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Nickel – A Trace Element Hardly Considered

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Abstract— In this paper, occurrence, environmental mobilities and ecological cycling of nickel up to daily intake and allergic reactions of humans is discussed, mainly based on data of the author and others, which are often hidden in multi-element tables, and not available via keywords. Whereas, apart from some hotspots of geology, nickel occurrence in Central Europe is moderate, sources of pollution are mainly smelters and oil production. Oil combustion is likely a main source of nickel pollution in street dust, and after oil spills. Remediation and phytomining may be possible by use of special accumulator plants. Fertilizers do not increase nickel levels in soils. In green plants, nickel levels are much higher than in animal tissues and products of animal origin, and in fungi they are highly variable. From this, vegans have 4-5 times the daily intake compared with mixed diet feeders, which already touches the range of allergic reactions of sensitive persons. Essentiality and toxic effects are also discussed. Keywords— Nickel – environmental occurrence, feeds, food, daily intake, metabolism, toxicity, allergy.
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International journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science(IJHAF) Vol-3, Issue-2, Mar-Apr, 2019
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.3.2.6 ISSN: 2456-8635
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Nickel A Trace Element Hardly Considered
Manfred Sager
PhD,. MSc, Bioforschung Austria, Esslinger Hauptstrasse 134, A-1220 Wien
Abstract In this paper, occurrence, environmental
mobilities and ecological cycling of nickel up to daily
intake and allergic reactions of humans is discussed,
mainly based on data of the author and others, which are
often hidden in multi-element tables, and not available
via keywords. Whereas, apart from some hotspots of
geology, nickel occurrence in Central Europe is
moderate, sources of pollution are mainly smelters and
oil production. Oil combustion is likely a main source of
nickel pollution in street dust, and after oil spills.
Remediation and phytomining may be possible by use of
special accumulator plants. Fertilizers do not increase
nickel levels in soils. In green plants, nickel levels are
much higher than in animal tissues and products of
animal origin, and in fungi they are highly variable.
From this, vegans have 4-5 times the daily intake
compared with mixed diet feeders, which already touches
the range of allergic reactions of sensitive persons.
Essentiality and toxic effects are also discussed.
Keywords Nickel environmental occurrence, feeds,
food, daily intake, metabolism, toxicity, allergy.
PREFACE
A comprehensive review issued by EFSA in 2015
(CASALEGNO ET AL., 2015) concerning nickel in food,
feeds and potable water, as well as oral toxicity and
dermatitis has urged me to compile values of my own
multi-element screenings, within the context of other
authors. Because the EFSA-authors have just looked for
nickel among the keywords, they missed a lot of data
issued in multi-element databases, like mine. Frequently,
data of my own department have not been entered into the
internal database, because they were not requested for,
but measured within the frame of multi-element
screening. Among items of human nutrition, only those
matrices have been outlined, if sufficient numbers of
samples resp. representative sampling has been assured.
Compilation of local data from the East of Austria makes
sense, because concentration levels might be different to
other regions due to climatic conditions, different soils
and environmental effects, as well as different varieties
grown. Thus in Germany, nickel levels in wheat and rye
decline from south to north (BRÜGGEMANN 1999).
Steel abrasion and corrosion of steel during
milling, cutting, and sieving can substantially increase
nickel levels in green plant samples (SAGER,
MITTENDORFER 1997), which necessitates critical views
upon the sample preparation method used, in particular in
case of papers issued some decades earlier. Increasing
awareness of blanks together with improvements in
sensivities and specifities of determination methods have
hopefully increased the reliabity of data given.
GEOLOGY
Mean crust values for nickel given in various
sources may vary, but 80 mg.kg-1 seems to be the most
plausible (WEDEPOHL 1995).
During the cooling process of the magma, nickel is
removed from the silicate melt at an rather early stage by
crystallisation of olivines, pyroxenes, and amphiboles.
The ion radius of Ni2+ ranges between Mg2+ and Fe3+.
Therefore, some more nickel has been found in basic
rocks, clays and flysch (Bodiš and Rapant 1999). In
presence of sulfur, Ni is fixed together with Fe in
pyrrhotite and pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8]. Other ore veins
contain enrichments of chromium-nickel-cobalt, or NiAs.
Sediments sampled in creeks and rivers of Slovakia <
0,125 mm contained a median of 23 mg.kg-1 (25%
percentile = 16 / 75% percentile = 31 / 99% percentile =
88 mg.kg-1) (BODIŠ, RAPANT 1999). In Austria, very local
higher geological abundancies have been found around
Rechnitz in serpentinites, as well as near Preg-Kraubath,
Trieben and Heiligenblut (PIRKL ET AL., 2015).
Nickel-containing sulfides and silicates are prone
to rapid weathering, and the released nickel gets sorbed
preferably at Fe-Mn-oxide surfaces, in particular in
tropical laterites (BODIŠ, RAPANT 1999; PIRKL ET AL,
2015).
COAL AND OIL
In coals, nickel has not been enriched with respect
to its abundance in rocks and soils. Brown coals used in
Austrian power plants (sampled 1985/86) contained
nickel at a median concentration of 29 mg.kg-1 (range 2,1
121), and hard coals 15 mg.kg-1 (range 6,3 46). This
matches the range found in Chinese coals (9,3 18,6
mg.kg-1) or US-coals (1,1 19 mg.kg-1) (SAGER 1999).
After combustion in Austrian caloric power plants, slags
contained 24-398 mg.kg-1, and fly-ashes 22-153 mg.kg-1.
Similar Ni-levels for fly-ash from coal combustion have
been reported from Brazil (range 115230 mg.kg-1)
(BELLAGAMBA ET AL., 1993). After combustion, nickel
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has an affinity towards hematite/magnetite, but not
towards CaO/CaSO4-partikels and soot, in particular after
combustion of finely ground coal with oxygen at 1400°C
(CLARKE 1993).
Mineral constituents can be removed from crude
coal by dissolution in oil and subsequent pressure
filtration at 45°C (ZIEGLER 2012).
In oil, in particular vanadium, but also nickel, have
got enriched, they are therefore regarded as markers from
oil combustion. Medium and heavy crude oils as well as
high boiling fractions contain high amounts of sulfur and
metals, like 10160 mg.kg-1 Ni, bound to porphyrines.
The proportion V/Ni ranges from 10 to 100 and can be
used to classify oils and rocks of origin with respect to the
period of origin and redox conditions met there, as well as
the lithological facies. In oil from Venezuela, crude oils
were assigned to 5 groups, and in in each of them, a good
correlation between vanadium and nickel could be
established (LOPÉZ SALVADOR, MONACO 2017).
