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Abstract

Herb and shrubs of the genus Urtica (Utricaceae) inhabitate various ecosystems in worldwide. This study was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge of this medicinal species. This review describes the botanical characterization and distribution, and phytochemical properties and biological activities of Urtica genus. Urtica genus contain many chemical constituents like, flavonoids, phenolic compounds like Diocanol, alcohols, Terpenes diols, Diol glucosides, Sugars. Some published studies have shown a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-tumor agent, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral effects. Other have indicated anti-malaria agent, hypoglycemic and act as bioactive agent with anti-proliferation activities of this species. In vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a simple explanation for bioscientific and its various pharmacological uses. All information about the Urtica genus was collected from electronic search (using Pubmed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect.com and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals.
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Medicinal plant genus Urtica-
Traditional uses phytochemical
and pharmacological review
Abstract
Herb and shrubs of the genus Urtica (Utricaceae) inhabitate various
ecosystems in worldwide. This study was carried out in order to contribute to
the knowledge of this medicinal species. This review describes the botanical
characterization and distribution, and phytochemical properties and biological
activities of Urtica genus. Urtica genus contain many chemical constituents
like, flavonoids, phenolic compounds like Diocanol, alcohols, Terpenes diols,
Diol glucosides, Sugars. Some published studies have shown a broad spectrum
of biological and pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant,
anti-tumor agent, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral effects.
Other have indicated anti-malaria agent, hypoglycemic and act as bioactive
agent with anti-proliferation activities of this species. In vitro studies and in
vivo models have provided a simple explanation for bioscientific and its
various pharmacological uses. All information about the Urtica genus was
collected from electronic search (using Pubmed, Google Scholar,
ScienceDirect.com and Web of Science) and a library search for articles
published in peer-reviewed journals.
Introduction
The genus Urtica belongs to the family Utricaceae. The name
Urtica is obtained from Greek word 'Uro' which means burning and Dioica
means bipod [1] There is controversial opinion of researchers about number of
species belonging to Urtica. Many groups of researchers have reported 30
species [1,2] In Flora of China the Urticaceae as being composed of 47 genera
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and 1,300 species worldwide [3] All these species are widely distributed
throughout the world. The species of Urtica along with their regions of
existence are presented in Table 1
10
Urtica
parviflora
Himalaya [lower altitudes]
and India
KPK
[7,8]
Sr
n
o
Urtica
Region of existence in
the world
Region of
existence in
Pakistan
Ref#
1
dioica.
Switzerland, mild regions
of Europe, Asia and Italy
Kaki, Kabul valley
and Swat
[4,5,6]
2
incaica’’
Peru, Australia, Ecuador,
Bolivia, parts of
Chile, Argentina, coast, the
Sierra, and Amazon
Absent in Pak
[7,8]
3
deltoidea’’
New Zealand, Asia,
California, Sonoran
Desert, and region of North
America
Absent in Pak
[2]
4
atrichocaulis
China, Japan, Korea,
Guizhou, Sichuan,
Yunnan provinces,
Himalayas and China's
south-west
KPK
[2,4,5,6]
6
Ecuador
Absent in Pak
[4]
7
South Island and New
Zealand
Absent in Pak
[4]
8
gracilenta
Arizona, New Mexico,
west Texas,
Northern Mexico
, Central
America and Iran
Absent in Pak
[7,8,9]
9
mairei
Himalaya,
southwestern
China,
Northeastern India
and Myanmar,
KPK
[4,7,8]
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11
Urtica ardens
South Island, New Zealand
and China
Kabul valley,
Swat
[4,5,8]
12
Urtica
pilulifera
Cyprus, Sail Husban,
Nauor-Jordan, Italy,
Sicily, south of France and
Southern Europe
Kabul valley,
Swat [ 7,8,10,11]
13
Urtica fissa
China and Asia
Absent in Pak
[2,8]
14
Urtica
dentata
North America
Absent in Pak
[4]
15
Urtica
sondenii
Northeastern Europe,
Northern Asia, Nordic
countries and Russia
Absent in Pak [7,8]
16
Urtica
taiwaniana
Taiwan and Indonesia
Absent in Pak
[ 7,8]
17
Urtica
triangularis
Japan and China
Absent in Pak
[2]
18
Urtica
australis
South Island, New
Zealand, surrounding sub
Antarctic islands and Asia
Absent in Pak
[2]
19
Urtica
laetevirens
Tibet, Asia, Mongolia,
Japan and Manchuria
Absent in Pak
[7,8,12]
20
Urtica
massaica
Africa
Absent in Pak
[4]
21
Urtica ferox
New Zealand and Australia
Absent in Pak
[7,8]
22
Urtica
hyperborea
Peru, high plateaus of the
Black Sea,
Himalaya from Pakistan to
Bhutan and Mongolia
and Tibet at high altitudes
Kabul valley,
Swat [7,8]
23
Urtica
andicola
Peru
Absent in Pak
[4]
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24
Urtica
flabellata
Peru, Colombo, Ecuador,
Bolivia and Argentina
Absent in Pak
[13]
25
Urtica
stachyoides
Spain [Tenerife]
Absent in Pak
[4]
26
Urtica
lalibertadensi
s
Peru
Absent in Pak
[4]
27
Urtica
atrovirens
Italy and Western
Mediterranean,
Absent in Pak
[4,7,8]
28
Urtica
kioviensis.
Germany, Britain, France,
the Netherlands and
Eastern Europe
Absent in Pak [7,8]
29
Urtica
leptophylla
Peru and eastern North
America from Nova
Scotiato Florida
Absent in Pak [7,8]
30
Urtica urens
Peru, Europe, highland,
and Asia, Italy, Aegean
and North America
Kaki, Swat
[2,7,8]
The species of Urtica are medicinally well known throughout the world and
locally used against various diseases. The ethnobotanical surveys regarding
various species of Urtica reflect that the genus is medicinally very important.
The species of Urtica were employed for the treatment of various ailments like
allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, cough etc by the local people. The mode of
application of Urtica species against various diseases is summarized in Table 2
Table 2. The mode of application reported in various ethnobotanical surveys
Sr
Species of
Local use of Plant
Region of
Ref#
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no
Urtica
existence in
Pakistan
1
Urtica
dioica.
Leaf extract use for
skin treatment
Palestinian
area
[14]
2
Urtica‘‘
incaica’’
Leaf extract use to
treat rashes and burns
Peru
[15]
3
Urtica‘‘
deltoidea’’
Leaf past use to treat
skin
New
Zealand
[16]
4
Urtica
atrichocauli
s
Its extract and past use
to treat rheumatoid
arthritis.
