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Organizational and Economic Transformations towards the Greening of Agro-industrial Production



The increase in the production of agricultural products and food supplies in excess of regulatory needs and the provision of food safety in Russia led to the expansion of the export of agricultural products and the change in the course of the development of the agro-industrial complex from import substitution to export-oriented production. However, the entry to world food markets requires high quality of products from manufacturers and its certification in accordance with world standards. The article presents the organizational and economic transformations towards the greening of agro-industrial production, namely, the use of the resource potential, the involvement of Russian manufacturers in the production of environmentally friendly products and the development of organic agriculture; the mechanisms for solving the set problems are substantiated.
European Research Studies Journal
Volume XXI, Special Issue 3, 2018 pp. 28-38
Organizational and Economic Transformations towards the
Greening of Agro-industrial Production
O.Yu. Voronkova
, D.F. Islamutdinovа
, O.G. Gordeyeva
, I.I. Frolova
I.V. Fedulova
, A.E. Zhminko
The increase in the production of agricultural products and food supplies in excess of
regulatory needs and the provision of food safety in Russia led to the expansion of the export
of agricultural products and the change in the course of the development of the agro-
industrial complex from import substitution to export-oriented production.
However, the entry to world food markets requires high quality of products from
manufacturers and its certification in accordance with world standards.
The article presents the organizational and economic transformations towards the greening
of agro-industrial production, namely, the use of the resource potential, the involvement of
Russian manufacturers in the production of environmentally friendly products and the
development of organic agriculture; the mechanisms for solving the set problems are
Keywords: Economics, management, food safety, efficiency, agro-industrial complex,
ecology, food export.
JEL Classification: O13, Q1, Q18, R11, R58.
Altai state University, Barnaul, Russia,
Yugra State University, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia,
Economic Cheboksary Cooperative Institute of Russian Cooperative University,
Cheboksary, Russia,
Kazan Innovative University named after V.G. Timiryasov (IEML), Kazan, Russia,
Altai State Agricultural University, Barnaul, Russia,
Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar, Russia,
O.Yu. Voronkova, D.F. Islamutdinovа, O.G. Gordeyeva, I.I. Frolova, I.V. Fedulova, A.E. Zhminko
1. Introduction
The food market in modern conditions shows a clear priority towards the
development of the sector of organic products. The development of the organic
market is due to many reasons. It is the uncertainty of possible consequences and
distrust of genetically modified products; the perceived danger of products of mass
production for human health; the comprehensive information campaign aimed at
promoting ecologically friendly products, public preferences for a healthy lifestyle,
including nutrition with organic products and others (Avarsky et al., 2014; Sycheva
et al., 2015; Voronkova et al., 2018a; Poltarykhin et al., 2018; Yemelyanov, et al.,
2018; Akhmetshin et al., 2018c).
Organic production has been practiced in more than 160 countries of the world and
on more than 37 million hectares of agricultural land. In Russia, 150 thousand
hectares of agricultural land have been certified for organic production (Sycheva et
al., 2015; Voronkova et al., 2018b). The resources of the regions of agro-industrial
specialization allow expanding the production of organic products. At the same time,
there are unresolved problems; the development of organizational and economic
mechanisms for solving them is required.
2. Methods
The study is based on the works by domestic and foreign scientists on the economic
regulation of processes of the greening of agro-industrial production, problems of
organizational and economic transformations in the regional sector of the AIC. The
methodological basis is the systematic approach, which allowed ensuring the
integrity and purposefulness of the study. Analytical, economic and statistical, as
well as monographic research methods, were applied in this work.
The study of the experience of agricultural production shows that the development
of agriculture in the countries of the world community is more focused on organic
production of environmentally friendly products that are safe for human health,
which ensures increased quality and longevity of the population. Scientists and
practitioners work on the issues of organic agriculture. Discussions continue, starting
with the terminology used in the research and practice of organic agriculture, the
resource potential and technologies of ecological farming (Altukhov and Kundius,
2009; Poznyak and Romanovsky, 2009).