In oil, Ni and V are bound to 3 different high
molecular fractions. Thermal treatment during oil
distillation results in the aggregation of high-molecular-
weight fractions and thus to enrichment in the residue
(DESPREZ ET AL., 2014). During raffination, they remain
largely in the residue (asphalt), which contains an average
of 336 mg.kg-1 (range 250500mg.kg-1) Ni and >2000
mg.kg-1 /(range 5005000 mg.kg-1) V. Therefore, asphalt
is a main source of Ni in street dust (see chapter
„atmosphere and dust“).
De-sulfurization of oil by reaction with H2 under
pressure and release of the resulting H2S in general also
removes Na, V and Ni from the oil-made products
(ZIEGLER 2012).
In oil-contaminated soils, high degradation rates of
nickel- and vanadiumporphyrines could be established at
weak acid pH by combined actions of Bacillus
megaterium-Enterobacter cloacae as well as Aspergillus
unguis- Penicillium griseofulvum (CORDERO ET AL.,
2015). After the explosion of the oil-drilling platform
deepwater horizon, at April 20th, 2010 in the Gulf of
Mexico, 779 million litres of crude oil dissipated within
87 days, which contaminated an area of 75000 km².
Whereas the hydrocarbons could be degraded or burnt,
the metals dissolved in the crude oil remained on site (V,
Ni, Cr), or formed fine dust particles in the course of
carburation, which led to enrichment and
biomagnification in whales (see chapter about food of
animal origin)(WISE ET AL., 2014).
SOILS AND FERTILIZERS
In soils derived from clay rocks, higher nickel
levels can be expected, whereas soils derived from
carbonaceous rocks usually contain nickel at lower levels.
Aqua regia may not release total nickel in all cases, in
particular at hotspots. Thus, median nickel for arable
topsoils in France has been determined as 21,0 mg.kg-1 in
total (4363 samples), and as 19,1 mg.kg-1 (5184 samples)
in aqua regia (BAIZE ET AL. 2007). In the UK, a median of
total Ni was found at 15,8 mg.kg-1 in arable soils and at
22,0 mg.kg-1 in urban soils. Nickel was slightly higher in
Northern Ireland than in England and Wales, some
hotspots of geological origin occurred in Scotland (ROSS
ET AL. 2007). In Taiwan, however, soils of the Central
mountain range contained just 13,2 ± 1,5 mg.kg-1 (KUO ET
AL., 2009), possible due to subtropical climate and high
precipitation rates, and generally high vertical mobility of
nickel in soils (SAGER 2001). In Austria, local
enrichments have been found in sedimentites from
cretaceous, and above serpentinites (DANNEBERG 1999).
The Austrian soil inventory done by aqua regia soil
digests found a median abundance of 34 mg.kg -1 for
nickel in arable soils (range of medians of various soil
types 25-45 mg.kg-1) (DANNEBERG 1999). Soils sampled
in Vienna city also contained just 30,3 ± 6,3 mg.kg-1
(PLAHL ET AL., 2002).
In Hokkaido (Japan) native green plants contain
20-100 mg.kg-1 Ni in dry mass due to high nickel and low
calcium levels met in local soils, which have been
developed upon ultramafic rocks, which is more than Cu,
and in some cases also more than Zn and Mn. The hyper
accumulator Thlaspi japonicum reached top levels of Ni
>0,1%, higher than Fe, but without showing toxicity
symptoms (HORIE ET AL., 2000).
On behalf of the Council Directive 1999/31/EC on
the landfill of waste, and §8 of the
Bundesbodenschutzgesetz 1999 (Federal Soil Protection
Act), the German government has set thresholds for
nickel of 70 mg.kg-1 for childrens´playgrounds, 140
mg.kg-1 for habitational areas, 350 mg.kg-1 for sport-and
leisure areas, and 900 mg.kg-1 for industrial areas, each
determined for dry soil sieved < 2mm digested by aqua
regia. In Austria, each province has issued a soil
protection act of its own.
In mine tailings, organic carbon, nutrients or soil
bacteria are hardly present. In New Caledonia at a mine
tailing of 1,8% Ni, prior to planting grass, nitrogen fixing
soil bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of
endemic plants Gymnostoma ebbianum and Serianthus
calycina, to modify and amplify their especially Ni-
tolerant genes by molecular genetic methods (HÉRY ET
AL., 2005).
Whereas lime addition lowers mobilities and
phytotoxicities of most metal ions for arable crops, it
increased Ni-uptake into accumulator plants of the
Alyssum family. Under various soil pH and Ni
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concentrations tested, Alyssum murale accumulated up to
1,1% Ni, and Allyssum corsicum up to 0,7% Ni in its dry
mass (KUKIER ET AL., 2001; BREWER ET AL., 2001).
Also, after NPK fertilization, Alyssum bertolonii
accumulated Ni 13400 fold from a Ni-rich substrate, and
Berksheya coddii 17000 fold (BROOKS ET AL., 1998).
Mixing of de-watered sewage sludge with equal
amounts of sawdust as well as lime gradually increased
the water-soluble and exchangeable fractions after 3
months, because of lowering of its pH (ŠČANČAR ET AL.,
2001). After mixing the top 15 cm of various soils with
nickel-contaminated urban sewage sludge (4625mg.kg-1
Ni), elution of nickel with carbonaceous simulated river
water from respective soil columns increased
significantly. Nickel migrated faster in unsaturated
columns, except for the carbonaceous soil, in spite of
simultaneous pH increase caused by the sewage sludge.
Higher retention from carbonate or organic carbon was
achieved only at unsaturated conditions (WELCH, LUND
1987).
Sequential leaching procedures revealed high
affinities of nickel towards Mn-oxides and Fe-oxide
containing phases, depending on the geochemical matrix
(SAGER ET AL., 1989; SAGER, VOGEL 1993). About ¼ or
more remained bound to refractory phases, however. In
particular at non-contaminated sites, mobility in 0,16M
actetic acid and 0,2M oxalate solution remains marginal
(SAGER 2016). Amounts readily adsorbed from aqueous
solutions are hardly released into neutral or alkaline salt
solutions, but almost completely at pH 5 or less, because
obviously the hydroxide which gets formed at alkaline
surfaces, dissolves (SAGER 1995; ZATKA ET AL., 1992). In
acetic acid, tartaric acid or oxalic acid solutions, nickel
migrated through clayey barrier layers (Kf about 10-15
m.s-1) quicker the Cd, Cu, and Pb in any case, and
frequently even quicker than the acid itself (SAGER 2001).
