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eCook Zambia Kick Off Meeting Minutes

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eCook Zambia Kick Off Meeting Minutes

eCook Zambia Kick Off Meeting
Minutes
Radisson Blu Hotel, Lusaka, Zambia - Thursday 21st September, 2017
Main authors: F. Mwila, J. Leary, N. Serenje, F. Yamba, S. Batchelor
Associate authors: M. Leach, E. Brown, N. Scott
Innovate Project 132724
Implemented by:
Funded by:
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
2
Acknowledgement
We are extremely grateful to the staff of CEEEZ, both those named as authors and the supporting staff,
who helped make this event such a success. We also thank all of the attendees of the stakeholder
workshop itself, who took the time to share their ideas and experiences to help us determine the role
that the generic eCook concept could play in the development of Zambia. Finally, we thank the donors,
UK AID via Innovate UK for partial funding and the directors and shareholders of Gamos who matched
the funding for the benefit and public good of Zambia.
Rights, permissions & disclaimer
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Attribution: please cite this work as “Mwila F., Leary, J., Serenje, N., Yamba, F., Batchelor S., Leach M.,
Brown, E., Scott, N. 2019. “eCook Zambia Kick Off Meeting Minutes CEEEZ, Loughborough University,
University of Surrey & Gamos Ltd. supported by Innovate UK, UK Aid & Gamos Ltd. Available from:
https://elstove.com/innovate-reports/
This data and material have been funded by UK AID from the UK government; however, the views
expressed do not necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
3
Executive Summary
The eCook Zambia Kick-off Workshop brought together key stakeholders from the solar lighting, clean
cookstoves and utility sectors to discuss the proposition of battery-supported cooking. The Centre for
Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia (CEEEZ) in partnership with a UK research consortium
(Gamos Ltd., University of Surrey and Loughborough University), are collaborating on an initial
exploratory study to investigate the opportunity for this potentially transformative technology, which is
designed to extend access to electricity access and clean cooking facilities to poorer households (PV-
eCook.org).
Prof. Yamba opened the event, highlighting the fact that whilst the rapid spread of solar PV across Africa
has already transformed millions of lives, it has yet to have an impact on the main energy need of poor
households: cooking. However, in the context of falling global PV prices, recent advancements in battery
technology and rising charcoal/fuelwood prices in severely deforested regions, the door is opening for a
potentially transformative alternative - solar electric cooking (PV-eCook). eCook also has a role to play in
enhancing mini-, micro- and nano- grids, as well as unreliable national grid infrastructure as smart
household level energy storage offers grid operators a new demand side management mechanism and
households the ability to ride through blackouts.
Dr. Jon Leary of Gamos Ltd. and Loughborough University noted that their recently completed global
market assessment highlights Zambia’s enormous potential for eCook. Load shedding, relatively cheap
grid electricity and an established electric cooking market create an attractive market for Grid-eCook,
whilst the vast off-grid population and an emerging SHS industry offer huge potential for PV-eCook.
A prototype eCook device was demonstrated by cooking popcorn on an electric hotplate and beans on
an electric pressure cooker. The prototype is capable of charging from both solar PV and ZESCO’s grid
and was built using off-the-shelf components already available in Zambia. The system is sized for a small
family doing most of their cooking on a mixture of efficient appliances and the electric hotplate.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
4
Small group discussions revealed the key opportunities and challenges that eCook is likely to face in
Zambia. Lack of awareness and the high upfront cost were identified as two of the key barriers, whist
deforestation and load shedding were two of the main drivers. Micro-financing, pay-as-you-go business
models and targeted training and awareness raising were seen as key enablers. The Department of
Energy, ZESCO (Zambia Energy Services Company), REA (Rural Electrification Authority), ERB (Energy
Regulation Board), the private sector, NGOs, traditional leaders and academia were identified as the key
actors in this transition. Peri-urban households were identified as the key target market segment, with
pay-as-you-go, Village Banking and cooperatives seen as the best marketing strategies to reach them.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
5
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................................... 2
RIGHTS, PERMISSIONS & DISCLAIMER .................................................................................................................. 2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................... 3
1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................................................. 6
1.1.1 Context of the potential landscape change by eCook ............................................................................. 6
1.1.2 Introducing ‘eCook’ ................................................................................................................................. 7
1.1.3 eCook in Zambia ...................................................................................................................................... 8
2 OPENING REMARKS FOR THE ECOOK PROGRAMME IN ZAMBIA ................................................................... 9
3 PRESENTATION: WHAT IS ECOOK AND WHY ARE WE FOCUSING ON ZAMBIA? ........................................... 11
3.1 QUESTION AND ANSWER SEGMENT .................................................................................................................... 12
4 DEMONSTRATION OF ECOOK PROTOTYPE ................................................................................................. 14
5 BREAK-OUT GROUP DISCUSSIONS .............................................................................................................. 15
5.1 GROUP 1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 16
5.2 GROUP 2 ...................................................................................................................................................... 17
5.3 GROUP 3 ...................................................................................................................................................... 18
5.4 GROUP 4 ...................................................................................................................................................... 19
6 CLOSING REMARKS .................................................................................................................................... 21
7 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................... 22
8 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................................. 23
8.1 APPENDIX A: PROBLEM STATEMENT AND BACKGROUND TO INNOVATE ECOOK PROJECT ................................................ 23
8.1.1 Beyond business as usual ...................................................................................................................... 23
8.1.2 Building on previous research ............................................................................................................... 25
8.1.3 Summary of related projects ................................................................................................................. 28
8.2 APPENDIX B - ECOOK ZAMBIA KICK-OFF MEETING AGENDA .................................................................................... 29
8.3 APPENDIX C - ECOOK PRESENTATION BY DR. JON LEARY ......................................................................................... 30
8.4 APPENDIX D - ATTENDEES ................................................................................................................................ 35
8.4.1 Invited Guests Not in Attendance .......................................................................................................... 36
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
6
1 Introduction
This report presents one part of the detailed in country research carried out to explore the market for
eCook in Zambia. In particular, this in country work aims to gain much greater insight into culturally
distinct cooking practices and explore how compatible they are with battery-supported electric cooking.
The report is rich with detail and is intended to provide decision makers, practitioners and researchers
with new knowledge and evidence.
This report presents the key learning points from the first stakeholder meeting to inform the future
development of eCook within Zambia. It is one component of a broader study designed to assess the
opportunities and challenges that lay ahead for eCook in high impact potential markets, such as Zambia,
funded through Innovate UK’s Energy Catalyst Round 4 by DfID UK Aid and Gamos Ltd.
