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The ANR #CreaMaker workshop: co-creativity, robotics and maker education has reunited international experts to raise the question on the concept, activities and assessment of creativity in the context of maker education and its different approaches : computational thinking (Class’Code, AIDE), collective innovation (Invent@UCA), game design (Creative Cultures), problem solving (CreaCube), child-robot interactions and sustainable development activities. Researchers from Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Germany, Italy and Spain will reunite with LINE researchers and the MSc SmartEdTech students in order to advance in how we can design, orchestrate and evaluate co-creativity in technology enhanced learning (TEL) contexts, and more specifically, in maker based education.
Organized in collaboration with the Centre d’Accompagnement Pédagogique (CAP).
ANR #CreaMaker workshop: co-creativity,
robotics and maker education
Workshop full program : 
April 1st and 2nd. International workshop
3 avril. Séminaire de recherche “Co-créativité et numérique”
Edited by Laura Cassone, Margarida Romero, Thierry Vieville, Cindy De Smet, Mbemba
Proceedings URL: 
 
Addressing the global challenges through a (co)creative
We’re living exciting but also challenging times at the worldwide level. From one side, there are
environmental challenges that can compromise our future as humanity and the socio economic
tensions generated in a context of mass consumption within a model of fossil and nuclear energy
which endangers a sustainable development. From the other side, we have a growing number of
citizen-based initiatives aiming to improve the society and the technological infrastructures
making possible to cooperate at large scale and not only at a small-group level. Younger
becomes empowered for their future. In their initiatives such #FridaysForFuture they are no
longer (interactive) media consumers but move forward as creative activists to make older
generations change the system in order to save the planet. At the same time, we have observed
in the last years the emergence of a wide diversity of third places (makerspace, fablab, living    
lab…) aiming to empower communities to design and develop their own creative solutions. In this
context, maker-based projects have the potential to integrate tinkering, programming and
educational robotics to engage the learner in the development of creativity both in individual and
collaborative contexts (Kamga, Romero, Komis, & Mirsili, 2016). In this context, the ANR
#CreaMaker project aims to analyse the development of creativity in the context of team-based
maker activities combining tinkering and digital fabrication (Barma, Romero, & Deslandes, 2017;
Fleming, 2015). This first workshop of the ANR #CreaMaker project aims to raise the question on
the concept, activities and assessment of creativity in the context of maker education and its
different approaches : computational thinking (Class’Code, AIDE), collective innovation  
(Invent@UCA), game design (Creative Cultures), problem solving (CreaCube), child-robot
interactions and sustainable development activities. Researchers from Canada, Brazil, Mexico,
Germany, Italy and Spain will reunite with LINE researchers and the MSc SmartEdTech students in
order to advance in how we can design, orchestrate and evaluate co-creativity in technology
enhanced learning (TEL) contexts, and more specifically, in maker based education.
Margarida Romero
Laboratoire d’Innovation et Numérique pour l’Education (LINE) director, Université Côte d’Azur.
Table of contents
Addressing the global challenges through a (co)creative citizenship 1
Table of contents 2
Co-creativity assessment 4
Abstract 4
References 5
Co-creativity through Invent@UCA 6
Abstract 6
A focus on DEMOLA 7
A focus on OASIS (Open source Actions for Societal ImpactS) 7
Developing (Co)creativity in maker education 8
Child-robot interaction in unstructured settings 11
Abstract 11
References 12
Creative Cultures : how co-creativity is nurtured in the context of game design 13
Computational Thinking with CS unplugged 15
Abstract 15
What is computational thinking? 15
Crabs & Turtles - a board game series for fostering computational thinking 16
References 17
Co-creativity and computational thinking, the language issue 18
Developing Creativity and unplugged 20
Computational Thinking by using COMICS 20
Abstract 20
References 21
Coherence through co-creativity? Task-based tele-collaborations in binational teacher
education 23
Abstract 23
MakerEd for Historical thinking 26
Co-creativity in maker-based education in Collège Beaubois (Montréal) 30
Literature review on creativity in education journals selected by the French National Board of
Universities in education sciences 33
AI in Education: from books to robots 35
Problem-solving in educational robotics 38
Kids with Developmental Coordination Disorder playing with robotic cubes 41
TRANSFORM - a bottom-up teacher development through constructive alignment and
collaborative teacher learning 43
Ecologie, pensée complexe et résolution de problèmes: le cas des projets de co-création de
potagers pédagogiques 45
Co-créativité en essaimage massif : le cas Idéaton. 47
Co-creativité dans la démarche créative du CurriqVideo 49
Activités d’apprentissage en éducation supérieure selon le modèle ICAP 52
Construire pour écrire: la manipulation au service de la rédaction 53
Littératie numérique et co-créativité 56
 
Co-creativity assessment
Romero, De Smet, David, Tali
Margarida Romero is research director of the Laboratoire d’Innovation et Numérique pour
l’Éducation (LINE), a research lab in the field of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). Full
professor at Université Côte d'Azur (France) and associate professor at Université Laval
(Canada). Her research is oriented towards the inclusive, humanistic and creative uses of
technologies (co-design, game design and robotics) for the development of creativity, problem
solving, collaboration and computational thinking.  
Cindy De Smet is an assistant professor (Maître de conférences, CNU 70) at the Université Côte
d'Azur (France). She is responsible for the "creativity" research line within the LINE "Laboratoire
d'Innovation et du Numérique pour l'Education" research lab. De Smet began her career as a
researcher and teacher trainer (2004) at the Ghent University College in Flanders (Belgium), and
defended her PhD in 2015 at Ghent University (Belgium). Her main expertise lies in the fields of
Game-Based Learning, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), the usage of
technologies in secondary education and the design of learning materials. 
Dayle David is a research collaborator at the"Laboratoire d'Innovation et du Numérique pour
l'Education" (LINE) in the framework of the CréaCube and #CreaMaker project. She is
completing a master's degree in research in social psychology by working about feeling control,
mind attribution and social robotics while combining participatory research interventions within
the framework of the LINE.
Fatiha Tali is an assistant professor (Maître de conférences, CNU 70) at the Université Côte
d'Azur (France). Her researchs are based on Apprenticeship Assessment: Competency-Based
Approach with the LINE "Laboratoire d'Innovation et du Numérique pour l'Education" research
lab. Her research focuses on teacher training and the use of digital tools for training, teachers'
professional learning in new hybrid training contexts, incl. instructional and distance
learning. In addition, at L'École Supérieure du Professorat et de l'Éducation Académie de Nice
(L’ESPE), she is involved in the training of primary and secondary school teachers. The fields of
her work are the adaptation and schooling of students with disabilities as well as digital
Creativity is often associated to representations of individual productions in the artistic fields.
From a research perspective, creativity in learning contexts has mainly been evaluated focusing
on individual activities. We consider creativity as a level of cognitive engagement leading to
create a valuable and novel process or solution for a given context or problem. In the context of   
creative activities, we consider co-creativity as the collaborative process in which learners are
committed to develop a creative solution. To evaluate this process, we designed and developed
a co-creativity scale (CoCreat), based on the literature review of the different creativity
components carried out in collaborative learning contexts. Further on, we describe the
development process of the CoCreat scale and each of its items. Next, we will present the results
of the validation process of the CoCreat scale. The reliability and validity of this scale were    
verified on a sample of 421 French-speaking students. Factor analysis shows that theof the
CoCreat scale consists confirm the structure based on of three factors with a satisfactory internal
consistency. This scale aims to be an instrument that can analyze the creativity process in a
collaborative learning setting in both secondary and post-secondary education.
Hämäläinen, R., & Vähäsantanen, K. (2011). Theoretical and pedagogical perspectives on orchestrating
creativity and collaborative learning. Educational Research Review
, 6(3), 169-184.
Romero, M., Arnab, S., De Smet, C., Mohamad, F., Abdelouma, S., Minoi, J. L., & Morini, L. (2018, October).
Co-Creativity Assessment in the Process of Game Creation
. In European Conference on Games Based      
Learning (pp. 549-XXI). Academic Conferences International Limited.
Romero, M., Hyvönen, P., & Barberà, E. (2012). Creativity in collaborative learning across the life span.
Creative Education
, 3(4), 422.
Romero, M., & Lille, B. (2017, July). Intergenerational techno-creative activities in a library fablab. In
International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population
(pp. 526-536). Springer, Cham.
 
Co-creativity through Invent@UCA
Ciussi, Guerci, Karrach
Melanie Ciussi is doctor in Education Sciences, professor of Creativity and Innovation at SKEMA
Business School. She is also responsible for Innovative Teaching and Learning projects for SKEMA
KCenter and University Cote d’Azur (UCA). She is the co-director of disruptive programmes such
as Programme ID on social innovations, as well as INVENT@UCA on entrepreneurship &
Eric Guerci is director of the CPA, which centers on research, teachers and students. Associate
Professor of Economy UCA, Physicist, PhD in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, at
present researcher on computational economics and behavioral economics, and innovation. He
co-directs the Invent @ UCA disruptive program on entrepreneurship & innovation and the Demola
Côte d'Azur center.