Table.1: Nickel in fertilizers sold in Austria
´mg.kg-1 in TS
Median
Range
Arable soil (East of Austria)
34
25 - 45
Danneberg 1999
Ammonium nitrate limes
< 0,5
< 0,5 3,7
Sager 2009
Limestones, dolomites
2,1
< 0,5 30,5
Sager 2009
NPK-mineral fertilizer
6,5
< 0,5 30,5
Sager 2009
PK-mineral fertilizer
11,4
2,2 23,4
Sager 2009
Di-ammonium phosphate
16,4
4,0 89,5
Sager 2009
Fermented urban biowaste (green
ton)
4,12
1,6 9,8
Sager 2012
Garden moulds
7,6
< 0,5 32,6
Sager 2009
Manures and dungs
10,1
1,2 32,7
Sager 2009
Composts
24,5
10,0 37,4
Sager 2009
Because nickel levels encountered in fertilizers are
usually lower than in soils, accumulations from
fertilizations need hardly to be considered (table 1).
Fertilization of an equivalent equal to 100 kg P.ha-1 is
about equal to the annual atmospheric deposition, and an
equivalent of 100 kg N is even less (SAGER 2009).
Also, composts, manures and dungs contain less
nickel than arable soils. Thus, urban biowaste of Vienna
collected separately within brown tons, contained after
pre-selection and sieving an average of 10,46 mg.kg-1
from the center, 17,12 mg.kg-1 from the suburbs, and
14,43 mg.kg-1 from the city border areas, contrary to the
urban soils (mainly parks), which had 30,25 mg.kg-1
(PLAHL ET AL., 2002).
Urban biowaste monthly collected at 4 sites of an
Austrian provincial capital city, contained even less
nickel than compost samples. In outliers due to faulty
inputs (2 out of 44 samples), however, nickel
concentrations increased 9-fold, thus necessitating control
and site selection measures (SAGER 2012).
WATER
A threshold for nickel in potable water at 20 µg.l-1
has been implemented by the Council Directive 98/83/EC
after respective recommendation of the WHO. This value
applies to a sample of water obtained at the tap and taken
so as to be representative of a weekly average value
ingested by consumers.
In Cornwall, a known metalliferous and
arseniferous region, about 500 private wells have been
tested, which were not subject to official control.
Traditionally, groundwater was filtrated through 0,45µm,
and tap water was analyzed as such, but differences were
only noted in case of Pb and Fe. Only 3% of the samples
contained Ni above theshold, and were also high in Mn.
Whereas water samples of pH <6 caused Cu-
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contaminations from tap tubes, this was not the case for
Ni, Cd, and Cr (ANDER ET AL., 2016).
Sampling of rainwater from roofs is prone to
contaminations from the roof material, dust input and
organic debris, as well as from microbial activities.
Pasteurization in black painted glass tubes by heating
from sun rays may cope with the latter. Contact of the
chloride containing rain water with a steel pot, however,
caused corrosions and subsequently an increase of nickel
in the processed water samples (DOBROWSKY ET AL.,
2015). In fish ponds in Southern Bohemia, nickel
concentrations in aquatic macrophytes raised up to 6,1
28,2 mg.kg-1, which is equal to the levels in sediments
(10,1 25,5 mg.kg-1), though in the water just 3,7-20,4
µg.l-1 were found (DRBAL 1991). Barks from fir trees
adsorbed 58% of nickel from synthetic well water, and
desorbed it again within 8-13%. Conditioning the barks
with urea, however, raised Ni adsorption to 86%, and
decreased desorption to just 3% (KHOKHOTVA, WAARA
2011).
In surface waters, uptake of nickel into algae
increased in parallel to the incorporation of C by
photosythesis, and correlated non-linearly with the proton
flux. In freshwater of pH 7,8 and 12°C, algal nickel
uptake was 76% more at light than at dark (GRAY, HILL
1995). 1 g of barley straw can adsorb about 10 mg nickel
from aqueous solution, maximum at pH 4,85
(THEVANNAN ET AL., 2010). 1 g of montmorillonite can
sorb about 2 mg Ni at pH 5-6, which could be increased
by Fe-coatings, but not by Al-coatings (COOPER ET AL.,
2002). Aqueous suspensions of lime approach a pH 8-9,
resulting in adsorption of Ni, like Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and
Cr(III), at < 90% at the solid. Sorption of Nickel upon
finely ground bricks at 80%, and sorption at silicate
pebbles at 65% were less effective (AZIZ ET AL., 2008).
Fly ash from coal- operated power plants is suitable for
the removal of nickel from metal contaminated effluents,
e.g. from non-ferrous smelters, which is necessary to save
the bacteria of sewage sludge treating processes, which
are harmed at Ni > 15 mg.l-1. The efficiency of fly ash
was better than active carbon, but worse than zeolite.
Above pH 8,5-9, complete and largely irreversible
adsorption at the solids occurred, but none below pH 4,5
(MAVROS ET AL., 1993).
Samples to check pollution from tap water tubings,
which may release in particular Cu, Pb, and Ni, are
obtained from 1 liter without discarding directly at the
consumer´s site (random sampling of the day). If
thresholds are surpassed, sequential sampling has to be
done (for Austria: Trinkwasserverordnung 2001, resp.
update of the food safety act 2017). Metal water supply
tubings, particularly from water heating supplies, can
release metals into the potable water, which decrease
exponentially versus the consumed water volume
(informal measurement of the author).
ATMOSPHERE AND DUST IMMISSION
Apart from antropogenic emissions, the most
important source of atmospheric particulates is the
weathering of the continental crust. Antropogenic
emissions can be easily traced from enrichments over
iron. In the aerosol sampled above the Atlantic Ocean,
only < 0,05 -10 ng.m-3 nickel have been found, lowest
above the Southern part, and maximum in the Channel
(VOLKENING, HEUMANN 1990). In Detroit region within
1988-92, atmospheric nickel concentrations in residential
areas were determined as 5-16 ng.m-3, and in industrial
areas 8-32 ng.m-3. Antropogenic emission sources like
vehicles, fuel and navigation remained constant, whereas
emissions from smelting and welding facilities varied due
to economic fluctuations (PIRONE ET AL. 1995).
Nickel contents in the fine dust of Santiago de
Chile (PM10) lowered in winter (July) within the period
1997 2003 from 60 ng.m-3 to 20 ng.m-3. Similar
concentration decreases appeared also for V, Pb, As, Cu
and Cd, which could be traced to lower industrial
emissions and lower coal heatings, just Cr increased.
Sequential extraction of the dust particles assigned nickel
to the group of immobile elements (Ni, Mo, Ca, Mg, Ba,
Al) (RICHTER ET AL. 2007). In the Saloniki region, total
nickel concentrations in fine dust (PM7,5), samples
1997/98 4m above ground, differed between urban sites at
6,8 ± 5,6 ng.m-3 and sites close to industrial areas at 12,8
± 6,2 ng.m-3. Similar effects were observed for Cd, Mn
and Zn (VOUTSA, SAMARA 2002).
