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Grey Water Treatment Using Effective Micro-organisms and its Impact on Water Qualities

Authors:
  • Thiagarajar College of art and science
  • Thiagarajar College (Autonomous), Madurai, India www.tcarts.in

Abstract

Abstract Background and Objective: Scientific knowledge, pertinent to the bio-remediation method adapted in sewage treatment plant for grey water effluent recycling has to be developed. Physico-chemical and biological water quality monitoring and analysis from the treatment would proven to the treatment efficiency. The present study was attempted to treat the domestic effluent of grey water category using Effective Micro-organisms (EM) in the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Thiagarajar College, Madurai, India and the physicochemical qualities and microbial population were examined, for the water samples collected from different treatment points of the STP. Methodology: Effective micro-organisms in the extended form, following fermentation was used as the bio-remediation way of grey water recycling. Water samples were collected at different treatment points of the STP, for water quality analysis. Microbial population was analyzed using presumptive test and the colony growth was determined and bacterial growth curve was analyzed for the survival potential of isolated bacterial organism in the water treatment environment. Multi-variate statistical analysis was performed to compare between the treatment points on their water quality. Results: A considerable reduction in the BOD, acidity, nitrogen level, moderation of acidic pH, close to neutral. Dendrogram analysis revealed that a greater variability was found for conductivity of the water sample either with TDS and hardness, whereas the later two components show closer similarity. The BOD, alkalinity, hardness and sulfate showed the strongest weight age, when compared to the other analyzed parameters, through Principal Component Analysis. Conclusion: Microbial method of effluent recycling efficiently controls the physical, chemical and biological pollutants and contaminants from the domestic grey water. Staphylococcus aureus microbial population was found removed completely, following the recycling done in this experiment
OPEN ACCESS Journal of Applied Sciences
ISSN 1812-5654
DOI: 10.3923/jas.2019.188.198
Research Article
Grey Water Treatment Using Effective Micro-organisms and its
Impact on Water Qualities
Velmurugan Lavanya and Dorai Pandian Kannan
Department of Botany, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, 625 009, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Background and Objective: Scientific knowledge, pertinent to the bio-remediation method adapted in sewage treatment plant for
grey water effluent recycling has to be developed. Physico-chemical and biological water quality monitoring and analysis from the
treatment would proven to the treatment efficiency. The present study was attempted to treat the domestic effluent of grey water
category using Effective Micro-organisms (EM) in the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Thiagarajar College, Madurai, India and the physico-
chemical qualities and microbial population were examined, for the water samples collected from different treatment points of the
STP. Methodology: Effective micro-organisms in the extended form, following fermentation was used as the bio-remediation way of grey
water recycling. Water samples were collected at different treatment points of the STP, for water quality analysis. Microbial population
was analyzed using presumptive test and the colony growth was determined and bacterial growth curve was analyzed for the survival
potential of isolated bacterial organism in the water treatment environment. Multi-variate statistical analysis was performed to compare
between the treatment points on their water quality. Results: A considerable reduction in the BOD, acidity, nitrogen level, moderation
of acidic pH, close to neutral. Dendrogram analysis revealed that a greater variability was found for conductivity of the water sample either
with TDS and hardness, whereas the later two components show closer similarity. The BOD, alkalinity, hardness and sulfate showed the
strongest weight age, when compared to the other analyzed parameters, through Principal Component Analysis. Conclusion: Mic ro bi al
method of effluent recycling efficiently controls the physical, chemical and biological pollutants and contaminants from the domestic
grey water.
Staphylococcus aureus
microbial population was found removed completely, following the recycling done in this
experiment.
Key words: Grey water recycling, effective micro-organisms, physico-chemical water quality, microbial population, bacterial growth analysis
Citation: Velmurugan Lavanya and Dorai Pandian Kannan, 2019. Grey water treatment using effective micro-organisms and its impact on water qualities.