(https://elstove.com/innovate-reports/).
The overall aims of the Innovate project, plus the series of interrelated projects that precede and follow
on from it are summarised in in Appendix A: Problem statement and background to Innovate eCook
project.
1.1 Background
1.1.1 Context of the potential landscape change by eCook
The use of biomass and solid fuels for cooking is the everyday experience of nearly 3 billion people. This
pervasive use of solid fuels and traditional cookstoves results in high levels of household air pollution
with serious health impacts; extensive daily drudgery required to collect fuels, light and tend fires; and
environmental degradation. Where households seek to use ‘clean’ fuels, they are often hindered by lack
of access to affordable and reliable electricity and/or LPG. The enduring problem of biomass cooking is
discussed further in Appendix A: Problem statement and background to Innovate eCook project, which
not only describes the scale of the problem, but also how changes in renewable energy technology and
energy storage open up new possibilities for addressing it.
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This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
7
1.1.2 Introducing ‘eCook’
eCook is a potentially transformative battery-supported electric cooking concept designed to offer
access to clean cooking and electricity to poorer households (HHs) currently cooking on charcoal or
other polluting fuels (Batchelor 2013; Batchelor 2015a; Batchelor 2015b). Enabling affordable electric
cooking sourced from renewable energy technologies, could also provide households with sustainable,
reliable, modern energy for a variety of other purposes.
A series of initial feasibility studies were funded by DfID UK AID under the PEAKS mechanism (available
from https://elstove.com/dfid-uk-aid-reports/). Slade (2015) investigated the technical viability of the
proposition, highlighting the need for further work defining the performance of various battery
chemistries under high discharge and elevated temperature. Leach & Oduro (2015) constructed an
economic model, breaking down PV-eCook into its component parts and tracking key price trends,
concluding that by 2020, monthly repayments on PV-eCook were likely to be comparable with the cost
of cooking on charcoal. Brown & Sumanik-Leary's (2015), review of behavioural change challenges
highlighted two distinct opportunities, which open up very different markets for eCook:
PV-eCook uses a PV array, charge controller and battery in a comparable configuration to the
popular Solar Home System (SHS) and is best matched with rural, off-grid contexts.
Grid-eCook uses a mains-fed AC charger and battery to create distributed HH storage for
unreliable or unbalanced grids and is expected to best meet the needs of people living in urban
slums or peri-urban areas at the fringes of the grid (or on a mini-grid) where blackouts are
common.
Figure 1: Pictorial definitions of ‘eCook’ terminology used in this report.
= PV-eCook
+
+
+
+
+
+
= Grid-eCook
= eCook
+
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This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
8
1.1.3 eCook in Zambia
Given the technical and socio-economic feasibility of the systems in the near future, Gamos,
Loughborough University and the University of Surrey have sought to identify where to focus initial
marketing for eCook. Each country has unique market dynamics that must be understood in order to
determine which market segments to target are and how best to reach them. Leary et al. (2018) carried
out a global market assessment, which revealed Zambia as the third most viable context for PV-eCook,
as 10% of the population already cook on electricity and recent load shedding caused a significant
number of these users to revert back to charcoal, rapidly accelerating deforestation.
The accompanying reports from the other activities carried out in Zambia can be found at:
https://elstove.com/innovate-reports/.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
9
2 Opening Remarks for the eCook Programme in Zambia
Prof F.D Yamba welcomed all the persons present at the meeting. In his opening remarks, he stated that
the purpose of the workshop as:
To explain what eCook is
What is its potential role in Zambia?
To build partnerships to support the transition in Zambia.
He further informed the audience that Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia (CEEEZ)
in partnership with a UK research consortium (Gamos Ltd., University of Surrey and Loughborough
University) supported by Innovate UK and DFID.
Together, they are investigating a potentially transformative battery electric cooker combination
(eCook), which is designed to extend access to electricity access and clean cooking facilities to poorer
households. He also stated that the proposition of Solar Electric Cooking (SEC or PV-eCook) is that by
2020 the cost of using solar photovoltaic panels to charge a battery, and then using the battery for
cooking as and when required, will be comparable to the monthly cost of cooking with charcoal and
other polluting fuels in many developing regions. This proposition sits at the intersect of two major
global challenges; the use of biomass for cooking which is harmful to the household and to the
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
10
environment, and the challenge to extend modern energy access to all peoples (Sustainable
Development Goal 7 - SDG7).
Finally, he outlined the 2 month exploratory programme of work which will has the following objectives:
i. Review of national policy areas relevant to the eCook proposition.
ii. Understanding national markets, to include the state of the electricity supply industry (grid and
off-grid), including solar PV, and state of cooking markets e.g. supply chains, service networks,
skills availability (and deficits), manufacturing facilities.
iii. Understanding cooking practices by collating any existing data on cooking practices e.g. foods
cooked, fuels used, fuel stacking strategies, specific energy consumptions, appliances used,
factors influencing choice of fuels (and foods).
iv. Dissemination of the eCook concept and supporting information by engaging key stakeholder
networks.
He also thanked the participants for taking time to attend the kick-off meeting. Please see Appendix D -
Attendees for a list of participants.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
11
3 PRESENTATION: What is eCook and why are we focusing on
Zambia?
Please refer to presentation in Appendix C - eCook presentation by Dr. Jon Leary.
Gamos and Loughborough University researcher, Dr. Jon Leary stated that:
i. cooking on batteries is possible;
ii. that soon “battery supported electricity” will be cost comparable with charcoal, offering access
to both clean cooking and reliable electricity; and
iii. that we are looking to build long-term partnerships to make this transition happen.
Dr. Leary introduced eCook as an opportunity for households in both off-grid and weak grid regions. He
shared with the participants a synopsis of the global market assessment, focusing on the opportunity for
eCook in Zambia. The analysis showed that 59% of Zambians (10 million) live in rural areas, 96% of
whom are off-grid (World Bank 2017). The market for pico-solar products and SHS is expanding rapidly,
with 15,000 sales in second half of 2016 (GOGLA et al. 2016) and Zambia has favourable environmental
conditions (WorldClim 2017) with good solar resources and a warm climate, meaning that space heating
with stoves likely to be minimal and battery lifetime/performance is not likely to suffer from extreme
temps.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
12
Dr. Leary went on to mention the aims of the Zambia case study:
i. To evaluate the compatibility of eCook with the Zambian context.
ii. To assess the potential market and market segments should be target that eCook should target
iii. To explore which marketing strategies that are likely to be most effective
iv. To engage with key stakeholders and build partnerships to facilitate the roll out of eCook across
Zambia.
