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EMBRYONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN TEETH

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED
AND FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH 
 MEDICAL SCIENCES

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
1ФГАОУ ВО «Дальневосточный федеральный университет», Владивосток, e-mail: RevaGal@yandex.ru;
2Международный медицинский научно-образовательный центр, Ниигата, e-mail: avers2@yandex.ru;
3Санкт-Петербургская военная медицинская академия, Санкт-Петербург, e-mail: odintsova.ia@yandex.ru;
4ФГБОУ ВО «Северо-Западный государственный медицинский университет им. И.И. Мечникова»,
Санкт-Петербург, e-mail: vladimir.verin@spbmapo.ru;
5ФГБОУ ВО «Санкт-Петербургский государственный педиатрический
медицинский университет», Санкт-Петербург, e-mail: v.kojukhar@yandex.ru;
6Тихоокеанский государственный медицинский университет, Владивосток, e-mail: kim100857@gmail.com
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
          
    
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  
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
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   
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 
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

1Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, e-mail: RevaGal@yandex.ru;
2International Medical Research and Education Center, Niigata, e-mail: avers2@yandex.ru;
3S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, e-mail: odintsova.ia@yandex.ru;
4North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov,
Saint-Petersburg, e-mail: vladimir.verin@spbmapo.ru;
5St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University; Saint-Petersburg, e-mail: v.kojukhar@yandex.ru;
6Pacic State Medical University, Vladivostok, e-mail: kim100857@gmail.com
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
 
      


       
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     
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      
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
 
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
 


      
  

 



     


     
     
 


    
   

   
   
   
   
      
     
 

  
    

   
      
    





   
    
   

    

    
    

     



   
   
    
   
    
   
     
     

   



   
      
   
     
  

   

 


   


  
   
   
   
     
    

а) б)
Рис. 1. а) Эмбрион человека на стадии 30 сомитов; б) Головной отдел эмбриона человека
в период нейруляции. Нативные препараты. Ув. х100
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED
AND FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH 
 MEDICAL SCIENCES


   
   


   

  

  

  
    


    


    
   
   
   




     
   
а) б)
Рис. 2. Эмбрион человека в конце 3-й недели. Стадия а) 10; б) 30 сомитов. 2-х слойная эктодерма
туловищного отдела зародыша человека (указана зелеными стрелками), вдается между
сомитами более чем на 1/3 зародыша. Голубая, красная и зеленая звёздочки соответственно
указывают дерматом, миотом и склеротом). Красные стрелки указывают на энтодерму.
а) мезодерма в начале дифференцировки на дерматом, миотом и склеротом;
б) выраженная дифференцировка мезодермы на дерматом, миотом и склеротом.
Микрофото. Окраска гематоксилином. Увеличение х100
а) б)
Рис. 3. Полость рта эмбриона человека пяти недель. 1, 2) носовой и медиальный небный отростки
формирующейся верхней челюсти; 3) язык; 4) нижняя челюсть, 5) многослойный плоский
неороговевающий эпителий. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. Ув. х200

 


   
    
   
   
  



 


     

     
     
     
     
   

    
  
    
  

     

   
    
    


   
    
   
   
   

    
   



     
   
 

    

    
  



   




    

   

     

Рис. 4. Полость рта эмбриона человека.
Проксимальный отдел пищеварительной
трубки: 1) формирующаяся верхняя челюсть;
2) нижняя челюсть, 3) многослойный плоский
неороговевающий эпителий; 4) закладка зуба,
5) проксимальный отдел пищеварительной
трубки; 6) эмалевый орган; 7) зубной сосочек;
8) зубной мешочек; 9) формирующаяся кость
нижней челюсти. Окраска гематоксилином
и эозином. Ув. х200
Рис. 5. Полость рта эмбриона человека:
1) формирующаяся нижняя челюсть,
2) цилиндрический эпителий; 3) многослойный
плоский неороговевающий эпителий;
4) закладка зуба, 5) проксимальный отдел
пищеварительной трубки; 6) эмалевый
орган; 7) зубной сосочек; 8) зубной мешочек;
9) формирующаяся кость зубной альвеолы;
10) Меккелев хрящ; 11) губа. Окраска
гематоксилином и эозином. Ув. х200
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED
AND FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH 
 MEDICAL SCIENCES
   
    
   

    
 
   

   
  

  
   
   
   
  
 
   
  
  

    
    
    

 
   

     



   
     
    
 



      
    
   
    

    






    
    
   
   


    



     



   

     
     


  



in vitro

   
     




     in
vitro    
   

    

    



  
    
     
    



 
   



   
       in
vitro   
     
     
   
   


 


   
   
   

 


    
    
      
   
    
   
     





  
  
   


Работа выполнена при поддержке На-
учного фонда ДВФУ, в рамках государ-
ственного задания 17.5740/2017/6.7.

