Article

Cooperation with international NGOs and supplier assessment: Investigating the multiple mediating role of CSR activities in SMEs

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Abstract

Nontraditional supply chain stakeholders, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), may be able to affect the adoption of CSR practices in supply chains. However, little is known about how companies cooperate with international NGOs to handle supplier assessment. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, we establish a parsimonious model that links cooperation with international NGOs to supplier assessment through three CSR dimensions: economic, environmental and social. Data collected from eight thousand SMEs in the transportation industry generally support the hypotheses. Moreover, our findings reveal that SMEs' size matters in the relationships between cooperation with international NGOs, CSR practices, and supplier assessment. Overall, this paper provides unique insights into the role that SME CSR activities play in the relationship between cooperation with international NGOs and supplier assessment.

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... Also, attention should be paid in terms of the value-added by SCM in total costs and the impact on companies' profitability. All these aspects may contribute to minimising the supply chain vulnerabilities of SMEs (Gupta & Barua, 2017;Pal et al., 2013;Pressey et al., 2009;Stekelorum et al., 2020). ...
... Thus, some emerging issues regarding purchasing strategies are reported in the most recent papers. Smart, sustainable, social and environmentally responsible supply chains are some of the most cutting-edge dimensions of purchasing strategies (Brady et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2020b;Eggert & Hartmann, 2021;Florez-Lopez, 2007;Jain & Singh, 2020b;Shen et al., 2021;Stekelorum et al., 2020;Zimmer et al., 2016). Due to environmental policies and legislation demands and social accountability before their stakeholders, companies have introduced other emerging requirements into their purchasing strategies. ...
... Due to environmental policies and legislation demands and social accountability before their stakeholders, companies have introduced other emerging requirements into their purchasing strategies. Table 3 summarises some of the current issues based on the reduction of supply chain logistics, the environmental impacts and the need for certification Industry 4.0 relates to several new or enhanced core capabilities, expressed through new technology areas: more intelligence and integration in business processes, proximity to the client, closing the loop, smart products and services, business connectivity and intimate human-machine collaboration in terms of quality and environmental management systems (Sánchez-Rodríguez & Martínez-Lorente, 2004;Shen et al., 2021;Stekelorum et al., 2020;Winter & Lasch, 2016;Zimon & Zimon, 2019). ...
Article
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Effective strategic purchasing and supplier selection in companies provides businesses with leverage in acquiring goods and services. Thus, companies are in a better position to negotiate prices, discounts, delivery times and logistic channels. Also, strategic purchasing allows for performing a risk assessment to ensure the company’s profitability. This research aimed to identify the key currently deliberated by SMEs for supplier selection, considering such purchasing strategies as (1) cost reduction, (2) risk management, (3) global sourcing, (4) total quality management, (5) sustainable management and (6) supplier management. Also, it aimed to identify the emerging issues related to purchasing strategies. This research work performed a content analysis following a literature review. The Scopus indexation database was selected to conduct the document search. After the refinement process, based on 59 analysed documents, bibliometric assessment tools were applied to identify the key criteria for supplier selection. The TOP6 highest ranked criteria, which corresponds to 80 % of the most referred criteria, include: (1) the quality of goods; (2) compliance with the delivery times; (3) price/cost; (4) supplier reputation and/or market positioning; (5) geographical location; and (6) supplier performance history. The goal of strategic purchasing is to support the companies in achieving long-term goals through its integration into the company’s strategic planning process. It should be identified by the managers as an important resource. Several factors elevate the importance of strategic purchasing, namely, environmental protection, technology advances related to logistics 4.0, and risk assessment related to global sourcing and sustainability. The present research is in line with the findings of the referred literature, i.e., the application of prioritised criteria for the procurement and supplier selection operations in the industrial context, aiming to reduce lead times and logistic costs. The criteria must be aligned with the purchasing strategies adopted by the companies. The manuscript aims to demonstrate that the fundamentals of strategic purchasing strategies can contribute to the improvement of the SME supply process with the application of simple and cost-effective approaches.
... However, Svensson et al. (2016) proposed the five dimensions of the focal company, downstream stakeholders, societal stakeholders, market stakeholders, and upstream stakeholders to frame the different stakeholders for the sustainable SC context (see Table 1). For example, the focal company contains top management, middle Table 1 Stakeholder dimensions adapted from Svensson et al. (2016) *During the coding process, we identified the need to add "Stakeholder without specification" since multiple studies proposed SSCM practices but only linked to stakeholder as a broad term Dimension Stakeholder construct example Example in the analyzed literature Upstream stakeholders This group contains upstream internal SC stakeholders such as raw material producers, suppliers, and suppliers' suppliers (Busse et al. 2017;Camargo et al. 2019) Focal company This group contains internal stakeholders of the focal company, such as top leadership, middle management, and employees (Meqdadi et al. 2020;Roy et al. 2020) Downstream stakeholders This group contains downstream internal SC stakeholders such as retailers, wholesalers, and logistical intermediaries (Chkanikova 2016;Nayak et al. 2019) Market stakeholders This group contains stakeholders such as unions, competitors, and financial intermediaries (Camargo et al. 2019;Sajjad et al. 2019) Societal stakeholders This group contains social stakeholders such as NGOs, governmental actors, and research institutes/universities (Aboelmaged 2012;Stekelorum et al. 2020) Stakeholder without specification* This item covers the general mentioning of the term stakeholder (Roscoe et al. 2020;Silva and Schaltegger 2019) management, or employees as subordinated stakeholders. Norris et al.'s (2021) conceptual study emphasized that employees can provide knowledge capital and creativity to create value for all involved stakeholders at a more comprehensive level. ...
... Both governmental organizations and NGOs are key drivers and facilitators for implementing SSCM practices (Roy et al. 2020;Sajjad et al. 2019;Wolf 2011). While NGOs rather support single SCs (e.g., Busse et al. 2017;Stekelorum et al. 2020), governmental actors can establish a coherent policy framework to stimulate the industry-wide development of SSCM Govindan 2018). Noteworthy, once NGOs are well-organized and powerful, they might also be able to shape an entire industry by, e.g., industry standards or benchmark reports. ...
... Besides, the analysis provides some indications of collaboration with stakeholders. For example, Stekelorum et al. (2020) proposed that SMEs should collaborate with international NGOs because they have the expertise and experience regarding other stakeholders and their expectations in different geographical settings and can assist in bridging existing knowledge and resource gaps. ...
Article
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Since ecological deterioration and social discrepancy are intensifying, multiple stakeholders are driving companies to incorporate sustainability in their supply chains. Thus, integrating non-traditional supply chain stakeholders, such as non-governmental organizations and competitors, in supply chain practices is essential for achieving a more sustainable supply chain. Hence, this research aims to show how stakeholders and their roles are related to sustainable supply chain management practices. A systematic literature review including 78 peer-reviewed English journal articles published between 2000 and 2020 was conducted. The results suggest that multiple supply chain external and internal stakeholders drive, facilitate, or inspect the implementation of sustainable supply chain management practices. While governmental and non-governmental organizations are key drivers for implementing sustainable supply chain management practices, they can also support their implementation. Moreover, proactive engagement with external supply chain stakeholders facilitates the organizational learning process through capability development, increasing understanding and awareness of sustainability, and creating knowledge. This study strengthens the value of proactive and collaborative measurements to deal with stakeholder issues before putting pressure on a company, which can result in reputation and legitimacy loss. These insights enrich the theoretical debate while explaining stakeholders’ relevance and roles in the sustainable supply chain management context. However, the study has some limitations regarding the chosen sustainable supply chain management and stakeholder constructs and potential within-study bias, offering possibilities for further research.
... For instance, Nestlé worked with the rainforest alliance (RA) to promote economic, environmental and social sustainability across the supply chain by implementing the "Nespresso AAA Sustainable Quality Program" (Alvarez et al., 2010;Nespresso, 2007). In addition, Stekelorum et al. (2020) found that the collaboration between NGOs and firmsespecially smaller oneshas had both positive and strong effects on environmental and social corporate social responsibility (CSR). Yet, compared with other stakeholders (e.g. ...