He further elaborated on the programme of work, which will include:
i. Stakeholder engagement to build long-term partnerships to facilitate the transition to eCook,
including 2 stakeholder workshops:
a. this Kick off Meeting; and
b. a subsequent Design Challenge.
ii. Cooking diaries with 20 households recording what/how they cook and how much energy it uses
over 6 weeks.
iii. 4 focus groups with different groups of potential end users to find out how they currently cook
and how they aspire to cook.
iv. Choice modelling surveys with 200 individuals to determine which characteristics they value
most in a future eCook stove.
3.1 Question and answer segment
QUESTIONS FROM DoE
Technology: Normally when solar units are been installed, clients are advised not to use heating
elements because of charging and discharging of battery. Is an eCook system the same or
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13
different from the known PV systems, or is the cooker involved very efficient or a type that does
not draw a lot of energy and is therefore fit for the known PV system?
Cost: The current alternatives available- charcoal and LPG.
o LPG is costly and there is a negative perception about safety to use. If someone used the
money they usually spent on charcoal for a month on LPG, it would not last through the
month.
o In order to buy LPG, one has to go to a filling station. Charcoal is easily accessible
everywhere. With these two options, people are more likely to choose charcoal.
o In terms of cost, how do you compare eCook to charcoal and electricity?
RESPONSE:
o The main difference between what is been proposed and the standard solar system is
the battery chemistry. eCook is proposing use of Lithium ion batteries instead of the
conventional Lead acid battery. Lithium ion has much more favourable performance
characteristics compared to Lead acid. Lead acid if discharged below 50%, it will reduce
its life span, whilst Lithium ion can comfortably go down to just 20%. Lead acid is
unlikely to last more than 1,000 cycles, whilst Lithium ion can reach 3,000. Rapid
discharge also damages lead acid batteries and reduces the amount of energy they
deliver. Lithium ion is much more hardwearing, so they are not affected as much by
heavy loads like cooking.
o In terms of cost, storing the energy in a lithium ion battery is estimated to add 0.25
USD/kWh. As ZESCO’s current rates are approximately 0.09 USD/kWh, this would
increase the price to 0.34 USD/kWh. Our modelling has shown that with a pay-as-you-go
business model, monthly repayments can be comparable to current expenditures on
charcoal. However, we came here to Zambia to investigate the relative costs with
detailed on the ground research, so we will be able to answer this question much more
comprehensively when we have completed this initial scoping study.
QUESTION FROM VITALITE
What is the durability for eCook system? And how suitable is the system in terms of climate
conditions?
RESPONSE:
o From our preliminary desk-based research, it seems that Zambia has favourable
conditions. It does not get too cold or too hot. Dust maybe. But we could have a
prototype that is battery and hot plate on top, in a box that protects the system from
dust.
o Lifetime of Lithium ion battery is around 6 years or 3,000 cycles, but we are also looking
at more experimental battery chemistries like sodium ion, which promises 10,000
cycles. Lifetime of the other components is the same as for an ordinary PV system, i.e.
solar panel is 20 years, 10 years for inverter, etc.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
14
QUESTION FROM MUHANYA SOLAR
How will deployment of eCook be done, as stand- alone or feed in to existing works?
RESPONSE:
o We plan to work with as many of the organisations represented here today as possible
to build upon your existing product range to offer a solar electric cooking solution to
your existing customers within the next 5-10 years.
4 Demonstration of eCook prototype
Dr. Jon Leary demonstrated a prototype eCook device capable of charging from both solar PV and
ZESCO’s grid. The prototype had 600W PV, 5.5kWh battery storage (2*230Ah 12V batteries), a 24V
1.5kW inverter/charger and a 30A 24V solar charge controller. All components had been sourced within
Lusaka. Four electrical cooking appliances were demonstrated a 1,500W kettle, a 250W slow cooker, a
1,000W electric pressure cooker and a double 1kW hotplate. The system is sized for a small family doing
most of their cooking on a mixture of efficient appliances and the electric hotplate.
The demonstration involved cooking popcorn on the hotplate and boiling beans on the electric pressure
cooker. The hotplate is the most commonly used across Zambia today, but also the least energy
efficient. Some households also own a kettle, but few have an electric pressure cooker or a slow cooker.
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The kettle saves energy by heating water very quickly to avoid heat losses. The slow cooker is very
compatible with solar, as it uses a small amount of power throughout the day to slowly cook dishes like
meat stew, producing a very tender and flavoursome result. The electric pressure cooker can cook long
boiling dishes like offals and beans in approximately half the time and with a fraction of the energy, so is
particularly well suited to battery-supported cooking.
5 Break-out group discussions
Four sub-groups were formed to allow participants to discuss questions that would inform the eCook
programme of work:
What are the key barriers and drivers for eCook in Zambia?
Who are the key actors and what are their roles?
What market segments should we target in Zambia?
Which marketing strategies are likely to be most effective?
Professor Yamba chaired the plenary discussion, where participants fed back to the group on the
opportunities and challenges awaiting eCook in Zambia.
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16
5.1 Group 1
Key barriers
Government policies not attending to
ecook
Availability of traditional stoves- widely
available
Ecook system complicated for a layman
Initial price is very high
Awareness on the technology
Lack of skilled and trained personnel
e.g. for installation and maintenance of
e cook
Solutions
Ban traditional cook stoves which will
encourage manufactures and users to
stick to other improved alternative
stoves
Already assembled unit and few basics
written on the unit
Government to set up a loan scheme of
paying slow for the ecook
Create partnerships between GRZ and
producers to educate users on the
products
Skills training
Key Actors
Government
Media
Academia
NGO’s
Banks
Manufactures
Corporate World
Utilities Zesco
Key market segment
Peri urban
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17
5.2 Group 2
Key Barriers
Cost of technology for both
production and deployment
Inadequate awareness on RE solutions,
specifically eCook
Key Drivers
Environmental:
o High rate of deforestation
o Climate change
Reliability and affordability of grid
electricity
o High electricity tariffs
o Load shedding and power
outages
Health
o Houses catching fire
o Breathing smoke
Solutions
Introduction of cost-effective
technologies, like eCook, that are
energy efficient
Micro financing
Government subsidies on RE
technology
Dedicated investment for financing RE
technologies
Favourable tax incentives on RE
technology
Increase awareness and capacity
building, especially community
mobilization
Key Actors
Government (for policy direction)- DoE
ERB
ZABS
Zesco
Private Sector (inclusive green growth)
CEEEZ
REA
Financial Institutions
Market Segment to target in Zambia
Off grid areas
Micro financing institutions. The idea is
to come up with friendly financing
mechanisms such as saving
groups/cooperatives.