3. Results
In general, organic agriculture includes social responsibility, ensures environmental
safety and economic efficiency. It is a biological and dynamic method of
management, the main idea of which is to execute agricultural production in
accordance with the laws of nature. Due to the understanding of the environmental
conditions prevailing in the modern world, over the past two decades, there has been
Organizational and Economic Transformations towards the Greening of Agro-industrial
an increasing interest in environmental issues of farming, contributing to the natural
restoration of soil fertility and maintaining an equilibrium natural ecosystem. The
number of farms in the USA, China, India, Japan, and the European Union countries,
executing agricultural production based on environmental principles, is increasing.
This technology of agricultural production is a serious alternative to the established
traditional (industrial) farming (Krilatih, 2008).
Today, the degree of efficiency of agricultural production largely depends on the
level of its balance, as well as the applied organizational and economic methods of
farming. The public consciousness has reached a certain level of its development,
when the measure of agricultural production is not only the growth in the volume of
manufactured products but also the degree of preservation of natural resources,
which is determined by constantly increasing technogenic pressures on
environmental objects soil cover, bioorganisms, atmosphere, and water resources,
which leads to an imbalance of the fragile natural balance (Dautov et al., 2018;
Zhundibayeva et al., 2013).
The resulting dilemma of the further development of agricultural production and the
preservation of the natural environment as the basis of the vital activity of future
generations has determined the search for alternatives for the development of the
agricultural sector. Thus, for about three decades, leading foreign agricultural
scientists and practitioners in the sphere of solving territorial environmental issues
and improving food quality, have gradually introduced organic methods of
agricultural production, turning this trend into a strategically important and
significant sector of the economy (Lysenko, 2008; Miloserdov, 2012).
Organic agricultural production dynamically develops in the USA, Canada,
European Union countries, Australia, China, and Japan. According to the report of
the International Federation of the Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM),
agricultural manufacturers in more than 130 countries around the world, in parallel
with the industrial system of agricultural production, are introducing methods of
organic production of agricultural products. Asian countries occupy the third
position in the ranking of countries, engaged in organic agricultural production in
terms of the area of land, which is allocated for organically oriented methods of
management. The main consumer of eco-products today is the European Union,
where Germany accounts for the main sales volume (Plotnikov et al., 2018a; 2018b).
The physiological full-value and ecological safety of organic products is the most
important criterion for consumers, who are willing to pay a higher price for it
(Zhuchenko, 2012; Smoluk-Sikorska and Luczka-Bakula, 2013).
Based on the conducted analysis, it becomes obvious that the current situation in the
agricultural sector does not imply quick and large-scale rehabilitation of the AIC. As
a result, it is required at the state level to define clear strategic and tactical goals
(Korableva et al., 2017) for the systematic development of environmentally oriented
agriculture, substantiate specific ways to achieve these targets, clearly define
O.Yu. Voronkova, D.F. Islamutdinovа, O.G. Gordeyeva, I.I. Frolova, I.V. Fedulova, A.E. Zhminko
government support measures and designate the sequence of stages for reforming the
land relations system towards the organic development.
The main condition for the effective functioning of the proposed system is the
development of methods of transition to environmentally oriented agricultural
production, both in large agricultural organizations and in small organizational and
legal forms of management. It is advisable to conduct the formation of the organic
sector of land use in several successive interrelated stages that will ensure the
effective functioning of organic agricultural production in the future (Nedelkin et al.,
2016; Abramov, 2016; Akhmetshin et al., 2017a). The formation of an organic
farming system does not mean abandoning industrial agricultural production. In the
authors' opinion, both organic and industrial farming systems can function
effectively in parallel with each other, gradually transforming into an agricultural
technology that can meet the current and assumed needs of the population for high-
quality and environmentally safe food products.
The transition to environmentally oriented agricultural production should meet the
goals and development strategy of each agricultural manufacturer. Given the
incompatibility in size and diversity of the organizational and legal forms of
agricultural enterprises, it is proposed to distinguish measures for the transition to
organically oriented land use based on the production sizes of agricultural
manufacturers. The essence of the proposal is that, based on the existing soil and
fertile, natural and climatic, organizational and economic, social and environmental
conditions and needs of the market, it is necessary to create optimal conditions for
increasing the economic efficiency of agricultural production.