J. Applied Sci., 19: 188-198.
Corresponding Author: Dorai Pandian kannan, Department of Botany, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, 625 009, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: +091-452-2831175, Extn. 305/+091-98-99941-08836 Fax: +091-452-2312350
Copyright: © 2019 Velmurugan Lavanya and Dorai Pandian Kannan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons
attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
INTRODUCTION
Grey water (GW) is a low strength effluent, mainly
released from point sources viz., house-hold bathrooms,
kitchen and residential places. Direct discharge of grey water
into the land or careless land-filling of effluent have always
resulted in deleterious effects on land and water resources,
eventually causing poor hygienic conditions, further posing
health risks1. The major challenge in treating the grey water
discharged from domestic sources is the prevalent of
deteriorating water quality, mainly due to the contaminants
released after the utilization of water in domestic purpose2.
Removal of contaminants has often been experienced with a
significant reduction of environmental risk, thereby
maintaining an acceptable level of water quality3. Grey water,
after recycling has been found with potential reuse values in
farming practices, landscaping, recharging of aquifers, by
means of safe land-filling and hence this practice enables the
preservation of the fragile water resources, which has been
under heavy exploitation4.
Domestic effluents contain several complex substances,
besides the existence of pathogenic microbes5. The presence
of contaminants hampers the efficiency of recycling through
the conventional treatment process, leads to difficulty of
achieving the goal of purifying water by recycling6. The
treatment of effluents, released from slaughter houses, using
bed reactor significantly controlled the BOD (biochemical
oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TSS
(total suspended solids) levels, however, the foul odor could
not be removed7. Anaerobic digestion, employed in the palm
oil mill effluent treatment emitted natural gas, besides the
tainted odor removal8.
Effluent treatment with a relatively high buffering activity
was proven with a considerable reduction of sludge formation
and therefore the operative cost could be reduced9. An
alternate, cost-effective bioremediation principle10, using
micro-organisms and their metabolic substances including
microbial enzymes, synthesized in this process, oxidize the
pollutants into simpler, non-polluting substances and debris,
thereby contributing to efficient recycling of wastewater11.
Emphasizing the importance of the bioremediation process,
which contributes substantially towards a safe environment
owing improved human health12,13, this experiment was
focused on the domestic effluent treatment through
bio-augmentation. In an earlier study, using Effective
Micro-organismsTM (EM), grey water recycling experiment was
executed in simulated laboratory conditions and in a
constructed wetland, achieved with desirable water quality14,
through combined EM and STP treatment of grey water. The
extent of physical, chemical and biological qualities could be
achieved in the grey water treatment using Effective
Micro-organismsTM (EM), in the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)
and whether the different time intervals on the treatment of
grey water, using EM has any difference or not in the water
quality, following treatment has to be understood15. To
address this research problem, the present study was
attempted grey water recycling using Effective
Micro-organisms, applied on daily basis in a STP. Water quality
analysis was performed repeatedly for three experimental
periods, for the water samples collected from different
treatment points in the STP. Further, multivariate analysis was
performed on the water quality data, to test the efficacy of the
treatment process.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Site description: The experiment was carried out in the
Sewage Treatment Plant of Thiagarajar College, Madurai,
Tamil Nadu, India. The eco-climate of Madurai is semi-arid and
temperature ranges between 38EC (maximum) and 24EC
(minimum). Grey water is made to be collected to that STP,
from bathrooms of the students hostels, kitchen and canteen
at an average of 14,000 L of wastewater, on daily basis.
Description of STP: The design of the STP is depicted in
Fig. 1. It has an inflow collection tank where primary
treatment is employed by adding extended or fermented
effective micro-organisms. Effluent is pumped into the
aeration tank, where aeration is done using one 10 HP
mechanical air compressor. Then the aerated effluent is
pumped into a settling tank and further the purified water is
collected for storage, from where, the treated water is used for
landscaping and irrigation of garden plants.
EM preparation and application: Extended form of EM
through fermentation of the original form of the culture
was prepared by dissolving commercially available EM,
mixed in country sugar solution in 1:20 ratio (V/V), using
non-chlorinated water. The prepared culture was kept in a
clean plastic bottle, closed air-tight and stored in darkness for
a week with the occasional release of air, collected over the
surface above the fermented culture. The preparation of EM
Bokashi
(Jp: fermented) is elaborated in the previous study16.
Every day morning on the experimental period, one
Bokashi
ball weighing approximately 100 g was introduced
in the inflow tank of the STP, to facilitate perpetuation of
microbial population and their biological activity of oxidizing
the organic matter.
