Article

De Novo assembly and characterisation of the greentail prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae) hepatopancreas transcriptome – identification of stress response and detoxification transcripts

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Crude oil is a key contaminant in aquatic environments entering via natural and anthropogenic sources, causing toxicity in marine organisms. Traditionally, biomarkers have been utilised to determine crude oil exposure and effects in aquatic organisms, however advances in genomic technologies has led to increased adoption of transcriptomic approaches for identifying response and detoxification pathways following contaminant exposure. This study presents the first transcriptome for the greentail prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae), a commercially targeted benthic decapod crustacean from eastern and south-eastern Australia. The Trinity generated de novo assembly, after redundancy clustering, resulted in 86,401 contigs, of these 22,252 displayed strong homology to transcripts in the NCBI's non-redundant protein, Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL databases. Furthermore, Gene Ontology was assigned to 15,079 annotated contigs and KEGG Orthology was identified for 1318 annotated contigs. Transcripts encoding common biomarkers utilised to determine crude oil exposure were identified, including those for detoxification phase I and II enzymes; with 40 transcripts encoding for members of the cytochrome P450 gene family and 8 transcripts encoding glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs). Transcripts encoding oxidative stress enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and metallothionein (MT) were identified, as well as stress induced proteins including crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and heat shock proteins (Hsps). The annotated transcriptome of the greentail prawn and the identification of detoxification and stress response transcripts, provides a necessary resource for future studies geared toward characterising differential transcriptomic patterns and molecular pathways after exposure to crude oil in this and other crustacean species of environmental and commercial importance.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Over the past decade, considerable effort has been put into the development of molecular resources (genomes and deep transcriptomes) for arthropod species, including many crustaceans (e.g., Armstrong et al., 2019;Christie et al., 2017Christie et al., , 2018aChristie et al., , 2018bHavird and Santos, 2016;He et al., 2012;Huerlimann et al., 2018;Li et al., 2015;Lv et al., 2015;Manfrin et al., 2015;Northcutt et al., 2016;Oliphant et al., 2018;Rahi et al., 2019;Santos et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2018;Sun et al., 2014;Tom et al., 2014;Verbruggen et al., 2015;Wang et al., 2019;Xu et al., 2015). Although these datasets were initially developed to serve a variety of functions, they have proven to be powerful resources for a wide array of gene and, by proxy, protein discoveries. ...
... While the majority of the transcripts identified here as encoding putative ALP precursors come from transcriptomes generated using mixed tissues (either whole organism or selected multiple tissues) as the source of RNAs (e.g., Havird and Santos, 2016;Huerlimann et al., 2018;Li et al., 2015;Oliphant et al., 2018;Rahi et al., 2019;Santos et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2018;Sun et al., 2014;Tom et al., 2014;Verbruggen et al., 2015), some are from tissue or tissue region-specific assemblies (Armstrong et al., 2019;Christie et al., 2017Christie et al., , 2018aChristie et al., , 2018bHe et al., 2012;Northcutt et al., 2016). The transcripts identified from the latter datasets provide insight into the putative source(s) of ALP production in members of the Decapoda. ...
... In addition to their localization in neural-specific transcriptomes, ALP precursor-encoding transcripts were identified from a testis-specific assembly for the crab, E. sinensis (He et al., 2012), and a hepatopancreas-specific transcriptome for the shrimp, M. bennettae (Armstrong et al., 2019). Previous investigations have identified many "neuropeptides" in non-neuronal tissues, including the reproductive organs and hepatopancreas. ...
Article
Over the past decade, in silico genome and transcriptome mining has led to the identification of many new crustacean peptide families, including the agatoxin-like peptides (ALPs), a group named for their structural similarity to agatoxin, a spider venom component. Here, analysis of publicly accessible transcriptomes was used to expand our understanding of crustacean ALPs. Specifically, transcriptome mining was used to investigate the phylogenetic/structural conservation, tissue localization, and putative functions of ALPs in decapod species. Transcripts encoding putative ALP precursors were identified from one or more members of the Penaeoidea (penaeid shrimp), Sergestoidea (sergestid shrimps), Caridea (caridean shrimp), Astacidea (clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish), Achelata (spiny/slipper lobsters), and Brachyura (true crabs), suggesting a broad, and perhaps ubiquitous, conservation of ALPs in decapods. Comparison of the predicted mature structures of decapod ALPs revealed high levels of amino acid conservation, including eight identically conserved cysteine residues that presumably allow for the formation of four identically positioned disulfide bridges. All decapod ALPs are predicted to have amidated carboxyl-terminals. Two isoforms of ALP appear to be present in most decapod species, one 44 amino acids long and the other 42 amino acids in length, both likely generated by alternative splicing of a single gene. In carideans, a gene or terminal exon duplication appears to have occurred, with alternative splicing producing four ALPs, two 44 and two 42 amino acid isoforms. The identification of ALP precursor-encoding transcripts in nervous system-specific transcriptomes (e.g., Homarus americanus brain, eyestalk ganglia, and cardiac ganglion assemblies, finding confirmed using RT-PCR) suggests that members of this peptide family may serve as locally-released and/or hormonally-delivered neuromodulators in decapods. Their detection in testis- and hepatopancreas-specific transcriptomes suggests that members of the ALP family may also play roles in male reproduction and innate immunity/detoxification.
... nlm.nih.gov/sra) under the project name PRJNA509986 and assigned accession numbers SAMN10591652-SAMN10591660. Sequencing data from 27 samples were mapped to the greentail prawn de novo transcriptome published previously in Armstrong et al. (2019), using RSEM (Li & Dewey, 2011) and Bowtie Ver. 1.2.0 (Langmead, 2010) with default parameters. ...
... 1.36.0) on the differentially abundant transcripts, while controlling for length bias (Young et al., 2010). Differentially abundant transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms and lengths obtained from the greentail prawn transcriptome previously described by Armstrong et al. (2019). Gene ontology enrichment analysis was performed following Young et al.'s (2010) standard pipeline. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oil spills pose a significant threat to marine biodiversity. Crude oil can partition into sediments where it may be persistent, placing benthic species such as decapods at particular risk of exposure. Transcriptomic and histological tools are often used to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon exposure on marine organisms following oil spill events, allowing for the identification of metabolic pathways impacted by oil exposure. However, there is limited information available for decapod crustaceans, many of which carry significant economic value. In this study, we assess the sub‐lethal impacts of crude oil exposure in the commercially important Australian greentail prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae) using transcriptomic and histological analyses. Prawns exposed to light, unweathered crude oil ‘spiked’ sediments for 90 hours were transferred to clean sediments for a further 72 hours to assess recovery. Chemical analyses indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increased by approximately 65 % and 91 % in prawn muscle following 24‐ and 90‐h exposure, respectively and significantly decreased during 24‐ and 72‐h recovery periods. Transcriptomic responses followed an exposure and recovery pattern with innate immunity and nutrient metabolism transcripts significantly lowered in abundance after 24‐hr exposure and were higher in abundance after 72‐h recovery. Additionally, transcription/translation, cellular responses and DNA repair pathways were significantly impacted after 24‐h exposure and recovered after 72‐h recovery. However, histological alterations such as tubule atrophy indicated an increase in severity after 24‐hour and 72‐hour recovery. This study provides new insights into the sub‐lethal impacts of crude oil exposure in greentail prawns and identifies molecular pathways altered by exposure. We expect these findings to inform future management associated with oil extraction activity and spills. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... It is not unusual to use pooled RNA samples for sequencing. A similar approach has been used for gene discovery and identifying specific candidate genes in C. sapidus [53], the greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae [54], or the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii [55]. A nonreplicated study can be used as a pilot study to test a proposed hypothesis and be validated by targeted gene-expression or further replicated study [56]. ...