China and
Yunnan
provinces
[17]
5
Urtica
magellanica
Its extract and past use to
treat allergy, arthritis
Argentina
[18]
6
Urtica
longispica
Its extract use to treat
cough
Ecuador
[19]
7
Urtica
aspera
Extract use to treat
stomach diseases,
snake bites and as
antipyretic
South
Island
[20]
8
Urtica
gracilenta
Leaf paste use to treat
burns
Iran
[9]
10
Urtica
parviflora
Its paste use to treat
arthritis
Himalaya
[lower
altitudes] and
India
[10]
11
Urtica
ardens
Whole plant uses to
treat Exorcism
India and
Garhwala
Himalaya
[21]
12
Urtica
pilulifera
Leaf extract use for
diabetes and skin
treatment
Palestinian
area
[22]
13
Urtica fissa
Its extract use to treat
arthritis
China and
Asia
[2]
14
Urtica
procera
Its aqueous extract use
against kidney problems
North
America
[23]
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15
Urtica
sondenii
Paste use to treat skin
problems
Nordic
countries,
[24]
16
Urtica
taiwaniana
Its extract use against
hypotensive
Taiwan
[18]
17
Urtica
triangularis
Both extract and paste
use to treat arthritis
Japan
[23]
18
Urtica
australis Extract use to treat
skin diseases
South Island
[10]
19
Urtica
laetevirens
Its extract use against
allergic reaction
Tibet
[2]
20
Urtica
massaica
Its paste use to treat skin
rashes and as anti-malaria
Africa
[15]
21
Urtica
ferox
Its extract use to treat
skin problems
New
Zealand
[20]
22
Urtica
hyperborea
Its extract use against
skin rashes
Peru
[10]
23
Urtica
andicola
Its extract and paste
use to treat arthritis
Peru
[24]
24
Urtica
flabellata
Both extract and paste
use to treat arthritis
Peru
[2,25]
25
Urtica
stachyoides
Its extract use to treat
diuretic problems
Spain
[2]
26
Urtica
lalibertaden
sis
Its extract use to treat liver
diseases
Peru
[26]
27
Urtica
atrovirens
Paste use to treat
arthritis
Western
Mediterrane
[10]
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an,
28
Urtica
kioviensis.
Extract and paste use
to treat arthritis
Eastern
Europe
[27]
29
Urtica
leptophylla
Extract and paste use
to treat arthritis
Peru
[2]
30
Urtica
urens
Leaf extract use for
skin treatment
Palestinian
area
[22]
Vitro and in vivo studies were reported in a number of articles for the species of
Urtica. In this regard, studies were conducted to check the potential of Urtica
species against arthritis, constipation, pulmonary disorders, liver, intestine and
kidney diseases, diabetes, fungal infections, anti-inflammatory, internal injury,
wounds etc. The summarized data in this connection is presented in Table 3.
Sr
no
Species of Urtica
Disease
Mode of
applications
Ref#
1
Urtica dioica.
Arthritis [in vivo],
constipation [in vivo],
pulmonary disorders [in
vivo], liver [in vivo],
intestine and kidney [in
vivo], diabetes [in vivo],
fungal infections [in
vitro], anti-
inflammatory [in vitro],
internal injury [in vivo]
and wounds [in vivo] .
Aqueous
extract
[2,10,15,24]
2
Urtica‘‘
incaica’’
Arthritis [in vivo], liver
[in vivo], intestine [in
vivo] and anti-
inflammatory [in vitro]
Extract
[2,15]
3
Urtica‘‘
Arthritis [in vivo],
Leaves paste,
[15,19]
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deltoidea’’
antioxidant [in vivo],
anti-inflammatory [in
vitro], anti-ulcer [in
vivo],
Anticancer [in vivo],
antimicrobial [in vitro],
cardiovascular [in vivo],
and hepatic protective
[in vivo]
extract
4
Urtica
atrichocaulis
rheumatoid arthritis [in
vivo], anti-inflammatory
[in vitro], anti-arthritic
[in vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo] and immune-
modulatory [in vivo ]
Aqueous
extract
[2,17]
5
Urtica
magellanica
Eczema [in vivo], gout
[in vivo ],
Urticarial [in vivo],
allergic rhinitis [in
vivo], and rheumatoid
arthritis [in vivo] and
the root is used to treat
benign prostatic
hypertrophy [in vivo ]
Extract, paste
[28]
6
Urtica longispica
Fungal infections [in
vivo], antibacterial [in
vivo], antiviral [in vivo],
blood purifications [in
vivo] and respiratory
diseases [in vivo]
Extract
[19]
7
Urtica pera
Leucorrhoea [in vivo],
Haemorrhoids [in vivo],
obesity [in vivo],
oligomenorrhoea [in
vivo], gastric ulcers [in
vivo] and anti-
cholesterol [in vivo]
Paste, extract
[20]
8
Urtica gracilenta
anti-inflammatory aid
for rheumatism and
arthritis [in vivo],
hyperplasia [in vivo]
and fungal infections
[in vivo] .
Paste, extract
[24]
9
Urtica mairei
Kidney [in vivo],
diabeties [in vivo],
fungal infections [in
vitro], anti-
inflammatory [in vitro]
Extract, paste
[15,24]
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and arthritis [in vivo].