... In prior studies, NGOs are considered as one of the most critical stakeholders that reflect society and manifest societal movements (Crespin-Mazet and Dontenwill, 2012;Jackson and Young, 2016). Generally, Stekelorum et al. (2020) suggested that corporating with NGOs can help firms develop their opportunities for value creation. From the perspective of the relational view, firms operate in networks allowing them to create the value that they cannot create independently (Dyer and Singh, 1998). ...
... Indeed, CSR combines sustainability with SCM. Its central idea is that corporations are intended to respond to the demands of stakeholders, such as NGOs in this instance (Freeman, 2010;Stekelorum et al., 2020). In so doing, firms often collaborate with other supply chain members and actors across sectors to integrate the competences of all and to develop strategies with which to cope with the issues beyond their control. ...
Article
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the academic literature on non-governmental organizations' (NGOs) role in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) to develop a conceptual framework. Design/methodology/approach-This paper conducts a systematic literature review through an analysis of 47 papers identified from peer-reviewed academic journals published from 2002 to 2020. Findings-Adopting social movement theory and based on thematic findings, this paper proposes four steps and six propositions in the process of NGOs fostering SSCM. These include relative deprivation, political opportunities, resource mobilization and collective action, based on which we developed a conceptual framework regarding the role of NGOs in improving sustainability in supply chains. The proposed conceptual model opens a new avenue of research in NGO literature and several directions for further research. Originality/value-This study may be the first to provide a systematic review of NGOs' role in improving sustainability in supply chains. Moreover, by borrowing the social movement theory from sociology, this paper able to propose a new conceptual framework with a research agenda so as to deepen the understanding of the phenomenon and provide directions for future research.
... One of the central ideas of CSR is that corporations should respond to the needs of stakeholders (e.g. NGOs) (Stekelorum et al., 2019). By doing so, firms tend to collaborate with other actors across sectors, to integrate the competence of all and to be 48 able to cope with issues beyond their control. ...
... Such a practice involves collective actions, such as information sharing, mutual problem-solving and resource allocation (Koschmann et al., 2012). Hence, theoretically, cross-sectoral collaboration is conceptualised as a partnership engaging actors from two or more sectors that jointly work to enact CSR and address social issues (Stekelorum et al., 2019;Bryson et al., 2006). Both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations form collaborations when their experiences are not sufficient to solve these challenges (e.g. ...
... sustainable development), collective work is designed to tackle mutual concerns. As such, it can transfer ownership of CSR and ultimately make positive impacts on the environment (Stekelorum et al., 2019) or community (Fordham and Robinson, 2018), as well as mitigating pressures of NGOs and firms (Idemudia and 63 Ite, 2006;Mzembe and Meaton, 2014;Fontana, 2018). In the next section, another type of collaboration is discussed. ...
Thesis
Today, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are among the most important stakeholders in terms of global governance and business operations. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the external and internal influential factors of the operational efficiency of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in China. By introducing the extended resource-based view (ERBV) into the context of NGO operations, a proposed conceptual model with 14 indicators is tested. In this study, based on the panel data collected on the Chinese Research Data Services Platform (CNRDS) and ERBV, a multiple regression analysis is performed to test the 14 influential factors identified in the dataset. By adopting ERBV, it is concluded that both intra- and inter-organisational resources are interacted and make a significant and positive association with NGOs’ operational efficiency. In particular, it is found that the availability of financial resources, political connections and NGO professionalism are all crucial factors to improve NGO operational efficiency in China. In addition, this thesis also made several contributions. First, in terms of the theoretical contribution, it may be the first study introducing the ERBV into the context of NGO, which extended several concepts (e.g. professionalisation, and interactions between internal and external resources) into the NGO context; Second, this study contributes to practitioners, such as managers in NGOs and corporates (e.g. the different roles of volunteers and paid staffs in fundraising); Also, this study makes social contributions, including implications for policymakers in China. By the end of this research, several limitations and research directions are presented for studies in the future.
... Social activities in SMEs encompass health, safety and general well-being of employees and the community (Ayuso and Navarrete-Báez, 2018;ElBaz et al., 2016). Economic practices involve satisfying consumers as well as generating profits for shareholders, and reflects SMEs' commitment to responsible entrepreneurship (Cavaco and Crifo 2014;Stekelorum et al., 2020). Environmental activities in SMEs involve the preservation of the environmental system and protection of natural resources through energy or water reduction, or eco-designed product development (Johnson, 2015;Hoogendoorn, 2015). ...
... However, scholars have paid less attention to the link between CER and SMEs' supply chain social requirements, i.e., the systems and procedures to ensure that suppliers comply with social standards (Ayuso et al., 2013;Mani et al., 2020). SMEs' activities tend to show that CER and supply chain social requirements are connected, as environmental and social activities are increasingly associated within SMEs' sustainability projects (Shibin et al., 2017;Mani et al., 2020;Stekelorum et al., 2020). For example, the French SME "Malongo" have launched several initiatives (fair trade, agroforestry, organic farming, re-use of mate-rials…) to create a sustainable supply of the highest quality coffee. ...
... Extant literature has investigated such issues as the adoption of CER in SMEs (Hoogendoorn et al., 2015;Sáez-Martínez et al., 2016), SSCM in SMEs (Shibin et al., 2017;Mani et al., 2020), and SMEs' collaboration with NGOs on sustainable practices (Harangozó and Zilahy, 2015;Stekelorum et al., 2020). However, very few studies have both investigated (i) how SME environmental activities can be translated into social requirements in the supply chain through responsible purchasing (Touboulic and Walker, 2015), and (ii) how the cooperation with environmental NGOs impacts this relationship (Rodríguez et al., 2016). ...
Article
Recent years have seen an increasing interest on the separate areas of corporate environmental responsibility (CER) in small-and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in SMEs, and collaboration with environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) on sustainable activities. However, very few studies have both investigated (i) how SME environmental activities can be translated into social requirements in the supply chain through responsible purchasing, and (ii) how the cooperation with ENGOs impacts this relationship. Within a framework that incorporates dynamic capability, legitimacy, and relational view theories, this study tests the proposed moderated mediation model using data from 146 thousand small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Results indicate that CER significantly and positively influences social requirements in SME supply chains. Moreover, findings also show that CER is positively associated with social requirements in SME supply chains through responsible purchasing. Results further reveal that the effects of CER and the use of responsible purchasing to implement social requirements in SMEs’ supply chains vary depending on the cooperation with ENGOs. Overall, this study contributes to the theory of sustainable supply chain management, and offers unique insights into the role of environmental NGOs in the move from CER to social requirements in SME supply chains.
... At micro-scale approach, studies regarding environmental issues focus primarily on large companies that apply it in various fields such as management (Hörisch et al., 2015), reporting practices (Ehnert et al., 2016), and supply chain (Formentini and Taticchi, 2016). However, the scientific research in SMEs is lagging compared to large companies due to groups underestimating their environmental effects (Stekelorum et al., 2020). SMEs have much to contribute to the subject because: ...
... One of the most accepted definitions -by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2013) -understands CE as an economy that is either restorative or regenerative by intention and design. This precept inspired the practical extension of CE, viewed as "all economic activities that extend the service life of goods, components, and materials, through reuse and remarketing, repair, remanufacturing and technological updating of goods" (Stahel, 2014), adding value to products and contributing to waste reduction (Aranda-Usón et al., 2020). Furthermore, CE implementation has different approaches in the literature. ...
... SMEs are facing a number of challenges with the pressures associated with the direct and indirect competitors, the requirement of functioning independently, operational problems, and shortage of resources (Ab Talib et al., 2013;Stekelorum, Laguir & Elbaz, 2020). In addition, considerable problems are associated with inventory management and the capacity of the organisation. ...