... The reduction of duplicated BUSCOs and the increase of single-copy BUSCOs confirm the use of CD-HIT-EST to reduce redundancy. These results agree with other BUSCO analyses carried out in crustaceans such as the greentail prawn, M. bennettae [54], and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon [57]. Moreover, the Trinity assembly presents a high N50 (2,854), which implies the presence of isoforms. ...
Article
Full-text available
The crustacean molting process is regulated by an interplay of hormones produced by the eyestalk ganglia and Y-organs (YO). Molt-inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone released by the sinus gland of the eyestalk ganglia (EG) inhibit the synthesis and secretion of ecdysteroid by the YO, hence regulating hemolymph levels during the molt cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ecdysteroidogenesis pathway, specifically genes linked to changes in ecdysteroid levels occurring at early premolt (ePM). To this end, a reference transcriptome based on YO, EG, and hepatopancreas was de novo assembled. Two genes (cholesterol 7-desaturase Neverland and cytochrome p450 307a1-like Spook ) involved in ecdysteroidogenesis were identified from the YO transcriptome using sequence comparisons and transcript abundance. Two other candidates, Hormone receptor 4 and probable cytochrome p450 49a1 potentially involved in ecdysteroidogenesis were also identified. Since cholesterol is the ecdysteroid precursor, a putative cholesterol carrier ( Apolipoprotein D-like ) was also examined to understand if cholesterol uptake coincided with the increase in the ecdysteroid levels at the ePM stage. The expression level changes of the five candidate genes in the YO were compared between intermolt (IM) and induced ePM (iePM) stages using transcriptomic analysis. Expression analysis using qPCR were carried out at IM, iePM, and normal ePM. The increase in Spook and Neverland expression in the YO at the ePM was accompanied by a concomitant rise in ecdysteroid levels. The data obtained from iePM stage were congruent with those obtained from the normal ePM stage of intact control animals. The present findings support the role of Halloween genes in the ecdysteroidogenesis and molt cycle in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus .
... Transcriptome profiling analysis is a revolutionary and effective approach for generating reference sequence data and identifying genes or pathways involved in a variety of biological processes . It has been widely used in the research of aquatic crustaceans including white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (Chen et al., 2016), greentail prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae) (Armstrong et al., 2019), red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) (Andersen et al., 2022), snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) (Andersen et al., 2022) and swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) (Fang et al., 2021) under different stresses, which can provide a powerful technology to discover novel transcripts and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans (Rao et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2019). ...
Article
In this study, we exposed adult male crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) to different concentrations of diclofenac (DCF) for 96 h. In the meantime, we investigated the alternations of hepatopancreatic pathology, molecular regulation and intestinal microbiota of P. clarkii exposed to DCF. The results demonstrated DCF led to histological changes including epithelium vacuolization and tubule lumen dilatation in the hepatopancreas. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that 642 and 586 genes were differentially expressed in the hepatopancreas of P. clarkii exposed to 1 and 10 mg/L DCF, respectively. DCF could affect the functions of antioxidation, immunity and metabolism of hepatopancreas by inducing the abnormal expressions of immune- and redox-related genes. GO enrichment results demonstrated that 10 mg/L DCF exposure could modulate the processes of molting, amino sugar metabolism, protein hydrolysis and intracellular protein translocation of P. clarkii. Additionally, the abundances of bacterial families including Shewanellaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Vibrionaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, etc. in the intestine were significantly changed after DCF exposure, and the disruption of intestinal flora might further cause abnormal intestinal metabolism in P. clarkii. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into the toxic effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on aquatic crustaceans.
... After the 28 d exposure of nTiO 2 alone (T 0 N 2500 ), the differentially up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway, while no differentially down-regulated genes were significantly enriched in any of the KEGG pathways (Fig. 5B). Since only a few pathways were significantly enriched upon the T 0 N 2500 exposure relative to the control group, we matched all DEGs to the KEGG orthology database (Armstrong et al., 2019). The up-regulated DEGs involved in the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway mainly encoded chitin synthase (CHS1), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), and guanylate-binding protein (GBP) (Table S4), while the downregulated DEGs mainly encoded ankyrin (ANK), baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 7 (BIRC7), nibrin (NBN), Notch 1 (NOTCH1), high-affinity cGMP-specific 3 ′ , 5 ′ -cyclic phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9), and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3 (PPP1R3) ( Table S4). ...
Article
The co-existence of organic pollutants and nanoparticles in the environment may lead to combined biological effects. The joint toxicity of pollutants and nanoparticles has been receiving increasing attention from researchers, but few studies have focused on soil biota due to the complexity of soil matrices. This study investigated the effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) at 0, 5, and 25 mg/kg and nanoparticulate TiO2 (nTiO2) at 0, 500, and 2500 mg/kg in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments for 28 days (d) on Eisenia fetida (earthworm). Compared with the control group (the 0 mg/kg TDCIPP + 0 mg/kg nTiO2 treatment), all other single (TDCIPP or nTiO2) and binary (TDCIPP + nTiO2) treatments except for the single 500 mg/kg nTiO2 treatment significantly reduced the weight gain rate of E. fetida. The binary treatments had significantly greater such effect than their corresponding single treatments, exhibiting a synergistic toxicity between TDCIPP and nTiO2 on the growth of E. fetida. Since TDCIPP and nTiO2 had no significant effect on their concentrations in the soil or in E. fetida during binary exposure, the synergistic toxicity could be a result of the superimposition of the toxicity pathways of TDCIPP and nTiO2. Transcriptomic analysis of E. fetida intestinal region revealed that exposure to 25 mg/kg TDCIPP or 2500 mg/kg nTiO2 affected nutrient-related or cell apoptosis and DNA damage related genes, respectively; their co-exposure greatly inhibited genes related to nutrient digestion and absorption, while causing abnormal transcription of genes related to the development and maintenance of E. fetida’s muscles, leading to synergistic toxicity. These findings provide new insights into the environmental risks of organophosphorus flame retardants, nanoparticles, and their co-exposure.
Article
Zinc (Zn) is necessary for the survival of aquatic organisms; nevertheless, the accumulation of Zn in excessive amounts may have toxic consequences. Few studies focusing on the biochemical, morphological, and transcriptional effects of aqueous Zn in Litopenaeus vannamei have been reported, and the underlying toxic mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study was performed to investigate the growth performance, morphological alterations, physiological changes, and transcriptional responses after Zn exposure at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/L concentrations for 30 days in white shrimp L. vannamei hepatopancreas. The results found that survival rate (SR) and growth performance were significantly reduced in 1 mg/L Zn group. Significant structural damage and significant Zn accumulation in hepatopancreas were observed. The activities of trypsin and amylase (AMS), and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were attenuated, while the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly increased after Zn exposure. Many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained after Zn exposure, and the majority of these DEGs were downregulated. Ten DEGs involved in oxidative stress, immunological response, apoptosis, and other processes were selected for qRT-PCR validation and the expression profiles of these DEGs kept well consistent with the transcriptome data, which confirmed the accuracy and reliability of the transcriptome results. Subsequently, we screened 12 genes to examine the changes of expression in different concentrations in more detail. All the results implying that Zn exposure caused severe histopathological changes and increased Zn accumulation in hepatopancreas, altered immune, antioxidant and detoxifying response by regulating the gene expressions of related genes, and eventually might trigger apoptosis. These findings provide valuable information and a new perspective on the molecular toxicity of crustaceans in response to environmental heavy metal exposure.