189
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
Collection of water samples: Water samples were collected
for three periods, viz., December, 2015 (winter), March
(summer) and July, 2016 (monsoon period) from the STP at
four treatment points, during the recycling viz., (i) Raw sewage
from the inflow tank, (ii) Aeration tank, (iii) Settling tank and
(iv) Treated water from storage tank. Samples were collected
from each treatment process, during of the study period.
Water samples were collected in separate, clean polythene
bottles and stored at 20EC in the refrigerator for further
analysis.
Physical nature and water chemistry analysis: Water analysis
was done in terms of physical nature, water chemistry and
biological organisms and their activity. Standard methods of
APHA17 was followed in the analysis of pH, DO, salinity,
conductivity and TDS using water analyzer Kit (Systronics
Make, Model: 371). The combined values of alkalinity and
conductivity were taken as the total hardness of the water
samples. Total nitrogen and sulphate were estimated using
wet chemical analysis.
Microbial study: Water samples were prepared using double
distilled water to obtain 10G3, 10G4 and 10G5 dilutions and
from this, 0.1 mL sample was inoculated into sterilized Petri
plates, containing nutrient agar, to test for the existence of
bacterial organisms. Similarly, another set of experiments were
performed using 10G6 and 10G7 dilutions of waste water
samples, from the four collection points of STP into Potato
Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium contained Petri plates, to
analyze the fungal organisms. All the preparations were done
under sterilized conditions in the Microbiology lab. Growth of
the bacterial and fungal organisms were monitored and the
colonies grown in the respective plates were isolated and
cultured further to identify the presence or absence of colic
bacteria, presumptive test was done to confirm the gas and
acid producing ability of microbial population, isolated from
the grey water samples, subjected under different treatment
stages in the constructed wetland.
The EMB and ENDO agar streak tests were performed for
the purpose of presumptive test, for which the experimental
culture plates were incubated at 37EC for 2 days. The IMViC
test was performed to check the presence of enteric bacterial
group in the collected waster samples. Bacterial growth curve
was plotted by transforming the bacterial count into the
corresponding log normal values, to determine survival
potential of the isolated bacterial organisms.
Statistical analysis: Statistical procedure was applied to
compute the data using SPSS (version 16.0) for descriptive
statistics, one-way ANOVA test, analyzed at 95% confidence
level, correlation, cluster analysis and Principal Component
Analysis (PCA).
RESULTS
Physical and chemical qualities of grey water: The acidic pH
of raw domestic effluent was increased and thereby, reached
to near neutral pH, following the treatment process. A
considerable reduction in the TDS and BOD levels and about
50% reduction of acidity could be achieved in the recycling
experiment (Fig. 2). It was also observed that the water
samples collected from the settling tank and storage tank for
the recycled water showed a significant reduction in BOD
value when compared with the water samples, collected from
initial stage and during aeration. The treatment effect has also
found with a strong influential reducing effect of nitrogen,
phosphate, sulphate and calcium concentration of grey water
(Fig. 2). Temporal phenomenon was also shown an influential
effect as the treatment process during March, 2015 was shown
to be more effective recycling than in rest of the sampling
periods (Fig. 2).
Relationship among the analyzed variables: Conductivity
and TDS showed a significant positive correlation, which could
be towards the reduction of dissolved solute substances,
because of the grey water treatment. In addition phosphate is
high positively correlated to salinity, salinity and alkalinity
were found with a negative correlation with pH, however,
calcium content and total hardness was found with a positive
correlation (Table 1) and very low negative correlation was
found between TDS and conductivity. Hardness had a high
positive correlation with BOD and negatively correlated with
conductivity.