Agricultural manufacturers, applying the principles of organic agriculture and
wishing to enter the domestic and world markets with their products, need to be
certified. However, many agribusinesses, particularly in developing countries,
execute natural organic farming due to the lack of financial resources for the
purchase of synthetic fertilizers of plant protection (Yemelyanov et al., 2018a), as
well as the lack of access to modern intensive technologies without having
certification of their manufactured products.
Most scientists believe that not only Russia but also many other countries are
characterized by the absence of an agreed concept of an environmentally friendly or
organic product, respectively, organic or ecological agriculture. One of the
generalized definitions characterizing a product manufactured in accordance with
organic (ecological) agricultural technologies means that these products are grown
without the use of chemical plant protection products, synthetic mineral fertilizers in
the soil, where the humus content is increased by adding organic substances.
Moreover, these are the products grown in soil, the mineral substance content of
which is increased by applying natural mineral fertilizers; products were not
manufactured with preservatives, hormone-containing drugs, and antibiotics.
Ecological agriculture is also accompanied by social, ecological and economic
Organizational and Economic Transformations towards the Greening of Agro-industrial
efficiency (Zyrin and Ilinova, 2016).
Table 1. Ecological rating of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The accounting
period is June 1, 2017 August 31, 2018).
The subject of the
Tambov Region
Altai Republic
Altai region
St. Petersburg
Chuvash Republic
Ulyanovsk region
Belgorod region
Murmansk region
Kursk region
Komi Republic
Magadan Region
The expansion of arable land as a result of introducing fallow land leads to the need
to increase the livestock of animals, and this, in turn, increases the level of
employment of the population in providing year-round work for people, creating
additional jobs and solving the problems of rural employment (Nedelkin et al., 2017;
Yemelyanov, 2014a). Most Russian manufacturers of organic products is located in
the European part of the Russian Federation and is concentrated in the Yaroslavl,
Saratov, Rostov and Moscow Regions, as well as in Krasnodar Krai.
Experts of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation emphasize that in
15-20 years Russia can occupy up to 10% of the world market for organic products
and food, and organic agriculture itself can become a new area of global influence.
For achieving this, the Russian Federation has everything: huge natural potential,
vast reserves of fresh water and fertile land, etc. For example, today the countries of
the Asia-Pacific region consider Russia as an area to produce organic products. This
is especially true for the Far East of the country, which is a "young" zone of
agriculture, since "150 years is not a long period of time for land".
In the authors' opinion, the development of agriculture, focused on the production of
organic products, should be based on solving a list of interrelated primary tasks:
conducting land monitoring in the main agricultural regions of the Russian
Federation to determine the land potential, suitable to produce organic
substantiating the methodological basis for the elaboration of a mechanism
for the formation and development of agriculture, focused on the production
of organic products at the state, regional and local levels;
O.Yu. Voronkova, D.F. Islamutdinovа, O.G. Gordeyeva, I.I. Frolova, I.V. Fedulova, A.E. Zhminko
development and co-financing of programs aimed at the preservation and
restoration of soil fertility of agricultural lands;
implementation of programs aimed at increasing the level of knowledge and
developing the skills of maintaining organic land use systems for
agricultural manufacturers of various organizational and legal forms of
ownership to overcome the lack of economic thinking and acquire an
education level, which is adequate to the existing conditions;
development of national standards for certifying agricultural organic
products, as well as the formation of conditions for obtaining international
environmental certification by organic products (Yemelyanov et al., 2018b).