... According to the study conducted by Lundahl, Vegholm, and Silver (2009), it has been highlighted that the customers focused on high-quality services, which can only be possible with the improved logistics services as it helps the company in merging the gap between suppliers and producers. In light of the study conducted by Stekelorum, Laguir, and Elbaz (2020), it has been highlighted that the logistics planning is significant for the companies because it either makes or breaks the relationship with the company. Logistics and the service quality have remarkably emerged as the primary source for the competitive advantage for SMEs in Saudi Arabia with a specific focus on the improvement and transportation deregulation that enabled the companies to gain a sustainable competitive advantage with enhanced responsiveness, assurance, and reliability. ...
... As demonstrated in the article, the respondents indicated a wide variety of positive outcomes of the analyzed collaborations for companies. Many of them (for example, improving company image, attracting employees with better potential, and increasing business credibility) coincide with those described in the literature for any kind of company activity in the area of SD [6,32,39,[75][76][77][78][79]. Simultaneously, more general outcomes were indicated that coincide with those indicated by researchers for any type of inter-organizational collaboration, including B2B (supplementing the structure of resources and activities, and thus achieving the synergy effect; development of positive relationships with the partner's employees; improvement of communication with them; an increase in mutual trust, etc.) [80][81][82][83]. ...
... Taking into account the variety of roles and the importance that the literature assigns to interpersonal interactions created between the employees of two collaborating partners, it could also be interesting to determine in greater detail the role of personal bonds at each stage of the collaborations considered in this article. Specifically, future quantitative research could be conducted, for example, to verify whether the results described in the article differ or coincide when specific types of companies are investigated, i.e., companies representing different sizes (in terms of number of employees or annual revenues), different fields of activity (sector, industry), or other features with a potential impact on companies' propensity toward involvement in SD (see, e.g., [79,[95][96][97]). It would also be interesting to broaden the geographical scope of the research, and thus verify to what extent the results obtained in Polish conditions may coincide with the findings obtained in other countries. ...
Article
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There is a significant research gap in the theory of the nature of relationships between companies and other organizations (including NGOs) when collaborating on projects to support sustainable development goals. In particular, the company perspective has not yet been analyzed in depth. This paper therefore presents these relationships from the company’s point of view, and particularly in terms of how company representatives describe the roles of each partner in the collaboration and the outcomes it generates for the company. The empirical research is theoretically grounded in the Activities–Resources–Actors (ARA) model developed by Håkansson and Snehota. The study adopted a qualitative approach and was conducted using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews in 18 companies; the companies represented different industries and were involved in different types of projects related to sustainable development goals. The paper contributes to developing the theory in various ways. It contributes to the understanding of processes related to company involvement in sustainable development. It also contributes to the theory of the essence and substance of inter-organizational relationships, and specifically the ARA framework. Moreover, it explains the specificity of such inter-organizational collaborations and identifies to what extent these relationships vary from other types of inter-organizational collaboration, especially from business-to-business relationships. The paper also contributes to the discussion on the role of personal bonds within such inter-organizational relationships. The practical implications relate to the ways in which the activities and resources of a company and its partner may be combined in projects addressing social and/or environmental problems. Therefore, the paper offers guidance to companies and their potential partners interested in undertaking joint sustainability initiatives.
... We separated respondents into three groups depending on their firms' employee numbers. We used the firm size categories defined by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE), which collects, analyses, and disseminates information on the French economy and society and is an internationally recognised Institute (Stekelorum et al., 2020). According to this institute, firms that employ fewer than 249 people are defined as small enterprises, those with 250-4,999 employees as medium-sized enterprises, and those with 5000 or more employees as large enterprises. ...
Article
In a context of unprecedented crises and uncertainties, digital tools appear to bring more visibility to decision-takers along the Supply Chain (SC). They enhance information sharing and collaboration between SC entities. This research contributes to providing a more complete understanding of the relationships between the size of the firm and its adoption of SC digital tools and challenges encountered. For this purpose, we mobilize the Resource-Based View (RBV) and analyze 311 surveys collected from SC professionals using the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Our results clarify the role of firm size in SC digitalization. More precisely, groups of different firm sizes show a significant difference of SC digital tools adoption level and our study enables researchers and practitioners to understand that this difference depends on the type of tools (either operational or support tools). In addition, this study brings a counter-intuitive result that is not consistent with previous research: there is no difference between the groups of different firm sizes with regards to SC digitalization challenges encountered.
... Suppliers assessment program could serve as a normative driver of SP in the construction industry. Rating systems should be used to evaluate and accredit suppliers as part of a performance-based purchasing policy (Stekelorum et al., 2020). As part of the evaluation of suppliers, organizations generally demand suppliers to obtain third-party certification accredited to various codes and standards. ...
Article
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Purpose Social procurement (SP) is a complicated and risky innovation, the adoption of which needs to be accompanied by complementary process and organizational change. To date, however, there has been little empirical evidence explaining whether and how different sorts of external pressures affect the level of SP adoption in the construction sector. Drawing on institutional theory, this study aims to analyze how three types of isomorphic pressures (i.e. coercive, mimetic and normative pressures) influence the adoption of SP in the construction sector. Design/methodology/approach The impacts of these pressures are empirically tested with survey data collected from 134 construction firms in the Chinese construction industry. Findings The findings show that both coercive and mimetic pressures have a considerable impact on the adoption of SP. However, there is little evidence in this study that normative demands had a major impact on SP. Practical implications This research is a useful instrument for promoting a favorable social attitude regarding construction procurement. Through socioeconomic regeneration and development, procurement can be considered as a significant route for social transformation, economic development and poverty reduction. Originality/value This study addresses the paucity of research into SP in the construction industry by establishing the institutional drivers to procuring services and products from a social enterprise perspective. Findings from this study extend the frontiers of existing knowledge on SP in the construction industry.
... While various studies have examined CSR as a unidimensional construct, recent works have investigated its multidimensionality including the complex interconnections that exist among them, [9], [10], [11]. Hence, CSR can be classified as economic CSR, social CSR, environmental CSR, and generic CSR, [12]. In [13] the authors delineated five main dimensions which are the stakeholder dimension, social dimension, economic dimension, voluntariness dimension, and environmental dimension. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main essence of Corporate Social Responsibility is to improve the welfare of the members of the society. The proper implementation of CSR initiatives entail that organizations are not just driven by the quest for economic gain or a good reputation, but that they are deliberate with positively affecting the lives of the members of their host communities. The main objective of the study is to determine the impact of corporate social responsibility on host community development in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. The work adopts a survey design method and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. The population of the study was three thousand four hundred and sixty-two (3,462) youth leaders from oil producing communities in the state. The questionnaires were distributed to four hundred and fifteen (415) respondents out of which three hundred and sixty-seven were duly returned. The data were analysed with SPSS v.23.The results indicated that the economic, social and environmental CSR provided by IOCs have no positive effect on community development. Therefore, there is the need for a re-evaluation of IOCs' CSR projects to be in line with the core development challenges of the host communities.
... We separated respondents into three groups depending on their firms' employee numbers. We used the firm size categories defined by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE), which collects, analyses, and disseminates information on the French economy and society and is an internationally recognised Institute (Stekelorum et al., 2020). According to this institute, firms that employ fewer than 249 people are defined as small enterprises, those with 250-4,999 employees as medium-sized enterprises, and those with 5000 or more employees as large enterprises. ...
Article
In a context of unprecedented crises and uncertainties, digital tools appear to bring more visibility to decision-takers along the supply chain (SC). They enhance information sharing and collaboration between SC entities. This research contributes to providing a more complete understanding of the relationships between the size of the firm and its adoption of SC digital tools and the challenges encountered. For this purpose, we mobilise the resource-based view (RBV) and analyse 311 surveys collected from SC professionals using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Our results clarify the role of firm size in SC digitalisation. More precisely, groups of different firm sizes show a significant difference of SC digital tools adoption level and our study enables researchers and practitioners to understand that this difference depends on the type of tools (either operational or support tools). In addition, this study brings a counter-intuitive result that is not consistent with previous research: there is no difference between the groups of different firm sizes with regards to SC digitalisation challenges encountered.
... Unconventional stakeholders, for example, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), may be able to positively influence the adoption of CSR practices. Companies also cooperate with NGOs to assess potential suppliers for responsible purchasing (Stekelorum et al., 2020). Dora (2019) suggests that geographical proximity is an important factor for CE. ...