10
Urtica
parviflora
Antitumor [in vivo],
astringent [in vivo],
diuretic [in vivo],
inflammation [in vitro]
and arthritis [in vivo]
Extract
[29,30]
11
Urtica ardens
Exorcism [in vivo],
Jaundice [in vivo], post
calving care [in vivo],
sprains [in vivo], bones
fracture [in vivo],
hematuria [in vivo],
neck sore [in vivo] and
yolk sore [in vivo]
Extract, paste
[24,30]
12
Urtica pilulifera
Inflammation [in vitro],
and arthritis [in vivo],
internal bleeding [in
vivo], anemia, excessive
menstruation [in vivo],
hemorrhoids [in vivo],
rheumatism [in vivo],
hay fever [in vivo],
kidney
Problems [in vivo], pain
and skin problems [in
vivo], abdominal pain
[in vivo], internal
diseases [in vivo],
antiasthma tic [in vivo],
antitumor [in vivo],
astringent [in vivo],
Diuretic [in vivo],
antidandruff [in vivo],
galactogoguge [in vivo],
depurative and
Antihyperglycaemic [in
vivo]
Extract, paste
[2]
13
Urtica fissa
rheumatoid arthritis [in
vivo]
Aqueous
extract
[2]
14
Urtica dentate
Rheumatoid arthritis [in
vivo], kidney stones [in
vivo] and ant lithic
effects [in vivo]
Aqueous
extract
[2,23]
15
Urtica sondenii
Kidney [in vivo],
diabetes [in vivo],
fungal infections [in
vitro], anti-
Extract, paste
[15,24]
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inflammatory [in vitro],
and arthritis [in vivo]
16
Urtica
taiwaniana
Anti-hyperglycemic [in
vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo], hepatic protective
[in vivo], antiviral [in
vitro], diuretic [in vivo]
and hypotensive [in
vivo]
Extract
[18]
17
Urtica
triangularis
Kidney [in vivo],
diabetes [in vivo],
fungal infections [in
vitro], anti-
inflammatory [in vitro]
and arthritis [in vivo]
Extract, paste
[23]
18
Urtica australis
Kidney [in vivo],
diabetes [in vivo],
eczema [in vivo], fungal
infections [in vitro],
anti-inflammatory [in
vitro] and arthritis [in
vivo]
Extract
[15]
19
Urtica
laetevirens
Rheumatoid arthritis [in
vivo], rheumatism [in
vivo], eczema [in vivo]
and allergic rhinitis [in
vivo]
Aqueous
extract
[2,4]
20
Urtica massaica
Eczema [in vivo], Skin
rashes [in vivo],
dermatitis [in vivo] and
diuretic [in vivo]
Paste
[10,15]
21
Urtica ferox
Anti-hyperglycemic [in
vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo], hepatic protective
[in vivo], antiviral [in
vitro], diuretic [in vivo],
hypotensive [in vivo]
and anti-aggregate [in
vivo]
Paste
[20,30]
22
Urtica
hyperborea
Skin rashes [in vivo ,
dermatitis [in vivo],
eczema [in vivo] and
diuretic [in vivo ]
Paste, extract
[10]
23
Urtica andicola
Anti-hyperglycemic [in
vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo], hepatic protective
Extract
[2,24]
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[in vivo], antiviral [in
vitro], diuretic [in vivo],
hypotensive [in vivo]
and anti-aggregate [in
vivo]
24
Urtica flabellata
Anti-hyperglycemic [in
vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo], hepatic protective
[in vivo] and antiviral
[in vitro]
Extract, paste
[25]
25
Urtica
stachyoides
Anti-hyperglycemic [in
vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo], hepatic protective
[in vivo], antiviral [in
vitro], diuretic [in vivo],
hypotensive [in vivo]
and anti-aggregate [in
vivo]
Extract, paste
[2]
26
Urtica
lalibertadensis
Anti-hyperglycemic
[in vivo], antioxidant
[in vivo], hepatic
protective [in vivo]
and antiviral [in vitro]
Extract
[26]
27
Urtica atrovirens
Anti-hyperglycemic [in
vivo], antioxidant [in
vivo], hepatic protective
[in vivo], antiviral [in
vivo] and arthritis [in
vivo]
Paste, extract
[10]
28
Urtica kioviensis.
Hepatic protective [in
vivo], antiviral [in
vitro], arthritis [in vivo ]
Paste, extract
[30]
29
Urtica
leptophylla
Arithritis [in vivo],
fungal infections [in
vitro] and antimicrobial
[in vitro]
Paste, extract
[2]
30
Urtica urens
Arthritis [in vivo]
Paste, extract
[2]
The species of Urtica possess a diversity of phytochemicals which range from
straight chain alcohols to much more diverse and complex structures. In this
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regard, various extraction and isolation strategies were employed by the
workers from simple column chromatography to HPLC and GC techniques.
The structures were elucidated by modern spectroscopic techniques. Table 5-10
reflect the compounds isolated from various species of Urtica.
1. Urtica dioica
Urtica dioca is an erect medium sized herb. It is a perennial herb. Its stem is up
to 4 ft. tall but has little branches, grooved and covered with stinging hairs. Its
leaves are 5-10 cm long and ovate or lanceolate and wrinkled in shaped. Its
leaves are minute green in color. Its petioles are 6 mm to 5 cm long and its
stipule are united, means male and female flowers are on separate plants [4].
Urtica dioca is present in Switzerland, mild regions of Europe, Asia, Italy and
Pakistan. As far as its occurrence in Pakistan is concerned, it is found in Kaki,
Kabul valley and Swat [4,5].
Urtica dioica is the only species of Urtica to be cultivated commercially for
pharmaceutical purposes and the commercial extraction of chlorophyll and
stem fibers. The Leaf extract of U. dioica are locally used for skin treatment Its
aqueous extract is used to treat arthritis, constipation, pulmonary disorders,
diseases associated with liver, intestine and kidney diseases, diabetes, fungal
infection, inflammation, internal injury and for the treatment of wounds
[2,10,31]. A wide range of metabolites have been reported from U. dioica,
including flavonoids and Caffeic acid analogues. Apart from these aromatic
compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids and oxygenated fatty acids have been
found in U. dioica roots.
The compounds from Urtica dioica were isolated by conventional LC
separation, Ultra performance liquid chromatography [UPLC] techniques.
However, LC–MS and [LCESI-MS] have also been employed for isolation
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and as well as characterization. In addition to LC, gas chromatography [GC]
and MS techniques have also been employed for characterization (Jan et al.,
2012).
Sr
no
Compound
name
Mol.
Formul
a& M.
weight
Biological
Source
Activity
Structure
Ref#
1
2-Amino-
1,3,4-
Octadecane-
triol
C
42
H
85
N
O4
Isol from the
Yeast Yarrowia
Lipolytica. Also
from the roots
of Urtica dioica
that inhibit
lipopolysacchari
de induced
inflammation in
RAW. Also
antibacterial
activity.
HONH
OH
OH
O
[30]
2
1-[3,4-
Dihydroxyphe
nyl]-1,2-
propanediol;3-
Me ether
C
10
H
14
O
4
198.218
Constit.of
ginger[Zingiber
officinale] and
Urtica dioica
coacervate
compositions
suitable for
making powders
and water-
soluble
formulations of
biologically-
active agents
Manufacture of
neutral cellulase
with
psychrophilic
OH
HO
OOH
[31]
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3
4,7-Epoxy-3,8-
bilign-7-ene-
3,4,5,9,9-
pentol
C
26
H
32
O
1
1
520.532
Constit.of
cistanche
tubulosa,Urtica
dioica and
vinca rosea
from diarrheic
piglets,foals and
human infants.
OH
O
O
O
OH
OH
OH
HO
O
O
HO
[30]
4
3,3,4,7,9,9-
Hexahydroxy-
4,8-
oxyneolign-7-
ene.
C
26
H
34
O
1
2
538.547
Constit of
Urtica dioica
and cane sugar
chronic AMPK
activation on
hepatic
triglyceride
accumulation and
glycerol 3-
phosphate
acyltransferase
activity with high
fat feeding
O
HO
O
O
O
HO
O
OH
OH
HO
HO
[32]
5
3-
Hydroxyaceto-
phenone
C
8
H
8
O
2
136.150
Constit of
Dianthus
caryophyllus
[caryophyllace-
ae] and Urtica
dioica[urticace-
ae]
and K: α-
Glucosidase
an endophytic
Hintonia latiflora
OH
O
[33]
6
2-[2-Hydroxy-
4-[3-hydroxy-
1-
propenyl]phen
o-xy] 1,3-
propanediol
C
19
H
28
O
1
0
416.424
Constit of
clerodendrum
bungei and
urtica dioica.
the recreational
use of ketamine
and
methoxeamine.T
hough-ts on the
historical
discovery of
DNA.