Cluster analysis: The data collected on the physico-chemical
quality parameters were subjected for making dendrogram,
through which proximity level among the variables were
determined. Six clusters were found with the grouping of the
analyzed data in which, a closer proximity was found between
those variables, lie on those clusters (Fig. 3). DO, acidity, TDS,
alkalinity and hardness were found aggregated together in a
cluster. Acidity and calcium components were found to be
similar with DO and acidity. A greater variability was found for
190
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
Outflow of reclaimed
water for reuse
Sewage collection-inflow tank
(13ft 13ft 10ft)
HH
Treated water
storage tank
(11ft 13ft 10ft)
HH
Sewage sludge
settling down tank
(13ft 13ft 10ft)
HH
Aeration tank
(14ft 14.5ft 10ft)
HH
Air compressor
(10 HP)
Feed pump
a
a
a
aaa
ccbbbb
8.40
8.00
7.60
7.20
6.80
pH
July, 2015 November, 2015 March, 2016
aa
8
6
4
2
0
DO (mg L )
G
1
b
aa
b
a
a
ab
a
aa
a
1.20
0.80
0.40
0.00
Salinity (ppt)
aaa
a
2.40
1.60
0.80
0.00
-0.80
a
aa
Conductivity (mS)
a
1.20
0.80
0.40
0.00
aa
dd
ccc
bbbb
TDS (pp t)
6
4
2
0
BOD (ppt)
b
a
a
aaa
b
b
b
cc c
Inflow
tank Aeration
tank Settling
tank Treated
water
Sampling point
Inflow
tank Aeration
tank Settling
tank Treated
water
Sampling point
Fig. 1: Scheme of operation of sewage treatment plant, Thiagarajar college Madurai, India
Fig. 2: Continue
191
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
300
200
100
0
a
d
b
Acidity (mg L )
G
1
bbb
b
c
c
aaaa
6.00
4.50
3.00
1.50
0.00
dd
c
c
b
b
Alkali nity (mg L )
G
1
c
c
b
a
a
a
4.50
3.00
1.50
0.00
d
dc
bb
Hardness (mg L )
G
1
c
cba
a
d0.09
0.06
0.03
0.00
Nitrogen (g L )
G
1
aaa
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
Inflow
tank Aeration
tank Settling
tank Treated
water
Sampling point
a
Phosphate (g mL )
G
1
aa
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
ab ab
300
200
100
0
Inflow
tank Aeration
tank Settling
tank Treated
water
Sampling point
a
Calciu m (mg L )
G
1
b
b
cb
c
aa
cc
b
aa
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
Sulphate (g mL )
G
1
a
b
c
a
a
d
a
a
a
a
aa
Inflow
tank Aeration
tank Settling
tank Treated
water
Sampling point
July, 2015 November, 2015 March, 2016
Fig. 2: Physical quality and water chemistry of water samples collected from 4 different sampling points in the domestic effluent
treatment of Thiagarajar college, Madurai, India
Vertical bar represent the SE (n = 3). Different alphabets indicate significant difference (p>0.05)
conductivity of the water sample either with TDS and
hardness, whereas the later two components showed closer
similarity.
Principal component analysis: All the analyzed parameters
showed a different levels of weight age in this experiment
(Fig. 4). The BOD, alkalinity, hardness and sulfate showed the
strongest weight age, when compared to the other analyzed
parameters (Table 2). The weaker negative loading includes
DO, salinity, harness, whereas, phosphate. Acidity, nitrogen
and calcium were found with a moderate weight age (Table 2).
Microbial diversity and their growth: A complete removal of
this pathogenic bacterium, following the treatment in this
experiment e current study was observed and also
Bacillus
substilis
and
B. megaterium
w ere ob se rv ed wi th t he ir be tt er
survival nature in treatment points, when compared to
Flavobacterium
,
Micrococcus
sp. and
Staphylococcus aureus
192
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
Nitrogen
Sulphate
Phosphate
Salinity
DO
BOD
pH
Acidity
Calcium
TDS
Alkalinity
Hardness
Conductivity
Label Number
10
11
12
3
2
6
1
7
13
5
8
9
4
0 5 10 15 20 25
Rescaled distance cluster combine
Fig. 3: Dendrogram of water quality variables, computed using cluster analysis, during different experimental periods
Table 1: Correlation of coefficient value of physical and chemical qualities of water samples collected from four different sampling points of the domestic sewage
treatment plant (STP), Thiagarajar college, Madurai, India
Parameters pH DO Sal Cont TDS BOD Acidity Alkali TH N2SO4PO4Calci
pH 1
DO -0.067 1
Salinity -0.391*0.399*1
Conductivity 0.061 -0.590** -0.700** 1
TDS 0.061 -0.590** -0.700** 1.000** 1
BOD -0.273 0.715** 0.556** -0.686** -0.685** 1
Acidity -0.140 -0.197 -0.286 0.438** 0.438** 0.000 1
Alkalinity -0.344*0.389* -0.076 0.149 0.149 0.567** 0.474** 1
Total Hardness -0.503** 0.677** 0.514** -0.375* -0.375* 0.847** 0.145 0.731** 1
Nitrogen 0.050 -0.215 -0.532** 0.503** 0.503** -0.344* 0.237 0.162 -0.1551
Sulphate 0.298 -0.098 -0.755** 0.515** 0.516** -0.304 0.086 0.221 -0.158 0.688** 1
Phosphate -0.534** 0.218 0.857** -0.477** -0.477** 0.392* -0.260 -0.033 0.405* -0.602** -0.791** 1
Calcium -0.195 0.500** 0.131 -0.009 -0.008 0.459** -0.047 0.595** 0.706** 0.267 0.449** -0.020 1
*Correlation is significant at p<0.05 level, **Correlation is significant at p<0.01 level