Article
Full-text available
The global push towards sustainable development has led to an upsurge in academic literature at the juncture of supply chain collaboration (SCC) and sustainability. The present paper aims to map this growing literature to understand how SCC can contribute to the achievement of broader Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Via a systematic review of literature (SLR), the paper maps key themes at the intersection of SCC and sustainable development. Relying on nine key themes, the study presents novel insights into the domain of SCC for sustainable development. The results of the SLR reveal that collaborative innovation, collaborative process and product development are key mechanisms driving SCC. However, the extant literature has not devoted much attention to the effectiveness of SCC mechanisms or their performance. Further, the current study posits that more effective SCC strategies can boost the sustainable operational performance of the supply chain (SC) by enhancing capacity building and resource utilisation. Based on the contingency approach, this study offers a novel framework linking SCC to SDGs. The study thus has the potential to help managers and practitioners identify strategic fields of action for achieving SDGs.
... Basically, for this reason, business entities should constantly inform the socially responsible activities performed because it has a positive impact on consumers, promotes trust and improves the name of the company. Moreover, research has shown that some business entities involve non-governmental organizations in the execution of a socially responsible activity because consumers are more likely to trust the information provided by these organizations on the social responsibility of a business entity [97]. Some authors emphasize that some consumers trust socially responsible activities carried out by business entities which include more than just financial support, i.e., support with products or voluntary work [98,99]. ...
Article
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Being close to consumers, retail chains have a considerable influence on the formation of social responsibility in society. By applying various means of encouragement, these entities try to draw the attention of consumers to problems in the society and encourage them to contribute to socially responsible activities. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the means of promoting social responsibility applied in the biggest retail chains of Lithuania selling alimentary products have an influence on a consumer and encourage them to contribute to the promotion of the idea of social responsibility. Analyses of scientific literature, qualitative approaches based on 482 in-depth interviews, analyses of data obtained during the survey, mathematical–statistical analyses and comparative analyses were applied in this research. This article represents the results of the obtained research and emphasizes the main factors promoting and limiting the social responsibility of consumers. It was identified that the social responsibility of consumers in the field of environmental protection is formed by information provided by business entities, company images and other people surrounding the consumer. Social responsibility in the field of charity and support was influenced by information provided by business entities and other people’s opinions. Furthermore, the article concludes with the development of models showing which elements business entities should orient towards in order to promote the social responsibility of consumers in the field of environmental protection or charity and support. The compiled model can be used by all business subjects acting in the retail trade and trying to encourage users to become involved in socially responsible activities.
... They thus protect their operations with their downstream partners, which ultimately enhances the focal firm's performance. In turn, external stakeholders maximize their own utility by enhancing their levels of power and legitimacy (Stekelorum et al., 2020). Thus, the SRBV outlines the need to invest in stakeholders' resources for enhancing the focal firm's performance (Mani et al., 2018). ...
Article
The Covid-19 pandemic is triggering several supply chain disruptions that have a tremendous impact on firms’ activities. Consequently, firms have pushed suppliers to develop their disruption orientation through the exchange of information and collaboration with the aim to enhance their own performance. Although this is important from the industry perspective, relationships among the focal firm’s disruption orientation, the suppliers’ disruption orientation, and the focal firm’s performances have not been investigated in the literature. Hence, in order to fill this important gap, we investigate both (i) how the suppliers’ disruption orientation helps translate the focal firm’s disruption orientation into environmental and economic performances, and (ii) how the supplier ecocentricity (ability to learn from non-traditional stakeholders) is related to these relationships. In order to analyze these issues, we draw upon the dynamic capabilities, relational view, and stakeholder resource-based view theories. Our results indicate that the focal firm’s disruption orientation creates a positive association between its suppliers’ disruption orientation and its own environmental and economic performances. Further, our results reveal that the association between the firm’s disruption orientation and environmental performance is not necessarily direct and occurs through the suppliers’ disruption orientation. Our study also reveals that the positive association between the focal firm’s disruption orientation and environmental performance through suppliers’ disruption orientation is stronger under medium and high levels of suppliers’ ecocentricity. Our results provide useful managerial insights for supply chain stakeholders that could help in managing disruption orientation, especially during and after a pandemic.
... Since larger enterprises are more likely to be scrutinized by stakeholders, they are more willing to transfer some of the pressure to supply chain partners (Parmigiani et al., 2011). Assistance from non-governmental organizations can help core enterprises improve their supply chain sustainable management capabilities (Stekelorum et al., 2020). With the help of third-party organizations, enterprises can obtain resources that cannot be obtained independently (Crespin-Mazet and Dontenwill, 2012) and establish social networks, that is, strategic bridging (Stafford et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Guiding core enterprises to participate in supply chain work safety governance is an innovative mode of work safety control, which has an important impact on improving the work safety level of small and medium-sized enterprises in the supply chain. Through in-depth interviews, the grounded theory is adopted to explore the driving factors of work safety management behaviors of core enterprise. It is found that the work safety management behavior of the core enterprise is driven by both internal and external factors. External driving factors are the main category of institutional pressure composed of regulatory pressure, normative pressure, and cognitive pressure. Internal driving factors are divided into the main category of behavioral awareness and the behavioral capability of the core enterprises. The behavioral awareness is composed of responsibility sense, problem cognition and behavioral effect perception. The behavioral capability is composed of safety management strength and safety coordination capability. Institutional pressure, behavioral awareness, and behavioral capability all influence the work safety management behavior of core enterprise in supply chain significantly, but with different ways and paths. On this basis, the driving mechanism model of the above three main categories on the work safety management behavior in core enterprise supply chain is explored. The research can provide targeted policy ideas and implementation paths for the government to formulate effective guiding policies to promote the work safety management behavior of core enterprise.
... As CSR has a strong relationship with supply chain stakeholders and are highly dependent on each other, should extend to the in supply chain but few studies have examined this relationship (Yang et al., 2020). The challenge for company is to understanding how can use it for coordination and managing relationship with their members and creation value (Pati et al., 2016), thus supplier assessment and selection need more investigation (Wilhelm et al., 2016;Stekelorum et al., 2020). Supplier relationship management (SRM) seems to play a substantial role in this regard. ...
... Although the IMP approach also admits research on non-traditional partnerships (e.g. Lindfelt & Törnroos, 2006;Stekelorum et al., 2020), this theoretical perspective is generally focused on the B2B interaction of buying and supplying business entities. The IMP perspective frames actors' interaction in industrial and international business markets in which a firm is acting and, therefore, a more suitable theoretical framework in this thesis. ...
Thesis
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This doctoral thesis aims to scrutinise and develop the understanding of (un)ethical practices of managers engaged in social interaction in business relationships and networks within the specific context of international business markets. The Industrial marketing and purchasing (IMP) approach (Håkansson & Snehota, 1989; 2006) is adopted to conceptually frame the study. First, this study shows how business ethics are understood and what ethical values can be involved in international business relationships and networks. Second, it explores how ethical values differ in international business-to-business (B2B) contexts. Third, it specifically explores trust in business relationships and networks as a significant value of business ethics. Finally, it provides insight into the dissemination of knowledge on business ethics and emphasises the role of higher education institutions and instructors in this process. The study is based on four empirical research papers. Three of the papers represent different individual perspectives of managers and entrepreneurs in small companies on their business activities, ethics, and moral concerns. The empirical data are interpreted with the help of established theoretical frameworks in the international business marketing literature and expand this literature by shedding light on the role of business ethics in B2B relationships and networks. The fourth paper is dedicated to pedagogic issues and addresses the teaching of business ethics and sustainable development to future managers and entrepreneurs. This thesis is grounded on the ontological premises of constructivism and an interpretivist approach to knowledge development. Conceptually and methodologically, the studies completing this doctoral project contribute to the business marketing literature by extending the understanding of IMP approaches regarding business ethics. Particularly, the project contributes to the conceptualisation of how business ethics are embedded in B2B relationships and networks. This study also contributes to the business ethics literature by addressing concepts of ethical relativism and trust in different B2B contexts. The study furthermore contributes to university pedagogics with implications for educators drawing on constructivist perspectives to develop teaching methods. In terms of managerial implications, this study helps to explore and evaluate business actors’ (un)ethical behaviours in relation to other actors involved in business and social interactions. Generally, the findings highlight that business ethics and ethical values have varying meanings and roles in international business relationships and networks.