OH
O
O
OHO O O
OH
OH
HO
[34,35]]
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7
2-[4-hydroxy-
3-
methoxypheny
l] ethanol.
C
15
H
22
O
8
330.334
Constit of
cinamomum
reticulatum and
urtica dioica.
acetohydroxy
acid synthase
inhibitors,as
intermediate for
use in
manufacture of
acetylene-
terminated resin.
O
OH
O
O
OH
OH
HO
HO
[36]
8
3-[4-
Hydroxypheny
l]-2-propen-1-
ol.
C
15
H
20
O
7
312.319
Constit of arum
italicum,Lilum
cordatum,millin
gtonia hortensis
and urtica
dioica.
antiproliferative
activities against
MCF-7, WIDr
and HEP-2.and
Doay human
tumor cell lines.
Also act as anti-
oxidant.
O
O
OH
HO
HO
HO
[37]
9
4, 7-
Megastigmadi
ene-3,9-diol.
C
19
H
32
O
7
372.458
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
serum antibodies
positive on the
Fas/Fas-
Lapoptosis
pathway in the
testis tissue and
testicular germ
cells of pubertal
male rates.
HO
OOH
O
OH
OH
OH
[38]
10
Neoolivil
C
20
H
24
O
7
376.405
Constit of
thymus
longiflorus and
urtica dioica.
serum antibodies
positive on the
Fas/Fas-
Lapoptosis
pathway in the
testis tissue and
testicular germ
cells of pubertal
male rates.
O
OH
HO
OH
OO
OH
[39]
11
Neoolivil;9-
Ac,4-O-B-D-
glucopyranosi
de
C
28
H
36
O
1
3
580.585
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
hexavalent
chromium from
aqueous
solutions by bio-
chars obtained
during biomass
paralysis.
O
OH
HO
O
OO
O
O
O
HO
OH
OH
HO
[40
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12
Neoolivil;9,9-
Di-Ac,4-O-B-
D-
glucopyranosi
de.
C
30
H
38
O
1
4
622.622
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
charcoal on
release of carbon
dioxide in soil.
Influence of in
ovo prebiotic and
symbiotic
administration on
meat quality of
broiler chickens.
O
O
HO
O
OO
OO
HO
OH
OH
HO
O
O
[41]
13
Neoolivil,4-O-
B-D-
glucopyranosi
de.
C
26
H
34
O
1
2
538.547
Constit.of
swertia japonica
and Urtica
dioica
sensitive pro
drugs with
enhanced
pentration ito
cells aromatic
O
OH
HO
OH
OO
OO
HO
OH
OH
HO
[40]
14
Neoolivil,9-O-
B-D-
glucopyranosi
de.
C
26
H
34
O
1
2
538.547
Constit.of
osmanthus
fragrans
var.aurantiacus
and Urtica
dioica.
dandruff,
diabetes,
diarrhea, eczema,
hemorrhoids,
scurvy,
tuberculosis.
O
OH
HO
O
OH
O
OOH
OOH
OH
OH
[42]
15
14-
Octacosanol
C
28
H
58
O
410.766
Constit.of roots
of Urtica dioica
asthma, coughs,
dandruff.
As a diuretic and
for the treatment
and sciatica.
OH
[43]
16
2,4,5,7,8-
pentahydroxyfl
av-one
C
17
H
14
O
7
330.239
Constit.of roots
of Urtica dioica.
for diabetes,
dysentery,
hepatitis,
febrifuge,
antiinflamatory
and antibiotic.
HO
O
OH
HO
O
O
O
[43]
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17
2.10-
pinanediol.
C
10
H
18
O
2
70.251
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
roots.
Chinese used as a
medicine for
therapy of
ischemic necrosis
of femoral head.
HOOH
[44]
18
2.10-
pinanediol;10-
O-B-D-
Glucopyranosi
de.
C
16
H
28
O
7
332.393
Constit.of
Urtica dioica.
infections
activities.
Protective effect
against apoptosis
and decreased
mitochondrial
respiratory
enzyme activities
in myocardial
HOO
HO
OOH
OH
OH
[44]
19
9,10-
pinanediol
C
10
H
18
O
2
Constit.of
Urtica dioica.
anticancer. Used
for the treatment
of multiple
myeloma, invent
antitumor
activity in
human.
OH
HO
[45]
20
9, 10-pinan10-
O-B-D-
Glucopyranosi
de.
C
16
H
28
O
7
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
roots
bacterial agent
and has anti-
cancancer
properties.
OHO
HO
OOH
OH
OH
[45]
21
2.pinene-9,10-
diol
C
10
H
16
O
2
168.235
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
roots
bacterial agent
and has anti-
cancancer
properties.
OH
HO
[45]
22
2. pinene-9,
10-diol;10-O-
B-D-
Glucopyranosi
de.
C
16
H
26
O
7
Constit.of
Urtica dioica.
and antioxidant
activities. Also
antiviral activity.
O
HO
HO
OOH
OH
OH
[45]
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23
Secoisolaricire
sinol
C
26
H
36
O
1
1
524.564
Isol from
antidesma
memranaceum,
glehnia
littoralis and
Urtica dioica.
antioxidant.In
vitro incubation
of venous blood.
HO
O
O
O
OH
OH
O
HO
HO
OHOH
[17]
24
Secoisolaricire
sinol
9-O-B-D-
glucopyranosi
de.
C
26
H
36
O
1
1
524.564
Constit of
Berchemiarace
mosa,piceaabies
,pinus
massoniana,
pinus
sylvestris[scotc
h pine] and
Urtica dioica
inflamatory,
Immunostumulan
t. Benign
prostatic
hyperplasia.Treat
ment for nose
bleeding and
snakebites.
O
O
HO
O
OH
OH
O
HO
HO
HOHO
[46]
25
Stigmastane-
3,6-diol
C
29
H
52
O
2
432.729
Constit of
spatholobus
suberetus,tricho
santhes,kinlowi
and urtica
dioica.
of some
oxygenated
stigmastan-type
sterols.Anti-
inflamatory
activity.
HOOH
[47]
26
Stigmastane-5-
ene-3,7-
diol[3B,3Alph
a,24R];from
3-O-B-D-
glucopyranosi
de.
C
35
H
60
O
7
592.855
Constit.of
Urtica dioica.
microbial
activity.
O
HO
OOH
OH
HO
HO
[48]
27
Stigmastane-5-
ene-3-ol
C
40
H
68
O
1
0
708.971
Constit.of
Urtica dioica.
agent with anti-
proliferation
activities.
O
O
OH
HO
O
O
H
O
H
O
OH
OH
[49]
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28
Stigmastane-5-
ene-3,7-
diol[3B,7B,24
R]; from
3-O-B-D-
glucopyranosi
de.