At hardly populated sites in Norway, metal
deposition tends to decrease from the most southern point
at Birkenes towards the north, with seasonal fluctuations,
but without marked seasonal trends. This atmospheric
nickel deposition was calculated from concentrations met
in rainwater samples and annual precipitation, to be 1,2
12 g.ha-1a-1 (BERG ET AL. 1994), which can be regarded as
background immission.
Higher precipitation rates, in parts also as fog,
might cause much more total atmospheric deposition in
high mountain areas, far away from emission sources. At
2 stations at the Christlumkopf mountain (1768m,
Achenkirch, Tirol) close to woods, nickel deposition of
25,02 g.ha-1a-1 were measured, as the sum of 14,77 g.ha-
1a-1 wet deposition, only 0,71 g.ha-1a-1 dry deposition, and
9,54 g.ha-1a-1 g/ha.a from the fog. In some distance
downhill, at the Mühleggerköpfl, total nickel deposition
amounted only 13,62 g.ha-1a-1, as the sum of 9,78 g.ha-1a-1
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wet, 3,67 g.ha-1a-1 dry, and only 0,17 g.ha-1a-1 from the fog
(BAUER ET AL. 2008).
Top levels of atmospheric nickel deposition of
170-240 g.ha-1a-1 have been reported from urban districts
in Paris, sampled in 1988 (GRANIER ET AL. 1992). Also,
the atmospheric deposition at the sea of Tokyo Bight is
strongly influenced from human activities. Samples have
been obtained by collection of wet precipitation, and for
dry deposition by means of a water surface sampler
employing circulating 0,25M HCl. Total Ni deposition
was 28- 98 g.ha-1a-1, and the proportion of dry to wet
deposition was 3,7 (SAKATA, TANI, TAKAGI 2008).
Top concentrations in street dusts were found in
Tokyo at 540 mg.kg-1 (2005), whereas in Seoul it was just
62 mg.kg-1 (2010; range 42-109 mg.kg-1), and in Budapest
it was 27,5 mg.kg-1 (2010; range 19,2 49,9 mg.kg-
1)(SAGER ET AL. 2015); the latter is within the range of
adjacent soils. Dust, collected in 1m above a highly
frequented road in the central mountain range of Taiwan,
contained 17,1 ± 12,0 mg.kg-1, and the adjacent soil 13,2
± 1,5 mg.kg-1 Ni. Principal component analysis revealed
assignment of Ni to Cu, but not to the group of Fe, Al,
Mn resp. Pb and Zn. Road traffic increased nickel
concentration in the fine fraction PM2,5 from 5,8 to 7,3-
16,7 ng.m-3, in the medium fraction PM10-2,5 from 3,76 to
3,9 14,4 ng.m-3(KUO ET AL. 2009).
Whereas fly-ash of an oil-driven powerplant
contained 0,41% Ni, Ni in leaves of trees within 0,7-1,5
km nearby (Rhus typhina L.) increased just to 1,2 mg.kg-1,
which was interpreted as long-distance transport effects of
the 210 m high chimney 210m (YOUNGS ET AL. 1993).
Contrary to soils, the easily mobilisable fraction of
nickel found in street dusts can be about half and thus
rather high, which was measured in Sevilla 1996
(FERNANDEZ ESP INOSA ET AL. 2002).
Urban dust samples from the Saloniki urban region
contained about 80% of Ni soluble in 0,1M-HCl, which
was regarded as labile, contrary to dust samples from the
Saloniki industrial region of about 60% soluble in 0,1M-
HCl. The solubility in artificial serum was regarded as
bioavailable, which was 46% for the urban dust samples,
and 24% for the dust close to the industrial areas. The
soluble solid phase is presumably NiSO4, and the hardly
soluble phase presumably Ni-oxides (VOUTSA, SAMARA
2002). Completely other particles are encountered in
industrial emissions from melters and metal processing,
like NiS, NiSe, NiTe, Ni3S2, NiAs, Ni11As8, Ni-metal,
ferronickel, ferrite and naturally occurring pentlandite
[(Ni,Fe)9S8]. Among them, some are highly carcinogenic
(NiS, Ni3S2). They could be discriminated by sequential
leaching with 0,1M ammonium citrate („soluble“), H2O2-
citrate („sulfidic“), Br2 in CH3OH („metallic“) and
HNO3-HClO4-HF („oxidic“) (ZAT KA ET AL. 1992).
Occupational exposure from nickel containing
dusts occurs especially in the air at the working site of
smelters and metal processing facilities. Soluble nickel
compounds get rapidly adsorbed by the lung tissues, but
the top cancerogen is Ni2S3. To the contrary, in nickel
mining no statistically significant relationship between
lung cancer and nickel exposition could be established,
because the dominant mineral pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] is
non-cancerogenic (SCHAUMLÖFFEL 2012).
Because nickel in coal is bound to sulfides and
oxides, fly ash emissions from caloric power plants
contain NiSO4, NiS and NiS2, as well as nickel-containing
spinels NiFe2O4. but not Ni2S3. High combustion
temperatures favour the formation of the oxide, lower
temperatures favour the phosphate (SCHAUMLÖFFEL
2012). Metallic nickel-nanoparticles of 53 nm average
diameter, have been obtained by reduction of a NiCl2-
containing aerosol with H2 at 950°C with 99% yield.
Lowering the temperature to 800°C lowered the yield, as
well as the average particle diameter to 31 nm (YONG JAE
SUH ET AL. 2004).
In Austria, thresholds have been set for the
concentration of inhalable particulate nickel compounds
in air, like NiO, NiO2, NiS, Ni2S3, and Ni2O3.
(Grenzwerteverordnung 2006, Bgbl 242/2006, Addendum
I and II).
FUNGI
In general, the composition of soil is of stronger
influence upon the contents of mushrooms than upon the
composition of green plants, but respective investigations
are scarce. In boletus edulis from central Finland,
growing upon granitoid rocks, 1,32 mg.kg-1 (of Ni in dry
mass) had been found, and from a region higher in nickel
from East of Finland, it was 1,55 mg.kg-1 (of Ni in dry
mass). The difference between these sites was much
larger for Lactarius trivialis, i.e. 0,55 mg.kg-1 resp. 1,95
mg.kg-1 (NIKKARINEN, MERTANEN 2004).
FEEDS
Commercially available composite feeds for any
kinds of animal contain about 2 mg.kg-1 of Ni. Slightly
lower levels in feeds targeted to calves and cats/dogs
probably result from higher proportions of meat and dairy
products in the composite. Some more differences appear
in commercial supplementary feeds, the median level of
which is higher for pigs, sows, and piglets, than for cattle,
calves, deer, and poultry (table 2).