... As CSR has a strong relationship with supply chain stakeholders and are highly dependent on each other, should extend to the in supply chain but few studies have examined this relationship (Yang et al., 2020). The challenge for company is to understanding how can use it for coordination and managing relationship with their members and creation value (Pati et al., 2016), thus supplier assessment and selection need more investigation (Wilhelm et al., 2016;Stekelorum et al., 2020). Supplier relationship management (SRM) seems to play a substantial role in this regard. ...
Article
This paper is aimed to examine how knowledge management capabilities (KMC) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) affect operational performance (OP) through supplier relationship management (SRM) in the context of the oil and gas industry. Besides, the moderation role of management support (MS) was investigated. Previous studies have been fragmented in that they have neither provided a holistic view of a knowledge-responsibility-performance link, nor considered the catalysing role of SRM in the link. Based on the responses collected from a survey, structural equation modelling, along with a moderated-mediation approach, were used to examine the research model. The results indicate that KMC and CSR positively affect OP directly and indirectly through SRM. Moreover, MS acts as a moderator between KMC, CSR, and SRM. By using a comprehensive framework, this study offers insights into the literature on supply chain, CSR, and KM and explains the significance of SRM in catalysing the knowledge-responsibility-performance link.
... The industrial sector is one of the potential economic businesses to be developed, where this sector affects the economy and can move other development sectors (Chirumalla, 2021;Frederiksen, 2018). The development of the industrial sector as a business sector absorbs a large number of workers, especially Small Industrial Enterprises, which can impact the regional development process, where the leading industrial industry will develop faster (Lee & Marvel, 2009;Stekelorum et al., 2020). The industries in this study are divided into five categories or business fields: the food industry, the clothing industry, the chemical and building materials industry (KBB), the metal and electronics industry (LE), and the handicraft industry. ...
Article
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This research was conducted with the objectives is to determine the effect of labor, private investment, government investment on production in the industrial sector. Data collection was carried out at the Regional Financial Management Agency Office. The data used in this study is secondary data, namely data on the number of workers, private investment, and government investment. As well as data on the amount of production in the industrial sector within ten years is analyzed and processed by the multiple linear regression method, using the SPSS version 22 program. The results of this study indicate that: (1) labor has a positive and significant influence on production in the industrial sector; (2) private investment has a positive and significant impact on production in the industrial sector; (3) government investment has a positive and significant impact on production in the industrial sector. This shows that production activities in the industrial sector in Sidenreng Rappang Regency rely on labor, private investment, and government investment to continue to increase production capacity. Government investment is a variable that is rarely examined, especially related to production. The government is one of the parties that play an essential role in supporting economic activities in the region.
... These results are in line with the past study of Harness, Ranaweera, Karjaluoto, and Jayawardhena (2018), which shows that the support from the organization to the employees enables them to act efficiently upon the CSR practices regarding social welfare, which leads to higher performance of enterprises. These results are also supported by the past study Stekelorum, Laguir, and Elbaz (2020), which shows that organizational support in the form of financial security, good behavior, easy and polite guidance, and encouragement is available to employees when the organization is engaged in CSR practices for social welfare. This organizational support improves the performance of employees and, thus, the performance of enterprises. ...
Article
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Corporate social responsibilities (CSR) have gained the attention of regulators and recent studies due to their comprehensive influence on the firm performance. Thus, the present study examines the impact of CSR practices such as social welfare, human rights and physical environment on SMEs performance in Vietnam. This research also investigates the mediating role of organizational support among the links of social welfare, human rights, the physical environment and SMEs performance in Vietnam. This study has followed the primary data collection methods such as survey questionnaires to collect the data from respondents and also executed the smart-PLS for analysis. The results indicated the social welfare, human rights and physical environment have a positive association with SMEs performance in Vietnam. The results also exposed that organizational support positively mediates among the links of social welfare, human rights, the physical environment and SMEs performance in Vietnam. This study guided the regulators while developing the regulations related to CSR and firm performance.
... A small and growing number of studies suggest that resource-constrained SMEs can achieve environmental performance by leveraging strategic alliances with which they engage (Hofman et al., 2020;Lewis et al., 2015;Nakano & Hirao, 2011). Strategic alliances with customers, suppliers and/or competitors help an SME to access resources and knowledge that can allow the development of solutions for social and environmental issues (Adams et al., 2016;Calza et al., 2020;Palmieri et al., 2019;Stekelorum et al., 2020;Yen, 2018). However, strategic alliance is a risky activity and may fail due to differences in the expectations of partners (Chakravarty et al., 2020;Tukamuhabwa et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Although several prior studies have examined associations between firm social capital and environmental sustainability, the links between relational resources (i.e., relational capital and ties strength), environmental knowledge integration, and environmental performance have yet to be well-established at the micro-level. This study, therefore, aims to determine (1) how environmental knowledge integration serves as a mediating mechanism for the relationship between relational capital and environmental performance? And (2) how does this impact differ at different levels of ties strength? A quantitative approach has been adopted to examine the main hypotheses using a structural equation model (SEM) technique. Two groups of actors were surveyed, including chief executive officers (CEOs) and financial officers of SMEs operating in Dubai, UAE. In total, 216 survey responses were gathered, suggesting a response rate of 73.22%. Our findings suggest that environmental knowledge integration is a vital mediating mechanism for the relationship between relational capital and SMEs’ environmental performance. Also, we find that ties strength moderates the indirect effect of relational capital on SMEs’ environmental performance via environmental knowledge integration. Our empirical evidence provides recommendations for SMEs’ managers and policymakers to promote environmental sustainability in the emerging market context.
... Research on third-party logistics providers (TPLs) has remained scant (Huo et al., 2018;Shi et al., 2016), although these firms have made considerable effort to mitigate the negative environmental consequences of their activities (Centobelli et al., 2017b;Stekelorum et al., 2020). TPLs have offered more environmentally sustainable services to (i) improve customer relationships and (ii) reduce costs by improving energy efficiency through lower energy-transport modes (Evangelista et al., 2017;Laari et al., 2018). ...
Article
Drawing on the natural resource-based view and coordination theory, this study examines the extent to which different combinations of internal and external green supply chain management (GSCM) practices influence third-party logistics providers’ (TPLs) operational and financial performances. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of survey data from 232 TPLs shows that combined internal and external GSCM practices improve both operational and financial performances. However, taking into account the TPLs’ size allows alternative combinations of GSCM practices: a combination of green supply and eco-design packaging improves small TPLs’ performances, whereas a combination of all GSCM practices, except investment recovery and reverse logistics, improves large TPLs’ performances. By using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis instead of traditional linear methodologies, this study offers a new approach to determine the configurations of internal and external GSCM practices that lead to enhanced operational and financial performances in TPLs, rather than treating each GSCM practice separately.
... Over the last two decades, the phenomenon of BNP has received significant scholarly attention (Austin & Seitanidi, 2012;Stekelorum, Laguir, & Elbaz, 2019), where two research perspectives can be identified. The first concerns the formation of and conditions under which the collaboration can deliver value to society in terms of providing solutions to complex social problems (e.g., Austin, 2000a;Berger, Cunningham, & Drumwright, 2004;Selsky & Parker, 2005;Waddock, 1989). ...
Article
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Business-Nonprofit Partnership (BNP) has been widely regarded as a vital approach for public value creation and social innovation. At the same time, many studies show a positive association between the size of an organization’s portfolio of partners and its overall performance and innovation. Building on these insights, we contribute to the BNP literature by drawing on the relational view to theorize and empirically examine the conditions that underpin the effectiveness of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) in establishing collaborative linkages with the private sector (i.e. to determine the size of their portfolio of business partners). Data were compiled from the websites of NPOs (n=102) that were collaborating with FTSE 100 companies. The results of regression analysis show that the ability of NPOs to deliver economic rent (to business partners) and to establish calculative trust (pre-collaboration trust) positively predicts their portfolio size. Furthermore, the results indicate that the ability to create social value also positively predicts portfolio size but only for larger NPOs, and that the delivery of collaboration options negatively predicts portfolio size. We discuss these findings in regard to implications for research and practice. The study investigates the nature of entrepreneurial orientation in the nonprofit-business collaboration context, discusses its dimensions, and explicates their underpinning mechanisms.