It is believed that relevant ministries, departments, public and private organizations
with a certain share of participation in international environmental movements
should take part in the process of forming a system of organic farming as a
component of the integral agricultural system of the country. The fundamental task
of the system of organic land use is the development of incentives for the production
and sale of organic (ecologically friendly) food. The emerging system of organic
farming should include the following activities:
further development and adoption of the regulatory framework, which is
necessary for the effective functioning of the system of organic farming and
markets for selling organic products;
making the necessary amendments in the current tax legislation of the
Russian Federation aimed at providing support and economic incentives for
the developing organic sector of agricultural production;
elaborating a set of measures and adopting a state program under the project
title "State support for agricultural manufacturers of organic
(environmentally friendly) products";
providing consulting and information support to manufacturers of organic
products and forming an environmental culture of consumers;
participation of international organizations and quality auditors in the field
of environmental certification and labeling of organic products;
organization of the environmental management system in national
agricultural production;
formation of a register of agricultural organizations, manufacturing organic
products that meet the required parameters of international environmental
standards for food products;
formation of prerequisites for voluntary environmental certification of
agricultural organizations and providing a label of "organic
(environmentally friendly) product" to organic products manufactured by
them, based on the declaration of these products for compliance with
environmental requirements;
promotion of organic products through advertising, round tables,
exhibitions, fairs, competitions, media coverage and on agricultural
Organizational and Economic Transformations towards the Greening of Agro-industrial
websites, covering successful activities of domestic and foreign agricultural
manufacturers of organic products;
organization of a centralized marketing service, promoting organic products
of domestic agricultural manufacturers in the domestic and international
sales markets.
The main condition for the effective functioning of the proposed system is the
development of an organizational and economic mechanism for agricultural
production of organic products in both large agricultural organizations and small
organizational and legal forms of management (Korableva and Guseva, 2015;
Sycheva et al., 2018a; 2018b; Akhmetshin et al., 2017b; Osadchy and Akhmetshin,
2015a; 2015b). In the conditions of competitive environment, it is important to
provide opportunities for civilized and dynamic market development and the
creation of a high level of competitiveness of the economy, which are the key
elements among the national and regional priorities of any country and, therefore,
the most important functions of state regulation (Yamova et al., 2018; Akhmetshin
et al., 2018a; 2018b; Nagimov et al., 2018; Polyakova et al., 2018; Dmitrieva et al.,
2017; Sharafutdinov et al., 2017; Latyshev et al., 2015; Tarman, 2016).
4. Models and Results
In connection with the intensification of the negative anthropogenic impact of
human activity on the environment, high rates of population growth, a delay in
reproduction and restoration of natural resources, and the intensification of the
production of material goods, primarily agriculture. Global warming will accelerate
the processes of desertification, complicating the living conditions of the population
and farming (Yemelyanov, 2014b). In this regard, the movement for environmental
safety and the preservation of the environment, soil resources, water, renewable
energy sources are becoming increasingly active; the Slow Food movement is
expanding for healthy nutrition and preservation of the traditions of national and
regional cuisine. In Russia, 2017 has been declared by the president as the year of
ecology, which indicates the country's integration into the world trend.
The ecological safety of the vital activity of the population requires an integrated
approach to solving problems of environmental conservation and ecosystem
management of production processes and environmental management. Ecosystem
management is one of six cross-cutting thematic priorities of the United Nations
Environment Program (UNEP). The six cross-cutting thematic priorities are as
follows: climate change; disasters and conflicts; ecosystem management;
environmental governance; harmful substances and hazardous waste; resource
efficiency sustainable consumption and production. The organic land use sector
should be formed in several consecutive and interrelated stages that will ensure the
effective functioning of agriculture, focused on the production of organic products,
in the future.
O.Yu. Voronkova, D.F. Islamutdinovа, O.G. Gordeyeva, I.I. Frolova, I.V. Fedulova, A.E. Zhminko
5. Conclusion
Russia's long-term goals are export-oriented agriculture and food industry, because
the country has a unique export potential and acquires enormous natural resources
for the production of environmentally friendly products (Rasskazova et al., 2014).
These are 20% of the world's freshwater reserves, 9% of the arable land of the planet
(115 million hectares), 58% of the world chernozem reserves, 38.8 million hectares
of fallow agricultural land (including fallows) that had not been chemicalized for a
long time (Voronkova et al., 2018c). Approximately 67% of arable land is
concentrated in agricultural organizations, about 15% is accounted for by peasant
farms (farming enterprises) and individual entrepreneurs, and 17% of arable land is
used by the population's households. In the world, the main volume of organic crop
production falls on farm enterprises and personal subsidiary farms. In this regard, it
is necessary to pay attention to the importance of environmental and social
responsibility of business.