Article
Tachaea chinensis, a parasitic isopod, negatively affects the production of several commercially important shrimp species. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and isopod infection, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the hepatopancreas of Palaemonetes sinensis challenged with T. chinensis. After assembly and annotation, 75,980 high-quality unigenes were obtained using RNA-seq data. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 896 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) after infection, with 452 and 444 upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. Specifically, expression levels of genes involved in detoxification, such as the interferon regulatory factor, venom carboxylesterase-6, serine proteinase inhibitor, and cytochrome P450, were upregulated. Furthermore, expression levels of genes corresponding to retinol dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, variant ionotropic glutamate receptor, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were significantly upregulated after isopod parasitization, indicating that the shrimp's visual system was influenced by isopod parasitization. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR of 10 DEGs helped validate the RNA-seq findings. These results provide a valuable basis for future studies on the elucidation of immune responses of P. sinensis to T. chinensis infection.
Article
There is a pressing need to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the, often magnifying, interactive effects between contaminants and natural stressors. Here we test our hypothesis that lower general stress defence responses contribute to synergistic interactions between stressors. We focus on the widespread pattern that many contaminants are more toxic at higher temperatures. Specifically, we tested the effects of an environmentally realistic low‐effect and high‐effect concentration of the pesticide chlorpyrifos under warming at the gene expression level in the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Forskal, 1775). By applying the independent action model for combined stressors on RNA‐sequencing data, we identified interactive gene expression patterns under combined exposure to chlorpyrifos and warming for general stress defence responses: protection of macromolecules, antioxidant processes, detoxification and energy metabolism/allocation. Most of these general stress defence response genes showed upregulated antagonistic interactions (i.e., were less upregulated than expected under the independent action model). This indicates that when pesticide exposure was combined with warming, the general stress defence responses were no longer buffering increased stress levels, which may contribute to a higher sensitivity to toxicants under warming. These upregulated antagonistic interactions were stronger for the high‐effect chlorpyrifos concentration, indicating that exposure to this concentration under warming was most stressful. Our results highlight that quantitative analysis of the frequency and strength of the interaction types of general stress defence response genes, specifically focusing on antagonistic upregulations and synergistic downregulations, may advance our understanding of how natural stressors modify the toxicity of contaminants.
Article
Full-text available
Hyalella azteca is a cryptic species complex of epibenthic amphipods of interest to ecotoxicology and evolutionary biology. It is the primary crustacean used in North America for sediment toxicity testing and an emerging model for molecular ecotoxicology. To provide molecular resources for sediment quality assessments and evolutionary studies, we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the genome of the H. azteca US Lab Strain. The genome quality and completeness is comparable with other ecotoxicological model species. Through targeted investigation and use of gene expression data sets of H. azteca exposed to pesticides, metals, and other emerging contaminants, we annotated and characterized the major gene families involved in sequestration, detoxification, oxidative stress, and toxicant response. Our results revealed gene loss related to light sensing, but a large expansion in chemoreceptors, likely underlying sensory shifts necessary in their low light habitats. Gene family expansions were also noted for cytochrome P450 genes, cuticle proteins, ion transporters, and include recent gene duplications in the metal sequestration protein, metallothionein. Mapping of differentially-expressed transcripts to the genome significantly increased the ability to functionally annotate toxicant responsive genes. The H. azteca genome will greatly facilitate development of genomic tools for environmental assessments and promote an understanding of how evolution shapes toxicological pathways with implications for environmental and human health.
Article
Full-text available
The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline organism that copes with salinity fluctuations in the environment; therefore, its osmotic and ionic regulation abilities are vital. Osmoregulation may be controlled by the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a neuropeptide mainly expressed in the eyestalks. In L. vannamei, CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 are CHH isoforms isolated from the eyestalks whose expression is influenced by environmental salinity. It has been suggested that they are involved in the response to salinity stress. To clarify this, we investigated the effect of the recombinant peptides, rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2, on the osmo-ionic regulation of shrimp acutely exposed to different salinity conditions (8, 26 and 45‰). Both rCHHs promoted differential effects on the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and the ionoregulatory capacity (IC) for hemolymph Na+ and Cl− during iso-osmotic (26‰) and hyper-osmotic (45‰) transfers. These changes were linked to the changes observed in Na+/K+ ATPase and carbonic anhydrase gene expression in gills, especially under high salinity conditions, suggesting that the hormones may regulate the expression of these genes. Glucose and protein levels measured during acute salinity transfer suggest their roles as sources of metabolic energy for osmotic regulation or as organic osmolytes. These results taken together suggest that both the CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 peptides are important regulators of the physiological response of L. vannamei to acute salinity fluctuations.
Article
Full-text available
Background Crustaceans have been studied extensively as model systems for nervous system function from single neuron properties to behavior. However, lack of molecular sequence information and tools have slowed the adoption of these physiological systems as molecular model systems. In this study, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly for the nervous system transcriptomes of two decapod crustaceans: the Jonah crab (Cancer borealis) and the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Results Forty-two thousand, seven hundred sixty-six and sixty thousand, two hundred seventy-three contigs were assembled from C. borealis and H. americanus respectively, representing 9,489 and 11,061 unique coding sequences. From these transcripts, genes associated with neural function were identified and manually curated to produce a characterization of multiple gene families important for nervous system function. This included genes for 34 distinct ion channel types, 17 biogenic amine and 5 GABA receptors, 28 major transmitter receptor subtypes including glutamate and acetylcholine receptors, and 6 gap junction proteins – the Innexins. Conclusion With this resource, crustacean model systems are better poised for incorporation of modern genomic and molecular biology technologies to further enhance the interrogation of fundamentals of nervous system function.
Article
Full-text available
Copepods-which include freshwater and marine species-represent the most abundant group of aquatic invertebrates. Among them, the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis is widely represented in the northern hemisphere estuaries and has become a species of interest in ecotoxicology. Like other non-target organisms, E. affinis may be exposed to a wide range of chemicals such as endocrine disruptors (EDs). This study investigated the gene expression variation in E. affinis after exposure to ED pesticides-chosen as model EDs-in order to (i) improve the knowledge on their effects in crustaceans, and (ii) highlight relevant transcripts for further development of potential biomarkers of ED exposure/effect. The study focused on the reproduction function in response to ED. Copepods were exposed to sublethal concentrations of pyriproxyfen (PXF) and chlordecone (CLD) separately. After 48h, males and females (400 individuals each) were sorted for RNA extraction. Their transcriptome was pyrosequenced using the Illumina(®) technology. Contigs were blasted and functionally annotated using Blast2GO(®). The differential expression analysis between ED- and acetone-exposed organisms was performed according to sexes and contaminants. Half of the 19,721 contigs provided by pyrosequencing were annotated, mostly (80%) from arthropod sequences. Overall, 2,566 different genes were differentially expressed after ED exposures in comparison with controls. As many genes were differentially expressed after PXF exposure as after CLD exposure. In contrast, more genes were differentially expressed in males than in females after both exposures. Ninety-seven genes overlapped in all conditions. Finally, 31 transcripts involved in reproduction, growth and development, and changed in both chemical exposures were selected as potential candidates for future development of biomarkers.
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity but can also serve as valuable model systems to examine important evolutionary processes. While the ecological aspects of invasions have been well documented, the genetic basis of adaptive change during the invasion process has been hampered by a lack of genomic resources for the majority of invasive species. Here we report the first larval transcriptomic resource for the Northern Pacific Seastar, Asterias amurensis, an invasive marine predator in Australia. Approximately 117.5 million 100 base-pair (bp) paired-end reads were sequenced from a single RNA-Seq library from a pooled set of full-sibling A. amurensis bipinnaria larvae. We evaluated the efficacy of a pre-assembly error correction pipeline on subsequent de novo assembly. Error correction resulted in small but important improvements to the final assembly in terms of mapping statistics and core eukaryotic genes representation. The error-corrected de novo assembly resulted in 115,654 contigs after redundancy clustering. 41,667 assembled contigs were homologous to sequences from NCBI's non-redundant protein and UniProt databases. We assigned Gene Ontology, KEGG Orthology, Pfam protein domain terms and predicted protein-coding sequences to > 36,000 contigs. The final transcriptome dataset generated here provides functional information for 18,319 unique proteins, comprising at least 11,355 expressed genes. Furthermore, we identified 9,739 orthologs to P. miniata proteins, evaluated our annotation pipeline and generated a list of 150 candidate genes for responses to several environmental stressors that may be important for adaptation of A. amurensis in the invasive range. Our study has produced a large set of A. amurensis RNA contigs with functional annotations that can serve as a resource for future comparisons to other echinoderm transcriptomes and gene expression studies. Our data can be used to study the genetic basis of adaptive change and other important evolutionary processes during a successful invasion.