Samira Karrach is specialist in management of organizations and management of transversal and
complex academic projects. She co-directs the Invent @ UCA co-creation program and the Demola
Côte d'Azur center. She also directs the Creative Writing Chair at the Storytelling Institute. Finally
she is Director Higher Education Research and Innovation for the Nice Côte d'Azur Metropolis.
INVENT@UCA is the Disrupt Campus program of the Université Cote d’Azur on digital innovation    
and entrepreneurship. The program, based on co-creation between diverse stakeholders on real
life challenges, has the ambition to train students in soft skills (among others, creativity,
collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving, learn to play in ambiguity). Skills that are
poorly developed in classical academic training courses. Ambitious, the programme brings
together numerous schools and partner institutions (centers of research, schools from business
to engineering, universities and local institutions). It involves as well all students (from L1 to
postdoctoral student) in the UCA ecosystem. Together it creates a melting pot which favours
creativity, multi-field expertise and intergenerational exchanges. The creative collaboration
between all the actors is indeed at the heart of the learning process. The situated learning    
approach (Stein 1998) place students in authentic learning situations where they are actively
immersed in an activity while using problem-solving skills.
The program tackles digital transformation issues based on real business cases (DEMOLA) as
well as societal challenges (OASIS) run with NGO, diverses associations or even citizens.
A focus on DEMOLA
The objective of DEMOLA is to develop the
student’s ability to apply and reflect on his/her
knowledge as well as professional role in a
multi-disciplinary team (consisting of 4--6
students from all faculties and different
universities) while working on a real world
innovation challenge together with a
company representative (picture 1). The aim
is that the student, via utilization of the
methods of multi-disciplinary development processes and the inclusion of relevant theories, shall
be able to analyze, develop, test and argue for solutions for the case. The students will work with    
different innovation methods (IDEO Idea generation, Bottom-up primary market segmentation,
Persuasive Argumentation & Structured Thinking and Pitching) in order to qualify the case.
A focus on OASIS (Open source Actions for Societal ImpactS)
OASIS is a multi-disciplinary innovation project where
students co-create solutions in order to solve societal
challenges. OASIS teams work with real motivating
challenges. Students are free to work for an existing
challenge or create their own. The objective is –by open
source actions– to reach social innovation with positive
impact (on people, planet, profit). Learning expeditions
are often necessary to understand the problem in the
original context (picture 2 : Objective 80% recycling in  
In addition to a project based approach -so far around 30 projects and +250 participants, the
programme offers hybrid and practical expert workshops, along with creative events (hackathon,
jams, bootcamp).
Ciussi, M., & Vian, D. (2017). Le programme ID de SKEMA Business School. Entreprendre & Innover
, (2),
Stein, D. (1998). Situated learning in adult education
Developing (Co)creativity in maker education
Dr. Ann-Louise Davidson holds the Concordia University Research Chair in Maker  
Culture. She is Associate Director of the Milieux Institute for Arts, Culture and
Technology where she created #MilieuxMake, a university research makerspace. She is
an Associate Professor of Education and she teaches in the Educational Technology
graduate programs. Dr. Davidson’s work focuses on maker culture, social innovation,
inclusion and innovating with advanced pedagogical approaches and digital
technologies. She created Education Makers, a research group that investigates the
potential of maker education to prepare learners for the 21st century workforce. She has
developed solid partnerships with schools, libraries, colleges, universities and NGOs to
work together on youth motivation in stigmatized neighborhoods and marginalized
communities through concrete maker activities. She also investigates how people from
interdisciplinary fields develop identities as makers. She has expertise in action
research methodologies that engage participants in collaborative data collection and
meaning-making and hands-on studies in technology and innovation.
Creativity is deemed to be one of the most important skills of the 21st century. While we are
unable to anticipate how big this revolution will be, we know it will involve “artificial intelligence,
robotics, the internet of things, autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, nanotechnology,
biotechnology, materials science, energy
storage and quantum computing” (Schwab,
2016, p.1). Many have argued that human
creativity, combined with empathy and critical
thinking will allow the next-gen workforce to
(co)work with the technological demands of the
4th industrial revolution (Engineers Canada,
2015; Wyonch, 2018). How we define creativity
and co-creativity remains largely theoretical,
which challenges how we engage with it in
education. There is a scarcity of research that
allows educators to observe, measure and evaluate creativity. In a quest to unpack what complex
concepts such as creativity and co-creativity are made of, I created a research group called  
“Education Makers” to develop workshop models and to document inclusive and
intergenerational maker-led activities. In this talk, I will present the foundations of workshop  
models that allow multiple points of entry into maker education, including micro-events and
large-scale events, highly curated events and open-design events. I will explain how educators  
can help develop (co)creativity through maker education. I will discuss what we can inject in the  
creative mix to encourage collective creativity, build creative confidence, creative agency,
creative destruction and creative networking.
Education Makers (
Engineers Canada. (2015). Engineering Labour Market in Canada: Projections to 2025.
Schwab, K. (2016). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland.
Wyonch, R (2018). Risk and Readiness: The Impact of Automation on Provincial Labour Markets. CD Howe
Institute. Commentary no. 499. [Added 2018-08]
Keynote: 21st Century Competencies in Maker Education
The maker revolution is here (Dougherty,
2012). Everyone can be a maker. Children are
creating all sorts of STEAM projects.
Teachers from all levels are being trained to
integrate maker-based projects in their
classrooms (Peppler . It is the Gold Rush of  
micro-prototyping technologies, robotics, 3D
printing, laser cutting, electronic embroidery
and embedded wearables. This is partly
driven by the open-source electronic market
emerging from Shenzhen, online DYI
communities, data sharing over the Internet, but mostly by the worldwide movement driven by
the 4th industrial revolution. The next workforce will be faced with the new demands of a    
ubiquitous, mobile and ambient Internet of connected objects fed by AI and machine learning
(Schwab, 2016). By 2025, the World Economic Forum (2015) predicts several technological
tipping points, namely 10% of people wearing clothes connected to the internet, 1 trillion sensors
also connected to the internet, the first robotic pharmacist, the first 3D printed car in production,
and the first implantable mobile phone available commercially. This will bring unprecedented
changes because they will arrive at a speed that will affect all our systems in all continents. They      
will force us to revise the nature of how we live, how we interact with each other and how we
work. Maker education is part of the solution to prepare the next generation workforce because it    
confronts learners to programming languages, robotics, additive manufacturing, prototyping, the
internet of things and the sensing environment. More than just knowledge about these topics,
learners have to develop competencies that will prepare them for a complex and ever-changing
world that even experts cannot yet imagine. In this talk, I will present the global context for maker    
education and an operationalized definition of how to develop competencies in this context. I will  
also present results of several studies on this topic (Davidson et. al., Davidson & Price). More
specifically, I will discuss fundamental maker knowledge, attitudes, resources, and how to design 
activities to mobilize competencies to complete multi-faceted projects or solve complex
Davidson. A.-L., Romero, M., Naffi, N., Duponsel, N., Cucinelli, G., Price, D., Krsmanovic, B., Ruby, I. (2017).
Les attitudes et les compétences de la culture maker.
In. A. Stockless, Lebage, I., Plante. P., Actes de    
colloque de la CIRTA, UQAM, Montréal, 10-11 octobre 2017, pp.187-194.
Davidson, A.-L., Price, D. (2017) Does Your School Have the Maker Fever? –An Experiential Learning
Approach To Developing Maker Competencies. LEARNing Landscapes, 11
(1), 103-120.  
Dougherty, D., (2012). The Maker Movement. Innovations, Technology, Governance & Globalization, (7)
3,   
Schwab, K. (2016). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland.
Child-robot interaction in unstructured settings
Vicky Charisi is a Research Scientist at the Centre for Advanced Studies, JRC of the 
European Commission focusing on the impact of interactive and intelligent systems on
human behaviour and development. Her focus of research lies on the role of embodied    
and social Artificial Intelligence (social robots) on children’s learning and creative    
thinking. Vicky finished her PhD studies at the UCL, Institute of Education, London
during which she investigated children’s processes and interactions in
computer-supported music-making identifying elements of collaborative creative
thinking. She has worked as a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Twente,
Human-Media Interaction group in the Netherlands with a focus on robot-assisted
science learning and play. She regularly collaborates with robotics groups and with her
research she contributes to the design and development of socially intelligent robots
and to the evaluation of those systems in real-life scenarios. Vicky is an active member
of the association Designing for Children’s Rights which is supported by UNICEF, trying
to address the emerging ethical considerations. Currently she serves as an appointed
Chair at the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society for Cognitive and Developmental
Systems TF for Human-Robot Interaction.
Children in early years make sense of the unstructured environment through exploratory actions
which gradually turn into meaningful deliberate behaviours. In this way, they first perceive
existing patterns of their environment while they act upon it in meaningful for them and creative
ways. During this process children make use of their intrinsic motivation and inherent curiosity
and are likely to take risks, make mistakes and invent novel ideas usually within playful activities.
Often this process takes place in collaborative settings where two or more children engage in
collaborative play, which
results in a distributed
and shared cognitive and
social engagement.