... Fourthly, when clusters are displayed horizontally along timelines, we found that the biggest cluster related to "stakeholder" started on 2005 and lasted always till to now, which shows its prominent positioning in this CSR/SD domain (e.g., Peloza and Shang, 2011;Bocken et al., 2014;Rodrigues and Mendes, 2018;Jabbour et al., 2019aJabbour et al., , 2019bvan der Waal and Thijssens, 2020). The other long lasting cluster is "NGO" related focusing on NGObusiness partnership (e.g., Wadham, 2009;Baur and Schmitz, 2012;Stekelorum et al., 2020), which is still active on year 2019. In addition, the earliest higher frequency keyword "sustainability" emerged in the "social" related cluster. ...
Article
The involvement of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in sustainable development (SD) is becoming a popular topic on research and business domain. However, the co-themed research is still rather new and hasn't been fully studied. An in-depth bibliometric analysis using the ‘CiteSpace’ software is applied to analyze and visualize the knowledge map of the CSR research related to SD. Main findings show that the CSR involvement in SD is a lasting but recent prosperous research topic. The top 3 influential journals in this area are Corporate Social Responsibility and Environment Management; Sustainability; and Journal of Cleaner Production. Porter ME, Carroll AB, etc., are the most impactful authors. The co-author network is fragmented, while cross-national co-operations occur in groups. 11 clusters are identified to be highly concerned, among which, “stakeholder” and “NGO” are long lasting till now. 13 burst terms has changed over 15 years (2005-2019) indicated the research frontiers evolution in this field, with the earliest “sustainability” to “strategy”, “performance” and then “stakeholder”, “developing country”, “disclosure” and “supply chain management”, etc., and “climate change” being the newest but strongest. Four stages of the evolution can be identified: initial phase (1997-2004), debating phase (2005-2009), rapid developing phase (2010-2013), and research specialization phase (2014-2019). Finally, contributions, limitations and further research directions are discussed.
... Moreover, individuals were given binary ("yes" or "no") options in response to each of the variables (Stekelorum et al., 2020) with an additional open-ended item (e.g., what is your suggestion about CSR practices of companies for community development?). The contemporary CSR literature, along with reliable data sources (annual reports) and field information (FGD and survey) on the effects of CSRPs on community perceptions of societal progress, was structured to measure the propositions validly. ...
Article
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Grounded on stakeholder theory and contemporary corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature, this study aims to investigate the broad categories of CSR programs (CSRPs) of scheduled banks and nonbanking financial institutions of Bangladesh Bank (the central bank of Bangladesh). This study also attempts to build the relationship between CSRPs and community perceptions of societal progress. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data collected from primary and secondary sources. The findings of this study show that CSRPs positively influence community perceptions of societal progress. The results of this study will have significant practical implications on societal progress and future research on CSR and community development.
... The four variables were measured in a binary way, whereby 1 stood for "yes" and 0 for "no" (see their operationalization in Table 2). Binary measures of product and service innovation (e.g., Eggert, Thiesbrummel, & Deutscher, 2015;Hottenrott & Lopes-Bento, 2016) and cooperation with business partners (e.g., Faems et al., 2005;Stekelorum, Laguir, & Elbaz, 2020), have been widely used in previous studies from the fields of marketing and innovation. ...
Article
Firms increasingly engage in business-to-business cooperation to develop relevant innovations. Scholars have shown that firms can improve service innovation either by cooperating with suppliers or by cooperating with competitors. However, there is a dearth of research examining the relative importance of cooperating with suppliers and competitors to improve service innovation, and how this relative importance depends on embracing product innovation. Based on a cross-industry sample of 16,062 Spanish firms, this article addresses these research gaps, finding that firms can benefit from cooperating with both suppliers and competitors to boost service innovation, without prioritizing either. However, this article also shows that, if firms embrace product innovation, they should prioritize cooperating with competitors to boost service innovation.
... However, minimal research exists on the relationship between corporate-responsibility initiatives and sustainability in businessto-business marketing. For example, three articles address CSR activities, from the perspectives of sales (Vlachos, Theotokis, & Panagopoulos, 2010), certification by nongovernmental organizations (Stekelorum, Laguir, & Elbaz, 2019), and the role of power in supporting CSR activities (Harness, Ranaweera, Karjaluoto, & Jayawardhena, 2018). However, research addressing the relationship between CSR and sustainability was not found. ...
Article
Corporate interest in the topic of sustainability has increased in prominence. Most of the research on sustainability has a business-to-consumer focus, with limited research emphasizing sustainability in the context of business-to-business marketing. The paper examines research on sustainability, published in the journal Industrial Marketing Management, where thirty-eight articles have appeared in the past twenty-seven years, the majority on supply-chain research. Research on sustainability in business-to-business markets is sparse, and some of the fundamental research questions in this area have gone unaddressed. This paper addresses three interrelated research issues associated with sustainability in business-to-business markets. First, what research is available to researchers and practitioners? Second, what framework can be used to examine sustainability research in business-to-business markets? Third, what subareas of sustainability research need focus and deeper examination, and what are the associated research questions? Overall, the findings from this paper suggest the need for additional research in the area because of its substantial implications for theory, research, and practice.
... Moreover, individuals were given binary ("yes" or "no") options in response to each of the variables (Stekelorum et al., 2020) with an additional open-ended item (e.g., what is your suggestion about CSR practices of companies for community development?). The contemporary CSR literature, along with reliable data sources (annual reports) and field information (FGD and survey) on the effects of CSRPs on community perceptions of societal progress, was structured to measure the propositions validly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Grounded on stakeholder theory and contemporary corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature, this study aims to investigate the broad categories of CSR programs (CSRPs) of scheduled banks and nonbanking financial institutions of Bangladesh Bank (the central bank of Bangladesh). This study also attempts to build the relationship between CSRPs and community perceptions of societal progress. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data collected from primary and secondary sources. The findings of this study show that CSRPs positively influence community perceptions of societal progress. The results of this study will have significant practical implications on societal progress and future research on CSR and community development.
... Moreover, individuals were given binary ("yes" or "no") options in response to each of the variables (Stekelorum et al., 2020) with an additional open-ended item (e.g., what is your suggestion about CSR practices of companies for community development?). The contemporary CSR literature, along with reliable data sources (annual reports) and field information (FGD and survey) on the effects of CSRPs on community perceptions of societal progress, was structured to measure the propositions validly. ...
Article
Grounded on stakeholder theory and contemporary corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature, this study aims to investigate the broad categories of CSR programs (CSRPs) of scheduled banks and nonbanking financial institutions of Bangladesh Bank (the central bank of Bangladesh). This study also attempts to build the relationship between CSRPs and community perceptions of societal progress. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data collected from primary and secondary sources. The findings of this study show that CSRPs positively influence community perceptions of societal progress. The results of this study will have significant practical implications on societal progress and future research on CSR and community development.
... However, it is slightly different in Hungary since employees and large firms play a role in SMEs' environmental decisions (Nagypál, 2014). Furthermore, it is evident that supplier assessment of SMEs is positively influenced by international NGOs through the economic and environmental CSR dimension, while the relationship is the opposite through the social CSR dimension (Stekelorum, Laguir, & Elbaz, 2019). Liu, Zhang, Henry, Bu and Wang (2018) also emphasize that supply chain management needs considerable cooperation between multi-stakeholders such as NGOs, industrial associations and consulting firms. ...