Article
Full-text available
The Australian freshwater crayfish species, Cherax quadricarinatus Von Martens, 1868, is an important commercial and invasive species that is also being increasingly used as a model organism to address important and interesting questions in crustacean biology. Through deep sequencing of the transcriptome of C. quadricarinatus from the hepatopancreas and four other tissues, we examine the evolution of endogenously transcribed cellulase genes and provide new insights into controversial issues regarding the nutritional biology of crayfishes. A cluster assembly approach yielded one of the highest quality transcriptome assemblies for a decapod crustacean to date. A total of 206,341,872 reads with an average read length of 80 bp were generated from sequencing the transcriptomes from the heart, kidney, hepatopancreas, nerve, and testis tissues. The assembled transcriptome contains a total of 44,525 transcripts. A total of 65 transcripts coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) were identified based on hidden Markov model (HMM), and a majority of them display high relative transcript abundance in the hepatopancreas tissue, supporting their role in nutrient digestion. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of proteins belonging to two main glycosyl hydrolase families (GH9 and GH5) suggest shared ancestry of C. quadricarinatus cellulases with other characterized crustacean cellulases. Our study significantly expands the number of known crustacean-derived CAZy-coding transcripts. More importantly, the surprising level of evolutionary diversification of these proteins in C. quadricarinatus suggests that these enzymes may have been of critical importance in the adaptation of freshwater crayfishes to new plant-based food sources as part of their successful invasion of freshwater systems from marine ancestors.
Article
Full-text available
The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is economically and ecologically important in western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal estuaries. In 2010 blue crabs in the northern Gulf of Mexico were exposed to crude oil and chemical dispersants from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. To characterize the blue crab transcriptome and identify genes that could be regulated in response to oil exposure we sequenced transcriptomes from hepatopancreas and gill tissues of juvenile blue crabs after exposing them to a water-accommodated fraction of surrogate Macondo crude oil in the laboratory and compared them to transcriptomes from an unexposed control group. Illumina sequencing provided 42.5 million paired-end sequencing reads for the control group and 44.9 million paired-end reads for the treatment group. From these, 73,473 transcripts and 52,663 genes were assembled. Comparison of control and treatment transcriptomes revealed about 100 genes from each tissue type that were differentially expressed. However, a much larger number of transcripts, approximately 2000 from each tissue type, were differentially expressed. Several examples of alternatively spliced transcripts were verified by qPCR, some of which showed significantly different expression patterns. The combined transcriptome from all tissues and individuals was annotated to assign putative gene products to both major gene ontology categories as well as specific roles in responses to cold and heat, metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, defence, hypoxia, osmoregulation and ecdysis. Among the annotations for upregulated and alternatively-spliced genes were candidates for the metabolism of oil-derived compounds. Previously, few genomic resources were available for blue crabs or related brachyuran crabs. The transcriptome sequences reported here represent a major new resource for research on the biology of blue crabs. These sequences can be used for studies of differential gene expression or as a source of genetic markers. Genes identified and annotated in this study include candidates for responses of the blue crab to xenobiotic compounds, which could serve as biomarkers for oil exposure. Changes in gene expression also suggest other physiological changes that may occur as the result of exposure to oil.
Article
Full-text available
The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea.
Article
Full-text available
Derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as nitro-PAHs are present in the environment and are known to be much more toxic than PAHs compounds. However, very few studies have analysed their effects on the aquatic environment and none have investigated the freshwater environment. In the present study, we determined whether 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), a model of nitro-PAHs, can induce DNA adducts in gills and digestive glands of the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Two concentrations of 1-NP (50 and 500 μM) were tested. In addition, in order to understand the metabolic pathways involved in 1-NP genotoxicity, mRNA expression of genes implicated in biotransformation mechanisms was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription–PCR. Results showed the presence of DNA adducts in both gills and digestive glands, with highest levels obtained after 5 days of exposure to 500 μM. Metallothionein mRNA levels were enhanced in digestive glands exposed to 50 μM. Surprisingly, at the higher concentration (500 μM), aryl hydrocarbon receptor and HSP70 genes were only up-regulated in digestive glands while PgP mRNA levels were increased in both tissues. Results suggested a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of 1-NP. Mussels seemed to be able to partially detoxify this compound, in view of the low amount of DNA adducts observed after 5 days exposure to 50 μM. For the first time, 1-NP biotransformation and detoxification systems have been characterised in D. polymorpha.
Article
Full-text available
Although many NGS read pre-processing tools already existed, we could not find any tool or combination of tools which met our requirements in terms of flexibility, correct handling of paired-end data, and high performance. We have developed Trimmomatic as a more flexible and efficient pre-processing tool, which could correctly handle paired-end data. The value of NGS read pre-processing is demonstrated for both reference-based and reference-free tasks. Trimmomatic is shown to produce output which is at least competitive with, and in many cases superior to, that produced by other tools, in all scenarios tested. Trimmomatic is licensed under GPL V3. It is cross-platform (Java 1.5+ required) and available from http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic CONTACT: usadel@bio1.rwth-aachen.de SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Manual and source code are available from http://www.usadellab.org/cms/index.php?page=trimmomatic.
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the impact of global warming on the food web of the North Atlantic will require difficult-to-obtain physiological data on a key copepod crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus. The de novo transcriptome presented here represents a new resource for acquiring such data. It was produced from multiplexed gene libraries using RNA collected from six developmental stages: embryo, early nauplius (NI-II), late nauplius (NV-VI), early copepodite (CI-II), late copepodite (CV) and adult (CVI) female. Over 400,000,000 paired-end reads (100 base-pairs long) were sequenced on an Illumina instrument, and assembled into 206,041 contigs using Trinity software. Coverage was estimated to be at least 65%. A reference transcriptome comprising 96,090 unique components ("comps") was annotated using Blast2GO. 40% of the comps had significant blast hits. 11% of the comps were successfully annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms. Expression of many comps was found to be near zero in one or more developmental stages suggesting that 35 to 48% of the transcriptome is "silent" at any given life stage. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways, critical for the C. finmarchicus life cycle, were identified and their expression pattern during development was examined. Relative expression of three transcripts suggests wax ester biosynthesis in late copepodites, but triacylglyceride biosynthesis in adult females. Two of these transcripts may be involved in the preparatory phase of diapause. A key environmental challenge for C. finmarchicus is the seasonal exposure to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense with high concentrations of saxitoxins, neurotoxins that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Multiple contigs encoding putative voltage-gated sodium channels were identified. They appeared to be the result of both alternate splicing and gene duplication. This is the first report of multiple NaV1 genes in a protostome. These data provide new insights into the transcriptome and physiology of this environmentally important zooplankter.
Article
Full-text available
Robust, large-scale sequence analysis is a major challenge in modern genomic science, where biologists are frequently trying to characterise many millions of sequences. Here we describe a new Java-based architecture for the widely-used protein function prediction software package InterProScan. Developments include improvements and additions to the outputs of the software and the complete re-implementation of the software framework, resulting in a flexible and stable system that is able to utilise both multiprocessor machines and/or conventional clusters to achieve scalable distributed data analysis. InterProScan is freely available for download from the EMBl-EBI FTP site and the (open) source code is hosted at Google Code. InterProScan is distributed via FTP at ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/unix/iprscan/5/ and the source code is available from http://code.google.com/p/interproscan/. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/support or interhelp@ebi.ac.uk.