The environmental functions and management of the resource potential of organic
agriculture in the regions are performed by administrative departments, and regional
ministries have been created. For example, the Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environment of Altai Krai is the executive authority of Altai Krai, which
implements the state policy in the field of environmental protection and nature
management, water and forest relations, protection and use of wildlife objects,
aquatic biological resources, as well as hunting and conservation of hunting
resources. The Ministry executes general management and control over
environmental management within the framework of its powers, and this requires the
resolution of many issues related to the production and sale of environmental
Russia's ability to withstand compliance with international standards and be
competitive in world markets where environmentally friendly agricultural products
are in demand is quite high: huge reserves of land in Russia, the introduction of
ecological farming systems need to be executed over large areas, coordinating with
many small owners. It remains problematic to provide farmers with information on
new, more efficient technical means, biotechnologies in organic agriculture and
certification of organic products for ecological cleanliness, the safety of their
manufactured products, use of intensive biotechnologies, financial support for
organic agriculture, as well as processing and selling eco-products.
For the domestic economy, where about 27% of the population live in rural areas
and more than 12% of the working-age population is employed in the field of
agricultural production, the formation and development of agriculture focused on
organic production will allow solving not only the problems of ecological safety of
food and environment but also the social problems of rural areas by increasing the
level of employment of rural residents. The authors believe that the strategic
development of environmentally oriented food production will allow solving the
Organizational and Economic Transformations towards the Greening of Agro-industrial
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... Competitiveness in the market of hotel services is a rather acute problem. Increasing competitive advantages is the main task of improving business activities, the solution of which contributes not only to strengthening the business position in the accommodation services market, but also to attracting new customers as well as making additional profit [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. When applying diversification strategy, there is a possibility to reallocate resources and prevent the closure of a hotel business. ...
In modern market economy conditions, the hotel industry is an integral part of the tourism industry and the most important catalyst for the socio-economic development of the regions of the Russian Federation. This article investigates the essence of diversification and evaluates its role in the process of improving the competitiveness of hotel industry facilities. Generalizing various terminological approaches, diversification in hospitality industry is considered as the development of hotel industry by expanding the range of services and the possibilities of their implementation, identification of the strengths and their further development, optimization of the use of capital and all types of resources, application of new technologies, market expansion, and creation of hotel chains. Diversification as a means of enhancing the competitive advantages of a hotel is considered. The authors emphasize the fact that every hotel business should work out the most appropriate diversification strategy, based on the stated objectives. Based on the conducted research it is concluded that diversification allows hotels to ensure survival by obtaining a guaranteed level of profit, acquiring a sustainable position in the market of hotel services.
... Such prospects are of particular importance for Russia for two reasons. One of them is institutional in nature and is due in large part to the risks that the technologically lagging domestic economy brings with it the international practice of using environmental standards that tighten requirements not only for the quality of the final product, but also for its production technologies, including the use and conservation of natural resources [27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
The article considers nature as an economic good, its role as a resource factor in socio-economic development. First of all, it should be emphasized that the living and inanimate nature is the habitat, living space of a person. Without water and air, with excessive solar radiation due to the ozone layer or with excess cold due to greenhouse gases, human activity ceases much faster than in the absence of essential goods. Therefore, the value of natural conditions as a means of survival and development of the human community has an undisputed priority over other benefits and values. The life of any person is inextricably linked with nature, nature plays a role in shaping the quality of life and the spiritual wealth of society.
... The study reveals multidirectional tendencies in the regions for the reduction of the rural population, the level and quality of life. The authors conclude that the absence of public regulation of human capital formation in rural areas would jeopardize the achievement of many indicators of the region's socio-economic development strategy [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. ...