Strategies to reach market segment
Pay as you go,
Product-loan service such as group
loans (chilimba) where money is put up
in a group to buy product for one
person, and again more is put up to buy
for the next until all members have the
product.
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5.3 Group 3
Key Barriers
Social:
o Acceptance
o Lack of awareness
Economical/financial:
o Cost of purchasing system
o Cost of electricity
Key Drivers
Load shedding
High cost of electricity
High rate of deforestation
Increased load shedding
Solutions
Awareness creation
o Need for resources to reach
and create awareness
Micro financing with flexible re-
payments
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
19
Key Actors
Community members
Utilities Zesco
Regulator ERB
Private sector
Key Market Segment
Peri- urban
Marketing Strategies
Pay as you go
Village bank idea
Cooperatives
5.4 Group 4
Key Barriers
Technological:
o None because technology is
known
Financial:
o High cost of the system for
target group (off-grid in rural
areas)
o Lack of financing mechanisms-
i.e. loans
Social
o Cultural, e.g. changing the
mindset of people that have
been using charcoal/firewood
to using batteries for cooking
o Lack of information on the
availability of new/improved
technologies.
o People’s perception- they
would rather have something
cooked on charcoal or firewood
because it ‘tastes better’.
o Scattered settlements make it
difficult to deploy technology.
Locations far off make outreach
costly.
Solutions
Micro financing to all target group to
access the technology
Widening the target group- inclusive
objective to include middle- and low-
income groups. Targeting people in
rural areas alone may not work because
of high cost of system.
Widen objectives for eCook: to include
energy efficiency as well as poverty
reduction
Capacity building - training more than
one person to maintain the system in a
given location, such that the migration
of one trained person does not affect
maintenance in cases of breakdowns.
Pay as you go or pay to own
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Drivers
High deforestation
High cost of charcoal
High cost of electricity
Increased load shedding
Decreasing cost of P.V systems
Solar electric cooking is a
clean and convenient source of energy
Key Actors
Department of Energy
Zesco
REA
ERB
Private sector
NGO and Civil Societies
Traditional leaders
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6 Closing remarks
Prof. Yamba closed the event by inviting the participants to collaborate with the research team over the
next 2 months during this initial exploratory study and to work together to see eCook transform the way
we cook across Zambia over the next 5-10 years.
The findings from this stakeholder workshop will be combined with those from the other activities that
have been carried under the eCook Zambia Market Assessment. Together they will build a more
complete picture of the opportunities and challenges that await this emerging concept. Further outputs
will be available from https://elstove.com/innovate-reports/.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
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7 References
Batchelor, S., 2015a. Africa Cooking with Electricity (ACE), Reading. Gamos Working Paper (Draft as at
August 2015). Available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298722923_Africa_cooking_with_electricity_ACE.
Batchelor, S., 2013. Is it time for Solar electric cooking for Africa?, Gamos Concept Note, May 2013,
Reading, UK. Available at: http://www.gamos.org/images/documents/Is.
Batchelor, S., 2015b. Solar Electric Cooking in Africa in 2020: A synthesis of the possibilities, Evidence on
Demand (prepared at the request of the UK Department for International Development). Available
at: https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/solar-electric-cooking-in-africa-in-2020-a-synthesis-
of-the-possibilities.
Brown, E. & Sumanik-Leary, J., 2015. A review of the behavioural change challenges facing a proposed
solar and battery electric cooking concept, Evidence on Demand (prepared at the request of the UK
Department for International Development). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-
outputs/a-review-of-the-behavioural-change-challenges-facing-a-proposed-solar-and-battery-
electric-cooking-concept.
ESMAP & GACC, 2015. State of the clean and improved cooking sector in Africa, Washington DC, USA.
IEG World Bank Group, 2015. World Bank Group Support to Electricity Access, FY2000-2014 - An
Independent Evaluation, Available at:
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/22953/96812revd.pdf?sequence
=9&isAllowed=y.
Leach, M. & Oduro, R., 2015. Preliminary design and analysis of a proposed solar and battery electric
cooking concept: costs and pricing, Evidence on Demand (prepared at the request of the UK
Department for International Development). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-
outputs/preliminary-design-and-analysis-of-a-proposed-solar-and-battery-electric-cooking-
concept-costs-and-pricing.
Leary, J. et al., 2018. eCook Global Market Assessment Where will the transition take place first ?,
Implemented by Gamos, Loughborough University, University of Surrey. Funded by DfID, Innovate
UK, Gamos. Available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326489706_eCook_Global_Market_Assessment_Wher
e_will_the_transition_take_place_first.
Slade, R., 2015. Key Assumptions and Concepts on Potential for Solar Electric Cooking: Batteries capable
of operating suitably in harsh’’ conditions in the developing world, Prepared at the request of the
UK Department for International Development. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-
outputs/key-assumptions-and-concepts-on-potential-for-solar-electric-cooking-batteries-capable-
of-operating-suitably-in-harsh-conditions-in-the-developing-world.
World Bank, 2014. Clean and improved cooking in sub-Saharan Africa: A landscape report, Washington,
D.C. Available at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/879201468188354386/pdf/98667-
WP-P146621-PUBLIC-Box393179B.pdf.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
23
8 Appendix
8.1 Appendix A: Problem statement and background to Innovate eCook
project
8.1.1 Beyond business as usual
The use of biomass and solid fuels for cooking is the everyday experience of nearly 3 Billion people. This
pervasive use of solid fuels––including wood, coal, straw, and dung––and traditional cookstoves results
in high levels of household air pollution, extensive daily drudgery required to collect fuels, and serious
health impacts. It is well known that open fires and primitive stoves are inefficient ways of converting
energy into heat for cooking. The average amount of biomass cooking fuel used by a typical family can
be as high as two tons per year. Indoor biomass cooking smoke also is associated with a number of
diseases, including acute respiratory illnesses, cataracts, heart disease and even cancer. Women and
children in particular are exposed to indoor cooking smoke in the form of small particulates up to 20
times higher than the maximum recommended levels of the World Health Organization. It is estimated
that smoke from cooking fuels accounts for nearly 4 million premature deaths annually worldwide
more than the deaths from malaria and tuberculosis combined.