Recently, interactive
digital tools have been
developed to support this
process. However, these
screen-based tools often do not support the cognitive and social interaction with the physical
world, which might have an impact on child’s development. To address this limitation, a new
paradigm has emerged which is based on embodied and social cognition, that of social robotic
companions. We discuss our current research which focuses on the possible impact of socially
aware robotic agents on child’s cognitive and social engagement in various settings by providing
examples from real life scenarios in formal and informal settings. We discuss various kinds of
robot appearance (i.e. anthropomorphic features), behaviours and interventions and we review
results from the field of child-robot interaction for typically developing and autistic children. Then,
we identify emergent elements for discussion about the ways in which social robots can support
child’s learning and development as well as current methodological approaches that have been
used for the evaluation of the impact on child’s behaviour. Following this, we trigger discussion
regarding the emerging ethical considerations from a child-centred perspective and we refer to
the current debates on designing AI for children’s rights. Finally, we review first steps on
robot-assisted music-making activities as one of the current examples of social robots in highly
creative contexts and we analyse robots’ characteristics that facilitate children's collaborative
music improvisation. Towards this end we take inspiration from current work on designing robots
for collaborative music-making for adults and we identify special considerations in designing from
children’s creative process focusing on children’s inherent need for exploration.
Bamberger, j. (2014). The laboratory for making things: Developing multiple representations of knowledge.
In Science Teachers Use of Visual Representations.Springer, pp. 291–311.
Charisi, V., Dennis, L., Fischer, M., Lieck, R., Matthias, A., Slavkovik, M., Sombetski, J.,Winfield, A.,
Yampolskiy, R. (2017). Towards moral autonomous systems. Ethics and Information Technology.
Charisi, V., Liem, C., Gomez, E. (2018). Novelty-based cognitive processes in unstructured music-making
settings in early childhood. In Proceedings Joint IEEE International Conference of Development and
Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob), on IEEE, 2018, pp. 218-223.
Charisi, V., Davison, D., Reidsma, D., & Evers, V. (2016). Evaluation methods for user-centered child-robot
interaction. In Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 2016 25th IEEE International
Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 545-550. IEEE.
Forestier, S. & Oudeyer, P.-Y. (2016). Overlapping waves in tool use development: a curiosity-driven
computational model. In Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL-EpiRob), 2016 Joint
IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2016, pp. 238–245.
Gerstenberg, T. & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2017). Intuitive theories. Oxford handbook of causal reasoning, pp.
Creative Cultures : how co-creativity is nurtured in the
context of game design
Prof Sylvester Arnab leads research and applied innovation at the Disruptive Media  
Learning Lab (DMLL) in association with the Centre for Post-Digital Cultures (CPC) and
he seeks to explore and exploit opportunities for external collaborations informed by
the infusion of innovative practices within the DMLL and applied across the University
and beyond. As a Professor of Games Science, he forefronts the investigation into the    
application of playful and gameful approaches in teaching and learning practices at the
University, which include game-based learning, serious games, gamification and playful
learning. He co-founded the GameChangers – a Game Design Thinking initiative, which
is currently being adopted and adapted in other countries, such as Malaysia. The circle
of impact of current and previous work framed under the playful and gameful learning
has expanded beyond the University Group into national and international domains and      
sectors. Sylvester has a large portfolio of funded projects and publications. To date, he
has successfully won projects with a total value of £19 million since 2010 from funders
including FP7, H2020, Erasmus+, NEWTON, AHRC and HEFCE. He is currently
coordinating and leading the Beaconing project funded by the European Union’s
Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme, HEFCE funded Mobile
GameChangers and NEWTON CreativeCulture project. He is also leading DMLL’s
contribution to the EU H2020 Crowd4Roads project and EU H2020 BOND project.
Sylvester currently has over 90 academic publications, including one edited book-
Serious Games for Healthcare
Games, which are more readily blended with existing educational techniques and practices, are
more likely to be accepted by teachers as useful resources. Hence, it is worth ensuring the
design of game-based learning resources might support such blending, which can range from
pragmatic considerations, such as how well an intended play session fits within a teaching
schedule or homework arrangement, to pedagogical designs, which seek to address
shortcomings in didactic instruction. To promote the sense of ownership and autonomy in order
to break the barriers of adoption, not only that teachers should be part of the development    
process but they should also be empowered to create or co-create their own games - removing
the barriers to the development of game-based learning resources. In the CreativeCulture
initiative - a spin-off project funded by the
Newton Fund that is adapting the DMLL’s
GameChangers initative, teachers are
empowered to create their own games towards
engaging learners with educational contents.
Game making can be used to foster the
development of transversal skills, such as 21st
century skills, where individuals can design and
construct their own games, often working in
teams, allowing them to engage in a task that
involves - and at the same time fosters -
collaboration, problem solving and creativity.
Since the inception of the initiative in 2017, eighteen game-based learning resources have been
developed, which have been tested in schools. Out of this experience, they have also
co-produced a guideline for game-based learning to provide practical blueprints and templates
for others to adapt. The initiative has also created a set of play cards based on the lessons learnt
based on the teachers' experience, which provides useful prompts for informing educational
game design. This paper will reflect on the lessons learnt and observations, which may provide
insights on how we can remove the barriers to the process of innovating the way we teach and
Mohamad, F., Morini, L., Minoi, J., & Arnab, S. (2018. Engaging Primary Schools in Rural Malaysia with    
Game-based Learning: Culture, Pedagogy, Technology, In Proceedings of 12th European Conference on    
Game-Based Learning, 4-5 Oct 2018. pp 433-440.
Arnab, S., Morini, L., Green, K., Masters, A., & Bellamy-Woods, T. (2017). We are the Game Changers: An    
Open Gaming Literacy Programme. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 7(3), 51-62.    
Romero, M., Arnab, S., De Smet, C., Mohamad, F., Abdelouma, S., Minoi, J. L., & Morini, L. (2018, October).
Co-Creativity Assessment in the Process of Game Creation. In European Conference on Games Based
Learning (pp. 549-XXI). Academic Conferences International Limited.
Computational Thinking with CS unplugged
Tsarava, Leifheit
Katerina Tsarava works as a research assistant at the Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien,  
Tübingen, Germany. She conducts her PhD research as a member of the junior research group
cognitive Plasticity
. Her doctoral studies focus on the cognitive aspects of Computational  
Thinking and Game-based Learning. She studied Applied Informatics in the University of
Macedonia (2013) and holds a Master’s degree in ICT in Education from the Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki (2016).
Luzia Leifheit is a PhD candidate at LEAD Graduate School. Since 2017, she has been working in  
computer science education research projects at the intersection of computer science, empirical
education sciences, and cognitive psychology. Her current focus is on developing game-based,
embodied, and conceptual methods for teaching computational thinking and evaluating them
empirically using randomized controlled field trials.
At the #CreaMaker workshop, we are presenting and demonstrating Crabs & Turtles: A Series of      
Computational Adventures
, a board and card game series aimed at fostering computational 
thinking (CT) abilities through playful and cooperative learning.
What is computational thinking?
Being able to think computationally means understanding complex problems, formulating them
precisely and then being able to solve them systematically. Such systematic problem solving
typically requires skills in generalization, abstraction, identifying relevant variables and patterns,
and deriving an algorithmic solution. CT is based on thinking processes such as abstraction,
generalization, pattern recognition, conditional logic, algorithmic thinking, and partitioning a
complex problem into smaller subproblems. These processes reflect cognitive processes that
play a central role in programming. However, these processes are not domain-specific because
they are not only applicable within programming. Consequently, teaching children to think
computationally does not mean turning them into computer programmers, but helping them to
develop their ability to understand complex problems and find strategies for their systematic
solution. This is a valuable skill for creative problem solving: with CT, students learn there is never    
just one correct solution, but an indefinite number of approaches for creating strategies to solve a
CT enables students to become makers and provides them with skills and strategies for bringing
their own creations into being. By introducing CT in an unplugged way (that means without the
use of technology), the focus is placed on conceptual foundations of computing rather than on
specific technologies. Specific applications of computing technology keep evolving and changing
rapidly, but the conceptual foundations remain largely the same and are universally transferable      
to an infinite array of possible applications and creations.
Crabs & Turtles - a board game series for fostering computational thinking
To teach CT in a motivating and child-friendly way that fosters cooperative learning, we
developed Crabs & Turtles
, which is a series of three life-size educational games: 1. The Treasure       
, 2. Patterns
and 3. The Race
.The Treasure Hunt and The Race are board games, while      
is a card game. In 2018, Crabs & Turtles was awarded with the 1st prize in the 6th     
International Educational Games Competition at the 12th European Conference for Games Based
The core computational concepts used to develop simple algorithmic solutions are the basic
concepts of sequences, loops, conditional branches, events, operators, data and variables. The
Crabs & Turtles
games introduce players to these basic computational concepts in a playful way.   
The games are aimed at children of primary school age or younger (8 to 12 years) who can
already read, write and do simple math, but do not yet have any programming skills. However,
Crabs & Turtles is also suitable for older students as well as for adults with little to no previous     
programming experience.