Article
Full-text available
The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China, even in whole of Asia. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in sexual differentiation to maleness. This study is the first de novo M. nipponense transcriptome analysis using cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated from the androgenic gland. Illumina/Solexa was used for sequencing. The total volume of RNA sample was more than 5 ug. We generated 70,853,361 high quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads. A total of 78,408 isosequences were obtained by clustering and assembly of the clean reads, producing 57,619 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1244.19 bp. In total 70,702 isosequences were matched to the Nr database, additional analyses were performed by GO (33,203), KEGG (17,868), and COG analyses (13,817), identifying the potential genes and their functions. A total of 47 sex-determination related gene families were identified from the M. nipponense androgenic gland transcriptome based on the functional annotation of non-redundant transcripts and comparisons with the published literature. Furthermore, a total of 40 candidate novel genes were found, that may contribute to sex-determination based on their extremely high expression levels in the androgenic compared to other sex glands,. Further, 437 SSRs and 65,535 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset from which 14 EST-SSR markers have been isolated. Our study provides new sequence information for M. nipponense, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on decapods crustaceans. More importantly, this study dramatically improves understanding of sex-determination mechanisms, and advances sex-determination research in all crustacean species. The huge number of potential SSR and SNP markers isolated from the transcriptome may shed the lights on research in many fields, including the evolution and molecular ecology of Macrobrachium species.
Article
Full-text available
Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1) after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1) after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1) after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1) after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.
Article
Full-text available
The stock of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) continues to decline and has reached a new minimum in 2011. Poor health status of the spawners due to organic contaminants is one of the possible causes for this dramatic situation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants, which are rapidly metabolized in vertebrates. EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and GST (glutathione-S-transferase) are two enzymes involved in PAH detoxification in fish. In this study, PAH metabolites as well as EROD and GST activity in a large, comprising dataset of more than 260 migratory and pre-migratory eels from five large German river basin districts were used to describe PAH exposure and its metabolism as possible indicators for the habitat quality for eels. Eel from the river Elbe appear to be moderately contaminated with PAH. Highest mean values of PAH metabolites were analysed in fish from the river Rhine. However, the results suggest that contaminants such as PAH are metabolized in the fish and may have contributed to EROD activity in eels caught from the Elbe estuary to 600 km upstream. Since the eel's onset of cessation of feeding is closely linked to maturation and migration, we propose bile pigments as new indicators contributing to identify the proportion of migratory eel, which is crucial information for eel management plans. We showed that PAH metabolites normalized to bile pigments as well as EROD could be used to describe the habitat quality and might be suitable parameters in search for suitable stocking habitats.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the vastness of South Australia's coastline, approximately 95% of the state's population of 1.4 million is on the Adelaide metropolitan coast of Gulf St. Vincent. The concentration of human activity around this shallow, sheltered gulf ecosystem has led to conflict and competition over the use of marine and coastal resources. The gulf supports extensive areas of ecologically significant subtidal and tidal coastal wetlands, comprising seagrass meadows, mangroves and saltmarshes, with nine wetlands having recognized national importance. The wetlands support economic activities such as commercial and recreational fishing, tourism and aquaculture, and to a lesser extent, mineral and petroleum exploration and shipping. These environments and activities are threatened by the effects of land-based urbanization, coastal development, stormwater runoff effluent and industrial discharges, and the resultant decline in water quality and food-chain contamination. Marine activities can also have adverse effects (i.e., dredging, sea-dumping, overfishing, fishing methods, oil spills, antifoulants, ballast water introductions), including the developing aquaculture industry. The continued loss and degradation of marine and coastal wetlands in the gulf is exacerbated by inadequate protection measures, lack of integrated management structures and policies, and conflict between competing user groups. Strong policies and integrated decision making based on sound information is required for the equitable and sustainable use of these wetlands. Gulf-level management of multiple-uses would limit the cumulative impacts of human use and coastal development. There is a particular need to protect areas with high conservation value and for future research and marine conservation to focus on the coastal nearshore ecosystem. High priorities are coastal and biodiversity inventories, understanding of ecological processes, linkages between coastal and offshore habitats, and coastal spatial mapping and information systems.
Article
Full-text available
De novo assembly of RNA-seq data enables researchers to study transcriptomes without the need for a genome sequence; this approach can be usefully applied, for instance, in research on 'non-model organisms' of ecological and evolutionary importance, cancer samples or the microbiome. In this protocol we describe the use of the Trinity platform for de novo transcriptome assembly from RNA-seq data in non-model organisms. We also present Trinity-supported companion utilities for downstream applications, including RSEM for transcript abundance estimation, R/Bioconductor packages for identifying differentially expressed transcripts across samples and approaches to identify protein-coding genes. In the procedure, we provide a workflow for genome-independent transcriptome analysis leveraging the Trinity platform. The software, documentation and demonstrations are freely available from http://trinityrnaseq.sourceforge.net. The run time of this protocol is highly dependent on the size and complexity of data to be analyzed. The example data set analyzed in the procedure detailed herein can be processed in less than 5 h.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Traditionally, genomic or transcriptomic data have been restricted to a few model or emerging model organisms, and to a handful of species of medical and/or environmental importance. Next-generation sequencing techniques have the capability of yielding massive amounts of gene sequence data for virtually any species at a modest cost. Here we provide a comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomic data for ten non-model species of previously understudied animal taxa. Results cDNA libraries of ten species belonging to five animal phyla (2 Annelida [including Sipuncula], 2 Arthropoda, 2 Mollusca, 2 Nemertea, and 2 Porifera) were sequenced in different batches with an Illumina Genome Analyzer II (read length 100 or 150 bp), rendering between ca. 25 and 52 million reads per species. Read thinning, trimming, and de novo assembly were performed under different parameters to optimize output. Between 67,423 and 207,559 contigs were obtained across the ten species, post-optimization. Of those, 9,069 to 25,681 contigs retrieved blast hits against the NCBI non-redundant database, and approximately 50% of these were assigned with Gene Ontology terms, covering all major categories, and with similar percentages in all species. Local blasts against our datasets, using selected genes from major signaling pathways and housekeeping genes, revealed high efficiency in gene recovery compared to available genomes of closely related species. Intriguingly, our transcriptomic datasets detected multiple paralogues in all phyla and in nearly all gene pathways, including housekeeping genes that are traditionally used in phylogenetic applications for their purported single-copy nature. Conclusions We generated the first study of comparative transcriptomics across multiple animal phyla (comparing two species per phylum in most cases), established the first Illumina-based transcriptomic datasets for sponge, nemertean, and sipunculan species, and generated a tractable catalogue of annotated genes (or gene fragments) and protein families for ten newly sequenced non-model organisms, some of commercial importance (i.e., Octopus vulgaris). These comprehensive sets of genes can be readily used for phylogenetic analysis, gene expression profiling, developmental analysis, and can also be a powerful resource for gene discovery. The characterization of the transcriptomes of such a diverse array of animal species permitted the comparison of sequencing depth, functional annotation, and efficiency of genomic sampling using the same pipelines, which proved to be similar for all considered species. In addition, the datasets revealed their potential as a resource for paralogue detection, a recurrent concern in various aspects of biological inquiry, including phylogenetics, molecular evolution, development, and cellular biochemistry.