Purpose: Consideration of the key directions of social infrastructure development affecting the formation of human capital Design / Methodology / Approach: This study uses the method of analogy and comparison, monographic and statistical methods Findings. The study indicates a strong correlation between the level of human capital formation and the healthcare system. The authors analyze and assess absolute and relative parameters of the main objects of social infrastructure suggesting several recommendations for their improvement Practical implications: The problems discussed in the article indicate an urgent need to improve the health system in rural areas Originality / value: The authors define the concept of social infrastructure, consider various approaches to its definition, and also indicate the main factors that adversely affect the reproduction of human capital
Modern society is witnessing the emergence of one of the most acute problems - the protection of natural waters from pollution. In the conditions of the scientific and technological revolution, the human impact on the environment has become so significant that the question of the guarantees of the existence of life on Earth seriously arises. Nature is no longer able to compensate for violations caused by industrial and other human activities without human help. Pollution of surface and groundwater is one of the most harmful and dangerous negative effects of human activity on water object, which leads not only to irreversible adverse changes in the quality of water and aquatic ecosystems, but also directly affects all living organisms on our planet. The problem of protecting surface water from pollution over the past few decades remains one of the most acute environmental problems of the Russian Federation, representing a very difficult socio-economic and scientific-technical problem. The frivolous attitude of society and the state towards the environment, the actual priority of the economy over ecology in public policy led to a significant deterioration in the quality of the environment, which is especially pronounced in the state of many water objects in the Russian Federation, as evidenced by official state monitoring.
The article discusses the advantages and problems of the development of efficient biofuel production. The experience of developed countries in the production of biofuels from agricultural raw materials. Defined economic and social aspects. There is a political side to the production of renewable bioenergy. The availability of verified energy sources gives the country a certain temporary "margin of energy durability" in the event of a sudden interruption in the supply of traditional fuels (oil, fuel oil, gas) and some opportunity for maneuvering energy resources within the state. The development of bioenergy based on the use of its own raw material base is economically feasible. This is not only biofuels and fertilizers, but also high-protein feed for livestock and poultry, as well as the possibility of energy supply of specific agricultural enterprises.
Organic production as a global trend in progressive socio-economic development and the guarantor of the food and environmental security of countries and regions is becoming an attractive field for entrepreneurs. However, in Russia, only a few entrepreneurs currently consider organic production as the main type of business. The article analyses the factors that favour and impede the development of entrepreneurship in the field of organic agriculture and substantiates the basic mechanisms to encourage entrepreneurship in organic production. The results of the analysis can be used in the development and implementation of regulatory policies on entrepreneurial activity in organic agriculture. The purpose of this study is to substantiate the mechanisms of entrepreneurial activity and the organizational and economic prerequisites for the development of organic agriculture in Russia. The basic objectives include the development of mechanisms to stimulate entrepreneurial activity in the organic production sector, as well as the socio-economic assessment of the effectiveness of organic agriculture in the context of the formation and development of a "green" economy.
The article considers the prospect of forming a tourism cluster by the example of the existing resort Belokurikha. This is due to the historical background and concentration of tourist facilities, as well as the experience of joint project implementation by the cluster members. The authors identify five functional complexes in the cluster structure and describe their characteristics. The article suggests a model of the tourist cluster management structure along with the stages of its formation in the region.
Development features of peasant household of some Russian provinces during World War I are described in the paper. World War I had a great impact on Russian agriculture. Military recruitment, requisition of horses and cattle, lack of agricultural tools, machines and fertilizers, transport difficulties had a negative impact on agriculture. About 7.5 million people were taken from agriculture in the first year of war. About 6 million of people were called on military service in the second and third year. As a result, a large number of households were without male work power. Women, old men and teenagers had a major role in agriculture due to a lack of male work power. Agriculture lost a great number of horses. They were taken into the army. 3167 thousand of horses were in the army according to records for September 1, 1917. This is 10% of all livestock of horses in the country. A large number of cattle were confiscated during the war. This had a great impact on agriculture of the southern and western provinces. A great requisition was in middle-class households and in poor households. However, despite a number of negative economic factors connected with the war, country economy had necessary human resources, material and technical resources, showing steady increase in work productivity and crop yield. Political events of critical period in the history of Russia in the beginning of the 20th century showed that the country was dependent on the peasantry. It was because the peasantry was the majority of population. Rural and army support played a great role in a victory of the Left in revolutionary events of 1917 and the subsequent Civil war. Agrarian revolution showed that Russian peasantry resolved complex problems of agrarian development by confiscatory and distributive actions. It was called «Black Repartition» in Russia.