Crabs & Turtles was developed in a life-size game design to promote active participation in the     
game and thus increase players’ motivation, but also to support the learning process through
conceptual abstraction through embodied learning of foundational computational concepts. The
games are deliberately designed to be independent of any specific programming environments
or languages. Crabs & Turtles was created as board and card games rather than digital games to    
allow players to experience that applying CT is not limited to digital contexts, but can prove
useful in all kinds of contexts (Tsarava et al., 2017). In cooperative as well as competitive
scenarios, players co-creatively come up with their own strategies for winning the games.
Tsarava, K., Leifheit, L., Moeller, K., & Ninaus, M. (2018). Official Crabs & Turtles website:
Tsarava, K., Moeller, K., Pinkwart, N., Butz, M., Trautwein, U., & Ninaus, M. (2017). Training computational
thinking: Game-based unplugged and plugged-in activities in primary school. Proceedings of the 11th
European Conference on Game Based Learning, pp. 687-695.
Tsarava, K., Moeller, K., & Ninaus, M. (2018). Training Computational Thinking through board games: The
case of Crabs & Turtles. International Journal of Serious Games, 5(2), 25-44.
Co-creativity and computational thinking, the language
Thierry Viéville is a Researcher Senior at INRIA (National Research Institute in  
Computer Science and Control Theory) where he works in Computational
Neurosciences (CN) while he teaches and advices PhD students. His research interests
after Computer Vision is now Computation Neuroscience, more precisely Visual
Perception and Adaptive Processes in Systemic Neuroscience. He now also
collaborates in educational science within the LINE laboratory, regarding computational
thinking teaching. He advised more than 15 PhD students and participated in several
international collaborations (6 EEC and 4 ANR projects) with WP responsibilities. He also
helps the INRIA board regarding Science Outreach and is now involved in the
Class´Code program of formation of teachers and educators regarding children
computer science education (over 30000 persons impacted for the 1st year), with some
experimental research activity in education science.
In French, we make a distinction between human
language (une langue) and formal language (un langage)
not only related to computers (e.g., music score).
Following the Gilles Dowek recent French essay "what
can not be said must be written", we are going to    
analyse the differences between the former and the
latter, because language being the vehicle of the
thought, it is a major issue to understand the deep
difference between computational thinking and other
form of intellectual creation, at the language formulation
level. Understanding these deep differences at both the
syntactic and semantic levels is crucial to be able to
properly teach both informatics and human language
skills, and to see to which extents computational
thinking initiation can offer a second chance to whom
has difficulties with other humanities. This ontological analysis will also offer us a new view about
co-creativity, when considering co-creating using a language. For instance, human languages do
not a-priori offer the capacity to create new atoms (e.g., new words) unless neologisms are
allowed and manageable, while formal language do. On the contrary, formal languages, including
music scores, have a bounded expressiveness, whereas human languages are almost not limited
at this level. Such profound variations do not lead to the fact that the former or latter is better or
worst regarding co-creativity, but that they are different, and we can not ignore such difference.
Dowek, G. (2019). Ce dont on ne peut parler il faut l'écrire. Langues et langages
. Le Pommier, Collection    
Developing Creativity and unplugged
Computational Thinking by using COMICS
Nunes, Santos
Maria Augusta S. N. Nunes is an Associate Professor at Universidade Federal de Sergipe      
(UFS)/Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO) in Brazil. As a researcher she
created the project called Computer Science Popularization. This project use Comics
in order to      
develop the Computational Thinking Pillars enabling students to be more qualified to solve their
day-life problems as well as the problems found in the disciplines of STEAM. Her research also is
directed to Affective Computing and Intellectual Property in Computer Science.
Cícero Gonçalves dos Santos is finishing his Computer Science Master's degree at Universidade    
Federal de Sergipe (UFS) in Brazil. As a Researcher he has developed many Comics for the project
of Computer Science Popularization. His Master's thesis is towards to validate Comics as   
unplugged strategies in order to develop Computational Thinking in elementary and middle
What is creativity? Brazilian society is considered to be quite creative. Maybe because of the
political, social and economical Brazilian context. It’s hard to survive considering the range of
Brazilians' income. Then, Brazilians are usually searching and creating incredible newer
strategies to make things actually happened in order to survive daily. In the educational field, it is
not different. Teachers at elementary and middle school are always searching for new formulas in
order to motivate students avoiding to lose them to criminal organizations, for instance. In       
peripheral schools, students can hardly structure their own thinking/reasoning process correctly.
For instance make basic calculus, logic reasoning, or, even, interpret a newspaper's news could
be very tough work. In Brazil, 48% of schools have no computational infrastructure for students.
Considering this context, we proposed to use strategies to develop Computational Thinking
creatively/co-creatively among students by using unplugged stuff, such as ludic activities and
artifacts. We decided to use Comics as ludic artifacts to develop all 4 CT's pillars and also to help
to popularize and demystify concepts and theories of Computer Science. Thus we created a    
Pedagogical Plan to be applied in the Portuguese and Mathematics course at 9th Grade of
Middle school in a small city in Alagoas state in the northeast of Brazil. The experiments enabled
the teacher to apply different concepts of Computer Science by using Comics in order to develop        
the 4 pillars of Computational Thinking in the Portuguese and Mathematics curricula. The
students were aged from 13 to 15 years old. We applied them two experiments for 9 weeks.
Those two experiments were developed simultaneously during 9 meetings where we applied the
Computational Thinking Pedagogical Plan (CTPP) and then we compare the results (we got
reliability Alfa de Crombach higher than 0,7 during the test and retest (before and after those
experiments)). Both experiments of CTPP was conducted from September to October in 2018.
We had two control groups: 50 students for the first experiment and 50 students for the second      
experiment. The results: For the first experiment of CTPP, we got 50 students (we applied the
CTPP to everybody). After the application of pedagogical plan, they increased their grades: in
Portuguese (+3,17) and in Mathematics (+3,214). For the second experiment, we got 50 students
(we applied the CTPP for 25 students, the other 25 we did not apply the CTPP). After the
application of pedagogical plan the 25 students who received CTPP instructions increased their
grades: (+2,692) in Portuguese; (+2,848) in Mathematics (p-valor 0,000). For the 25 remained
students who did not receive the CTPP instruction, their grades did not increase and remained
the same. As a conclusion we perceived that the use
of Comics in Portuguese and Mathematics curricula
by means of CTPP promoted more creativity in
students towards to solve their daily problems at
school as well as it improved the students' ability for
textual interpretation and logical reasoning. We also
perceive that students revealed to be quite easily
disturbed by any external event. Thus, as a future
work, we wonder if we might decrease that by using
Mindfulness technique as well as Roots of Empathy    
Nunes, M.A.S.N et al. (2019) Almanaques para Popularização de Ciência da Computação. Available at:
<> Acesso em: 18 março. 2019
Brackmann, C; Barone, D.; Casali, A.; Boucinha, R. and Muñoz-Hernandez, S.. (2016). Computational
thinking: Panorama of the Americas. In:International Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE),
Salamanca, 2016, pp. 1-6. Available at: <>. Acesso em: 21
maio. 2017
BRACKMANN, C. P. (2019) Pensamento Computacional Brasil. Available at:
< >. Acesso em: 18 03 2019.
Santos, C. G. (2019). Estratégias Para Implantação E Avaliação De Um Plano De Diretrizes Pedagógicas
Para O Ensino E Aprendizagem Associados Ao Desenvolvimento Do Pensamento Computacional Com
Alunos Do Ensino Fundamental Da Rede Pública De Ensino Nas Disciplinas De Língua Portuguesa E
Matemática. Dissertação de Mestrado. UFS/Brasil. 191p.
Coherence through co-creativity? Task-based
tele-collaborations in binational teacher education
Schmider, Zaki
Christine Schmider is Maître de Conférences at the German Department and the Teacher    
Education Faculty of the University of Nice. She studied philosophy and comparative literature in
Berlin and Paris (funded by the German "Studienstiftung des Dt. Volkes") and obtained her PhD
from the Université Paris VIII after a DFG-funded graduate programme at the University of
Freiburg and the University of Paris. She is member of the National ESPE network, of the National
council of CAPES examiners, French head of the DFH-section on German-French teacher
education, as well as responsible for the DFH/UFA teacher education program for secondary
education UNS-PHF. Her research interests comprise comparative literature and philosophy,
literature didactics, cultures of FL education as well as internationalization in teacher education.
Katja Zaki is Junior Professor (tenure track) for Romance Languages and their Didactics at the   
University of Education Freiburg and co-opted faculty member at the Faculty of Philology of the
University of Freiburg. She holds a Masters degree in International Cultural Studies from the
University of Passau, a degree for Upper Secondary Teacher Education from the University of
Regensburg and a PhD in Romance Philology (socio-linguistics) from the University of
Regensburg. She is responsible for the DFH/UFA-funded binational teacher education program
Freiburg-Nice, member of the “media in education” group at the University of Education Freiburg,    
member of the international UniCollaboration-network for tele-collaborations in higher education
and associated international researcher at the LINE/Nice. Her research interests include language
contact and plurilingualism, the professionalization of foreign language teachers,
internationalization of teacher education and CALL (computer assisted language learning).
