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DEALING WITH SEPARATISM CONFLICT IN INDONESIA: EXAMINING AN INTERACTIVE MODEL OF CONFLICT DE-ESCALATION AND RESOLUTION

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Abstract

Separatist movements are a social phenomenon that spread in many countries across the world, threatening the stability of established political entities due to its violent and intractable nature. Deescalating conflict and establishing peace among the disputing parties is of paramount importance. Despite the pressing need, there is a notable dearth of social psychological research that has made reconciliation in such conflicts the focal point of its empirical investigation--and even less so pertaining to social-psychological interventions conducive to reconciliation. The aim of this dissertation was to address these gaps, offering an examination of the social-psychological factors and interventions that can promote reconciliation in separatist conflict. The empirical studies presented in this dissertation assume that separatist conflicts involve two disputing parties harbouring contrary points of view: the majority that resists separatism and the separatist group that advocates its demand for autonomy. I investigated how majority and separatist groups alike think and feel about their involvement in conflict. Uncovering these perspectives has helped me through this dissertation in gaining a better insight into the social- psychological factors that facilitate or hinder support for reconciliation among the majority and separatist groups. This dissertation also examines the effectiveness of social-psychological interventions in attenuating the majority’s defensive reactions to its harm against the separatist group and, in turn, in promoting reconciliation among members of this non-separatist group. Finally, this dissertation confirms that the nature and the dynamics of reconciliation are complex. In this regard, I interpret reconciliation as a multidimensional construct that bears within it attitudinal, affective, intentional, and behavioural components, and assess the relations among these components. This dissertation provides answers to several important research questions. Some limitations remain, however, raising new questions, and potential directions for future research have been outlined accordingly. I hope that by addressing these remaining gaps in our knowledge, follow-up studies will provide a more in-depth account concerning the underlying mechanisms of reconciliation in separatist conflict. These future studies can hopefully provide scholars and practitioners with further insight into social-psychological interventions that are effective in promoting reconciliation not only among members of the majority, which is the focus of this dissertation, but also among those of the separatist group.
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... Intergroup collaboration is a form of collective reconciliation in which groups in conflict aspire to build and maintain peace (Mashuri, 2019). However, to make it feasible, intergroup reconciliation requires that disputing parties should develop constructive cognitive orientations such as trust (Nadler & Liviatan, 2006). ...
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Sejumlah negara di belahan dunia ini tentu memiliki permasalahan-permasalahan nasional yang tidak mudah untuk dipecahkan. Salah satu dari permasalahan ini adalah gerakan dan konflik separatis, yang di era global saat ini membawakan sebuah paradoks (Mashuri & van Leeuwen, 2018). Di satu sisi, globalisasi memberikan sebuah trend dimana negara-negara di dunia menggalakkan kerjasama ataupun persekutuan lintas-negara. Di sisi lain, trend semangat unifikasi tersebut justru diganggu dengan semakin maraknya gerakan dan konflik separatis. Aspirasi yang diperjuangkan oleh, misalnya, suku Kurdi di Irak, Iran, dan Turki, warga Skotlandia di Britania Raya, orang-orang di provinsi Quebec di Kanada, suku Basque serta orang-orang Catalunya di Spanyol, Muslim Moro di Filipina, mengartikulasikan gerakan separatisme oleh kelompok etnis, agama, ataupun budaya tertentu untuk mendirikan sebuah bangsa tersendiri yang terlepas ikatannya dengan suatu negara (Mashuri, 2019). Bagaikan epidemi, harus diakui, konflik separatis adalah sebuah fenomena yang tersebar dan mengganggu stabilitas sosial-politik di banyak negara, baik di negara-negara maju maupun negara-negara berkembang, melintasi berbagai benua