Article
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important and growing role in the economy, but they also contribute to negative environmental effects. It is often argued that local governments (LGs) would be better able than the central government to address these environmental effects. LGs can generate locally specific solutions and mobilize other local stakeholders. This article examines (1) how Thai SMEs respond to complaints about their industrial water pollution and (2) to what extent LGs have been able to address such environmental degradation. Thirty cases of industrial water pollution were investigated, and stakeholders (entrepreneurs, LGs, affected communities and NGOs) were interviewed about their actions and responses. We conclude that none of the stakeholders on their own make a significant contribution to the environmental outcomes. We present two cases detailing how enterprises, LGs and communities interacted with each other over time and how this interaction shaped the environmental outcomes. The responses of polluting entrepreneurs were driven by interaction between various stakeholders. This finding suggests that LGs alone cannot address water pollution, even if they have the authority and capacity. LGs need to interact with other stakeholders to pursue this task.
... Building up CSR reputations in an international context is important as MNCs have to build local CSR reputations through local relationships, while also demonstrating global social responsibility (Muller, 2006;Stekelorum, Laguir, & Elbax, 2019).MNCs impact on politics, economics and society in the host country should demonstrate that they act socially, in the context of social, ethical and environmental perceptions of local host country stakeholders such as governments (Beddewela & Fairbrass, 2016). Increasingly, companies are under increasing pressure from multiple stakeholders to be socially and environmentally responsible (Ferraris, Belyaeva, & Bresciani, 2018;Hassan & Ibrahim, 2012), and a focus on CSR can contribute to answering this call (Carroll, 2015;Putrevu, McGuire, Siegel, & Smith, 2012;Rhee, Park, & Petersen, 2018). ...
Article
This study aims to develop insights on how firms could manage their relationships with the ecological setting, which is a major stakeholder to create value in an international entrepreneurial and environmental context. Based on the inductive constructive method, and drawing on the recent entrepreneurial CSR literature, stakeholder and internationalization theories, we suggest that managing ecological stakeholder relationship is intimately connected to the idea of creating value for stakeholders through creating ethical relationship with them. In this context, this study posits that with increasing emphasis from the society to assure firms' accountability to multiple stakeholders including the ecological stakeholders, the complexity of relational pressures is greater, when a firm operates in cross-border markets. Furthermore, such pressures are also higher in complex stakeholder relations, when a firm attempts to integrate internationalization and stakeholder theories in CSR-based value creating parameters, as a meaningful relationship with the ecological setting, as a key stakeholder in international markets. In this context, we have proposed propositions at the intersection of the aforementioned theoretical areas. Our synthesis offers novel insights on how firms could proactively manage their relationship with the ecological settings that is a core stakeholder in cross-border market to create stakeholder value.
Article
Research on the international entrepreneurial behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) originating from Africa has been receiving growing scholarly attention. Despite a proliferation of studies on the subject, the literature has hitherto remained fragmented, theoretically limited, and empirically inconclusive, thereby leaving important topics underexplored. This paper seeks to address this shortcoming through a systematic literature review aimed at critically analyzing and synthesizing 66 articles published in leading journals from 1995 to 2021. Our paper describes how research on the international entrepreneurial behavior of African SMEs has evolved over time, and identifies key gaps in the existing literature, thereby pointing at future avenues for research. By mapping descriptive findings in terms of methods, geography, and theoretical perspectives, we further develop an integrative framework suited to frame insights drawn from the current literature and offer important opportunities for future research on internationalizing SMEs originating from Africa.
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Recently, core enterprises are compelled to invest in the environmental responsibility of upstream suppliers, since their brand image and market share will be significantly impacted when suppliers fail to comply with environmental regulations. However, the effectiveness of the core enterprises’ investment efficiency is limited by insufficient environmental knowledge. Although cooperating with the knowledge-advantaged environmental non-governmental organization (ENGO) may be an effective solution, we observe from the recent examples that not all core enterprises are willing to cooperate in a competitive market. Within this context, we develop a theoretical model to investigate whether competitive core enterprises can benefit from cooperating with the knowledge-advantaged ENGO to motivate the supplier’s environmental responsibility. Our results show that cooperation incentivizes core enterprises’ investments in the supplier’s environmental responsibility, which in turn motivates better environmental responsibility of the supplier. However, we illustrate that cooperation is not necessarily the optimal strategy for core enterprises in the duopoly scenario. Specifically, as the knowledge absorption ability increases, a core enterprise may free-ride on another’s investment, shifting its strategic preference from cooperating to not cooperating. In addition, competition may stimulate the core enterprises’ investments and cooperation motivation, thus improving the total environmental effort and supply chain members’ profits. Our findings provide insights into the competitive core enterprises’ strategic choice regarding suppliers’ environmental responsibility management.
Article
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Sustainability is a global trend that requires balancing environmental, social, and financial concerns. Issues related to social and environmental responsibility have attracted growing research interest in the research domains on small businesses and large multinational companies, but they are yet to be explored in the context of internationalized small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which experience the liabilities of foreignness and smallness but whose share of and impact on the world economy are growing. This study connects entrepreneurial decision-making with business responsibility and explores the effects of effectual decision-making logic on responsible business practices (RBPs) and their outcomes in the context of internationalized SMEs. The empirical part of the study was based on the survey data from a sample of 179 Finnish SMEs. The results obtained via linear regression modeling showed that a more pronounced effectual logic can lead to more RBPs in internationalized SMEs. The RBPs, in turn, were found to have a positive impact on the competitive performance of these SMEs, thus serving as mediators. This study contributes to the literature on responsible decision-making in both the research areas of internationalization of SMEs and small business responsibility.
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Objetivo: examinar la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE) en las pymes sobre la base de la interrelación de sus elementos organizacionales, desde la perspectiva de la complejidad argumentando que debe buscarse ampliar la comprensión del fenómeno organizacional derivado de la RSE. Metodología: diseño de investigación multicaso cualitativo con alcance descriptivoexplicativo, con triangulación de datos. Resultados: la relación RSE-Organización implica un conjunto de procesos e interacciones situacionales entre los constructos básicos de la RSE y los elementos organizacionales, así como considerar la complejidad de la organización y su entorno. Limitaciones: por efectos de la pandemia se tuvo acceso a investigar solo ocho pymes con distintivo de Empresa Socialmente Responsable. Conclusiones: las pymes deben ampliar su radio de actuación en la materia de RSE a los distintos niveles de la organización e interrelacionarlos a través de una estrategia que responda al entorno, para ello las estructuras y liderazgo son fundamentales. Las líneas de investigación futuras podrían profundizar en las interacciones de las pymes con el entorno económico, social y ambiental respondiendo a la complejidad del desarrollo sostenible.
Article
Presently, the environmental pollution problem, especially that of the small and medium-sized enterprises, has become a bottleneck restricting the high-quality development of China’s economy. It is imperative to accelerate the construction of a collaborative governance system with multiple subject participation. The behavior modes of Environmental Non-governmental Organizations (ENGOs), a key player in environmental care, in collaborating with core enterprises to control pollution from small and medium-sized suppliers should be explored. Therefore, we constructed a collaborative governance system consisting of ENGOs, focal firms and small and medium-sized suppliers. Then a two-stage game model was established to analyze the strategies of the governance system. Specifically, we studied the collaborative green cooperation strategy and antagonistic pressure supervision strategy between ENGOs and focal firms, analyzed factors influencing the strategic choices of each subject, and gave the advantages of the cooperation strategies through further comparisons. The results showed that: Under the cooperation strategy, ENGOs provided knowledge of environmental protection to the focal firms, then both the audit efforts of focal firms and the environmental protection efforts of small and medium-sized suppliers were effectively improved. Since ENGOs could not fully obtain the pollution information of small and medium-sized suppliers or accurately trace it from their downstream focal firms, it was difficult to drive the supply chain’s endogenous governance by this external monitoring of ENGOs, making the effect of pressure supervision strategy limited. The effectiveness of green cooperation strategy was positively correlated with the knowledge absorption capacity of focal firms, the unit product revenue, and the focal firms' violation penalties for small and medium-sized suppliers. When ENGOs' violation penalties for small and medium-sized suppliers were higher, or the reputation loss of focal firms was higher, more unfavorable conditions of green cooperation strategy could be achieved. Accordingly, ENGOs should choose to cooperate with focal firms with strong knowledge absorption ability and high profit per product; focal firms should learn environmental protection knowledge to improve the screening standards and review capabilities, and promote the achievement of green cooperation strategy conditions by strengthening active information disclosure; the government should promote the collaboration between ENGOs and focal firms by issuing environmental guidelines.