While there has been considerable investment in improving the use of energy for cooking, the emphasis
so far has been on improving the energy conversion efficiency of biomass. Indeed in a recent overview
of the state of the art in Improved Cookstoves (ICS), ESMAP & GACC (2015), World Bank (2014), note
that the use of biomass for cooking is likely to continue to dominate through to 2030.
“Consider, for a moment, the simple act of cooking. Imagine if we could change the way nearly five hundred
million families cook their food each day. It could slow climate change, drive gender equality, and reduce
poverty. The health benefits would be enormous.” ESMAP & GACC (2015)
The main report goes on to say that “The “business-as-usual” scenario for the sector is encouraging but
will fall far short of potential.” (ibid,) It notes that without major new interventions, over 180 million
households globally will gain access to, at least, minimally improved
1
cooking solutions by the end of the
1
A minimally improved stove does not significantly change the health impacts of kitchen emissions. “For biomass cooking,
pending further evidence from the field, significant health benefits are possible only with the highest quality fan gasifier stoves;
more moderate health impacts may be realized with natural draft gasifiers and vented intermediate ICS” (ibid)
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24
decade. However, they state that this business-as-usual scenario will still leave over one- half (57%) of
the developing world’s population without access to clean cooking in 2020, and 38% without even
minimally improved cooking solutions. The report also states that ‘cleaner’ stoves are barely affecting
the health issues, and that only those with forced gasification make a significant improvement to health.
Against this backdrop, there is a need for a different approach aimed at accelerating the uptake of truly
‘clean’ cooking.
Even though improved cooking solutions are expected to reach an increasing proportion of the poor, the
absolute numbers of people without access to even ‘cleaner’ energy, let alone ‘clean’ energy, will
increase due to population growth. The new Sustainable Development Goal 7 calls for the world to
“ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”. Modern energy
(electricity or LPG) would indeed be ‘clean’ energy for cooking, with virtually no kitchen emissions (other
than those from the pot). However, in the past, modern energy has tended to mean access to electricity
(mainly light) and cooking was often left off the agenda for sustainable energy for all.
Even in relation to electricity access, key papers emphasise the need for a step change in investment
finance, a change from ‘business as usual’. IEG World Bank Group (2015) note that 22 countries in the
Africa Region have less than 25 percent access, and of those, 7 have less than 10 percent access. Their
tone is pessimistic in line with much of the recent literature on access to modern energy, albeit in
contrast to the stated SDG7. They discuss how population growth is likely to outstrip new supplies and
they argue that “unless there is a big break from recent trends the population without electricity access
in Sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase by 58 percent, from 591 million in 2010 to 935 million in
2030.” They lament that about 40% of Sub-Saharan Africa’s population is under 14 years old and
conclude that if the current level of investment in access continues, yet another generation of children
will be denied the benefits of modern service delivery facilitated by the provision of electricity (IEG
World Bank Group 2015).
“Achieving universal access within 15 years for the low-access countries (those with under 50 percent
coverage) requires a quantum leap from their present pace of 1.6 million connections per year to 14.6 million
per year until 2030.” (ibid)
Once again, the language is a call for a something other than business as usual. The World Bank
conceives of this as a step change in investment. It estimates that the investment needed to really
address global electricity access targets would be about $37 billion per year, including erasing
generation deficits and additional electrical infrastructure to meet demand from economic growth. “By
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25
comparison, in recent years, low-access countries received an average of $3.6 billion per year for their
electricity sectors from public and private sources” (ibid). The document calls for the Bank Group‘s
energy practice to adopt a new and transformative strategy to help country clients orchestrate a
national, sustained, sector-level engagement for universal access.
In the following paragraphs, we explore how increasing access to electricity could include the use of
solar electric cooking systems, meeting the needs of both supplying electricity and clean cooking to a
number of households in developing countries with sufficient income.
8.1.2 Building on previous research
Gamos first noted the trends in PV and battery prices in May 2013. We asked ourselves the question, is
it now cost effective to cook with solar photovoltaics? The answer in 2013 was ‘no’, but the trends
suggested that by 2020 the answer would be yes. We published a concept note and started to present
the idea to industry and government. Considerable interest was shown but uncertainty about the cost
model held back significant support. Gamos has since used its own funds to undertake many of the
activities, as well as IP protection (a defensive patent application has been made for the battery/cooker
combination) with the intention is to make all learning and technology developed in this project open
access, and awareness raising amongst the electrification and clean cooking communities (e.g. creation
of the infographic shown in Figure 2 to communicate the concept quickly to busy research and policy
actors).
Gamos has made a number of strategic alliances, in particular with the University of Surrey (the Centre
for Environmental Strategy) and Loughborough University Department of Geography and seat of the
Low Carbon Energy for Development Network). In October 2015, DFID commissioned these actors to
explore assumptions surrounding solar electric cooking
2
(Batchelor 2015b; Brown & Sumanik-Leary
2015; Leach & Oduro 2015; Slade 2015). The commission arose from discussions between consortium
members, DFID, and a number of other entities with an interest in technological options for cleaner
cooking e.g. Shell Foundation and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves.
Drawing on evidence from the literature, the papers show that the concept is technically feasible and
could increase household access to a clean and reliable modern source of energy. Using a bespoke
economic model, the Leach and Oduro paper also confirm that by 2020 a solar based cooking system
2
The project has been commissioned through the PEAKS framework agreement held by DAI Europe Ltd.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
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26
could be comparable in terms of monthly repayments to the most common alternative fuels, charcoal
and LPG. Drawing on published and grey literatures, many variables were considered (e.g. cooking
energy needs, technology performance, component costs). There is uncertainty in many of the
parameter values, including in the assumptions about future cost reductions for PV and batteries, but
the cost ranges for the solar system and for the alternatives overlap considerably. The model includes
both a conservative 5% discount rate representing government and donor involvement, and a 25%
discount rate representing a private sector led initiative with a viable return. In both cases, the solar
system shows cost effectiveness in 2020.
Figure 2 Infographic summarising the concept in order to lobby research and policy actors.
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27
The Brown and Sumanik-Leary paper in the series examines the lessons learned from four transitions
the uptake of electric cooking in South Africa, the roll out of Improved Cookstoves (ICS), the use of LPG
and the uptake of Solar Home Systems (SHS). They present many behavioural concerns, none of which
preclude the proposition as such, but all of which suggest that any action to create a scaled use of solar
electric cooking would need in depth market analysis; products that are modular and paired with locally
appropriate appliances; the creation of new, or upgrading of existing, service networks; consumer
awareness raising; and room for participatory development of the products and associated equipment.