The digital transformation and migratory movements are among the phenomena that have been
changing and shaping Europe’s classrooms in recent years. Learning and teaching environments
are characterized by hybridity in many forms: by an increased cultural and linguistic     
heterogeneity on one hand, by a wide range of potential multimedia arrangements on the other,
though these need not be seen independently from each other. In order to prepare future
teachers for those dynamic challenges and possibilities, an awareness of difference – as well as
of differentiation, adaptivity and collaboration, with or without using the potential of ICT – has
become vital to any competence model in teacher education. Accordingly, against the
background of changing challenges, reforms in educational policies have been spurred just as
questions on educational effectiveness have risen. Two of the paradigms often stressed in this
context are competence- and coherence orientation, related to the aim of educating teachers in
an effective, “coherent” way, by integrating different domains of professional knowledge
(Baumert & Kunter, 2006; Krauss et al., 2004; Voss, Kunina-Habenicht, Hoehne, & Kunter, 2015)    
as well as by bridging gaps between different phases and agents of teacher education
(Darling-Hammond, 2013). After sketching and contextualizing the need of these structural
reforms in the German and French setting, our workshop aims at discussing a co-creative – i.e.
collaborative, co-constructivist and also personalized approaches to coherence-oriented
teaching and learning arrangements as well as the ICT in this context.
The paradigm of Coherence in Teacher Education
With a stress on “coherence orientation and professionalization” in teacher education, the value
of the acquisition of Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) and Pedagogical Knowledge (PCK) has risen in
recent years, whereas the traditional transmission of Content Knowledge (CK) has been
questioned and newly positioned in relation to other dimensions of professional competence. In
this context, is not only essential to ask which function each component of professional
knowledge has, but also how these components can be transmitted in integrative,
profession-oriented and personalized learning arrangements (z. B. Cochran-Smith,
Feiman-Nemser, McIntyre, & Demers, 2008; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Beck, Sembill, Nickolaus, &
Mulder, 2009) as well as, particularly, which function and potential ICT may fulfil in this context.
Educational systems and curricula certainly serve as an important frame for the individual,
self-regulated and also co-constructive competence development of future teachers. Coherence,
however, can only be attained, when teacher education students themselves perceive, build and
co-construct the connections between different domains of professional knowledge and see the
relevance for their profession and professionalisation.
Focus: Personalized coherence through co-creative approaches
In order to strengthen a
personalized and dynamic
approach of coherence
orientation in teacher education,
the use of ICT can serve as a
medium, as an object and as a the
focus. On the one hand, ICT in
teacher education can serve as
support structures and catalysts
of coherent curricular structures,
teaching modules and reflective
learning tasks (e.g. via e-portfolios
or e-tandems, for example). On
the other hand, ICT can also be the focus or the object of selected courses and projects in    
teacher education, be it in a subject-related or transversal way, or both.
Example: Task-based tele-collaborations in teacher education
Seen through the lense(s) of different educational cultures and approaches in Germany and    
France, our workshops seeks to explore and discuss the potentials and restrictions of ICT in
coherent teacher education programmes by presenting and discussing the value of binational,
task-based tele-collaborations. With the aim of creating coherent teacher education programs
with innovative, interactive teaching and learning formats, in which students are encouraged to
learn collaboratively in transnational communities of practice, we started a Design Based
research Project on transnational, multilingual e-tandems in a task-based format. In this context,
traditional formats of task-based (language) learning and teaching (Ellis 2013), were to be
combined with new potentials of Web 3.0- environments (Becker et al. 2016; González-Lloret &
Ortega 2016; Canto, Graaff & Jauregi 2016), in order to create course-based, content integrated
formats of language learning and teaching through tele-collaborations with (individual and
collaborative) e-tandem-projects. Within the workshop we will present course and task designs,
discuss the impact on the competence development of students and first evaluation results.
Bobillon, J.-M., Schmider, C. & Zaki, K. (2017). Die Praxis der Anderen? Chancen und Grenzen
transnationaler Communities of Practice im Kontext einer kohärenten Professionalisierung von
Fremdsprachenlehrkräften. In M. Geipel & J. Koch (Hrsg.), Bedürfnisse und Ansprüche im Dialog.     
Perspektiven in der Deutschlehrerausbildung (S. 41-59). Weinheim: Beltz.
González-Lloret, M. / Ortega, L. (eds.). (2014). Technology-mediated TBLT. Researching Technology and    
. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Schmider, C. & Zaki, K. (2019). Die Reformen der Anderen: Kohärenz und Professionsorientierung in der
französischen Lehrerbildung. In K. Hellmann, J. Kreutz, M. Schwichow & K. Zaki (Hrsg.), Kohärenz in der    
Lehrerbildung – Modelle, Konzepte, empirische Befunde
(S. 323-338). Wiesbaden: Springer.
Van den Branden, K. (ed.). (2006): Task-based language education: from theory to practice. Cambridge:
van Merriënboer, J. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills: A four-component instructional design model    
for technical training
. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
MakerEd for Historical thinking
Benjamin Lille is an education consultant for the Quebec Federation of Independent 
Schools where he advises K-12 teachers on the integration of educational technology in
the classroom. He has developed practical expertise on strategies integrating usages of
digital tools to enhance students’ learning experiences. Benjamin is also a master’s
student where he focuses on historical thinking, creativity, maker-based activities,
computational thinking and 21st century competencies.
Historical thinking, or historical reasoning, is considered to be an analytical and critical posture
where historical sources are a breeding ground in producing historical interpretation to answer
historical or historiographical questions (Yelle & Déry, 2017 ). The process of inquiring about the
past is considered to be a creative investigation in which creativity is understood as the
emergence of ideas that are original, valuable, purposeful and as a result of agency (Clark & Nye,
2017). However, historical thinking development through inquiry is a process with potential
obstacles and students’ resistance as historical inquiry can be cognitively demanding for novice
learners. Novice secondary-level learners have trouble in taking responsibility for producing an
interpretation of the past by articulating diverse historical sources because they see history as a
neutral science (Gérin-Grataloup, Solonel, & Tutiaux-Guillon, 1994). High school student
resistance in admitting the interpretative nature of the past is also an important tension in
historical thinking development (Duquette, 2011). There is therefore a need to induce conceptual
change for students to consider history as a creative endeavor in which interpretation is
produced rather than only considering history as a transmission of one interpretation of the past
that is often grounded in historical myths
(Letourneau, Cousson, Daignault, & Daigle, 2015).   To
To address this issue, we thought it pertinent to
consider how maker-based activities, a growing
movement in STEAM education, could help learners
engage in a creative investigation about the past.
Learning-by-making activities, a creative computing
approach aimed at engaging the learners in the
construction of digital and tangible artefacts
through the use of technology, has been argued to help develop 21st century competency such
as creativity and critical thinking (Martin, 2015). In maker-based activities, participants are
engaged in constructionist activities based on developing an idea and then designing and
creating an external representation of that idea (Kafai & Resnick, 1996; Papert & Harel, 1991;
Sheridan et al., 2014). Jefferson and Anderson (2017) highlight the potential of maker activities,
both formal and informal, learning contexts to foster creativity. The maker movement culture
based on sharing, autonomy, iteration, participation and support (Barma, Romero, & Deslandes,
2017; Cohen, Jones, Smith, & Calandra, 2016) could
facilitate the emergence of creative processes and
outcomes. Considering the potential of
maker-based activities in developing creativity and
critical thinking and need for student engagement
to induce conceptual change (Limón, 2001), we
co-created a collaborative maker-based
pedagogical sequence in which students had to
convey their interpretation of historical events
through the usage of the sandbox video game
. In this sequence, students were asked to collaboratively answer an overarching
historical question by constructing a digital representation using Minecraft of events set during
the French and Indian war. Students were invited, in teams of four, to investigate primary and
secondary sources to produce an original interpretation of their event and, on a broader scale, an
interpretation addressing the overarching question.
Students were then invited to share their historical understanding through a collaborative
interview in which they also had to answer questions on historiographical methodology. We
created a survey adapted from Fu, Su, and Yu (2009) and from Koole, Dionne, McCoy and Epp      
(2017) to gather information on the usage of Minecraft and on the pedagogical sequence in
general in order to use them as mirrors in a Change Lab session (Engeström, Virkkunen, Helle,
Pihlaja, & Poikela, 1996). The early analysis of the Change Lab session revealed that students
were, at first, generally more engaged in building with Minecraft
than answering the overarching  
historical question although students progressively became more engaged in doing so.
Moreover, the Change Lab session also shed a light on the potential tension between students’
appreciation of having agency in the classroom and the effortful process that is inquiring about
the past. Finally, students participating in the Change Lab session discussed the pertinence of
inquiring about subjects on which they have high interest while having a few more teacher-led
lectures for subjects that they are less familiar or less interested in.
Barma, S., Romero, M., & Deslandes, R. (2017). Implementing Maker Spaces to Promote Cross-Generational
Sharing and Learning. In Game-Based Learning Across the Lifespan
(pp. 65–78). Springer.
Clark, J., & Nye, A. (2017). ‘Surprise Me!’The (im) possibilities of agency and creativity within the standards
framework of history education. Educational Philosophy and Theory
, 49
(6), 656–668.