Table 2: Distribution of proportionate weightage among the variables analyzed
for the water samples collected from the domestic Sewage Treatment
Plant (STP), Thiagarajar college, Madurai, India, using principal
component analysis
Rotated component matrixa
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Components 1 2 3
pH 0.556 -0.347 -0.0474
DO -0.106 0.737 -0.482
Salinity -0.821 0.272 -0.314
Conductivity 0.503 -0.285 0.758
TDS 0.504 -0.285 0.757
BOD -0.380 0.807 -0.284
Acidity 0.069 0.142 0.729
Alkalinity 0.090 0.813 0.441
Hardness -0.323 0.928 0.053
Nitrogen 0.692 0.073 0.326
Sulphate 0.931 0.153 0.125
Phosphate -0.910 0.127 -0.069
Calcium 0.268 0.828 0.012
Total 4.010 3.825 2.639
Variance (%) 30.845 29.425 20.299
Cumulative (%) 30.845 60.270 80.569
aRotation converged in 6 iterations
(Table 3-5). Virulent growth behavior of
Bacillus megaterium
and
B. substilis
were observed frequently with a longer
period of survival in the log phase (Fig. 5) in the water
samples, collected from the four different treatment
points on March, 2016 when compared to the growth of
Micrococcus
and
Flavobacterium
sp., during the same
sampling period. Growth curves observed for
Staphylococcus
aureus
and
Escherichia coli
demonstrated moderate log
phase growth and
Pseudomonas
exhibited poor survival
(Fig. 5).
A total of eight fungus species were isolated in the serial
dilution of grey water samples, in which,
Chrysosporium
sp.
was found in the sample collected in the month of July
(Table 3).
Rhizophus
,
Mucor
,
Fusarium
and
Alternaria
were
found in less numbers in the samples collected from the
treatment points (Table 3-5). This feature could be attributed
to the low alkalinity in the raw grey water (Table 2).
DISCUSSION
A major setback of domestic effluent is its deteriorating
water quality, mainly caused through nutrient loading18. This
eutrophication leads in the proliferation of deteriorating
microbial population and their harmful activities, greatly
193
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
194
Table 3: Determination of microbial organisms occurrence in the water samples, collected from treatment points in the STP of Thiagarajar College Madurai, India during July, 2015
Water samples collected
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sewage inflow tank Aerating tank Settling tank Final treatment
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
Serial dilutions made Serial dilutions made Serial dilutions made Serial dilution made
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
Organisms 1×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G7
Bacillus substilis
+++ - - +++- - ++ + - - + + + - -
Bacillus megaterium
+++ - - +++- - - - - - - - - - - -
Micrococcus
sp. - + - - - + + + - - + + + - - + + + - -
Flavobacterium
sp. - - + - - + + + - - + + + - - + + - - -
Staphylococcus aureus
+++ - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Pseudomonas
sp. - - + - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - -
Escherichia coli
--+-- ----- --+- - -----
Aspergillus niger
--- - + --- + -- -- - - - - --
A. flavus
--- +- ---++ -- - - - - - - --
A. terius
----- ---+- ---- - -----
Chrysosporium
sp. - - - - + - - - + - - - - - - - - - - -
Rhizophus
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - -
Mucor
sp. - - - - - - - - - + - - - - + - - - + -
Fusarium
sp. - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - -
Geotrichum
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - -
Alternaria
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + -
+: Presence, -: Absence
Table 4: Determination of microbial organisms occurrence in the water samples, collected from treatment points in the STP of Thiagarajar college Madurai, India during November, 2015
Water samples collected
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sewage inflow tank Aerating tank Settling tank Final treatment
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
Serial dilutions made Serial dilutions made Serial dilutions made Serial dilution made
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
Organisms 1×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G7
Bacillus substilis + + + - - + + + - - + + + - - + + + - -
Bacillus megaterium
+++ - - +++- - - - - - - - - - - -
Micrococcus
sp. + + - - - + - + - - + + + - - - - - - -
Flavobacterium
sp. - - + - - + + + - - - + + - - + - - - -
Staphylococcus aureus
+---- -+--- -- -- - -----
Pseudomonas
sp. --+- - ----- -- -- - - - - --
Escherichia coli
--+- - ----- -- -- - - - - --
Aspergillus niger
--- - + ----+ -- -+ - - - - +-
A. flavus
--- - + ----- -- -+ - - - - +-
A. terius
--- +- ----- -- - - - - - - --
Chrysosporium
sp. - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - + -
Rhizophus
sp. - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - -
Fusarium