Purpose. Studying the problems that impede economic growth, the authors consider it appropriate to consider the relationship between household income and gross domestic product. Design/Methodology/Approach: The following research methods were used: historical, statistical-economic, and monographic. Findings. The authors have revealed that the level of income of the population affects a number of macroeconomic indicators. The practical implications. An analysis of income, as a fundamental factor affecting the formation of human capital, indicates that significant human capital has been formed in the agricultural sector, which is not fully used due to the low material interest of the rural population. Originality/value: The article considers a number of factors that directly and indirectly affect economic growth.
Purpose: Consideration of the main directions of development of information and communication technologies, as well as the impact of digital competencies on economic growth in the new conditions. Design Methodology Approach: This study uses statistical and monographic methods, as well as a survey method. Findings. The study showed that in agricultural production in the current conditions, digital technologies are actively used. This is evidenced by the use of unmanned aerial vehicles, the use of digital platforms and much more. Along with this, the labor market was not ready to offer specialists with knowledge and skills in the field of agricultural production and digital technologies. Practical implications: The problems discussed in the article indicate an urgent need to develop a mechanism for training specialists for the agricultural industry with digital skills. Originality value: The authors define the concept of the digital economy, and also reveal the essence of the factors affecting its development.
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The article presents the results of an inquiry research carried out in 2011 among specialist and general retail grocery outlets offering organic food. A comparative analysis of the width and depth of organic products range was conducted and grounds for lack of the offer complexity, particularly in retail grocery outlets, were presented as well. The sources of supply in basic products groups and the distance to supplier as the factors determining the offer were discussed. The conducted research proves that the product range, especially in general retail outlets, is not sufficient, which results from the offer of the intermediate links of the organic food distribution channels and the relatively long distance to suppliers.
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Innovations and innovation activity become driving forces for the development of all sectors of the economy, and the development of human capital in particular. For this reason, in this work we offered a methodological approach of an estimation of human capital in the case of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Volga Federal District regions for the period from 2010 to 2015 with forecast to 2020.
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In the new conditions of work with the staff, a creative individualized approach to human resource management. The speed of scientific and technological progress and the strengthening of competition determine the special role of personnel management in the overall management system of the organization. The system of personnel management should provide the necessary organizations with the skills and abilities, and support the desire to use these skills of its employees. To this end, special programs are being developed.
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Currently, the innovative development of the enterprise is considered to be an urgent task. Implementation of innovation in the economic activity of the enterprise is a complex process. Thus, effective innovation process conditions and factors, as well as mechanisms of its control need further investigation. The study is based on general research methods such as the analysis and synthesis, the deduction and induction, the interrelation between historical and logical, laws of dialectics, and the analysis of cause and effect relationship. Special methods include the institutional approach, methods of the theory of property rights and the theory of innovation. The study is based on the works of scholars such as, R.L. Daft, V. Horvath and others. Conducted study revels beneficial effect of property rights exchange in the innovation process. Property rights act as a vital institution of increasing confidence and values in the innovation process. The identified main stages of the innovation process are considered in a following sequence: idea --> intellectual property asset --> intangible assets --> shares. The exchange of proprietary rights allows determining the required ratio of economic resources and create behavior scenario of the innovation process participants. Special attention is paid to the transitions from stage to stage in the innovation process, as well as improvement of control procedures at each stage. It is found that the main risks occur during the transition of the innovation process from one stage to another. These stages should be taken into account when exchanging and control of property rights. The authors distinguish between sales of knowledge and intellectual property management since property rights transformation in these two cases is different.The application of the institutional approach and the property rights theory to improve the effectiveness of the innovation process is a promising and relevant tool of economic activity of university and enterprise.