Cohen, J. D., Jones, W. M., Smith, S., & Calandra, B. (2016). Makification: Towards a Framework for
Leveraging the Maker Movement in Formal Education. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher
Education International Conference
(Vol. 2016, pp. 129–135).
Duquette, C. (2011). Le rapport entre la pensée historique et la conscience historique: élaboration d’un
modèle d’interaction lors de l’apprentissage de l’histoire chez les élèves de cinquième secondaire des
écoles francophones du Québec
. Université Laval.
Engeström, Y., Virkkunen, J., Helle, M., Pihlaja, J., & Poikela, R. (1996). The change laboratory as a tool for
transforming work. Lifelong Learning in Europe
, 1
(2), 10–17.
Fu, F.-L., Su, R.-C., & Yu, S.-C. (2009). EGameFlow: A scale to measure learners’ enjoyment of e-learning
games. Computers & Education
, 52
(1), 101–112.
Gérin-Grataloup, A.-M., Solonel, M., & Tutiaux-Guillon, N. (1994). Situations-problèmes et situations
scolaires en histoire-géographie. Revue Française de Pédagogie
, 25–37.
Jefferson, M., & Anderson, M. (2017). Transforming schools: Creativity, critical reflection, communication,
. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Kafai, Y. B., & Resnick, M. (1996). Constructionism in practice: Designing, thinking, and learning in a digital
. Routledge.
Koole, M., Dionne, J.-F., McCoy, E. T., & Epp, J. (2017). Makerspaces: Materializing, Digitizing, and
Transforming Learning. In Handbook of Research on Transformative Digital Content and Learning
(pp. 211–230). IGI Global.
Letourneau, J., Cousson, C., Daignault, L., & Daigle, J. (2015). The Wall of representations: emblematic
image and uncomfortables of the past quebec. HISTOIRE SOCIALE-SOCIAL HISTORY
, 48
(97), 497–548.
Limón, M. (2001). On the cognitive conflict as an instructional strategy for conceptual change: A critical
appraisal. Learning and Instruction
, 11
(4), 357–380.
Martin, L. (2015). The promise of the maker movement for education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering
Education Research (J-PEER)
, 5
(1), 4.
Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating constructionism. Constructionism
, 36
(2), 1–11.
Sheridan, K., Halverson, E. R., Litts, B., Brahms, L., Jacobs-Priebe, L., & Owens, T. (2014). Learning in the
making: A comparative case study of three makerspaces. Harvard Educational Review
, 84
(4), 505–531.
Co-creativity in maker-based education in Collège
Beaubois (Montréal)
Marc-André Girard is the principal of Beaubois College in Pierrefonds, QC. He   
holds a B. Ed., an M.A. in History pedagogy, an M. Ed in School Administration
and is currently a doctorate candidate in education. He focuses on
implementing 21st century skills in teaching approaches as well as in the    
school’s organisation. He studies change dynamics in educational
environments as well as how leadership is the primary ingredient to sustain     
change in education and pedagogy.
Marc-André has been very involved in creating effective professional
development, dealing specifically with the ideas around change in education.
He has also authored many books on changes in education systems as well as
on 21st century skills. He frequently writes in different medias. He can be  
reached through Twitter : @magirard.
In september 2016, Collège Beaubois has implemented the first makerspace in a K12 school in
Québec and most probably in Canada. The particularity of this implementation resides in the way
it was developed and created but also in the way it is now part of the student’s learning activities.
When we decided to create La Fabrique Beaubois back in september 2015, we chose to take a      
full year to plan its implementation and we wanted to include all stakeholders in the process :  
administration staff, teachers, parents, students and members of the community. We wanted to
co-create it and base ourselves on the needs of its users, mainly students and teachers. This is
why we made co-creation happen through a Living Lab and a design thinking process :    
innovation had to be fueled by the people who were to use it the most ! Also, we documented  
every step we made to make it accessible to the francophone community who would eventually
join the maker culture :
Everything had yet to be accomplished : interior design, human resources, material resources,  
etc. We had little or no expertise so we went out of our school to get it. We met with experts,
existing fab labs in Montreal, Québec City and Ottawa as well as suppliers. We were fortunate
enough to count on supplier to test-drive 3D printers, laser-cutters and other tools. We created   
partnerships with stores and with businesses. For example, a parent of our school has a plastic
and acrylic business. Twice a year or so, he gives us his scraps so we can use them in our laser
cutter. We save money and he avoids throwing his scraps in the garbage.
Here’s another example of co-creation, but this time,
within class activities. Our secondary 1 (equivalent of
grade 7) students must create a intelligent city model.
We have five classes of 36 students. Each class chooses
a tourist burrough of a major metropolis (Rome, Paris,
New York, London, Montreal) and together, they must :
1. Draw the city plan up to scale;
2. Plan which building they must build up to scale
using 3D solid modeling computer-aided design (CAD)
and vector drawing;
3. Plan a route simulating public or tourist services (garbage picking, bus tour, etc.);
4. Program a mBot to ride this path and simulate the service;
5. Program actions from the robot : playing national anthem, contextual storytelling, lights  
flashing at a specific position, etc. 
6. Simulate intelligent energy saving lighting;
7. Create a collective website with information on the metropolis and its famous tourist
attractions or main buildings;
8. Plant different QR codes to specific locations;
9. Etc.
This has to be done by a large group so the teacher’s role as a    
mediator is important. He must plan the co-creation process to
insure collaboration pockets in a larger cooperation process.
Therefore, all students alternate through all workstations in La
Fabrique : programming, 3D conception, vector drawing, etc.
The final product is a functional smart city simulation that has
been fully designed by students. It combines academic
content extracted from math, computer sciences and
geography curricula. We can develop 21st century skills in the
three subject as well as teaching their content through active
learning strategies.
Girard, M.-A. (2016). Un maker-quoi ? Repéré à
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition
.       
Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
Romero, M. (2016). Compétences pour le 21
. Repéré à    
Romero, M., Barberà, E. (2015). Creative collaboration in online computer-supported collaborative learning
.    
Repéré à
Literature review on creativity in education journals
selected by the French National Board of Universities in
education sciences
De Smet, Raileanu, Romero
Cindy De Smet is an assistant professor (Maître de conférences, CNU 70) at the Université Côte
d'Azur (France).She is responsible for the "creativity" research line within the LINE "Laboratoire
d'Innovation et du Numérique pour l'Education" research lab. De Smet began her career as a
researcher and teacher trainer (2004) at the Ghent University College in Flanders (Belgium), and
defended her PhD in 2015 at Ghent University (Belgium). Her main expertise lies in the fields of
Game-Based Learning, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), the usage of
technologies in secondary education and the design of learning materials.
Mary-Beatrice Raileanu is a research collaborator at the"Laboratoire d'Innovation et du
Numérique pour l'Education" (LINE) and she is completing a master's degree in education and
teaching at Université Côte d’Azur (France). She is an English teacher and works for the
Cambridge English program in Nice.
Margarida Romero is research director of the Laboratoire d’Innovation et Numérique pour
l’Éducation (LINE), a research lab in the field of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL). Full
professor at Université Côte d'Azur (France) and associate professor at Université Laval (Canada).
Her research is oriented towards the inclusive, humanistic and creative uses of technologies
(co-design, game design and robotics) for the development of creativity, problem solving,
collaboration and computational thinking. / @margaridaromero /
This research aims to review the literature on creativity in Education journals selected by the
French National Board of Universities in education sciences (CNU 70). We limited our research to
67 journals covering scholarly education, which were subsequently scanned for articles on
creativity. Only articles containing at least 5 times the word “creativity” and which were written in
French were selected (n=48). A representative sample was obtained (n=24) and analysed based
on the following criteria: a selection of keywords, definition of creativity proposed, content    
analysis, disciplinary fields, and type and level of education. Preliminary analysis shows that most
articles were written from either 1) an epistemological point of view where creativity is considered
an aptitude to be developed by pre-service teachers and pupils; 2) a problem solving approach
where creativity is linked to characteristics such as tolerance for ambiguity and risk taking; and    
mostly situated within artistic disciplinary fields, like dance, arts, written productions and drama.
An analysis of the definitions proposed often refer to the definition by Sternberg and Lubart
(1995) who describe creativity as the ability to produce work that is both novel (original) and
appropriated (useful, adapted to a context). Other characteristics of creativity point to its
transversal dimension and its role within the creation of teachers’ professional identity.
De la Durantaye, F. (2012). La théorisation de la créativité au service de l’éducation en art. Éducation et
francophonie, 40(2), 6-22.
Dirani, A. (2016). Mesures, développement: Le statut de la créativité en question. Éducation et socialisation.
Les Cahiers du CERFEE, (41).
Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1995). Defying the crowd: Cultivating creativity in a culture of conformity.
Free Press. 
AI in Education: from books to robots
Mieke Vandewaetere has a background in cognitive psychology and data science.  
She started research in data-analysis of e-learning environments (educational data
mining) to extract learner profiles and to support optimization of learning. She holds a
PhD in instructional psychology and technology and did research in educational   
technology, personalized learning, adaptive instruction, game-based learning.
