTs are gaining interest, the current challenge in their efficient utilisation is the interoperability between those different DTs. Today, DTs are being created for domain-specific functionalities (closed architectures), often using proprietary solutions, limiting their interoperability. This paper aims to present a high-level DT framework based on a standard top-level ontology called the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as a solution to the integration of twins. BFO is a well-established top-level ontology in the biomedical sector, as it is the core of the Open Biological Ontologies (OBO) Foundry. This paper contains a review of the state-of-the-art DTs based on top-level ontologies and highlights the value of implementing this framework, especially in the maintenance phase. The proposed open framework enables and improves the interoperability of DTs, creating the fundamental infrastructure where DTs can work together in a federation of twins. This research is an attempt to identify the applicability of this fundamental, interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral linkage for digitally enhanced eMaintenance platforms and their effective deployment. The paper thus presents an overview of how a typical BFO based DT would work in the context of a network of twins that targets human-in-the-loop (HITL) and their interoperability establishing a future towards the next industrial revolution: Industry 5.0.
Technical Report
Full-text available
To overcome the limitations of text-based descriptions a HAZOP ontology has been proposed that provides a basic set of standard concepts and terms The development of the ontology uses the Upper level Ontology, SUMO (The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology) and a Process Engineering Ontology, that define general-purpose terms and act as a foundation for more specific domains. The ontology is developed so that engineers can build new concepts out from the basic set of concepts. This paper evaluates the proposed ontology by means of use cases that measure the performance in finding relevant information used and produced during the safety analyses. In this paper, the extraction of knowledge is performed using JTP (An object oriented Modular Reasoning System) that is used for querying the ontol-ogy.
Full-text available
In the context of globalization and knowledge management, information technologies require an ample need of unprecedented levels of data exchange and sharing to allow collaboration between heterogeneous systems. Yet, understanding the semantics of the exchanged data is one of the major challenges. Semantic interoperability can be ensured by capturing knowledge from diverse sources by using ontologies and align these latter by using upper-level ontologies to come up with a common shared vocabulary. In this paper, we aim in one hand to investigate the role of upper-level ontologies as a mean for enabling the formalization and integration of heterogeneous sources of information and how it may support interoperability of systems. On the other hand, we present several upper-level ontologies and how we chose and then used basic formal ontology (BFO) as an upper-level ontology and common core ontology (CCO) as a mid-level ontology to develop a modular ontology that defines emergency responders’ knowledge starting from firefighters’ module for a solution to the semantic interoperability problem in emergency management.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We analyze past, present and future of information systems in the maintenance field. We focus on e-maintenance as an emerged concept in this field integrating various applications to support maintenance process. While the need to emerge new services to obtain more efficient maintenance with near zero breakdown, we propose and discuss characteristics and advantages of an information system based on the expert knowledge of the maintenance domain. This system formalizes this knowledge and manages data, information and knowledge exchanged and shared between various integrated applications in the system. The principal aim of this system is to emerge new services as self-management, self-maintenance, self-learning and etc. This system is the illustration of a new concept that we present in this paper called s-maintenance.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ontology engineering is known to be a complex, time-consuming, and costly process, in particular, if an ontology has to be developed from scratch, and respective domain knowledge has to be formally encoded. This paper presents the largest publicly available manufacturing ontology CDM-Core in the standard formal ontology language OWL2. The CDM-Core ontology has been developed within the European research project CREMA in close collaboration with the user partners in order to sufficiently cover the CREMA use case domains of metal press maintenance and automotive exhaust production. CDM-Core makes use of many relevant standard vocabularies and ontologies, with only about one fifth of its size being CREMA use case specific.The practical applicability of CDM-Core for semantic annotation of domain-related process models, sensor data and services has been approved by the user partners, and its quality according to selected common criteria of verification and validation was successfully evaluated. From the public release of the CDM-Core, we expect to cover the lack of a base common ontology for the manufacturing domain, thanks to feedbacks from industrial reuse and improvements from the community.