In basic feeds for dairy cattle, sampled directly at
farms in Lower Austria, nickel levels were lowest in
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maize silage, like for most of trace metals, and highest in
hay. The lucerne sample (table 2) was used for a round
robin test, which had to be ground and milled in 24
different laboratories, and subsequently analyzed at the
same site by the same operators and instruments, after
dry-ashing of 4g (SAGER, MITTENDORFER 1997). The
latter should indicate the precision of the entire analytical
procedure.
Table.2: Nickel in feeds (SAGER 2006; SAGER, HOBEGGER 2013; SAGER, MITTENDORFER 1997))
´mg.kg-1
Median
Range
Samples
Composite feeds
0,26
0,09 0,74
12
1,71
0,17 3,60
14
1,78
0,88 3,86
28
1,78
0,63 6,55
58
2,22
1,34 3,83
46
1,01
0,61 2,82
35
2,21
1,41 3,36
12
Supplementary feeds
3,76
1,54- 12,6
73
4,17
1,21 8,37
40
1,75
1,04 3,18
11
2,37
0,85 7,12
46
5,95
2,05 13,8
169
6,09
1,11 15,0
126
3,52
2,00 10,1
44
1,19
0,44 1,80
7
2,86
2,41 4,83
5
Basic feed
3,10
1,09 7,98
18
1,03
0,23 4,63
17
0,25
0,17 0,36
8
1,00
0,31 1,92
18
Round robin
1,09
0,73 2,44
24
FOOD OF GREEN PLANT ORIGIN
Based on dry mass, food for human nutrition of
green plant origin contain some less nickel than food for
domestic animals. Just carrots were rather high in Ni
(table 3), which needs to be confirmed, however. High
levels met in cocoa are known from other references as
well. Further sources of nickel intake of human
consumption, like nuts, spinach, or mushrooms, have not
been investigated in this work. Tea leaves and coffee
beans might contain much nickel, which is largely not
transferred to the consumed beverage.
Table 3A. Nickel in food of green plant origin, mg.kg-1 dry mass
´mg.kg-1
Median
Range
Samples
Potatoes
1,08
0,61 1,65
40
Spiegel, Sager 2008
Carrots
4,64
3,79 10,69
37
Sager, unpublished
Wheat (organic)
0,134
0,043 0,242
42
Sager, Erhart 2016
Wheat (round robin)
0,255
0,118 0,692
30
Sager, Mittendorfer 1997
barley (round robin)
0,34
0,18 1,06
24
Sager, Mittendorfer 1997
Tomatoes + seeds
0,235
0,115 0,485
22
Sager 2017
Tomatoes minus seeds
0,235
0,118 0,534
21
Sager 2017
apples
0,08
< 0,08 0,49
104
Sager 2014
Milk chocolate
0,98
0,52 1,43
19
Sager 2012
Dark chocolate
3,07
2,64 4,89
9
Sager 2012
Very dark chocolate
4,26
2,57 7,93
15
Sager 2012
cocoa
15,33
10,77 17,12
3
Sager 2012
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Table 3B. Nickel in food of green plant origin, mg.kg-1 wet weight (FS)
´mg.kg-1
Median
Bereich
Anzahl
Potatoes
0,223
0,165 0,317
40
Spiegel, Sager 2008
Carrots
0,445
0,36 1,03
37
Sager, unpublished
Tomatoes +seeds
0,018
0,011-0,038
22
Sager 2017
Tomatoes minus seeds
0,015
0,009 0,022
21
Sager 2017
Apples
0,011
< 0,003 0,035
104
Sager 2014
Soy-„Milk“
0,59
0,43 1,06
5
Sager 2018
Contrary to Cd and Pb, traces of Ni are proven to
be essential and have a wide range of effects, including
plant growth, plant senescence, N metabolism (as a
component of urease), and Fe- uptake. In barley (hordeum
vulgare), Ni deficiency had been observed after grown for
three generations in purified nutrient solution <30 ng/l Ni,
resulting in a 15% reduction of optimum yield and Ni in
the grains of 90 ± 10 µg.kg-1 dry weight. Ni deficiency
inhibited the development of the embryo soon after the
formation of the shoot primordia; the root primordia of
Ni-deficient grain were poorly developed or absent at
harvest (BROWN ET AL. 1987).
Increase of total nickel in soil from 30 to 50
mg.kg-1, resp. addition of 35 µg.l-1 in hydroponic culture,
did not effect growth of various crops, like spinach
(spinacea oleracea), maize (zea mays), beans (phaseolus
vulgaris), cabbage (brassica oleracea), rice (oryza
sativa), or ryegrass (lolium perenne). All plants
investigated contained higher nickel concentrations in
their roots than in their shoots, and Ni-additions went
preferably to the roots. In the shoots, highest levels were
met in beans and ryegrass, and lowest in maize. Due to
low root masses, however, about 80% of total Ni contents
in beans, cabbage and spinach were located in the shoots
(GUO ET AL., 1995).
Additions of soluble NiSO4 to an alkaline soil
(pH=8,0 / 14,3% clay/ 5,5% CaCO3) up to 600 mg.kg-1 Ni
did not result in Ni uptake proportional to the added
amount. Just barley (hordeum vulgare) decreased growth,
but cabbage (brassica juncea), spinach (spinacea
oleracea), sorghum (sorghum vulgare), beans (phaseolus
vulgaris), tomatoes (solanum lycopersicum) and ricinus
(ricinus communis) were not effected. Nickel remained
mainly in the roots, just in the brassica the excess was
transferred to the shoots. Maximum nickel uptake was
noted into spinach leaves, and minimum into tomato
plants. Top values in edible parts were 65 mg.kg-1 in
spinach, 21 mg.kg-1 in beans, 8,1 mg.kg-1 in tomatoes, and
in sorghum and barley just 4 mg.kg-1, in dry mass each
(GIORDANI ET AL., 2005). In case of sufficient NPK
fertilization, no toxicity symptoms in pot experiments
developed in carrots, potatoes, and onions up to 250µg.l-1
nickel in irrigation water (equal to 100 g.ha-1), because
sorption of the soil was quicker than plant uptake
(STASINOS, ZABET AKIS 2013).
In case of more saline irrigation, however, like in
the delta of the Nile, spinach, maize and leeks retain less
nickel (and also cadmium) in the roots, resulting in higher
transfer to the leaves, which was traceable in the soil
saturation extract (HELAL ET AL., 1998).