Article
Full-text available
Summary: CD-HIT is a widely used program for clustering biological sequences to reduce sequence redundancy and improve the performance of other sequence analyses. In response to the rapid increase in the amount of sequencing data produced by the next-generation sequencing technologies, we have developed a new CD-HIT program accelerated with a novel parallelization strategy and some other techniques to allow efficient clustering of such datasets. Our tests demonstrated very good speedup derived from the parallelization for up to ∼24 cores and a quasi-linear speedup for up to ∼8 cores. The enhanced CD-HIT is capable of handling very large datasets in much shorter time than previous versions.Availability: http://cd-hit.org.Contact: liwz@sdsc.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Article
Biomarkers are frequently used to determine the exposure of fish to petroleum hydrocarbons following an oil spill. These biomarkers must be chosen carefully if they are to be used to determine sublethal toxic impacts as well as oil exposure. Many commonly used biomarkers relate to the metabolism of high molecular weight, typically pyrogenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are not abundant in unweathered crude oil. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of different biomarkers, including histological examination and transcriptomic profiling, in showing exposure to oil and the potential for sublethal toxic impacts. To achieve these goals, subadults/adults of the spotted dragonet (Repomucenus calcaratus) were exposed to a representative light, unweathered Australian oil for 96 h, so that the physiological changes that occur with exposure could be documented. Fish were then transferred to clean sediment for 90 h to quantify recovery. Biomarker changes, including PAH metabolites, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and histopathology, are presented in this work. In addition, a de novo transcriptome for the spotted dragonet was assembled, and differential transcript abundance was determined for the gill and liver of petroleum-exposed fish relative to a control. Increased levels of some biliary phenanthrene metabolites were seen throughout the exposure period. EROD levels showed modest, but not significant, increases. Transcriptomic differences were noted in the abundances of transcripts with a role in inflammation, primary metabolism and cardiac function. The patterns of transcript abundance in the gill and the liver changed in a manner that reflected exposure and recovery. The histology showed elevated prevalence of lesions, most notably vacuolization in liver and heart tissue, multi-organ necrosis, and lamellar epithelial lifting and telangiectasia in the gill. These findings suggest that short-term exposures to low molecular weight PAHs could elicit changes in the health of fish that are well predicted by the transcriptome. Furthermore, when light oil is released into the environment, exposure and subsequent risk would be better estimated using phenanthrene metabolite levels rather than EROD. This study also adds to the weight of evidence that exposure to low molecular weight PAHs may cause cardiac problems in fish. Further study is needed to determine the impact of these changes on reproductive capacity, long-term survival, and other population specific parameters.
Article
The calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa is a reference species in standardized ecotoxicology bioassay. Despite this interest, there is a lack of knowledge on molecular responses of A. tonsa to contaminants. We generated a de novo assembled transcriptome of A. tonsa exposed 4 days to 8.5 and 17 mg/L nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), which have been shown to reduce egg hatching success and larval survival but had no effects on the adults. Aims of our study were to 1) improve the knowledge on the molecular responses of A. tonsa copepod and 2) increase the genomic resources of this copepod for further identification of potential biomarkers of NP exposure. The de novo assembled transcriptome of A. tonsa consisted of 53,619 unigenes, which were further annotated to nr, GO, KOG and KEGG databases. In particular, most unigenes were assigned to Metabolic and Cellular processes (34-45%) GO terms, and to Human disease (28%) and Organismal systems (23%) KEGG categories. Comparison among treatments showed that 373 unigenes were differentially expressed in A. tonsa exposed to NiNPs at 8.5 and 17 mg/L, with respect to control. Most of these genes were downregulated and took part in ribosome biogenesis, translation and protein turnover, thus suggesting that NiNPs could affect the copepod ribosome synthesis machinery and functioning. Overall, our study highlights the potential of toxicogenomic approach in gaining more mechanistic and functional information about the mode of action of emerging compounds on marine organisms, for biomarker discovering in crustaceans.
Article
The study was to find out the effect of cadmium and mercury on levels of hemolymph glucose, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and hepatopancreas glycogen in the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus. The experiments were performed in both intact and eyestalk ablated crabs. Quantification of CHH was done by the indirect ELISA with the aid of primary anti-Carcinus maenas-CHH antibody. Higher glucose concentration was observed on exposure to 8×10–6 of cadmium ((825.6±5.42) μg/mL) and 6×10–6 of mercury ((90.5±6.25) μg/mL) after 48 h and 24 h respectively. Higher level of hemolymph glucose was observed in eyestalk intact crabs on exposure to cadmium and mercury than eyestalk ablated crabs. Decrease in the levels of CHH was observed in both eyestalk intact and ablated crabs on heavy metal exposure. Decline of the hepatopancreas glycogen level was also witnessed with the exposure to heavy metal, which validated its utilization in the production of glucose. Thus this study brings to light, the variations in hemolymph glucose, CHH and hepatopancreas glycogen on heavy metal stress. These carbohydrate metabolites can be used as biomarkers in assessing heavy metal contamination in water bodies.
Article
Alvinocaris longirostris Kikuchi and Ohta, 1995 is one of the few species co-distributed in deep-sea hydrothermal vent and cold seep environments. We performed the transcriptome analysis for A. longirostris and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples from the Iheya North hydrothermal vent (HV) and a methane seep in the South China Sea (MS). From the 57,801 annotated unigenes, multi-copies of enzyme family members for eliminating toxic xenobiotics were isolated and seven putatively duplicated gene clusters of cytochrome P450s were discovered, which may contribute to adaptation to the harsh conditions. Eight single amino acid substitutions of a Rhodopsin gene with low expression in two deep-sea alvinocaridid species were positively selected when compared with shallow water shrimps, which may be the result of adaptation to the dim-light environment in deep sea. 408 DEGs were identified with 53 and 355 up-regulated in HV and MS, respectively. Various genes associated with sulfur metabolism, detoxification and mitochondria were included, revealing different mechanisms of adaptation to the two types of extreme environments. All results are expected to serve as important basis for the further study.
Article
Palaemonetes argentinus, an abundant freshwater prawn species in the northern and central region of Argentina, has been used as a bioindicator of environmental pollutants as it displays a very high sensitivity to pollutants exposure. Despite their extraordinary ecological relevance, a lack of genomic information has hindered a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in detoxification processes of this species. Thus, transcriptomic profiling studies represent a promising approach to overcome the limitations imposed by the lack of extensive genomic resources for P. argentinus, and may improve the understanding of its physiological and molecular response triggered by pollutants. This work represents the first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of the non-model species P. argentinus to generate functional genomic annotations and provides valuable resources for future genetic studies. Trinity de novo assembly consisted of 24,738 transcripts with high representation of detoxification (phase I and II), anti-oxidation, osmoregulation pathways and DNA replication and bioenergetics. This crustacean transcriptome provides valuable molecular information about detoxification and biochemical processes that could be applied as biomarkers in further ecotoxicology studies.
Article
The green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, is considered to be an ideal indicator for marine environmental pollution. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which is a typical persistent organic pollutant, is extensively distributed in marine environments. However, little is known about the toxic effects of DDT on the embryo of marine animals, especially in marine bivalves. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we studied P. viridis embryo after DDT stress at the transcriptome level. A total of 99,202 unigenes were obtained based on the 2,383bp of unigene N50. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) participated in the various molecular pathways of biological effects, including oxidative stress, detoxification, innate immunity and neurobehavioral disease. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the mRNA expression of several genes identified by differential gene expression (DGE) analysis. The results indicated that DDT induced dose-dependent manner in the embryo of P. viridis,and most genes involved in oxidative stress and detoxification were up-regulated by DDT exposure, but immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis were up-regulated. Gene expression changes in embryo from P. viridis provide a preliminary basis to better understand the molecular toxic response mechanisms of embryo to DDT.