A synthesis paper summarising the above concludes by emphasising that the proposition is not a single
product it is a new genre of action and is potentially transformative. Whether solar energy is utilised
within household systems or as part of a mini, micro or nano grid, linking descending solar PV and
battery costs with the role of cooking in African households (and the Global South more broadly) creates
a significant potential contribution to SDG7. Cooking is a major expenditure of 500 million households. It
is a major consumer of time and health. Where households pay for their fuelwood and charcoal
(approximately 300 Million) this is a significant cash expense. Solar electric cooking holds the potential
to turn this (fuelwood and charcoal) cash into investment in modern energy. This “consumer
expenditure” is of an order of magnitude more than current investment in modern energy in Africa and
to harness it might fulfil the calls for a step change in investment in electrical infrastructure.
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28
8.1.3 Summary of related projects
A series of inter-related projects have led to and will follow on from the research presented in this
report:
Gamos Ltd.’s early conceptual work on eCook (Batchelor 2013).
o The key CONCEPT NOTE can be found here.
o An early infographic and a 2018 infographic can be found here.
Initial technical, economic and behavioural feasibility studies on eCook commissioned by DfID
(UK Aid) through the CEIL-PEAKS Evidence on Demand service and implemented by Gamos Ltd.,
Loughborough University and University of Surrey.
o The key FINAL REPORTS can be found here.
Conceptual development, stakeholder engagement & prototyping in Kenya & Bangladesh during
the Low cost energy-efficient products for the bottom of the pyramidproject from the USES
programme funded by DfID (UK Aid), EPSRC & DECC (now part of BEIS) & implemented by
University of Sussex, Gamos Ltd., ACTS (Kenya), ITT & UIU (Bangladesh).
o
The key
PRELIMINARY RESULTS
(Q1 2019) can be found here.
A series of global & local market assessments in Myanmar, Zambia and Tanzania under the
eCook - a transformational household solar battery-electric cooker for poverty alleviation
project funded by DfID (UK Aid) & Gamos Ltd. through Innovate UK’s Energy Catalyst Round 4,
implemented by Loughborough University, University of Surrey, Gamos Ltd., REAM (Myanmar),
CEEEZ (Zambia) & TaTEDO (Tanzania).
o
The key
PRELIMINARY RESULTS
(Q1 2019) can be found here.
At time of publication (Q1 2019), a new DfID (UK Aid) funded research programme ‘Modern
Energy Cooking Services (MECS) lead by Prof. Ed Brown at Loughborough University is just
beginning and will take forward these ideas & collaborations.
This data and material have been funded by UK AID from the UK government; however, the views
expressed do not necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies.
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
29
8.2 Appendix B - eCook Zambia Kick-off Meeting Agenda
Time
Session
Speaker
8.30
Registration
9.00
Opening
Prof. F. Yamba
(CEEEZ)
9.10
What is eCook and why are we focussing on Zambia?
Introduction to eCook
Global market assessment
eCook Zambia preliminary market analysis
Objectives for Zambia case study
Programme of work in Zambia
Dr. J. Leary (Gamos,
Loughborough
University)
9.40
Feedback session
Is our eCook Zambia preliminary market data valid?
Will the proposed programme of work achieve the objectives?
10.00
Tea break
10.15
Demonstration of eCook prototype
Dr. J. Leary (Gamos,
Loughborough
University)
11.00
Small group discussions
What are the key barriers & drivers for eCook in Zambia?
Who are the key actors and what are their roles?
12:00
Plenary session
Summary of group discussions and key learning points
Closing remarks
13:00
Lunch
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
30
8.3 Appendix C - eCook presentation by Dr. Jon Leary
8/10/18
1
Dr Jon Le ary | Gamo s/Lo ughbo rough Unive rsity | Jon KLea ry@gm ail.c om
PV-eCook.org
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§Cooking on batteries is possible
§Soon “battery supported electricity” will be cost
comparable with charcoal
§Clean cooking
§Access to reliable electricity
§Build long-term partnerships to make this transition
happen
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§What is eCook?
§Why are we in Zambia?
§What are we planning to do in Zambia?
§Fee dba ck
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
4
Batchelor (2013, 2015a)
PV-eCook.org
Batchelor (2013, 2015a):
Solar Home System (SHS)
sized for cooking
Lighting, TV, radio &
other low power
appliances as a bonus
Simple electric hotplate
Minimal behaviour
change from charcoal
Moving toward DC
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
31
8/10/18
1
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
LEDs vs. incandescent = 1/10 Insulation vs. standard pot = 1/2
+ induction, pressure, lids, kettles
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 7:
ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND
MODERN ENERGY FOR ALL
§Batchelor (2015b) Opportunity to create a gateway product
for SDG7 by redirecting an existing expenditure to offer
both clean cooking and access electricity
PV-eCook.org
Leach & Oduro(2015)
modelled monthly costs
of cooking
Comparable ‘energy in the
pot’
Costs levelised& inclusive
of financing
Are monthly/weekly/daily
repayme nts on a bat ter y
electric cooker likely to be
comparable to current
expenditures on HH cookin g
fuels by 2020?
2015: charcoal & LPG was cheaper for almost everyone
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
PV-eCook,
utility
(DR=5%)
PV-eCook,
private
sector
(DR=20%)
Charcoal LPG PV-eCook,
utility
(DR=5%)
PV-eCook,
private
sector
(DR=20%)
Charcoal LPG
Cost of cooking, $/month
Large HHs cooking high
energy foods
Small HHs cooking low
energy foods
PV-eCook.org
Leach & Oduro(2015)
modelled monthly costs
of cooking
Comparable ‘energy in the
pot’
Costs levelised& inclusive
of financing
Are monthly/weekly/daily
repayme nts on a bat ter y
electric cooker likely to be
comparable to current
expenditures on HH cookin g
fuels by 2020?