mulai dari Amerika, Eropa, Afrika, dan Asia (Kingsbury & Laoutides, 2015). Selain kelazimannya, konflik separatis juga populer disebut sebagai perselisihan antarkelompok yang tahan lama (durable) dan penuh kekerasan (violent). Sebagai ilustrasi, lebih dari lima puluh persen semua perang saudara dari tahun 1980 hingga 2003 (Marshall & Gurr, 2003) terjadi antara kelompok etnis tertentu yang mencari otonomi atau kemerdekaan yang lebih luas, dan kelompok non-separatis yang menolak tuntutan-tuntutan tersebut. Selain itu, konflik separatis merupakan jenis perang saudara yang paling berlarut-larut. Sebagai bukti, perang saudara non-separatis antara 1940 dan 1992 rata-rata berlangsung kurang dari lima tahun, sedangkan perang saudara separatis dalam periode yang sama berlangsung hampir delapan tahun (Walter, 2002). Pada kasus-kasus tertentu, konflik separatis memang berlangsung relatif damai, tidak membawakan ekses kekerasan sebagaimana yang terjadi pada referendum kemerdekaan Skotlandia dari Britania Raya tahun 2014 (McCracken, 2014). Meskipun demikian, pada umumnya citra konflik separatis sangatlah negatif. Contoh termutakhir yang menegaskan betapa konflik separatis seringkali diwarnai dengan aksi kekerasan adalah kerusuhan di Wamena, Papua pada 23 September 2019 (Bachyul Jb, 2019). Contoh kedua adalah berlarut-larutnya konflik separatis di Ukraina, yang menimbulkan perang sipil bahkan perang antar-negara dan sebagai akibatnya, telah merenggut banyak korban material maupun manusia (Katchanovski, 2016). Akibat dari reputasi negatifnya, konflik separatis, menurut pandangan ilmuwan dan pembuat kebijakan, perlu mendapatkan perhatian dan penanganan yang serius (Saideman, 2002). Langkah ini sangat penting untuk menemukan dan menerapkan cara-cara ataupun strategi-strategi yang efektif untuk menghentikan pertikaian dan, selanjutnya, mempromosikan perdamaian atau rekonsiliasi dalam konflik separatis. Terlepas dari urgensinya, rekonsiliasi dalam konflik separatis nyaris tidak tercakup dalam literatur psikologi sosial, terlebih lagi intervensi untuk mempromosikannya. Menerapkan intervensi sosial yang berpotensi efektif untuk mempromosikan rekonsiliasi dalam konflik separatis dengan demikian adalah hal yang mendesak (Mashuri, van Leeuwen, & van Vugt, 2018b). Selaras dengan visi di atas, tulisan ini juga mencakup pembahasan mengenai faktor-faktor yang relevan dalam penerapan intervensi sosial yang berpotensi untuk mempromosikan rekonsiliasi dalam konflik separatis. Intervensi sosial ini dilandaskan pada asumsi bahwa konflik separatis dianggap bermuara pada kepentingan yang saling bertentangan antara dua kelompok: (1) kelompok non-separatis dan (2) kelompok separatis. Kelompok pertama mengacu pada kelompok etnis, agama, atau budaya yang mendukung integrasi kelompok atau masyarakat separatis ke dalam suatu negara kesatuan sedangkan kelompok kedua melibatkan etnis minoritas yang menentang integrasi tersebut dan yang secara aktif menyerukan pelepasan-diri atau otonomi lebih tinggi (Mashuri & van Leuwen, 2018; Mashuri dkk., 2018b). Atas dasar asumsi ini, agar efektif, intervensi sosial tersebut harus didesain dan dilaksanakan secara integratif dengan mengakomodasi perspektif atau cara-pandang baik kelompok separatis dan kelompok non-separatis dalam memikirkan dan merasakan konflik separatis. Sebelum membahas intervensi sosial tersebut, tulisan ini diawali dengan telaah mengenai definisi dan motif-motif separatisme. Bagian berikutnya membahas konsep rekonsiliasi secara umum, dilanjutkan dengan rekonsiliasi antarpribadi dan, yang menjadi fokus dalam tulisan ini, rekonsiliasi antarkelompok serta penerapan konsep ini dalam konteks konflik separatis. Deskripsi singkat mengenai sejarah gerakan separatis di Indonesia selanjutnya diulas, yang dilanjutkan dengan paparan dan analisis model-model ataupun teori-teori psikologi sosial mengenai konflik separatis, dengan tujuan untuk menelaah sudut-pandang atau perspektif kelompok yang berselisih: kelompok separatis dan kelompok non-separatis. Intervensi sosial untuk mempromosikan rekonsiliasi dalam konflik separatis selanjutnya disajikan. Bagian berikutnya menelaah topik-topik yang bisa diteliti lebih lanjut, sebagai rekomendasi atau rujukan bagi penelitian-penelitian di masa depan. Bagian akhir tulisan ini menganalisis program-program ataupun kebijakan-kebijakan rekonsiliasi dan sejauh mana upaya mempromosikan perdamaian tersebut efektif meredam separatisme di Papua.
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