Article
Mercury (Hg) pollution is a ubiquitous and serious concern in marine environments, but the response mechanisms of marine animals to Hg pollution (i.e., toxicity/tolerance) are poorly understood. To compare the global responses of two marine copepods (Tigriopus japonicus and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei), we analyzed whole transcriptomes using RNA-seq technology in response to Hg treatment (a nominal 10 μg/L HgCl2 in seawater) for 5 h. Hg was strikingly accumulated in both copepods under treatment. The Hg concentration in P. annandalei was higher under metal exposure by approximately 1.4-fold compared with treated T. japonicus. Among transcriptomic data, 101 genes in T. japonicus and 18 genes in P. annandalei were differentially regulated in response to Hg exposure. The up-regulated genes in T. japonicus were concerned with stress, growth, and development, while the down-regulated ones were mainly related to immune response. In P. annandalei, most of the differentially expressed genes were up-regulated, and all were involved in stress response. Our work indicated that Hg exhibits endocrine-disrupting potential at the transcriptomic level in marine copepods. Overall, our study demonstrates the species-specific molecular responses of these two copepods to Hg pollution.
Article
The impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil on morphology and function during embryonic development have been documented for a number of fish species, including the economically and ecologically important pelagic species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). However, further investigations on molecular events and pathways responsible for developmental toxicity have been largely restricted due to the limited molecular data available for this species. We sought to establish the de novo transcriptomic database from the embryos and larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) of two DWH oil types (weathered and source oil), in an effort to advance our understanding of the molecular aspects involved during specific toxicity responses. By high throughput sequencing (HTS), we obtained the first de novo transcriptome of mahi-mahi, with 60,842 assembled transcripts and 30,518 BLAST hits. Among them, 2,345 genes were significantly regulated in 96hpf larvae after exposure to weathered oil. With comparative analysis to a reference-transcriptome-guided approach on gene ontology and tox-pathways, we confirmed the novel approach effective for exploring tox-pathways in non-model species, and also identified a list of co-expressed genes as potential biomarkers which will provide information for the construction of an Adverse Outcome Pathway which could be useful in Ecological Risk Assessments.
Article
Most catchments discharging into the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon have elevated loads of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides, including photosystem II inhibiting herbicides, associated with upstream agricultural land use. To investigate potential impacts of declining water quality on fish physiology, RNASeq was used to characterize and compare the hepatic transcriptomes of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) captured from two of these tropical river catchments in Queensland, Australia. The Daintree and Tully Rivers differ in upstream land uses, and sediment, nutrient and pesticide loads, with the area of agricultural land use and contaminant loads being lower in the Daintree. In fish collected from the Tully River, transcripts involved in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and citrate cycling were also more abundant, suggesting elevated circulating cortisol concentrations, whereas transcripts involved in immune responses were less abundant. Fish from the Tully also had an increased abundance of transcripts associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Previous laboratory-based studies observed similar patterns in fish and amphibians exposed to the agricultural herbicide atrazine. If these transcriptomic patterns are manifested at the whole organism level, the differences in water quality between the two rivers may alter fish growth and fitness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
It has recently become clear that a specialized group of proteins termed molecular chaperones has evolved to assist protein assembly in the cell, a process that was originally considered a spontaneous event. Molecular chaperones function by preventing the formation of biologically inactive structures by binding non-covalently to exposed protein surfaces that have the tendency to interact incorrectly with other components in the cell. Molecular chaperones are required for a number of fundamental processes such as protein synthesis, protein translocation, DNA replication and recovery from stresses like heat. Their existence has implications for biotechnology.
Article
Genomics has revolutionised biological research, but quality assessment of the resulting assembled sequences is complicated and remains mostly limited to technical measures like N50. We propose a measure for quantitative assessment of genome assembly and annotation completeness based on evolutionarily informed expectations of gene content. We implemented the assessment procedure in open-source software, with sets of Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs, named BUSCO. Software implemented in Python and datasets available for download from http://busco.ezlab.org. Evgeny.Zdobnov@unige.ch. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Article
The alignment of sequencing reads against a protein reference database is a major computational bottleneck in metagenomics and data-intensive evolutionary projects. Although recent tools offer improved performance over the gold standard BLASTX, they exhibit only a modest speedup or low sensitivity. We introduce DIAMOND, an open-source algorithm based on double indexing that is 20,000 times faster than BLASTX on short reads and has a similar degree of sensitivity. © 2014 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Article
Sampling on a single night or day within a month is common in studies of reproduction and abundance of aquatic invertebrates, but patterns from month-to-month may be confounded by variability at smaller time-scales. We used hierarchical sampling in two estuaries to test the hypothesis that temporal variability in reproductive condition, relative abundance and size-structures of populations of Metapenaeus bennettae Racek and Dall, 1965 would be greater at the larger scales of months and seasons than at smaller scales of weeks and nights. In both estuaries, variation in the proportion of mature/ripe females and mean abundance of M. bennettae was often largest at the temporal scales of nights and weeks, but variation in the size-frequency distributions was generally greater at the scale of months and seasons. Our results demonstrate that future studies on any species with the potential for high temporal variability in reproduction and population structure, like penaeids, should incorporate or examine the need for small-scale temporal sampling.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3 μg/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring.
Article
The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10-6). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods.
Since the last review of this topic, further insight has been gained into the presence and functions of cytochrome P450 proteins in the hepatopancreas and other organs of aquatic crustacean species, although progress has been slow relative to the advances in other species. Recent studies with several lobster, shrimp, crab and crayfish species suggest that cytochromes P450 in the 2 and 3 families are the most abundant forms in hepatopancreas microsomes. Substrates normally metabolized by CYP2 and CYP3 family members are monooxygenated more rapidly by crustacea than substrates normally metabolized by CYP1 family enzymes, e.g. erythromycin, testosterone and aminopyrine are much more rapidly monooxygenated than ethoxyresorufin. Some progress has been made in cloning and sequencing crustacean P450 forms. CYP2L1 and CYP2L2 cDNA sequences have been cloned from spiny lobster hepatopancreas libraries, and there was evidence for at least two more cytochromes P450 in spiny lobster hepatopancreas. An area of continued interest, but of no consensus or general findings, relates to the presence and inducibility of CYP1 family members in crustacea. Some studies indicate weak induction of total cytochrome P450 and increased turnover of substrates normally associated with CYP1, while others show no effect of the classic inducers that act at the Ah receptor in vertebrates. A few studies of the roles of cytochromes P450 in the biosynthesis and degradation of steroids, including ecdysteroids, have been published. Further studies are needed to understand the regulation and normal function of the crustacean cytochromes P450.
Article
Metal concentrations of the inshore greentail prawn, Metapenaeus bennettae, and surface sediments from locations within Sydney estuary and Port Hacking (Australia) were assessed for bioaccumulation and contamination. The current study aimed to assess metal concentrations in prawn tissue (tail muscle, exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and gills), relate whole body prawn tissue metal concentrations to sediment metal concentrations and animal size, as well as assess prawn consumption as a risk to human health. Metal concentrations were highest in sediment and prawns from contaminated locations (Iron Cove, Hen and Chicken Bay and Lane Cove) in Sydney estuary compared with the reference estuary (Port Hacking). Concentrations in sediments varied considerably between sites and between metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and although concentrations exceeded Interim Sediment Quality Guideline-Low values, metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were below Australian National Health and Medical Research Council human consumption guidelines in prawn tail muscle tissue. Metal concentrations in prawn tail muscle tissue were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) amongst locations for Pb, Zn and Cd, and metal concentrations were generally highest in gills tissue, followed by the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton and tail muscle. The exoskeleton contained the highest Sr concentration; the hepatopancreas contained the highest As, Cu and Mo concentrations; and the gills contained the highest Al, Cr, Fe and Pb concentrations. Concentrations of Pb, As and Sr were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between size groups amongst locations.