2020: PV-eCook becomes cost competitive for a
significant number of people
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
PV-eCook,
utility
(DR=5%)
PV-eCook,
private
sector
(DR=20%)
Charcoal LPG PV-eCook,
utility
(DR=5%)
PV-eCook,
private
sector
(DR=20%)
Charcoal LPG
Cost of cooking, $/month
Large HHs cooking high
energy foods
Small HHs cooking low
energy foods
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
+=PV-eCook
+
Grid-eCook =+++
+
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
32
8/10/18
1
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§Grid operator perspective
§Load balancing
§Demand side management
§User perspective
§Able to cook & use low power
appliances during a blackout
§Fluid transition from off-grid
to unreliable grid
§Incorporation of existing
expenditure to justify the
costs of grid extension those
currently ‘under the grid’
§HH storage is finding its place
in developed economies
PV-eCook.org
Solar lighting successful as
substituted for existing
expenditure
kerosene, candles and batteries
Solar TVs & refrigeration also low
energy consumers
Enhance quality of life, but no
existing expenditure
Productive applications generate
new revenue, but usually much
higher energy
Cooking often has a monthly
expenditure that could be re-
purposed to pay for modern
energy infrastructure
better returns for investors
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
Global market
assessment
Places most likely
to transition
3x local market
assessment
People most likely
to transition
Participatory
design
Social marketing
Launch locally
appropriate
eCook product
Refine data
Techno-
economic
modelling &
design
Design for market
PV-eCook.org
East and Southern
Africa offer the
greatest opportunity
Zambia is one of the
biggest and easiest to
reach marke ts
PV-eCook
Viability
scores
PV-eCook.org
Zambia ranks third in
the world
Zambia scores highly
for every factor
PV-eCook market viability scores for Sub-
Saharan Africa
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
33
8/10/18
1
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§59% of Zambians (10 million) live in rural areas, 96% of whom are off-grid (World
Bank 2017)
§Market for pico-solar products and SHS is expanding rapidly
§15,000 sales in second half of 2016 (GOGLA et al. 2016)
§Favourable environmental conditions (Worl dCl im 2017)
§Monthly avg. solar irradiation: 4.4-5.8kWh/m2/day
§Monthly avg. temps.: 17-25°C
§Space heating with stoves likely to be minimal
§Battery lifetime/performance not likely to suffer from extreme temps.
PV-eCook.org
Leach &
Oduro’s(2015) 2020
modelling
$/kWh
BLACK = cheaper to cook with PV-eCook in 2020 under all of
L&O's (2015) scenarios.
DARK GREY= cheaper to cook with PV-eCook in 2020 some
of L&O's (2015) scenarios.
LIGHT GREY = not yet cheaper to cook with PV-eCook in
2020 under any of L&O's (2015) scenarios.
WHITE = no data avail able.
BLACK = cost effective to switch if eCook falls to below
0.3USD/kWh
DARK GREY = cost effective to switch if eCook falls to
0.2USD/kWh
GREY = cost effective to switch if eCook falls to 0.1USD/kWh
LIGHT GREY = eCook must fall below 0.1USD/kWh before it is
cost effective to switch
WHITE = no data available
At a charcoal price of
0.38USD/kg:
Zambia is within the
overlapp ing re gion of
L&O’s (2015) 2020
modelling
PV-eCook will become
cost effective in
Zambia when SHS or
mini-grids hit
0.2USD/kWh
PV-eCook.org
Zambian grid electricity
is amongst the cheapest
in the world
At a charcoal price of
0.38USD/kg:
Grid-eCook is cost
effective against
charcoal, no matter
how efficient an ICS
may be
PV-eCook.org
Focu s sh if ts to A si a,
Latin America and
Southern Africa
Zambia scores highly
Grid-eCook
Viability
scores
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§37% of Zambians (6 million) cook primarily on charcoal
§4th highest % in the world (WHO 2017)
§Kerosene & LP G use minimal
§5 million Zambians are grid connected (World Bank 2017)
§2 million Zambians already cook with grid electricity as their
primary fuel (WHO 2017)
§3 million grid-connected Zambians primarily cook with
other fuels
§3 million Zambians live in urban slums and rural grid-
connected regions
§Load shedding dramatically increased charcoal use
(Dlamini et al. 2016)
(WHO 2017)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Zambia
electricity
charcoal
firewood
PV-eCook.org
Nshima
Heating water main
energy input
Main challenge: stirring
Insulating pots
challenging
FAOST AT (2 01 7 ) f oo d
balance sheets
Predominantly vegetable-
based diet
0.65kWh/person/day
Boiling of maize,
cassava & sweet
potatoes major energy
requireme nt
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
34
8/10/18
1
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§To eva lua te the co mpa tib ili ty of eCo ok wit h t he Zamb ian co nte xt
§What is the potential market for eCook in Zambia?
§Which market segments should be targeted?
§Which marketing strategies are likely to be most effective?
§To en gage wi th key sta keho lde rs and bu ild pa rtn ers hip s t o f aci lit ate th e r oll ou t o f
eCook across Zambia
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§Work sho ps
§Kick off Meeting
§Bake-off & Entrepreneurs’ Workshop
§Cooking diaries
§Focu s gr ou ps
§Choice modelling surveys
§Interviews
§Building long-term partnerships to facilitate the transition to eCook
Is our eCook Zambia preliminary market data valid?
Will the proposed programme of work achieve the objectives?
Who should we be partn ering with to make this happen?
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§What are the key barriers a nd drivers for eCook in Zambia?
§How can we overcome the barriers?
§How can we leverage the drivers?
§Who are the key actors and what are th eir roles?
§Which market segments shoul d we target in Zambia?
§What marketing strategies can we use to reach them?
CEEEZ
Centre for
Energy, Environment and
Engineering Zambia Limited
!
PV-eCook.org
§BatchelorS, 2013, Is it time for Solar electric cooking for Africa?, Gamos Concept Note, May 2013, Reading, UK; 2013
§BatchelorS, 2015a, Africa cooking with electricity (ACE), Gamos Working Paper (Draft as at August 2015). Reading, UK; 2015.
§BatchelorS, 201 5b, Solar electric cooking in Africa in 2020, A synthesis of the possibilities. Evidence on Demand, UK;.v+ 44 pp.
[DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.12774/eod_cr.december2015.batchelors]
§Dlamini, C. e t al. , 2016. Load shedding and charcoal use in Zambia: what are the implications on forest resources?, Lu sa ka , Z amb ia .
Availab le at : ht tp :// www.iapri.org.zm [Accessed May 23, 2017].
§FAOSTA T, 2 01 7a . Fo od Ba l an c e S he e ts . Av ai l ab l e a t: h t tp : // www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/FBS [Accessed September 10, 2017].
§GOGLA, Lighting Global & Berenschot, 201 6. Global Of f-Grid Solar Ma rket Report Semi -Annual Sales and Impact Data -JULY-
DECEMBER 2016, PUBLIC REPORT, Avai lab le a t: ht tps :/ /www.gogla.org/sites/default/files/re cource_docs/final_sales-and-impact-
report_h 2201 6_fu ll_ publi c.pd f [ Acce ssed May 26, 2 017] .