C
35
H
60
O
7
592.855
Constit.of
Urtica dioica
microbial
activity.
O
HO
OOH
OH
OH
H
O
[48]
29
9-Hydroxy-
10,12-
octadecadieno
ic acid.
C
18
H
32
O
3
296.449
Occurs in
xeran-themum
annuum,urtica
dioica and
coriaria
nepalensis.also
present in plant
and animal
lipids as
autoxidn
growth,condition
index and and
diet
composition.Use
d in recombinant
FSH-GnRH
antagonist IVF
cycle.
O
OH
OH
[50,51]
2. Urtica incaica
Urtica incisa is a Stinging Nettle as a shrub. Its stem is about 1 m tall. Its
Leaves are blade shape and about 5-12 cm in size. Its stinging hairs usually
present on some parts. It usually grows in disturbed areas in well-developed
upland rain forest, usually most abundant in rain forests on very fertile red soils
derived from recent basalt flows [52]. It is present in Peru, Australia, Ecuador,
Bolivia, parts of Chile and Argentina, Coast, Sierra, and the Amazon [6,7,12]
In Peru the Leaf extract of U. incaica locally use for the treat of rashes, joint
pain and burns [15] Its extract use to treat Arthritis, liver, intestine, anti-
inflammatory [2,15].
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3. Urtica deltoidea
Urtica deltoidea is a shrub growing with many lateral and adventitious roots.
The plant produces many thin branches growing up to about half a meter tall. It
generally has many dead branches tangled in the living crown. It is drought-
deciduous specie. The leaves are no more than 2 cm long. The branches and
new leaves are coated thinly in woolly fibers. The leaves become hairless with
age. Mostly grows on road sides and deserts [38]. Urtica deltoidea is present in
New Zealand, Asia, California, Sonoran Desert, and region of North America
[2,4]. In Newzland the paste of Urtica deltoidea is locally used to treat [16].
The leaves extract and paste both are used to treat Arthritis, antioxidant, anti-
inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anticancer, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, and hepatic
protective [16].
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4. Urtica atrichocaulis
Urtica atrichocaulis is an herb which is perennial and monoecious. Its
rhizomes are woody. Its stems are simple or branched about 30.150 cm tall. Its
stems, petioles, and both surfaces of leaf are blade shaped sparsely with
stinging hairs, particularly on nodes. Mostly grows on valleys, along the
streams and roadsides [52]. It is present in China, Japan, Korea, Guizhou,
Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces, Himalayas, China's south-west and Pakistan.
As far as its occurrence in Pakistan is concerned, it is found in KPK [2,4,6,7].
In China and Yunnan provinces its extract and past use locally to treat
rheumatoid arthritis [18] Its aqueous extract used to treat rheumatoid arthritis,
anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant and immune-modulatory [2].
Urtica atrichocaulis is an herb which is perennial and monoecious. Its
rhizomes are woody. Its stems are simple or branched about 30.150 cm tall. Its
stems, petioles, and both surfaces of leaf are blade shaped sparsely with
stinging hairs, particularly on nodes. Mostly grows on valleys, along the
streams and roadsides [53].
It is present in China, Japan, Korea, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces,
Himalayas, China's south-west and Pakistan. As far as its occurrence in
Pakistan is concerned, it is found in KPK [2,4,6,7]. In China and Yunnan
provinces its extract and past use locally to treat rheumatoid arthritis [15]. Its
aqueous extract used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, anti-inflammatory, anti-
arthritic, antioxidant and immune-modulatory [2,18].
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5. Urtica magellanica
Urtica magellanica is an herb which is perennial. Its stems are usually about 60
cm in height. The plant grows in water or it has its roots within a permanent
water course. This specie mostly grows on marshes, bogs, watercourse, lake
and river shores [32]. Urtica magellanica is present in Urtica In Argentina its
extract and past locally use to treat allergy and arthritis [28]. Its leaves extract
and paste both are used to treat Eczema, gout, Urticaria, allergic rhinitis and
rheumatoid arthritis. While the root is used to treat benign prostatic
hypertrophy [28].
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6. Urtica longispica
Urtica longispica is a sub-shrub growing about 1.2 meters tall. Although
members of the nettle family, this plant in this genus do not have stinging hairs.
It mostly grows on thickets, edges of forests, along streams in hills and
mountains. Urtica longispica is present in Ecuador [2] In Ecuador the extract
of Urtica longispica is locally used to treat cough. Its extract and paste both are
used to treat Eczema, gout, Urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and rheumatoid arthritis
[28].
7. Urtica aspera
Urtica aspera is an herb -which is perennial and dicotyledonous. This herb is
pale green to yellow green, up to 400 x 600 mm in height. Its voice is woody at
base and rhizomatous. Usually this species grows on mountains, grassland,
rock tors, on rock ledges or at the back of shallow rock overhangs along river
flats. This species seems to prefer dry sites to wet ones though it is very shade
tolerant. [54]. Urtica aspera is present in South Island and New Zealand [4].
In the South Island the extract of Urtica aspera locally use to treat stomach
diseases, snakebites and as antipyretic [20]. It's inappropriate and extract both
are used to treat anti-inflammatory aid for rheumatism and arthritis,
hyperplasia and fungal infections [20].
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8. Urtica gracilenta
Urtica gracilenta is an erect herb. It's lower elevation herb with opposite
leaves, nearly evenly so that they dentate look like gears. The stems and
pedicels are densely armed with stinging hairs. Urtica gracilenta is found in
the shade beneath trees along streams [55]. Urtica gracilenta is present in
Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas, northern Mexico, Central America and
Iran [2, 24]. In Iran, the Leaf Inappropriate or Urtica gracilenta locally use to
treat burns [24, 22]. Its extract and paste both are used to treat kidney diseases,
diabetes, fungal infections, anti-inflammatory and [24].
9. Urtica mairei
Urtica mairei is an herb that's perennial and monoecious. Its rhizomes are
stoloniferous. Few stems are branched, up to 100 cm tall. Stems and petioles
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are densely or sparsely covered with stinging hairs. When Puberulent. It mostly
grows on partly shady, moist places in forests, thickets, along streams and
roadsides [52]. It is present in Himalaya, southwestern China, northeastern
India, Myanmar and Pakistan. As far as its occurrence in Pakistan Concerned
in KPK [4,6,7]. In the Himalayas and southwestern China the extract or U.
mairei are locally used for the treat or kidney pain. Its extract and paste used to
treat kidney diseases, diabetes, fungal infections, anti-inflammatory and
arthritis [15,24].
Sr
no
Compound
name
Mol.
Formula&
M. weight
Biological
Source
Activity
Ref#
30
4-[Bis[3,4-
dihydroxy
phenyl]methyl
]dihydroxo-3-
[hydroxymet-
hyl]-2[3H]-
Furanone;from
3,4-Di-Me
ether.