         
       
      
        

       

 




  

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
         

           


       




       
 




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
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  

       
   

   
        
   

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The role of Ras signaling during tooth development is poorly understood. Ras proteins-which are activated by many upstream pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase cascades-signal through multiple effectors, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways. Here, we utilized the mouse incisor as a model to study how the MAPK and PI3K pathways regulate dental epithelial stem cells and amelogenesis. The rodent incisor-which grows continuously throughout the life of the animal due to the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells-provides a model for the study of ectodermal organ renewal and regeneration. Utilizing models of Ras dysregulation as well as inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3K pathways, we found that MAPK and PI3K regulate dental epithelial stem cell activity, transit-amplifying cell proliferation, and enamel formation in the mouse incisor.
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The tooth enamel organ (EO) is a complex epithelial cell assembly involved in multiple aspects of tooth development, including amelogenesis. The present study focuses on the role of the nonameloblast layers of the EO, the stratum intermedium, the stellate reticulum, and the outer enamel epithelium (OEE). The secretory stage stratum intermedium was distinguished by p63-positive epithelial stem cell marks, highly specific alkaline phosphatase labeling, as well as multiple desmosomes and gap junctions. At the location of the presecretory stage stellate reticulum, the pre-eruption EO prominently featured the papillary layer (PL) as a keratin immunopositive network of epithelial strands between tooth crowns and oral epithelium. PL cell strands contained numerous p63-positive epithelial stem cells, while BrdU proliferative cells were detected at the outer boundaries of the PL, suggesting that the stellate reticulum/PL epithelial cell sheath proliferated to facilitate an epithelial seal during tooth eruption. Comparative histology studies demonstrated continuity between the OEE and the general lamina of continuous tooth replacement in reptiles, and the outer layer of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in humans, implicating the OEE as the formative layer for continuous tooth replacement and tooth root extension. Cell fate studies in organ culture verified that the cervical portion of the mouse molar EO gave rise to Malassez rest-like cell islands. Together, these studies indicate that the nonameloblast layers of the EO play multiple roles during odontogenesis, including the maintenance of several p63-positive stem cell reservoirs, a role during tooth root morphogenesis and tooth succession, a stabilizing function for the ameloblast layer, the facilitation of ion transport from the EO capillaries to the enamel layer, as well as safe and seamless tooth eruption.
Article
To investigate the spatial and temporal expression of proliferation Ki-67 marker, pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins during early development of the human tooth. Histological sections of eight human conceptuses, 5-10 postovulatory weeks old, were used for immunolocalization for Ki-67, Bax and Bcl-2 markers. Quantification was performed by calculating the fraction of Ki-67 positive cells, expressed as a mean ± SD, and analysed by Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc test. In 6th-7th developmental weeks, the tooth germ and dental crest contained 37% of proliferating cells, which increased to 40% in the 8th week, and then decreased to 15% in the 10th week, whilst the proliferation in the ectomesenchyme subsequently dropped from 37% to 23%. Epithelial parts of the enamel organ displayed similar proliferation activity (31-36%), dental crest 10%, whilst enamel knot showed no proliferating activity. The tooth ectomesenchyme contained more proliferating cells (50%) than the jaw ectomesenchyme (35%), and both dropped to 28% in the 10th week. Ectomesenchyme between the tooth germs contained 23%, whilst the jaw ectomesenchyme contained 15% of proliferating cells. Bcl-2 expression had following pattern: strong in proliferating cells, moderate in tooth germs and dental crest, and weak in the ectomesenchyme. Bax co-expressed with Bcl-2 in the tooth germ and dental crest. In the reticulum and inner enamel epithelium Bcl-2 had prevalent expression, whilst Bax prevailed in the outer enamel epithelium and tooth ectomesenchyme. Proliferating cells most likely influence growth of the tooth germ, Bcl-2 affects proliferation and differentiation of specific cell lineages, whilst Bax influences process of cell death.
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Pop f., rusu m.c. c-kit positive cells and networks in tooth germs of human midterm fetuses
P. 1438-1444. doi: 10.1177/0022034517717255. 3. didilescu a.c., Pop f., rusu m.c. c-kit positive cells and networks in tooth germs of human midterm fetuses. ann. anat. 2013. no. 195 (6). P. 581-5. doi: 10.1016/j.aanat.2013.06.002. 4. Seppala m., Zoupa m., onyekwelu o., cobourne m.T. Tooth development: 1. Generating teeth in the embryo. dent Update. 2006. no. 33 (10). P. 582-4, 586-8, 590-1.
conserved odontogenic potential in dental tissues
  • . U De
  • Bari C Hu
  • X Lin C
  • Shen B
  • Ruan N
  • Z Guan
  • Y Chen
  • Y Zhang
bluteau G., luder h.U., de bari c., mitsiadis T.a. Stem cells for tooth engineering. Eur cell mater. 2008. no. 31; 16. Р. 1-9. 6. hu X., lin c., Shen b., ruan n., Guan Z., chen Y., Zhang Y. conserved odontogenic potential in dental tissues. J. dent. res. 2014. no. 93(5). Р. 490-5. doi: 10.1177/0022034514523988. 7. Zheng l., Warotayanont r., Stahl J., Kunimatsu r., Klein o., den.besten P.K., Zhang Y. inductive ability of human developing and differentiated dental mesenchyme. cells Tissues organs. 2013. no. 198 (2). Р. 99-110. doi: 10.1159/000353116.