Lower nickel levels encountered in white bread
from Denmark (median 101 µg.kg-1) compared with the
level in Austrian wheat (median 255 µg.kg-1) can be
explained from humidity and the milling fraction of the
cereal (LARSEN ET AL., 2002). Similar nickel levels have
been found already in 1983 in the FRG, at a median of
228 µg.kg-1 (range 60-1100 µg.kg-1). After milling, the
white flour made 70% of the total grain weight, but
contained just 12% of the entire nickel, the rest was
bound to the brans (SCHELLER ET AL. 1988). German
wholemeal bread contained 166 µg.kg-1, which was more
than double of conventional mixed bread of 69 µg.kg-1.
Abrasion in the bakery additionally increased nickel in
wholemeal bread versus nickel in wholemeal flour.
German potatoes contained just 16,5 µg.kg-1 Ni in
wet weight, but Danish potatoes had 50 µg.kg-1, and
Danish carrots 51 µg.kg-1 (LARSEN ET AL., 2002).
Because grapes have more than half of their nickel
bound to the skin, during wine processing the nickel
mainly moves to the residue, and further amounts get
adsorbed at the glass bottle. Nickel accumulates
preferably in leafy vegetables, cocoa and nuts. Within a
compilation from Great Britain about trace elements
contents of various food items, maximum nickel was
found in nuts to contain 2,5 mg.kg-1 in wet weight
(YSART ET AL., 1999).
Tea leaves also contain rather much of nickel,
median values from various tea-cropping regions in Asia
ranged 1,2 2,6 mg.kg-1. But as tea leaves are strong
adsorbents, the nickel level in the ready made beverage
remains very low (TADAYON, LAHIJI 2011). Also, nickel
gets adsorbed on ground coffee within 15 min at 90% in
the cold, but just at half at 44°C. For desorption into acid,
however, pH 3 is at least needed (SUK, SU 2004).
Though the components for beer brewing contain
significant amounts of nickel, like hop with 1,3 mg.kg-1
(range 0,6-2,1 mg.kg-1), and malt with 0,11 mg.kg-1
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(range 0,08 0,50 mg.kg-1), nickel was below detection
limits in the ready made beer because of filtration (ČEJKA
ET AL., 2011).
FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN
Table 4A. Nickel in food of animal origin, mg.kg-1 in dry mass
´mg.kg-1
Median
Range
Samples
Egg white
< 0,6
< 0,6
77
Sager 2011
Egg yolk
< 0,25
< 0,25
65
Sager 2011
Sausages
0,142
0,017 0,304
35
Sager 2010
Chicken (breast)
0,124
0,064 0,313
17
Sager et al. 2018
Chicken (leg)
0,182
0,055 -. 0,325
17
Sager et al. 2018
Raw milk
(Lower Austria)
< 0,05
< 0,05 0,185
103
Sager, Hobegger 2013
Whole milk
0,02
< 0,02 0,26
30
Sager 2018
Skim milk
< 0,02
< 0,02 0,09
6
Sager 2018
Sour cream
< 0,02
< 0,02 0,07
6
Sager 2018
Cream
0,036
< 0,02 0,10
7
Sager 2018
Honey
0,033
< 0,006 0,33
122
Sager 2017
Table 4B. Nickel in food of animal origin, mg.kg-1 in wet weight
´mg.kg-1
Median
Range
Samples
Egg white
< 0,28
< 0,28
77
Sager 2011
Egg yolk
< 0,23
< 0,23
65
Sager 2011
Sausages
0,054
0,008 0,148
35
Sager 2010
Deer
0,020
< 0,005 0,042
15
Sager 2005
Raw milk
(Lower Austria)
< 0,007
< 0,007 0,024
103
Sager, Hobegger 2013
Whole milk
0,003
< 0,002 0,041
30
Sager 2018
Skim milk
0,002
< 0,002 0,019
6
Sager 2018
Sour cream
< 0,002
< 0,002 0,015
6
Sager 2018
Cream
0,015
< 0,002 0,045
7
Sager 2018
Hard cheese
0,243
0,024 0,406
14
Sager 2012
Semi-hard cheese
0,286
0,063 - 1,062
19
Sager 2012
Soft cheese
0,304
0,126 0,446
18
Sager 2012
Fresh cheese (cow)
0,273
0,065 0,470
18
Sager 2012
Sheep/goat cheese
0,115
0,036 0,259
15
Sager 2012
Honey
0,030
< 0,006 0,296
122
Sager 2017
Compared with innards, muscles are low in nickel.
Meat products receive their nickel mainly from spices and
additives, but not from steel vessels and cans (SCHELLER
ET AL. 1988). In pork, pig livers and pig kidneys, as well
as beef, and beef liver from Sweden, nickel was found
below the detection limit of 0,010 mg.kg-1 wet weight.
Most beef kidneys had about 0,014 mg.kg-1, only a few of
them were higher (JORHEM ET AL., 1989).In France,
commercially available fish contained just 0,056 mg.kg-1
Ni in wet weight (range 0,0320,161), and no
accumulation was noted in predators. Nickel in other
seafood was slightly higher at 0,123 mg.kg-1 (GRIN ET
AL. 2011).
To simulate corrosion of nickel-plated Cu rifle-
bullets, they were inserted into meat juice for 7 days, and
released up to 0,093 mg Ni, which did not result in a
significant increase of nickel concentrations around the
shot wound of the game meat. Average Ni release of a Ni-
plated bullet during roasting of pork was 0,0028 mg
(maximum 0,0043 mg) (PAULSEN, SAGER 2017).
In whales, higher nickel levels than in domestic
animals and fish have been encountered. Nickel in innards
from pot whales of the North Sea ranged about 2,5 mg.kg-
1 in dry weight till lower detection limit. The skin of pot
whales from 17 non-contaminated areas, sampled as
biopsies of obviously healthy free swimming individuals,
had 2,4 mg.kg-1 in wet weight. Contrary to this, the skin
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of finbacks and pot whales from the Gulf of Mexico
contained an average nickel of 15,9 mg.kg-1 (range 1,7-
94,6 mg.kg-1) in 2010, sampled soon after the large
oilspill of the drilling platform Deepwater Horizon. All
whales looked healthy and had no oil cover at their skin,
and moved far from crude oil lumps. Their nickel
contents correlated with the distance to the site of the
disaster. Because nickel resorption from the gastro-
intestinal tract is low, and pot whales and finbacks feed
on quite different prey, and sorption of the skin seems
marginal, the most probable path is the uptake of fine dust
to the lungs from the oil combustion during the oil
catastrophy (WISE ET AL. 2014).
Similar to meat, milk and dairy products are much
lower in nickel than green plants (see below).
Commercially available cheeses in Austria contained
about 0,25 mg.kg-1 in wet weight (SAGER 2012), which
was less than Ni in Turkish fresh cheeses at 0,59±0,13
mg.kg-1 wet weight sampled at about the same time.