C
20
H
22
O
7
374.136
Constit.of the
roots of Urtica
mairei
moderate
hypoglycemic
activity in
diabetic mice
Synthesis and
fungal infections
activities of
novel
nicotinamide
derivatives
containing 1,3,4-
oxadiazole.
HO
OO
OHO
OHO
[56]
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31
Uricene;[-]-
form
C
20
H
20
O
6
356.374
Constit.of
roots of Urtica
mairei.
bacterial agent,in
biomaterial and
for treatment of
water.
HO
OO
O
O
OH
[57]
10. Urtica parviflora
This specie has been confused with Urtica ardens, but that species have often
shape of leaves that are ovate, blade with the surface conspicuously, wrinkled
and the margin sharply. Urtica parviflora is partly grows on shady, moist
places of evergreen forests, along streams and roadsides [52].
It is present in Himalaya [lower altitudes], India and Pakistan. As far as its
occurrence in Pakistan is concerned, it is found in KPK [4,6,7]). In Himalaya
[lower altitudes] and India its paste locally uses to treat arthritis [30]. Its extract
is used to treat as antitumor, astringent, diuretic, inflammation and arthritis
[30].
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11. Urtica ardens
Urtica ardens is a herbs which is perennial and monoecious. Its rhizomes are
woody. Stems are branched, about 150 cm tall. Its stems when turned into old
than it have sparsely armed with stinging hairs. This specie mostly grows on
open or partly shady moist places in forests, thickets, and along the streams
[52]. It is present in South Island, New Zealand, China and Pakistan. As far as
its occurrence in Pakistan is concerned, it is found in Kabul valley, Swat
[4,6,7,57]. In India and Garhwala Himalaya the Whole plant locally uses to
treat Exorcism [58][. Its extract and paste use to treat Exorcism, Jaundice, post
calving care, sprains, bones fracture, hematuria, neck sore, yolk sore [15].
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12. Urtica pilulifera
Urtica pilulifera is an annual herb growing. Its height is up to 0.6 m [2ft]. It is
not frost tender. Its flowers are monoecious [individual flowers are either male
or female, both can be found on the same plant. This species grows mostly on
waste places. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. It is present in
Cyprus, Sail Husban, Nauor, Jordan, Italy, Sicily, South of France, Southern
Europe and Pakistan. As far as its occurrence in Pakistan is concerned, it is
found in Kabal Swat valley and [4,6,7,58].
Palestinian area in the leaf extract of Urtica pilulifera is locally use for diabetes
and skin treatment [59]. The extract and paste use for Inflammation , arthritis ,
internal bleeding , anemia, excessive menstruation , hemorrhoids , rheumatism
, hay fever , kidney problems , pain , skin problems , abdominal pain , internal
diseases , anti- asthma tic , antitumor , astringent , diuretic , antidandruff ,
galactogoguge , depurative and anti - hyperglycemic [10,30].
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13. Urtica fissa
Urtica fissa has Stems that are branched and about 40.100 cm tall. Its stems
and petioles are densely puberulent and covered with spreading, stinging hairs.
It mostly grows on partly shady, moist places in forests, thickets, along streams
and roadsides (Jiarui et al., 2003). Urtica fissa present in China and Asia [2,6]
In China and Asia the extract of U. fissa is locally used to treat arthritis. Its
aqueous extract is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis [2].
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32
4-[Bis[3,4-
dihydroxy
phenyl]meth
yl]dihydrox
o-3-
[hydroxymet
-hyl]-2[3H]-
Furanone[8
R,8R]; from
3,4-Di-Me
ether,7-O-B-
D-
Glucopyran
oside
C
26
H
32
O
12
536.532
Constit.of the
roots of Urtica
fissa.
Antioxidant activity
of MS-ETOAc and
several of the pure
isolated were
compareable to
vitamin C and
superior to BHT.
HO
OO
OO
O
OH
O
HO
HOOHOH
[60]
33 4-[Bis[3,4-
dihydroxy
phenyl]methyl]
dihydroxo-3-
[hydroxymet-
hyl]-2[3H]-
Furanone[8R.8
S]; From 3,4-
Di-Me ether,7-
O-B-D-
Glucopyranosid
e.
C26H32O12
536.532
Constit.of the
roots of Urtica
fissa
Antioxidant
activity of MS-
ETOAc and
several of the
pure isolated
were
compareable to
vitamin C and
superior to
BHT
HO
OO
OO
O
OH
O
HO
HOOHOH
[60]
14. Urtica dentate
Urtica dentate is stipules free below and partially connate in upper stems. Its
leaves are blade shaped and green in color. Leaves are turned into dark green
when dry. Its leaves are ovate or lanceolate, there outer secondary veins often
reaching teeth, base broadly rounded. It mostly grows on moist places in
forests, thickets and along the streams [52]. It is present in North America [4].
In North America the aqueous extract of U. dentate locally use against kidney
problems Its aqueous extract use to treat rheumatoid arthritis, kidney stones,
anit-lithic effects [2,23].
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34
6,6,7,7-
tetrahydroxy-
[8,8-bi-2H-1-
benzopyran]-
2,2-dione-
6,6-Di Me
ether
C
20
H
14
O
8
382.326
Constit.of
Erycibe
obusifolia
and urtica
dentata.
Used as
functional food
and act as dietry
anti-
oxidant.Also
has anti-fungal
effect.
O
O
HO O
O
HO
O
O
30
35
6,6,7,7-
tetrahydroxy-
[8,8-bi-2H-1-
benzopyran]-
2,2-
dione;Tetra-
Me ether
C
22
H
18
O
8
410.379
Constit.of
Urtica
dentata.
Act as anti-
malaria
agent.also
Inhibitor of
endothelial cell
proliferation.
O
O
O O
OO
O
O
Seikel, et
al.1966
15. Urtica sondenii
Urtica sondenii is herbs which is perennial, dioecious and rarely monoecious.
Its rhizomes are woody. Its stems are simple or few branched, about 40.100 cm
tall. Its stems and petioles often densely or sometimes sparsely covered with
stinging hairs. This specie mostly grows on moist places in forests, thickets,
grasslands and stream banks [52].
It is present in northeastern Europe, northern Asia, Nordic countries and Russia
[6,7]. In Nordic countries the Paste of U. sondenii locally use to treat skin
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problems [24]. Its extract and paste used to treat kidney diseases, diabetes,
fungal infections, anti-inflammatory and arthritis [15,24].
16. Urtica taiwaniana
Urtica taiwaniana is an herb which is perennial and monoecious. Its rhizomes
are woody. Its stems are simple or Branchen Shortly, about 30.80 cm tall. Its
stems are sparsely contains stinging hairs hirtellous and its arms. This specie
grows mostly on thickets, along the streams, mountain and roadsides [52]. It is
present in Taiwan, Indonesia [4,6] . In Taiwan against its use locally
hypotensive extract [16]Its extract is used to treat Anti hyperglycemic,
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antioxidant, protective hepatica, Antivira, diuretic and hypotensive [16].