Currently, she is head of the AI lab (Flanders, Belgium) and coordinates the AI research      
and AI education in Howest University College (Belgium). New research lines have
been started up focusing on simulation-based education, educational technology,
artificial intelligence, robotics, VR/AR and vital learning environments. She combines
her job at Howest with her job as an independent consultant for training young adults
in statistics, data analysis, thesis supervision.
The term VUCA world is more relevant than ever (volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous)
and both knowledge and people are subject to these rapid changes inherent in the nowadays
technological revolution. This leads to the introduction of new technologies, production
processes and business models. For this transformation to succeed, great value is put on
education, learning, training & development, both in schools as in companies or organisations, for    
pupils, students and professionals as well. Nowadays’ employers expect well-trained employees.
Moreover, these employees must continue to develop in order to deal flexibly with the many
changes that are forthcoming. For example, new categories of jobs will arise; existing jobs will
(partially) be replaced. The World Economic Forum reports, for example, that almost 65% of the
jobs that pupils in current primary education will do now do not yet exist.
Whereas learning has stayed the same for
as long as we know; instruction and the
effectiveness of information processing has
changed a lot. No more Socratic dialogue;
no more curricula that solely exist of ex
cathedra education. Variety, differentiation,
engagement and are key concepts in
nowadays education. And again: great
expectations are put towards technology as a means to enrich instruction, to assist teachers, to      
enhance learning.
Computer technology has been used in education for over 30 years. Wedding computational
intelligence and adaptive technologies with personalised learning involves major challenges, but
provides also a great potential for personalised instruction and learning. There are nearly no
limits anymore with respect to modeling and learning technologies. Increased computational
power, together with more fine grained measurements of learning (not necessarily valid or
reliable) and technologies from the domain of artificial intelligence, user modeling, and
educational data mining provide highly sophisticated methods for the measurement, inference,
and implementation of learner data in the development of personalised learning, by means of        
adaptive and/or intelligent systems.
Virtual tutors; virtual teachers; robot teachers; data-driven instruction; emotion detection in      
education; … A new wave of technologies is entering our society and again, there are high
expectations towards their disruptive potential for education.
Combined with the existing technologies, the tremendous amount of (big) data that has become
available has been demonstrated to unravel hidden layers in the learning processes and hidden
clusters in learners. Data is now used to understand learning and provide better support for
learning. Ranging from high-level figures, over academic analytics, educational data mining to
learning analytics that provide actionable intelligence for learners and teachers, the field of
education has become more data-driven than ever before.
In this 20 minute intervention we’ll do a fast brainstorm of the ideal robot teacher for a random    
student/persona that you’ll define. You’ll think about concepts as robot knowledge, social robots,
personalized robots, connected robots, coaching bots, peer robots. And most important: you’ll
draw your ideal (ro)bot teacher.
In addition, you’ll think about the data that needs to be collected in order to prove actionable
insights that support learners, teachers and hence, the learning process. You’ll discuss
prescriptive analytics, diagnostic analytics, predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics based
on data gathered by your ideal (ro)bot teacher.
Belpaeme, T., Kennedy, J., Ramachandran, A., Scassellati, B., & Tanaka, F. (2018). Social robots for
education: A review. Science Robotics, 3
Mohan, S., Venkatakrishnan, A., Bobrow, D., & Pirolli, P. (2017). Health Behavior Coaching: A Motivating
Domain for Human-Aware Artificial Intelligence Research.
Problem-solving in educational robotics
Raoul Kamga has always had a keen interest in physics, chemistry, technology and their  
teaching. He has a master's degree in physics and a bachelor's degree in science    
teaching in high school. He is currently completing his doctorate in educational
technology at Université Laval, where He his teaching the course on the pedagogical    
use of ICT for future preschool and elementary school teachers. HIs research focuses
on the pedagogical integration of robots and the development of 21st century skills.
Since November 2018, he has been a pedagogical advisor in the national service of the    
RÉCIT in the field of Mathematics, Science and Technology (MST).
The development of citizens is a social concern. However, this development depends, among
other things, on the skills of citizens and the environment in which they live or are expected to
live. Nowadays, this environment is being modified by technological advances such as artificial
intelligence, virtual reality technologies or robotic technologies, requiring citizens to develop a
number of skills that can contribute to their development. According to Dindar (2018) and    
Eichmann, Goldhammer, Greiff, Pucite and Naumann (2019), complex problem solving is one of
the fundamental skills that 21st century citizens
must develop. Thus, it is relevant to involve the
individual in solving complex problems. In our
study, we engaged a team of future primary
school teachers in a complex activity of
educational robotics. The theory of expansive
learning (Engeström, 1987, 2007; Engeström
and Sannino, 2010) is the theoretical framework
of our study. The objective of our research is to
analyse the complex problem solving skills of
future primary school teachers. The future
primary school teachers who participated in our
study were already a team before our study. Indeed, before the data collection, the members of      
this team had worked together for nine three-hour course sessions, one session per week. The
educational robotics class session was divided into two parts. The first part presented problem
solving and engaged participants in the implementation of introductory activities in educational
robotics. The objective of these introductory activities to educational robotics was to prepare
participants for the second part of the session. This second part of the session consisted of the      
educational robotics activity entitled "la grue intelligente", analysed in this study. The video
recording of the participants during the realization of the " la grue intelligente" was made,      
transcribed and analyzed. The analytical method is based on the cycle of expansive learning
actions (Virkkunen and Newnham, 2013). This methodological approach is generally used to
analyse the activities of a change laboratory (Engeström, Virkkunen, Helle, Pihlaja and Poikela,
1996; Sannino, 2016; Virkkunen and Newnham, 2013). As part of our research, we adopted this
methodology to analyze the complex problems solving in an educational robotics activity. During
the analysis, we first identified the different actions deployed by the participants during the    
educational robotics activity. In a second step, these actions were categorized based on the
actions of expansive learning. The results of our analysis obtained suggest that expansive
learning theory can be used as a framework for analyzing the resolution of complex problems.
These results highlight that future primary school teachers have mobilized six of the seven
actions in the expansive learning cycle. These are: questioning, analysis, modelling of new
practices, examination of the new model, implementation of the new model and reflection on
new practices. The analysis of the transition from one action to another within the expansive
learning cycle highlights the difficulty participants have in moving from modeling a solution to
examining and implementing it.
Dindar, M. (2018). An empirical study on gender, video game play, academic success and complex problem
solving skills. Computers & Education, 125, 3952. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.018
Eichmann, B., Goldhammer, F., Greiff, S., Pucite, L. et Naumann, J. (2019). The role of planning in complex
problem solving. Computers & Education, 128, 112. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.004
Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: An activity-theoretical approach to developmental research.
Repéré à
Engeström, Y. (2007). Enriching the Theory of Expansive Learning: Lessons From Journeys Toward
Coconfiguration. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 14(12), 2339. doi:10.1080/10749030701307689
Engeström, Y. et Sannino, A. (2010). Studies of expansive learning: Foundations, findings and future
challenges. Educational Research Review, 5(1), 124. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2009.12.002
Engeström, Y., Virkkunen, J., Helle, M., Pihlaja, J. et Poikela, R. (1996). The change laboratory as a tool for
transforming work. Lifelong Learning in Europe, 1(2), 10–17.
Sannino, A. (2016). Theoretical and epistemological building blocks of the Change Laboratory. Virkkunen, J.
et Newnham, D. S. (2013). The Change Laboratory A Tool for Collaborative Development of Work and
Education. Rotterdam [u.a. : SensePublishers.
Kids with Developmental Coordination Disorder playing
with robotic cubes
Anaïs Leroy is a PhD student in psychology, neuropsychology, at the Laboratoire de  
Psychologie Cliniques Cognitives et Sociales (LAPCOS) of the University of Nice Côte
d’Azur (France). She studies semantic and emotional information processing during the
categorisation of complex visual scenes in adults and children with or without learning
disabilities. She is an assistant lecturer in the department of psychology at the Ecole
Supérieure du Professorat et de l’Education (ESPE) and an assistant researcher at the
Laboratoire d’Innovation et Numérique pour l’Education (LINE). She is also a psychomotor
therapist working at the Reference Centre for Learning Disabilities at the paediatric hospital    
of Nice CHU-Lenval.
About five percent of school-age children have a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This
disorder is characterized by impaired motor abilities compared to children of the same age (APA, 2015)
and by difficulties in the use of everyday tools at home, in leisure or at school. These difficulties affect
the child's entire life and may cause psychosocial disorders such low self-esteem and peer rejection
(Zwicker, Harris, Klassen 2013). However, despite this strong negative impact in the child daily life, few
studies have analyzed the process underlying the impairment of DCD children in tools uses. In this
project we want to compare the results of children with DCD in conventional neuropsychological tasks
evaluating executive function, visual-construction and manual dexterity with their performance in
performing a problem-solving task on unfamiliar modular robotic cubes through the CreaCube task
(Romero, DeBlois, & Pavel, 2018). For comparing the performance of children with DCD to that of
typically developing children on the CreaCube task, we will analysing their perseverance (i.e. number of
attempts and of incorrect structures) and different time benchmarks: the time of manipulation, the time
of detection of the technical characteristics of the cubes (presence of a switch, sensor, wheels), and the
total time to complete the task. The aims of this study are : 1) to explore if the difficulties of DCD
children in the use of familiar tools are also found with unfamiliar tools, 2) to analyse if the tool used
deficit of DCD children are related to motor, executive or visuo-constructif impairment. These results
may provide support for reflection on the care and schooling of children affected by this disorder.