Packing into metal containers additionally increased the
nickel level to 1,28±0,08 mg.kg-1 wet weight
(BAKIRCIOGLU ET AL. 2011).
UPTAKE IN HUMAN NUTRITION
Among human nutritional items richest in nickel,
there are cocoa (5,3-12,6 mg.kg-1) and its products, soy
beans (4,78,1 mg.kg-1), sun flower seeds (2,35,8 mg.kg-
1) and nuts (3,6 mg.kg-1). Stainless steel vessels and pots
as well as in-house water tubings can release much nickel
also (SCHELLER ET AL., 1988). Investigations of
commercial dairy products in Austria, however, revealed
no different nickel contents to raw milk sampled at the
cow, thus inputs from the dairy process remain negligible
(SAGER, HOBEGGER 2013; SAGER 2015; SAGER 2016).
Similar to many samples from Austria (table 4), nickel in
meat, fish and eggs was below detection limits in
Denmark also (LARSEN ET AL., 2002).
In cooking oils, nickel ranged within 20-70 µg.kg-
1, which makes inputs from this source marginal for the
daily intake. Hardened fat, like margarine, contains some
more nickel (1,70±0,32 mg.kg-1) because of catalysts
abrasions (IEGGLI ET AL., 2011).
METABOLISM
Nickeliferous vapours, in particular from
occupational exposition in smelters, cause lung and throat
carcinomas, especially Ni2S3 particles (COST A ET AL.,
2005). Lung tissues stores Ni, indipendent from the kind
of exposition (DENKHAUS, SALNIKOW 2002).
The daily pulmonal uptake can be calculated from
the concentration (ng.m-3) times absorption rate times air
breath volume (15-20 m³.d-1 for an adult). The absorption
rate in lung tissue had been simulated by use of artificial
serum. For the Saloniki region in 1997/98, the daily
pulmonal intake in urban areas was thus determined as 56
ng, and in industrial areas as 65 ng (VOUT SA, SAMARA
2002) The oral LD50 amount for rats as 350 mg.kg-1 body
weight, and for mice as 420 mg.kg-1 boddy weight, seems
rather high. Nickel, however, is teratogenic and exerts a
cancerogenic potential, lowering Mg, Mn, and Zn in
various tissues (DENKHAUS, SALNIKOW 2002). In the
gastro- intestinal tract, usually only 1-2 % get resorbed,
the rest gets excreted in the faeces. After incorporation,
nickel gets excreted half via urine and half via faeces, the
halftime for renal excretion is rather short at 20-60h, but
does not exclude deposition in the body (DENKHAUS,
SALNIKOW 2002). Quite different reports about resorption
and toxicity, however, indicate that the resorption is
strongly influenced by simultaneously ingested food, and
is maximum for potable water. Different resorption rates
resulted in significantly higher blood levels after uptake
of 2,5-5,0 mg from potable water or Coca Cola, than from
cow milk, orange juice, coffee or tea. Addition of 5 mg Ni
to a splendid breakfast did not increase blood nickel
levels (SCHELLER ET AL., 1988). In spite of high nickel
levels in tea leaves (median 1,70 mg.kg-1, range 1,2 2,6
mg.kg-1), sampled in entire Asia, nickel remains low in
the final beverage because of high adsorption at the leaves
(TADAYON, LAHIJI 2011).
Nickel in blood plasma of healthy patients was 1,0
± 0,3 µg.l-1, there was no difference between patients
from psychiatry and cardiology. But patients suffering
from terminal renal insufficiency had 5,2 ± 4,9 µg.l-1
before and 5,8 ± 2,9 µg.l-1 after their dialysis, which
indicates lowered renal excretion, which is not improved
by the dialysis procedure (STRECK ET AL., 2003). In serum
of newborns, average nickel was 0,38 µg.l-1 (range 0,30
4,80) (ALIMONT I ET AL., 1997). Contrary to Zn, Cd and
Cr, Ni contents in scalp hair did not differ between
healthy females and female diabetics 30-70 years of age
(TADAYON ET AL., 2014).
Nickel metal and nickel salts can also be
solubilized by sweat. The diffusion through the epidermis
gets favoured from sweat and detergents and is similar for
normal and nickel-sensitive persons. Nickel contact
dermatitis develop due to the attempt of the organism to
remove nickel-protein complexes, which had been formed
in the Langerhans cells in the basal layer of the epidermis
(SCHAUMLÖFFEL 2012).
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Ni and Co are bound in constant proportions to
naturally occurring porphinoid products in some living
organisms, which may be due to corresponding functions.
It can be shown by ESR-spectra that enzyme-bound
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nickel can be monovalent and trivalent also, and thus
function as a redox substrate in biosystems.
Methanogenic bacteria have a methyl-CoM- reductase
with a prosthetic group of Ni-porphinoide, where Ni is
coordinated with the N of tetrapyrrole (NIELSEN 1991).
Ni-deficiency in rats causes changed distribution
and function of Ca, Fe, Zn, and vitamine B12 in goats and
rats (NIELSEN 1991). In rats during methionine deficiency,
nickel acts synergistic to vitamine B12 and effects the
concentration of Cu, Fe, and Mo in the plasma, as well as
C, Cu and Mo in the liver, and Cu, Mn and Ni in the
kidneys (NIELSEN 1991).
Nickel has been identified as an essential nutrient
for the activations of urease in green plants
(SCHAUMLÖFFEL 2012), or in the bacterium heliobacter
pylori (DENKHAUS, SALNIKOW 2002). Nickel at ultra-
trace levels is needed to fix CO2 to propionyl-CoA, to
form D-Methyl-malonyl-CoA. It is a Co-factor of an
enzyme to degrade branched amino-acids and odd-
numbered fatty acids via the propionate route. The
methylmalonyl-CoA, which depends on vitamine B12,
catalyses the last step of the propionate metabolism,
which increases after increased uptake of odd-numbered
fatty acids. The daily need of man is below 100 µg
(NIELSEN 1991).
In human serum, the Ni gets preferably bound to
albumin, but it also moves to L-histidin and alpha-2-
macro-globulin (SCHAUMLÖFFEL 2012). Substitution at
the albumin also explains the known effects of enhanced
excretion of Zn and Cu. Similarly, Ni-intoxication of
layers reduces the zinc levels met in eggs (WILPLINGER,
PFANNHAUSER 1998).