17. Urtica triangularis
Urtica triangularis is an herb which is perennial and monoecious. Its rhizomes
are woody, about 1 cm in diameter. Its purplish and Branchen Stems are light,
about 60,150 cm tall. Its stems and petioles are sparsely contains stinging hairs
hirtellous and its arms. It grows mostly on thickets, meadows, along the
streams, VALLEYS, roadsides and near villages [52]It is present in New
Zealand, Australia [6]. In Japan both extract and paste of U. triangularis use
locally to treat arthritis [23]. Its extract use to treat ulcer.
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36
4-[Bis[3,4-
dihydroxy
phenyl]methyl]dihy
droxo-3-
[hydroxymet-hyl]-
2[3H]-
Furanone[8R,8R];
from 3,4-Di-Me
ether,4-O-B-D-
Glucopyranoside.
C
26
H
32
O
12
536.189
Constit.of
the roots
of Urtica
Triangular
is
Result on the
brine shrimp
lethality
bioassay it can
be well
predicted that
the crude exts.
Have
considerable
cytotoxic
potency. As
anti-
ulcerogenic
natural
products
HO
OO
OHO
O
O O OH
OH
OH
HO
[62]
37
Cycloolivil;9-O- B-
D-
Glucopyrnoside
C
26
H
34
O
12
538.547
Constit.of
the roots
of Urtica
Triangular
is
In manuf. of
deodorization
type bio-solid
fuel products,
the degree of
adhesion of
the activated
carbon
powder for
deodorization
of a bio-solid
fuel product.
O
O
HO
O
OH
OH
OH
OOH
OH
OHHO
[63]
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38
3,3,4,4,8,9-
Hexadihydroxy-7,9-
epoxylignan from
3,3-Di-Me
ether,9,O-B-D-
Glucopyranoside.
C
26
H
34
O
12
538.547
Constit.of
the roots
of Urtica
Triangular
is
Glucose
oxidase from
Aspergillus
niger:
production,
characterizati
on and
immobilizatio
n for glucose
oxidation
OH
O
OOH
O
HO
O
O
OH
HO
HO
HO
[31]
39
3,3,4,4,8,9-
Hexadihydroxy-7,9-
epoxylignan from
3,3,4-tri-Me
ether,8-Ac.
C
23
H
28
O
8
432.469
Constit.of
the roots
of Urtica
Triangular
is
It is a
stimulant an
appetite
suppressant
and a topical
anesthetic
Biologically,
cocaine acts as
a serotonin–
norepinephrin
e–dopamine
reuptake
inhibitor.
O
HO
OOH
O
O
O
O
[31]
39
3,3,4,4,8,9-
Hexadihydroxy-7,9-
epoxylignan from
3,3,4-tri-Me
ether,8-Ac.
C
23
H
28
O
8
Constit.of
the roots
of Urtica
Triangular
is
It is a
stimulant an
appetite
suppressant
and a topical
anesthetic
Biologically,
cocaine acts as
a serotonin–
norepinephrin
e–dopamine
reuptake
inhibitor.
O
HO
OOH
O
O
O
O
[31]
40
3,3,4,4,8,9-
Hexadihydroxy-7,9-
epoxylignan from
3,3,4-Tri-Me
ether,8-Ac,4-o-
[alpha-arabino-
pyranosyl-[1-6]B-
D-
Glucopyranoside]
C
34
H
46
O
17
726.727
Constit.
of the
roots of
Urtica
Triangu
laris
Used for
treatment
of viral
hepatitis
and
protection
of the
liver.Also
act as
tumor-
inhibiting.
O
HO
OO
O
O
O
O
O
OOH
OH
OH
O
HO
HO
HO
[31]
41
4-[Bis[3,4-
dihydroxy
phenyl]methyl]dihy
droxo-3-
[hydroxymet-hyl]-
2[3H]-
Furanone[8R,8S];
from 3,4-Di-Me
ether,4-O-B-D-
Glucopyranoside.
C
26
H
32
O
12
536.532
Constit.of
the roots
of Urtica
Triangular
is
Result on the
brine shrimp
lethality
bioassay it can
be well
predicted that
the crude exts.
Have
considerable
cytotoxic
potency. As
antiulcerogeni
HO
OO
OHO
O
O O O
OH
OH
HO
[62]
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c natural
products
18. Urtica australis
Urtica australis which is a semi - deciduous shrub and dicotyledonous forming
compact bushes up to 1 x 1 m long. Its stems have stinging hairs. Its color is
dark green leaves. It grows mostly on open ground amongst scrub and grasses,
and also cobble beaches and sand dunes [63,64]. It is present in South Island,
New Zealand, background sub Antarctic islands and Asia [2]. In the South
Island the Extract of Urtica australis use locally to treat skin diseases [15]. The
extract of this specie use to treat kidney problems, diabetes, eczema, fungal
infections, antiinflammatory, and arthritis [15].
19. Urtica laetevirens
Urtica laetevirens is free stipules below and partially connate in upper stems.
Its color is green leaves. Its leaves are ovate or lanceolate, shaped blade, there
often Reaching Veinsan secondary outer teeth and broadly rounded base. It
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grows mostly on moist places in forests, thickets and along the streams [52]. It
is present in Tibet, Asia, Mongolia, Japan, Manchuria [2,6,7]. In Tibet the
extract of U. laetevirens against use locally allergic reaction [2]. Its aqueous
extrac used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism, eczema, allergic rhinitis
([2]. Many compounds have been from the reported such as U. laetevirens
neoolivil, secoisolariciresinol, isolariciresinol and pinoresinol, or terpene diols.
The compounds were isolated from Urtica dioica were by conventional LC
separation, Ultra performance liquid chromatography [UPLC] techniques.
However, LC - MS and [LC - ESI - MS] have also been employed for the
isolation and characterization as well.
42
Pinoresinol
C
32
H
42
O
15
666.675
Constit of
urtica
laetevirens
and the root
bark of
hibiscus
syriacus.
Act as fungal
infections
agent.Medicine as
an
analgesic,antivirus,a
nti-inflamatory.
O
O
O
O
O
HO
OO
OH
HO
O
OHOH
OH
HO
[65]
20. Urtica massaica
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Urtica laetevirens is an herb which is perennial. This plant forming loose
clumps of few-branched stems from a creeping rhizome. The stems grow up to
2 meters long and are covered with stinging hairs. It mostly grows on
mountains, forests, near human habitation and around cattle [66]. It is present
in Africa [4]. In Africa the paste of Urtica massaica is used to treat skin
rashes and anti-malaria [15]. The paste of this specie use to treat eczema, Skin
rashes, dermatitis and diuretic [10,15].