Conference Paper
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Today, in a constantly changing economic situation in the world innovations are the driving forces of the global economy, where one of the main places takes labor potential of human capital. For this reason, we evaluated the human capital of the Volga Federal District and its region on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan for the period from 2013 to 2016 (projected) year and the forecast until 2020, taking into account the labor potential of the national enterprise. This study is based on the application of the following research methods: analysis and synthesis, systematic and integrated approach, factor analysis, structural-functional, statistical and representative approaches. In the study, we obtained the following results: calculated indices of human capital in each region of the Volga Federal District and Russia, conducted its evaluation with the calculation of the labor potential of the national company and the counting of the forecast of development of human capital in the Republic of Tatarstan.
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The article provides estimates of innovation parameters' influence on social and economic development of regions measured as per capita gross regional product. The empirical part of the research comprises the regression model that demonstrates interrelations in a region-wide breakdown, considering the differentiation of innovation development level of regions grouped into homogenous clusters. The results provide evidence of two forces. One of these stands for the traditional academic and industrial science attributed with plan-fact indicators. The other, in its idea and contents, is fully matching with the R&D market concept since it exists and functions in a competitive environment, strives to self-financing and commercialization. Therefore, performance indicators and growth rates of this segment are far ahead the ones of the traditional science. ©2018 Institut za Slovenski Jezik Frana Ramovsa.All right reserved.
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In the context of globalization and the importance of emerging markets, there is a need to study practical examples of product promotion in these markets. For Russia, the additional urgency is related to sanctions from the US and the EU, when the appeal to "friendly" developing countries is considered as the main (and in some cases- the only) export opportunity. Where to expand and how to proceed? What to look for marketing strategy? Where to find support? What barriers (risks) can be encountered on the export promotion path and how to circumvent them? These and other questions this work intends to answer. Its goal is to identify significant common factors and best practices for better product promotion in emerging markets. The research focuses on six emerging markets: China, Brazil, UAE, South Africa, Poland and Kazakhstan. The choice is due to the structural analysis of Russian exports for 2016, the preferences of expert analytics and, if possible, different geographical location (except for China and Kazakhstan) of the listed countries. The work is of practical value for companies seeking to bring their products to the emerging markets. The follow-up to this study can be a narrowing of the topic to specific types of products, taking into account the industry practices, detailed study of individual ways for product promotion or focusing on the characteristics of one market. © 2018 International Strategic Management Association. All right reserved.
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The paper presents a toolkit for regional modernization processes evaluation. A regression model derived allows for identification of the key factors that determine interrelation between regional development parameters. The model application to the case of Tyumen region indicated a high extent of stability of spatial interaction patterns and a high degree of conservatism in the economy's structure due to the key role played by labor among other factors of output. The model showed that the region's industrial component is highly dependent on the demographic factor, which means low innovation potential. Policy implication of the model provides a measure for necessary public interventions in innovation segment to compensate for the increasing innovation gap. The interventions include incentives and stimuli to speed-up regional innovation dynamics, as well as the development strategy revision to introduce spatial economics concept, to prioritize modernization and to change traditional patterns of social and economic development. © 2018 International Strategic Management Association. All rights reserved.
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Users behave differently when searching for the same queries, and this is manifested in the cost of online promotion by keywords. The data collected from the English-speaking search engine Google (two countries: the US and the UK) for the general request "html" have been analyzed and compared in the study. Dispersion and regression analyses have been used as methods. Cost-per-click, the amount of observed data with filled values by parameters N=6,917, is a dependent variable. As a result of the study, it has been found that the predictive model of the US contextual advertising market is more important in comparison with the UK, which indicates better development of the US market. Despite the developed US market, advertisers prefer not to search for a keyword with multiple words as an ad trigger in the Google search engine.
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The launch of contextual advertising starts with shaping a semantic core – a list of key phrases by which Google Ad Words will display ads to users. The quality and completeness of this list largely determine success of a campaign. Keywords in the context are required for two types of advertising: search advertising and ads on partner websites. Lists of keys for campaigns of each type must differ from each other. The data collected from the English-speaking search engine Google (two countries: the US and the UK) for the general request "html" were analyzed and compared in the study. A correlation matrix was used as the method. The volume of observed data with values filled for parameters is N=6,917. Keyword length in both the US and UK markets is negatively correlated with CPC, which gives the conclusion that despite the developed US market, advertisers prefer not to search for a Keyword with multiple words as an ad trigger in the Google search engine.