Nickel causes oxidative damage of the DNA and
prevents its repair. It replaces Fe inside the cells and
simulates oxygen deficiency. Carcinogenesis depends
from the kind of tissue, nickel speciation, and genetic pre-
disposition. Particulate Ni gets incorporated into living
cells by phagocytes, and dissolves there slowly in
cytoplasmatic vacuoles at pH 4,5. In human lung cells,
after 24h main amounts of incorporated nickel were found
in the cytoplasm, but after 72h in the cell nucleus. In the
nucleus, substitution of Mg by Ni leads to selective
damages at the genetically inactive hetero-chromatine, but
Ni per se is not mutagenic. Induction of methylations at
the DNA results in switching off of genes because of
increased condensation of the heterochromatine. Further
on, substitution of Fe by Ni inhibits the hydroxylases of
proline and asparagine, resulting in Fe-losses and
signalling oxygen depletion inside the cell. This lowers
the aerobic metabolism of ATP gains and results in
anaerobic glycolysis, as well as to lower levels of acetyl-
CoA in the respective cells (COST A ET AL., 2005).
Patients, who develop genetically based ekzema
and heavily itching inflammations of the upper skin
because of nickel allergy (table 5), show serious
immunological reaction towards membrane blisters of
staphylococcus aureus, which penetrate the epidermis.
Staphylococcus aureus increases a special messenger
substance. Increased water losses and pH increase
proliferate staphylococcus aureus in the skin of respective
dermatitis patients, counteracted by specific antibiotics
and vitamine D (LIMONE, JACOB 2018).
The nickel sensitivity of the skin of 28 nickel-
sensitive patients could be lowered by fixation of nickel-
soaked filterpaper disks during 3 months daily application
of 50 µg Ni. a dose which does not develop ekzema. The
area of harmed skin was lowered to ½ after an hour, and
to
1/3
after 4 days of application. Continuous Ni-release
provoked a steady substantial decrease of the reactions of
the T-cells with the metal ion to ¼. The number of in
vitro tested T-blood cells of the CD4+ and CD8+ type as
well as the number of cell partitions got severely reduced.
At the end of the treatment, the nickel-stimulated T-cells
of patients released less interferon-gamma (BONAMONTE
ET AL., 2011).
DAILY INTAKE AND ALLERGICAL REACTIONS
In Great Britain, the daily intake of nickel was
estimated from the average concentrations of 20 food
groups and the average consumption habits, to be 130 µg.
Because data below the detection limit were set as the
detection limit, the 130 µg are a maximum value (YSART
ET AL., 1999). For Austria, a similar daily intake level of
nickel was estimated as 79 µg (range 50-127 µg), but
utilizing largely different concentration levels of the
ingested nutritional items (WILPLINGER, PFANNHAUSER
1998). Therein, the high nickel levels in carrots and cocoa
were confirmed.
The median concentrations of nickel in food found
in this work, analytically obtained for wet weight, and
combined with the average figures of consumption
(Statistik Austria 2012), result in a daily intake of 152 µg
Ni. This figure has been calculated without considering
consumptions of Ni-carriers like mushrooms, nuts, rice
and leafy vegetables, but for wholemeal bread. If
consumption of white flour is assumed, the daily Ni-
intake would be just 106 µg, which resembles about the
daily needs (Table 6). Wilplinger and Pfannhauser had
estimated similar levels for Austria already in 1998.
If consumption of milk is replaced by soy-„milk“,
and the average consumption of meat replaced by nuts
and vegetables of about equal nutritional value, and the
proportion of carrots, cabbage and lettuce taken from the
harvested amounts in Austria, this results in a daily intake
of 496 µg Ni (Table 7). In this case, Ni-sensitive persons
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begin to react, and at the double amount of ingestion,
about 10-30% will react (Table 7). Nickel allergic persons
develop contact ekzema after oral ingestion of a few
milligrams, an amount which can be easily reached by
consumption of nuts, cocoa or soy drinks (JENSEN ET AL.
2006). 17 papers dealing with the probability of an onset
of Ni-dermatitis could be assigned to 3 groups, depending
on the kind of uptake from water or solid food, on the
visible symptoms and on the observation period (JENSEN
ET AL. 2006).
APPENDIX
Table 5. Probability of nickel allergies for nickel-sensitive persons as a function of the daily intake in three groups of
experiments, after Jensen (2006)
% Reaction
´mg
´mg
´mg
90
2,7
4,2
7,7
80
2
3,2
5,5
60
1,45
2,3
3,6
50
1,27
2,0
3,1
25
0,83
1,32
2,0
10
0,55
0,87
1,33
5
0,41
0,65
1,00
2
0,29
0,45
0,70
1
0,22
0,35
0,53
Table 6: Estimation of Ni-ingestion from the average food consumption (2011/12): without rice, mushrooms, nuts and leafy
vegetables, but with wholemeal flour
´kg per year
´mg.kg-1 wet
weight
´mg Ni per year
74,8
fruits (apples)
0,011
0,82
109,1
vegetables(tomatoes)
0,018
1,96
61,1
Potatoes
0,223
13,62
99,7
meat (sausage)
0,054
5,38
89,1
Milk
0,004
0,36
19,4
Cheese
0,248
4,81
90,2
cereals(wheat)*
0,255
23,00
2,0
Chocolate
2,644
5,29
1,1
Honey
0,064
0,07
Sum
55,3 mg
156 µg/d
* If the figure for German standard bread is taken instead (0,069 mg.kg-1; BRÜGGEMANN, KUMPULAINEN 1995) the daily
intake is lowered to 106 µg; eggs contained nickel below detection limit, and need not to be considered
Table 7: Estimation of Ni-ingestion from the estimated average food consumption for vegans, substituting milk by soy-„milk
and meat by vegetables and nuts (2011/12):
´kg per year
´mg.kg-1 wet
weight
´mg per year
74,8
fruits (apples)
0,011
0,823
109,1
vegetables(tomatoes)
0,018
1,964
61,1
Potatoes
0,223
13,625
52
Carrots
0,45
23,40
22
Cabbage
0,21
4,62
Estimated conc.
8
Lettuce
0,21
1,68
Estimated conc.
20
Nuts
2,5
50,00
Reference
89,1
Soy-„milk
0,635
56,52
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https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.3.2.6 ISSN: 2456-8635
www.aipublications.com Page | 86
90,2
cereals(wheat)
0,255
23,00
2,0
Chocolate
2,644
5,288
1,1
Honey
0,064
0,070
181 mg
496 µg/d
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... Consequently, chromite grains survive during pedogenesis and remain present in the coarse fraction of the soil. Ni is enriched in ultramafic rocks and soils in olivine as well as in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antogorite, chrysotile) (Sager, 2019). Mn and Co contents dominate the sand fractions of the soil at Johnsbach, and to a lesser extent, at Arzwaldgraben and Rabenstein. ...
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... Ni levels in urban areas, but also mean crust values, have been found variable [52]. Nickel is a component of stainless steel, and thus present in engine metal alloys, and appreciable amounts are also found in Ni-Cd batteries [2,35,44]. ...
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