21. Urtica ferox
Urtica ferox is a large shrub stinging which is dicotyledonous. Its stems are up
to 3m tall. Sometimes there are extensive thickets, bearing pairs of thin pointed
sharply toothed leaves on a long stem. Young parts covered in white needles
that inject a painful toxin. Flowers and fruit are grown in short tiny spikes at
the base of the leaves. Its leaves are pale green in color. This specie is found
mostly in coastal and lowland forest margins and shrub lands [67]. It is present
in New Zealand and Australia [6,7]. In New Zealand the extract is used to treat
skin problems [20]. The paste of this specie is used to treat Anti -
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hyperglycemic, antioxidant, protective hepatica , Antiviral , diuretic ,
hypotensive and anti - aggregate [20].
22. Urtica hyperborean
Urtica hyperborea is a herb which is perennial and monoecious or dioecious.
Its rhizomes are woody and thick. Its stems are pale brownish and purplish in
color. Stems are simple or branched, cylindric basally and about 10.50 cm tall.
Its stems are also sparsely puberulent and densely armed with stinging hairs
and it internodes are compact [52]. It is present in Peru, high plateaus of the
Black Sea, Himalaya from Pakistan to Bhutan, Mongoliaand Tibet, high
altitudes and Pakistan. As far as its occurrence in Pakistan is concerned, it is
found in Kabul valley and Swat [6,7]. In Peru its extract locally use against
skin rashes (Its extract and paste use to treat Skin rashes, dermatitis and
eczema, diuretic [10].
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23. Urtica andicola
Urtica andicola stinging is a large Shrub which is dicotyledonous. Its stems are
up to 2cm long. Its flowers and fruit are grown in short spikes at base of leaves.
Its leaves are pale green in color. This specie mostly found in forest, along road
sides and along the streams [68]. In Peru and paste the extract of Urtica
andicola locally is used to treat arthritis. [24]. Its use to treat extract as anti-
hyperglycemic, antioxidant, hepatic protective, antiviral, diuretic, hypotensive
and anti- aggregate [24].
24. Urtica flabellate
Urtica flabellate is an annual or perennial herb. Its leaves are covered with
light green foliage [13]. Its stems Contain stinging hairs. Its stem is cut about
2m. It grows mostly on moist, shady places and forests [69]. It is present in
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Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bol6) via and Argentina [4,13]. In Peru Both the
extract of Urtica flabellate locally and paste used to treat arthritis. [25]. Its
extract and paste both are used to treat anti- hyperglycemic, antioxidant,
antiviral and protective hepatic [25].
25. Urtica stachyoides
Urtica is an flabellate Which is perennial herb. Its stem is cut about 3m. Its
stem is covered with stinging hairs. Its leaves are light green in color. It grows
mostly on moist places, forests and along the streams [70]. It is present in
Spain [Tenerife]. In Spain the extract of Urtica stachyoides locally diuretic
used to treat problems Its extract and paste both are used to treat as anti-
hyperglycemic, antioxidant, hepatic protective, antiviral, diuretic, hypotensive
and anti- aggregate.
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26. Urtica lalibertadensis
Urtica lalibertadensist is a subshrub or erect perennial herb. It has basally
slightly lignified rhizome. Its stem is about 3m tall. Its stem contains numerous
deflexed stinging hairs. Its leaves are opposite, interpetiolar and its stipules are
united. It mostly grows along the roads, along the streams and shady places
([71]. In Peru the extract of Urtica lalibertadensist locally use to treat liver
diseases [26]. Its extract is used to treat as anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant,
hepatic protective and antiviral [26].
27. Urtica atrovirens
Urtica atrovirens is an herb and perennial which is monocious. Its rhizome is
woody. Its stem is about 30-80 cm cut. Its stem contains stinging hairs. It
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grows mostly on road sides, along the streams and moist places [72]. It is
present in Italy and Western Mediterranean [6,7]. In the Western
Mediterranean Paste of Urtica atrovirens use locally to treat [10]. Its extract
and paste both are used to treat as anti- hyperglycemic, antioxidant, hepatic
protective, antiviral and arthritis [10].
28. Urtica kioviensis
Urtica atrovirens is an herb and perennial which is monocious. Its stem is cut
about 2m. The whole plant, especially the leaves, is characterized by shining a
light green appearance, and the basal part of the stem is creeping and rooting at
the lower nodes. Its stems have stinging hairs [30]. It is present in Germany,
Britain, France, the Netherlands, Eastern Europe [6,7]. In Eastern Europe and
the extract paste both are locally used to treat arthritis [30]. Its extract and
paste both are used to treat hepatic protective, antiviral and arthritis.
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29. Urtica leptophylla
Urtica is an leptophylla which is perennial herb. Its rhizome is slightly
lignified with stinging numerous hairs. Its stem is cut about 2m. Its leaves are
stating and its opposite are united in pairs. It grows mostly on road sides, along
the streams and forests [71]. It is present in Peru, eastern North America from
Nova Scotiato Florida [6]. In Peru the extract and paste both are locally used to
treat arthritis [2]. Its extract and paste both are used to treat arthritis, fungal
infections and antimicrobial [2].
30. Urtica urens
Urtica urens is an annual herb. Its stems are branched about 10.60 cm cut. Its
stems are sparsely puberulent and densely armed with stinging Somewhat
Hairs. Its internodes are 4.7 cm lower and upper internodes are 1.3 cm in
length. This specie grows mostly on forest margins, roadsides, near villages
and China [52]. It is present in Peru, Europe, Highland, Asia, China, Italy,
Aegean, North America and Pakistan. As far as Pakistan is Concerned STIs in
this case, it is found in Kaki, Swat [2,6,7].In Palestinian area leaf extract of U.
urens use locally for skin treatment [59]. Its extract paste and used to treat
arthritis [2]. A wide range of metabolites' have reported from U. urens,
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including flavonoids and Caffeic acid analogues have also isolated from U.
urens Bees. Apart from these aromatic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids
and oxygenated fatty acids have been found in U. urens roots.
Conclusion
The leaf paste and extract has been known in traditional medicine for a long
period of time. Recent studies have shown it to display different biological
activity of some of them to prove that use for ethnopharmacological purposes.
Several varieties of genus Urtica has been widely used for the treatment of
rheumatism and sciatica, asthma, coughs, dandruff, diabetes, diarrhea, eczema,
fever, gout, hemorrhoids, nose bleeds, scurvy, snakebites and other
tuberculosis related problems treated traditionally. Experiments have shown
that urtica genus also exhibit antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory as well as
antioxidant activities, all of which contribute towards the protection of joints.
Traditional use in bile disorders has also been documented. This review of
current research on Urtica genus further knowledge of the basic information. In
vitro and in vivo studies have provided a simple model which uses various
ethnopharmacological biological scientific explanation.
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