sp. - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - -
Geotrichum
sp. - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - -
+: Presence, -: Absence
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
Alkalinity
1.0
0.5
0.0
-0.5
-1.0
Component 2
Component 1
Component 3
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0
Salinity Calcium
Sulphate
Acidity
Phosphate
BOD
DO
Nitrogen
Conductivity pH
TDS
Fig. 4: Rotated compound matrix of five-factor PCA model,
using varimax rotation for the analyzed parameters of
water samples, collected from sewage treatment
Plant, Thiagarajar College, Madurai, India at the
different experimental periods
reduced the quality of the water. The efficient recycling of
wastewater is either reusable or safe enough to recharge the
groundwater through land-filling. Katayon
et al
.19 reported
the treatment efficacy due to membrane bio-reactor was also
found with similar rise of pH. The same thing is observed in
grey water treatment using effective micro-organisms.
Inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous were
reduced using the biological treatment process20,21. However,
intermittent aeration using aerobic membrane bio-reactor
increased the yield by the fair removal of nitrogen from the
effluent22.
Boyjoo
et al
.23 reported the existence of varying
concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphate in the
grey water due to the various means of domestic utility, which
has substantial influential effect to produce into polluting
nature. Ali
et al
.24 su gg es te d t ha t ca lc iu m i s o ft en r em ov ed by
chemical treatment, membrane crystallization method, to
avoid the undesired scaling phenomena. Correlation is the
mutual relationship between two variables Jothiven
katachalam
et al
.25. Chaubey and Patil26 reported TDS and
conductivity found positive correlation in the ground water
quality assessment and the similar results were observed.
However, Industrial wastewater treatment paid a special
attention to the correlation analysis of water quality23 and the
results obtained in this study are aggreable24.
The relationship found between calcium and total
hardness, TDS and conductivity were similar to the earlier
reports of bio-remediation method of food industry effluent
treatment16. The level of BOD in the river water found
195
Table 5: Determination of microbial organisms occurrence in the water samples, collected from treatment points in the STP of Thiagarajar College Madurai, India during March, 2016
Water samples collected
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sewage inflow tank Aerating tank Settling tank Final treatment
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
Serial dilutions made Serial dilutions made Serial dilutions made Serial dilution made
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
Organism 1×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G71×10G31×10G41×10G51×10G61×10G7
Bacillus substilis
----- ----- -+-- - -----
Bacillus megaterium
+++ - - +++ - - ++ + - - + + + - -
Micrococcus
sp. + - - - - + + - - - + + + - - + + + - -
Flavobacterium
sp. --+- - --+-- ++ -- - -- - --
Staphylococcus aureus
++--- -+--- ---- - -----
Pseudomonas
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - -
Escherichia coli
----- ----- ---- - --+--
Aspergillus niger
--- + - ---+- -- - - - - - - +-
A. terius
----- ---+- ---- - -----
Rhizophus
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - -
Mucor
sp. - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - -
Fusarium
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + -
Alternaria
sp. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - -
+: Presence, -: Absence
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
-0.1 0102030
Time
OD value (600 nm)
(g)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
0102030
Time
OD value (600 n
m
)
(a) 0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
0102030
Time
OD value (600 nm)
(b)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
0102030
Time
OD value (600 n
m
)
(c) 0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
-0.1
0102030
Time
OD value (600 nm)
(d)
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
-0.1
0102030
Time
OD value (600 nm)
(f)
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0102030
Time
OD value (600 n
m
)
(e)
Fig. 5(a-g): Growth curve analysis done for different bacterial organism isolated from domestic water samples, subjected under
different treatment conditions using effective micro-organisms applied in STP, Thiagarajar College, Madurai,
India (a)
Bacillus substilis
, (b)
Bacillus megaterium
, (c)
Flavobacterium
, (d)
Micrococcus
, (e)
Staphylococcus aureus
,
(f)
Pseudomonas
and (g)
E. coli
positively correlated to conductivity27 and in an another report
done by Patil and Patil28, pH was found to have negative
correlation.