Article
The membrane associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) superfamily includes structurally related membrane proteins with diverse functions of widespread origin. A total of 136 proteins belonging to the MAPEG superfamily were found in database and genome screenings. The members were found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but not in any archaeal organism. Multiple sequence alignments and calculations of evolutionary trees revealed a clear subdivision of the eukaryotic MAPEG members, corresponding to the six families of microsomal glutathione transferases (MGST) 1, 2 and 3, leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and prostaglandin E synthase. Prokaryotes contain at least two distinct potential ancestral subfamilies, of which one is unique, whereas the other most closely resembles enzymes that belong to the MGST2/FLAP/LTC4 synthase families. The insect members are most similar to MGST1/prostaglandin E synthase. With the new data available, we observe that fish enzymes are present in all six families, showing an early origin for MAPEG family differentiation. Thus, the evolutionary origins and relationships of the MAPEG superfamily can be defined, including distinct sequence patterns characteristic for each of the subfamilies. We have further investigated and functionally characterized representative gene products from Escherichia coli, Synechocystis sp., Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster, and the fish liver enzyme, purified from pike (Esox lucius). Protein overexpression and enzyme activity analysis demonstrated that all proteins catalyzed the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione. The E. coli protein displayed glutathione transferase activity of 0.11 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1) in the membrane fraction from bacteria overexpressing the protein. Partial purification of the Synechocystis sp. protein yielded an enzyme of the expected molecular mass and an N-terminal amino acid sequence that was at least 50% pure, with a specific activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene of 11 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). Yeast microsomes expressing the Arabidopsis enzyme showed an activity of 0.02 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1), whereas the Drosophila enzyme expressed in E. coli was highly active at 3.6 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). The purified pike enzyme is the most active MGST described so far with a specific activity of 285 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1). Drosophila and pike enzymes also displayed glutathione peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide (0.4 and 2.2 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1), respectively). Glutathione transferase activity can thus be regarded as a common denominator for a majority of MAPEG members throughout the kingdoms of life whereas glutathione peroxidase activity occurs in representatives from the MGST1, 2 and 3 and PGES subfamilies.
Article
Various methods for the quantification of stress in crustaceans have been developed in our laboratory. An ELISA was developed for the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the lobster, Homarus americanus. It is sensitive to as little as 0.2 fmol of peptide. Increases in hemolymph CHH were observed following emersion. Significant levels of hemolymph CHH were also measured in lobsters that had been eyestalk-ablated. It was observed that these animals continued to produce CHH, even though the heretofore only known source of CHH had been removed. Portions of the central nervous system, from both intact and eyestalk-ablated lobsters were observed to contain significant amounts of CHH. A cDNA library was constructed from eyestalk neural tissue of H. americanus. With the use of PCR, a 171 bp probe was isolated and purified. This probe was labeled and used to examine levels of CHH expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and in eyestalk neural tissue at different periods of the lobster molt cycle. CHH mRNA is present throughout the CNS. In the eyestalk, it is undetectable in postmolt, low in intermolt, and high in premolt. Stress proteins, also known as heat shock proteins (HSPs), are a highly conserved class of proteins which show elevated transcription during periods of stress in organisms as phylogenetically divergent as bacteria and humans. Using RT-PCR, we have partially cloned the lobster HSP90 gene. A 380 bp probe was ³²P-labeled and hybridized with northern blots of midgut gland total RNA from heat-shocked lobsters. A 2 hr acute heat shock from 15%C (ambient water temperature) to 28%C resulted in a 6.0-fold induction of HSP90 after 6 hr of recovery at 15%C. A northern analysis of RNA isolated from the midgut glands of lobsters injected with 10 μg of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone displayed a 2.1-fold induction of HSP90 RNA 48 hr postinjection.
Article
Seasonal changes in population structure, standing stock levels and production of Caridina nilotica were studied at three sites in the littoral margins of subtropical Lake Sibaya between January 1975 and March 1976. Average population density at these sites declined from a maximum of c. 1400 to a minimum of c. 350 individuals per m2 (3.4–0.4 g m−2 dry wt) during the study, possibly as a result of emigration into peripheral vegetation inundated by rising lake levels.Shrimps bred perennially and, although egg stocks and instantaneous birth rates (b) were highest during summer, no corresponding increases in populaton density were observed, suggesting that the seasonally higher birth rates were offset by higher mortality rates. Population size structure and size-specific sex ratios did not change seasonally to any marked extent. Relative abundance declined with size and females grew larger than males. Clutch size increased linearly as a function of female carapace length.Estimates of overall mean annual somatic production (g m−2 year−1 dry wt) for the three sites between January 1975 and January 1976 ranged between c. 132 (egg-ratio method), 37.5 (summation of growth increments) and 24 (Hynes-Hamilton method) at an annual mean standing stock level of 2.7 g m−2 dry wt (calorific value, 20.34 kJ g−1 dry wt). Production at sites 1, 2 and 3 decreased in line with declining annual mean standing stocks (5.32, 3.67 and 0.23 g m−2, respectively). The growth increment method gave an overall mean annual P/B value of 13.9. Egg production amounted to a further 5.6, 3.6 and 0.1 g m−2 year−1 dry wt (calorific value, 28.01 kJ g−1) at sites 1, 2 and 3, or 2.7 g m−2 year−1 on average.
Article
A method is presented for developing water quality criteria (WQC) for type I narcotic chemicals in general and PAHs in particular. The criteria can be applied to any individual or mixture of narcotic chemicals using only the chemical's octanol-water partition coefficient KOW. It is derived from a database of LC50s comprising 156 chemicals and 33 species, including fish, amphibians, arthropods, mollusks, polychaetes, coelenterates, and protozoans. A target lipid model is proposed that accounts for variations in toxicity due to differing species sensitivities and chemical differences. The model is based on the idea that a target lipid is the site of action in the organism. Further, it is assumed that target lipid has the same lipid-octanol linear free energy relationship for all species. This implies that the slope of the log(LC50)–log(KOW) relationship is the same for all species. However, individual species may have varying target lipid body burdens that cause toxicity. The target lipid LC50 body burdens derived from concentration data in the water only are compared to measured total lipid LC50 body burdens for five species. They are essentially equal, indicating that the target lipid concentration is equal to the total extracted lipid concentration. The precise relationship between partitioning in target lipid and octanol is established. The species-specific body burdens are used to determine the WQC final acute value, i.e., the 95-percentile level of protection. An acute-to-chronic ratio is used to compute the body burden corresponding to the WQC final chronic value, which is the procedure used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. The criteria are expressed either as dissolved concentrations in the water column or as tissue concentrations.
Article
Physiological studies were made on the crabs Ucides cordatus (L.) and Callinectes danae sampled from populations living in “polluted” mangroves on the southeast littoral of Brazil. Analysis of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Fe of sediments and crab tissues showed interspecific differences in tissue concentrations, and significantly higher levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn in “polluted” populations compared to “unpolluted” crabs living in uncontaminated mangrove in the same geographical area. Individuals of both species from the polluted site showed significantly greater capacities for regulating blood osmotic concentrations at low salinity (9‰). However, U. cordatus showed a reduced hypo-regulatory ability in 34‰S. Differences in ionoregulation were also seen. “Polluted”C. danae showed significantly higher Na/ K-ATPase levels in posterior gills compared to “unpolluted” crabs. Oxygen consumption rates (M˙ O2) were elevated in U. cordatus, but depressed in C. danae from the “polluted” population. Individuals of both species from this site showed significantly lower O:N ratios, mainly because of an increased net efflux of ammonia. Adenylate energy charge (AEC) values of muscle and hepatopancreas in “unpolluted” and “polluted” populations of both species were not significantly different. These physiological differences are discussed in relation to the known acute physiological and metabolic effects of heavy metals in crustaceans, and interpretated in the light of possible adaptive changes following long-term exposure to contamination.