§Leach, M. & Oduro, R., 20 15. Preliminary des ign and analysis of a proposed solar and battery electric cooking c oncept: cos ts an d
pricing,
§Worl dClim , 2017. Wor ld Cli m Ver s i o n 2 . A va i l a b l e a t : h t t p : / / worl dclim.org/version2 [Accessed August 31, 2017].
§Worl d Bank, 2017b. World Development Indicators. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-
indicators [Accessed August 31, 2017].
§WHO, 2017. Ho us eh ol d ene rgy d at ab as e. WHO. Ava il abl e at : h tt p: // www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/he_database/en/
[Accessed August 18, 2017]
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
35
8.4 Appendix D - Attendees
NAME
ORGANIZATION
POSITION
GEORGE CHULU
Master Electronics
Technician
SABERA KHAN
GKI/Beyond the Grid Fund Zambia
Facility Admin
MUTANGA MUNKOMBWE
Rural Electrification Authority (REA)
Renewable Energy
Solar Expert
STEWARD MAKANSE
Act to Save
Executive Director
DIANA ZULU
Solar Aid (sunny money)
Business Support
TOPUNJI BANDA
Emerging Cooking Solutions
Sales and
Marketing
PRAKASH C. GHIMIRE
SNV Zambia
Energy Sector
Leader
FERGUSON KAMPOMPO
Zambia Bureau of Standards (ZABS)
Laboratory Analyst
MUYUNDA AKUFUNA
VITALITE
Training
Coordinator
MKANDAWIRE JAMES
Green Innfordev
Operations
ELIZABETH MUSONDA
ZENGO
Technical
FLORENCE CHAUNGA
ZENGO
Coordinator
GEOFFREY KAILA
Muhanya Solar
Managing Director
DAISYDARIA MKANDAWIRE
Zesco Ltd
Principal Engineer
RASHID PHIRI
Rasma engineering
Director
FRANCIS MWILA
CEEEZ
Natural Resources
F.D. YAMBA
CEEEZ
Director
CHILOMBO CHILA
Department of Energy (DoE)
Energy Officer
BRIAN SIAKWENDA
Department of Energy (DoE)
Energy Officer
Research@gamos.org | PV-ecook.org
This research is funded by DfID/UK Aid and Gamos through the Innovate UK Energy Catalyst.
36
BRIAN S. MAINZA
Department of Energy (DoE)
Senior Energy
Officer
KEDDY MBINDO
Forestry Department
(FD)
Senior Research
Officer
HARBGUY MWAMBAZI
Times of Zambia
Reporter
BANDA FABIAN
University of Zambia- Technology Development
and Advisory Unit (UNZA-TDAU)
Project Engineer
JON LEARY
GAMOS
eCook Lead
Researcher
NANCY S. NG’OMA
CEEEZ
Centre Coordinator
8.4.1 Invited Guests Not in Attendance
NAME
ROLE
ORGANIZATION
REASON
CHANDA MONGO
Independent Consultant
Renewable Energy Expert
Out of the country at time of
meeting
REPRESENTATIVE
Solar dealers
EML
Did not communicate
ALFRED MUMBI
ICS Entrepreneur
Ecohazmart
Did not communicate
REPRESENTATIVE
NGO
Action Africa Help
Zambia
Did not communicate
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Article
Full-text available
Fuelwood (charcoal and firewood) has been shown to make up a large share of the energy budgets among households in several countries, with the share estimated between 76% and 90% (Syampungani et. al, 2009; Chidumayo, 1997; Hibajene & Kalumiana, 2003; SADC, 1993; Brigham et. al, 1993; Falcáo , 2008). Therefore, where electricity fails to meet the household energy demands, consumption of fuelwood is expected to increase, and in turn, increase the pressure on forest resources. Since 2012, Zambia has experienced increased load shedding partly due to inadequate investments in generation capacity but more due to poor rainfall and a resulting decrease in generation given its heavy dependence on hydro-electric power (Samboko et. al, 2016). As such, households are likely to have increased the share of expenditure on wood fuel in their energy budgets. In order to understand the implications of load shedding and the associated increase in charcoal use and forest resources, this study provided answers to the following questions: (i) How has charcoal demand and supply changed between 2013 and 2015? (ii) What is the extent of localised forest destruction in abandoned charcoal production sites and what are the implications for the future natural forests and woodlands (ecological sustainability)? (iii) What could be the appropriate policy and legislative interventions to mitigate the direct impacts of increased charcoal production and the indirect impacts of load shedding on natural forests and woodlands? To answer the research questions, the researchers conducted interviews in selected districts drawn from Lusaka, Copperbelt, and Southern Provinces. Purposive sampling was used to select the study areas. This is further supported by a rapid forest inventory and botanical survey to answer the questions relating to the ecological impacts of charcoal production on plant species diversity and forest landscape in selected Zambian Miombo woodlands. The key findings are as follows: load shedding is undoubtedly one of the primary drivers of increased production, trade, and demand for charcoal among Zambian households between 2012 and 2015. The number of charcoal kilns produced per person has increased, with incomes of charcoal producers increasing by ZMW 33,000 between 2013 and 2015. The incomes of charcoal traders has doubled to ZMW 978 per month, while charcoal prices have increased by ZMW 15 per 25 Kg bag. Because of the increased demand for charcoal, there is a reduction in the number and size of preferred tree species for production, and this has led to the use of less superior species. There is a direct correlation between the quantities of charcoal produced and the cut-over area. Therefore, the likely impact of prolonged load shedding in Zambia is likely to lead to more clearing of forests and woodlands, unlike clearing land for agriculture, this is expected to lead to losses of forest ecosystem functions and forest ecosystem goods and services. However, it is unlikely to lead to losses in biodiversity because in all abandoned charcoal production sites, at regeneration, the subsequent species diversity represents a full range of species that are reminiscent of the Miombo range. In conclusion, the high demand for charcoal arising from load shedding guarantees economic sustainability of charcoal production. However, ecological sustainability may not be attainable v given that the standing stock in the natural forests and woodlands is declining. Minimising the potential adverse effect of load shedding on forests and woodlands will require promotion of sustainable energy alternatives than charcoal and hydro-electric power, and/or the use of efficient cook-stoves especially in urban areas. There is also need to incorporate charcoal production in local and national forest management programmes and the rural economy. It is also important to review and update relevant policies and legislation in the forest and energy sectors. Scaling-up finance, and technical support to the Public Forest administration will also help effectively implement the 2014 National Forestry Policy. For charcoal producers, we propose that there should be programmes that capacity build these to help them comply with policies and legislation for sustainable charcoal production.
Working Paper
Full-text available
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