A general argument has been made on the pathogenic
microbes present in grey water could reduce the pH,
with the prevailing environmental conditions29. Further, a
strong emphasis laid on the pH neutralization effect on the
grey water treatment has been made through water
recycling30, which has been achieved using effective
micro-organisms, used in this study. The results of the
196
J. Applied Sci., 19 (3): 188-198, 2019
principal component analysis are in concordance with the
study done for the sludge activation process in the
treatment of wet grinding food industry effluent using
EM16.
Staphylococcus aureus
found in the raw sample
could pose a risk to human health31,32. Adeleye
et al
.33
attributed the dynamic existence and disappearance of
bacterial population at different sampling periods due to
the seasonal variations. Sahu34 examined the increased
alkalinity factor favoured the prolific multiplication of fungal
organisms, leading to cause the deleterious effect. The
presence of
Staphylococcus aureus
in the raw water
sample (Table 3-5) indicated its ability to increase the
pollution load of the grey water. It is evident from the results
that the establishment of controlling the prolific multiplication
of pathogenic microbes, improved the biological water
quality.
Among the analyzed parameters, pH, DO, conductivity,
BOD, TDS and nitrogen and sulphate and phosphate were
within the standard limits of EPA35 and Central Pollution
Control Board Standard, Government of India (CPCB)36.
CONCLUSION
The experimental results further confirm the study of on
the usefulness grey water treatment through biological
means to achieve desirable physical, chemical and biological
water qualities. Effective micro-organism treated water has
observed with removal of foul odour with the attainment
of near neutral pH. The trend towards increment over DO
leading to the simultaneous reduction of BOD level. The
analyzed multiple quality parameters of the treated grey water
were found within the standards of US-EPA and Central
Pollution Control Board, GOI. Therefore, the reuse of the
recycled effluents could be prescribed for domestic utility,
irrigation and landscaping. The results of this experiment
provide substantiate information, pertinent to the
management of grey water, for the improvement land and soil
environment.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT
The manuscript highlights the essential features of
grey water recycling, by the application of Bio-augmentation
process. Water quality in terms of physical, chemical and
biological nature of the collected water samples, from the
different treatment points, in the STP was assessed. This
study will help the researcher to uncover the critical
area of domestic effluent treatment and water quality
analysis.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This study is dedicated to
AMMA
Mata Amritandanda
Mayi Devi, whose blessings has been made this
scientific work becomes into reality for the corresponding
author. The authors thank the Management of Thiagarajar
College, Madurai, India for their financial support to this
research study. The assistance of Mr. Muthu Vazhivittan in
the EM preparation and treatment in the STP is greatly
acknowledged. We also acknowledge the anonymous referees
for their useful suggestions and comments to revise this
manuscript.
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... [37] analyzed and verified the samples experimentally to indicate the improvement of physical, chemical, and biological factors to assure the quality of the treated greywater from an anaerobic filter used in irrigation in Iraq. [38] used a bio-remediation way of greywater recycling in India and concluded that the reuse of the recycled effluents could be prescribed for domestic use, irrigation, and landscaping. [21] indicated that user opinions towards greywater treatment and reuse were only favorable towards non-potable purposes, chiefly because of perceived pollution or lack of trust in the level of treatment suggested by the treatment system. ...
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