American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5 : manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux.  
Issy-les-Moulineaux: Elsevier Masson, 2015.
Romero, M., DeBlois, L., & Pavel, A. (2018). Créacube, comparaison de la résolution créative de problèmes,
chez des enfants et des adultes, par le biais d’une tâche de robotique modulaire. MathémaTICE, (61).
Zwicker, J. G., & Harris, S. R. Klassen. AF (2012). Quality of life domains affected in children with
developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(4),
TRANSFORM - a bottom-up teacher development through
constructive alignment and collaborative teacher learning
Dr Natalia Timuș is Senior Educational Adviser and researcher, Head of academic    
development scheme TRANSFORM at the Centre for Active Pedagogy of Université Côte
d’Azur. Natalia is also Senior Fellow of Higher Education Academy, UK. She has extensive
experience with innovative teaching and learning through teaching, training, research and
project management. She was an e-learning academic expert at FASOS, Maastricht
University (UM) in 2010-2011, promoting online and blended learning. Natalia was the
project leader and manager of the inter-university EU TEMPUS project “Innovating Teaching
and Learning of European Studies” (INOTLES), managed by MGSOG, UM in 2014-2017.
Currently she is also partner coordinator for the Erasmus + Capacity building projects
ELEVATE (Elevating the Internationationalization of Higher Education in Moldova) and
MINERVA (Strengthening Research Management and Open Science Capacities of HEIs in
Moldova and Armenia).
Natalia has published several book chapters and international articles on topics of
innovative pedagogies and open science. Her latest publication is 'Innovating Teaching and
Learning of European Studies: Mapping Existing Provisions and Pathways' (with V.Cebotari
and A.Hosein), JCER 12(2), 2016. Currently her research interests focus on problem-based
learning and student-centred learning, as well as (co-)creativity during the pedagogical
transformation and innovation.
Quality teaching and academic staff development designed to
promote student learning outcomes represent salient issues
within higher education. The Bologna process and the EU higher
education policies have significantly increased their salience.
However, teachers face multifaceted challenges regarding the
adoption and transformation of their strategies based on
student-centred learning. This paper analyses the case study of
the design and the implementation of the TRANSFORM staff
development scheme at the Université Côte d’Azur (UCA), France.
Based on constructive alignment approach (Armellini et al 2009;
Biggs and Tang 2011; Salmon et al 2008) and collaborative learning, TRANSFORM represents a
bottom-up pedagogical innovation at different levels: individual (teachers); course/programme
teams, institutional. This initiative is part of the forward-looking vision of the UCA for its active
pedagogy and blended learning. In cooperation with the University of Northampton,
TRANSFORM also aims at establishing a professional recognition scheme for of UCA teachers by
Higher Education Academy, UK. The findings of this paper provide useful insights into the design
and implementation of teacher development that empowers individual teachers and builds the
institutional capability in student-centred and blended learning.
Armellini et al 2009; Biggs and Tang 2011; Salmon et al 2008
 
Ecologie, pensée complexe et résolution de problèmes: le
cas des projets de co-création de potagers pédagogiques
Virgile Ganne est actuellement étudiant de Master 2 en sciences de l’éducation à      
l’université de Bourgogne, en lien avec l’IREDU. Il consacre son mémoire au jardinage
scolaire, sous la direction de Mme Géraldine Farges. Ses autres recherches portent sur les
liens entre la pédagogie, l’environnement et la pensée complexe en contexte crise
environnementale. En 2018-2019, il suit en parallèle une formation pour devenir professeur
des écoles. Titulaire d’une licence de philosophie en 2013, il a réalisé des stages dans des    
écoles alternatives et des fermes biologiques entre 2014 et 2017, dans le cadre de son
projet « Apprendre en Pédalant », une aventure à vélo entre la France et le Cambodge,
dont le but de était de se former à l’agriculture et d’observer les différentes techniques
pédagogiques et leurs différents fondements philosophiques. Habité par une volonté
d’allier recherche théorique à pratique concrète, Virgile Ganne souhaite faire de ses futures
classes des espaces co-créatifs et ancrés dans leur environnement proche (familles, école,
associations, quartier, nature), dédiés au bien-être des élèves.
Le jardinage scolaire est une pratique pédagogique créative ayant le potentiel d’introduire les
élèves et la communauté scolaire dans son ensemble à une grande variété de connaissances et
de compétences : environnement, biologie, alimentation, travaux manuels, mathématiques, arts  
plastiques, éthique, économie, etc. Les
recherches menées sur ce thème au niveau
international privilégient un angle
d’approche centré sur l’alimentation et
s’inscrivant dans une perspective sanitaire
d’amélioration des régimes alimentaires,
face à des problèmes sociétaux de surpoids
et de carences croissants. Les chercheurs
remarquent alors, dans leur majorité, que
l’impact du jardinage scolaire sur
l’alimentation des enfants est faible.
L’hypothèse selon laquelle une implication parentale accrue pourrait améliorer les effets des
programmes de jardinage scolaire est régulièrement émise ; en effet, l’exposition des enfants à  
des pratiques contradictoires entre l’école et la maison, ou même entre la classe et la cantine,
limite potentiellement l’efficacité des programmes de jardinage scolaire en matière
d’amélioration des régimes. Cependant, aucun programme de jardinage incluant les parents n’a
encore fait l’objet d’un travail de recherche, et aucune enquête portant sur la perception du
jardinage scolaire par les parents ou sur le partenariat école-famille dans le cadre du jardinage    
scolaire n’a jusqu’à présent été menée. En nous appuyant sur une série d’enquêtes menées dans
le département des Alpes-Maritimes auprès de directeurs d’écoles, institutrices, élèves et
parents d’élèves, nous souhaitons explorer les enjeux que recouvrent pour chacun d’eux le
jardinage scolaire et la perspective de la coéducation à ce sujet. Ce travail de recueil de données
est pensé pour préparer l’expérimentation d’un programme de jardinage scolaire s’appuyant sur
la coéducation. Nous défendrons ici une approche qualitative de type ethnographique, en
considérant chaque école comme un cas relativement unique bénéficiant d’atouts particuliers
liés à son ancrage géographique et aux personnes qui la font vivre. De ce point de vue, les
modèles de coéducation, conceptualisés par Epstein et le courant des community schools, ainsi
qu’une approche pédagogique basée sur la co-créativité, prennent tout leur sens pour penser la
pratique scolaire du jardinage en vue d’une amélioration des régimes alimentaires. La population
de notre enquête comprend plusieurs écoles primaires situées sur des territoires différents aux
publics variés. Il ressort jusqu’à présent de notre travail que le jardinage scolaire fait consensus
auprès des différents acteurs de la communauté scolaire, mais que divers obstacles empêchent
souvent de pleinement le pratiquer. En conclusion, nous émettrons des hypothèses pour
dépasser ces obstacles, à partir de pratiques de la coéducation et de la co-créativité.
Co-créativité en essaimage massif : le cas Idéaton.
Lefèvre, Sanabria-Z
Saint-Clair Lefèvre est le coordinateur pédagogique du MSc. SmartEdTech, co-créativité et    
outils numériques d'innovation pédagogique, qui est un programme international et à 90% en
ligne. Étudiant en psychologie et en art-thérapie, il s'intéresse aux différents états altérés de la
conscience induits par le son et à leurs applications / implications possibles dans l'apprentissage  
et le développement cognitif.
Pr. Jorge Sanabria-Z est enseignant-chercheur au sein du Système Virtuel de l’Université de    
Guadalajara (UDG). Ses axes de recherche ont pour objectif le développement des
compétences du 21e siècle en utilisant une approche interdisciplinaire STEAM, grâce à la mise
en place d'un réseau de laboratoires de fabrication numérique dans les lycées. Il a également
mis au point une formation aux techniques techno-créatives pour les enseignants basée sur la
Méthode d’Immersion Graduelle [Sanabria, 2015].
IDEATON 2018 est une initiative du Festival de l'innovation Epicentro organisé par le Secrétariat
de l’innovation, la science et la technologie de l’État de Jalisco, Mexique, avec l’Université de
Guadalajara, institution à laquelle se sont associées l’Université Concordia (Montréal) et
l’Université Côte d'Azur (Nice), pour mener à bien la recherche. L’objectif est de renforcer
l’écosystème de l'entrepreneuriat à fort impact, en favorisant une culture de l'innovation par
l'accès à la connaissance des outils numériques et la mise en réseau des talents, en phase avec
les tendances mondiales en matière d'innovation et de technologie.
Pendant une semaine, 1000 étudiants de tous les établissements d'enseignement au niveau    
lycée publics et privés de l'État de Jalisco sont invités à participer à ce concours
interinstitutionnel, qui vise à encourager les agents potentiels du changement, par le biais