Full-text available
This paper proposes a methodology for knowledge representation using ontology concepts. We employ an ontology-based schema to overcome the problems of heterogeneity and inconsistency in maintenance records, which are attributable to abbreviations, noisy data, nongeneric data structures, and ambiguous technical words in textual maintenance records. Our methodology employs a bond graph model (BGM) to produce a function structure of equipment related to fault propagation in part-component levels. Our method combines OWL-Lite/RDF and the ISO 14224 and ISO 15926 international standards in order to obtain a generic system-level representation model. Our approach also constructs transparent cause-effect knowledge, which facilitates interpretation and computer conversion using ISO 14224 and ISO 15926. The web ontology language (OWL) and resource description framework (RDF) are used to convert the generic human-readable interpretation into a standard computer-readable representation, thereby generating a knowledge base with maximum shareability and accessibility. We applied the methodology to a typical pneumatic valve. The results show that BGM can cross-link the identified words and the domain-specific logic to obtain the function structure of an object with causality inference, as well as enriching semantic extraction based on the context of a maintenance report, which improves the interpretation and computer conversion. Using OWL/RDF, actions such as interexchange, retrieval, and storage are possible for fault diagnosis applications in a multidisciplinary environment. Our method provides a generic technical understanding, which enriches semantic extraction and knowledge discovery in a typical maintenance report.
yamato sharply distinguishes itself from other existing upper ontologies in the following respects. (1) Most importantly, yamato is designed with both engineering and philosophical minds. (2) yamato is based on a sophisticated theory of roles, given that the world is full of roles. (3) yamato has a tenable theory of functions which helps to deal with artifacts effectively. (4) Information is a ‘content-bearing’ entity and it differs significantly from the entities that philosophers have traditionally discussed. Taking into account the modern society in which a flood of information occurs, yamato has a sophisticated theory of informational objects (representations). (5) Quality and quantity are carefully organized for the sake of greater interoperability of real-world data. (6) The philosophical contribution of yamato includes a theory of objects, processes, and events. Those features are illustrated with several case studies. These features lead to the intensive application of yamato in some domains such as biomedicine and learning engineering.
Ontologies are increasingly recognized as essential tools in information science. Although the concepts are well understood theoretically , the practical implementation of ontologies remains challenging. In this book, researchers in computer science, information systems, ontology engineering, urban planning and design, civil and building engineering, and architecture present an interdisciplinary study of ontology engineering and its application in urban development projects. The first part of the book introduces the general notion of ontology, describing variations in abstraction level, coverage, and formality. It also discusses the use of ontologies to achieve interoperability, and to represent multiple points of view and multilingualism. This is illustrated with examples from the urban domain. The second part is specific to urban development. It covers spatial and geographical knowledge representation, the creation of urban ontologies from various knowledge sources, the interconnection of urban models and the interaction between standards and domain models. The third part presents case studies of the development of ontologies for urban mobility, urban morphological processes, road systems, and cultural heritage. Other cases report on the use of ontologies to solve urban development problems, in construction business models, building regulations and urban regeneration. It concludes with a discussion of key challenges for the future deployment of ontologies in this domain. This book bridges the gap between urban practitioners and computer scientists. As the essence of most urban projects lies in making connections between worldviews, ontology development has an important role to play, in promoting interoperability between data sources, both formal (urban databases, Building Integrated Models, Geographical Information Systems etc.) and less formal (thesauri, text records, web sources etc.). This volume offers a comprehensive introduction to ontology engineering for urban development. It is essential reading for practitioners and ontology designers working in urban development.
This book presents cutting-edge applications of, and up-to-date research on, ontology engineering techniques in the physical asset integrity domain. Though a survey of state-of-the-art theory and methods on ontology engineering, the authors emphasize essential topics including data integration modeling, knowledge representation, and semantic interpretation. The book also reflects novel topics dealing with the advanced problems of physical asset integrity applications such as heterogeneity, data inconsistency, and interoperability existing in design and utilization. With a distinctive focus on applications relevant in heavy industry, Ontology Modeling in Physical Asset Integrity Management is ideal for practicing industrial and mechanical engineers working in the field, as well as researchers and graduate concerned with ontology engineering in physical systems life cycles.
The subject of causality is large, and fraught with difficulties. In this paper, we concentrate on two aspects which are of importance when we seek to handle causality from an ontological point of view, The first concerns the range of particulars between which causal and causal-like relations may hold. In addition to events - the domain most typically chosen as the objects of causation - we consider the role played by processes and states, taking a particular view of the nature of these entities. The second aspect concerns the range of different causal and causal-like relations to be considered. In addition to causation itself we consider such things as initiation and termination, perpetuation, enablement and prevention. We do not present a fully-fledged ontological theory of causation, but lay down some basic ingredients that should be taken into account in the construction of such a theory.