Article
Despite extensive corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature most of research has examined corporate performance as its only outcome. We aim to fill this gap by assessing companies' perceptions of their CSR activities’ benefits for society and specific stakeholders. We discuss societal trends such as diversity and inclusion embedded in employee-focused CSR conceptualization as a prerequisite for the perception of CSR’s societal impact. We bring together CSR and relationship marketing theories to test a conceptual model on a sample of 411 business-to-business (B2B) companies. The results confirm a positive relationship between employee-oriented CSR and the perceived usefulness of CSR actions for society, customers and employees (but not suppliers). In order to maximize relationship quality, CSR activities should be targeted at specific stakeholders (customers and employees) and not at society at large. Finally, differences are observed between SMEs and large B2B firms with opposite perceptions of antecedents and outcomes of relationship quality.
Article
This study examines (i) how eco-friendly product development helps translate sustainable customer orientation into social supply chain performance in SMEs and (ii) how the cooperation with non-traditional stakeholders (environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) and local public administrations) moderates this relationship. Drawing on the natural and stakeholder resource-based views, and the relational view theory, this study tests the proposed moderated mediation model using data from 146 thousand small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Results indicate that sustainable customer orientation is negatively associated with SME social supply chain performance. However, the relationship becomes positive when we take into account the mediating role of eco-friendly product development. Furthermore, the positive association between sustainable customer orientation and social supply chain performance through eco-friendly product development is stronger for firms that collaborate strongly with ENGOs and local public administrations. Several theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Article
Recent years have seen a growing interest in the separate areas of responsible governance mechanisms and circular economy practices. However, the literature lacks evidence on supplier capabilities as a responsible governance mechanism pathway for buyer firms to improve their circular economy practices. Drawing on the natural resource-based view, and the dynamic capabilities perspective, this study examines supplier’ supply chain ambidexterity and big data predictive analytics capabilities as enabling factors in support of buyer firms’ responsible governance mechanism for circular economy practices improvements. Using data from surveys conducted among 404 firms (202 focal firm-supplier dyads), the results suggest that the focal firm’ supplier-selection mechanism significantly and positively influences its circular economy practices while the supplier-development mechanism has no such effect. We find further that the governance mechanisms vary in their effects on supplier’ supply chain ambidexterity and subsequent big data analytics capabilities and circular economy practices improvement outcomes. In sum, our findings provide unique insights into the role of suppliers’ capabilities for responsible governance mechanisms to circular economy practices improvement from the perspective of the dyad.
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Despite almost four decades of introducing the Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) concept into business and marketing literature, there is still no general agreement as to the definition, content, and scope of marketing, in particular, in countries such as Iran. In this regard, while this article will examine and present the conceptual framework of this issue during the period of creation, it aims to achieve a conceptual model for Cause-Related Marketing in the banking system of Iran. For this reason, the concept of Cause-Related Marketing is analyzed in terms of its origin and evolution, content and scope, and various well-known definitions. The first part reviews the subject literature and integrates the findings of previous researchers. The second section was done by the phenomenological method and through a detailed interview with banking system experts. The study population was senior managers of Keshavarzi Bank, and the strategy of sampling was non-random, available, and utilized theoretical sampling methods. In this regard, 16 senior managers of the Agricultural Bank of Iran were selected as the statistical sample for data collection. Qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding using the MaxQDA12pro software. Findings separate the concept of Cause-Related Marketing from other related or similar terms and describe various types of Cause-Related Marketing campaigns. Finally, the phenomenological method was used to examine and provide the dimensions and components of Cause-Related Marketing in the banking system of Iran. Analyzing the results of the interviews shows that Cause-Related Marketing in the banking system has direct (management, economic, and characteristics of the causal activities) and indirect (social, scientific, cultural, religious, and geographical components) dimensions.
Article
As many multinationals set up subsidiaries in emerging markets, they face legitimacy pressures from the host countries. This pressure leads firms to engage in political corporate social responsibility (PCSR) activities. We distinguish two types of attributions of PCSR activities – public-serving and self-serving – and study how these two types of PCSR attributions affect firm reputation. Analyzing 463 PCSR activities by 104 firms in China between 2015 and 2017, we find that public-serving PCSR enhances firm reputation, while self-serving PCSR diminishes it. In addition, we document a negative interaction effect between the two attributions of PCSR. We also find that CEO participation attenuates the negative effect of self-serving PCSR whereas administrative distance accentuates the positive effect of public-serving PCSR. Our research contributes to the nascent literature on government relation networks and sheds light on how firms should manage their relationships with the host countries in a multi-cultural setting.
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In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has benefited from an increasing interest in supply chains. The creation of a sustainable supply chain usually depends of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)’ ability to work with CSR issues. However, scholars have paid less attention to CSR practices in SME supply chains. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review of the implementation of CSR practices in the supply chains of SMEs. Using a set of 63 papers, this study develops a conceptual framework that encompasses four different roles of SMEs in implementing CSR in the supply chain (adopters, brokers, generators, and transmitters). This study also identifies four SME characteristics and five contingency factors that are related to the different roles of SMEs. This paper draws on the perspective of SMEs, which has been less studied by academia but has a substantial impact on the overall economy.
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This paper examines the CSR practices of family firms listed in the French financial market and distinguishes between those managed by a family member CEO and those managed by a competent external CEO. We adopt an exploratory approach and begin with a content analysis of the annual reports from family firms listed in the CAC 40 index during the 2005-2011 period. We then conduct various statistical techniques (e.g., Pearson correlation analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis) to study the relationships among social performance and family involvement. This paper is the first to provide a preliminary assessment of French family firms' CSR practices in the current economic context. The study suggests that family firms intensify their CSR efforts during the 2005-2011 period. Our study also reveals that family firms managed by competent external CEOs show better social performance than those managed by family member CEOs. Indeed, the empirical results consistently show a negative and statistically significant association between family involvement and corporate social performance.
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The long-term viability of an organization hinges on social, environmental, and economic measures. However, based on extensive review of the literature, we have observed that measuring and improving the sustainable performance of supply chains is complex. We have grounded our theoretical framework in institutional theory (IT) and resource-based view (RBV) and drawn thirteen hypotheses. We developed our instrument scientifically to validate our model and test our research hypotheses. The data was collected from the Indian auto components industry following Dillman’s total design test method. We gathered 205 usable responses. Following Peng and Lai’s (2012) arguments, we have tested our model using variance-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). We found that the constructs used for building our theoretical model possess construct validity and further satisfy the specified criteria for goodness of fit (GoF). The hypotheses test further suggests that coercive pressures under the mediation effect of top management belief and participation have significant influence on resource selection (i.e., supply chain connectivity and supply chain information sharing). The supply chain connectivity and supply chain information sharing have significant influence on environmental performance. Contrary to our belief, the normative and mimetic pressures have no significant influence on top management participation. The managerial implications of the findings are also discussed.
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Local actors are crucial in disaster risk management; thus, their capacities should be assessed periodically. In this study, local social services’ preparedness plans were assessed using Emergency Management Program Measurement and quantitative document analysis. The specific aim was to study how social service areas of various sizes were prepared for disasters in Finland. The results showed that disaster risk management capacity varied significantly between large and small service areas. Larger areas were better prepared for supporting management, and had better procedures to activate their response, modern public information and deeper cooperation with the private sector and the civil society. The differences might derive from the fact that large areas have more resources allocated to disaster risk management.
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Provides a nontechnical introduction to the partial least squares (PLS) approach. As a logical base for comparison, the PLS approach for structural path estimation is contrasted to the covariance-based approach. In so doing, a set of considerations are then provided with the goal of helping the reader understand the conditions under which it might be reasonable or even more appropriate to employ this technique. This chapter builds up from various simple 2 latent variable models to a more complex one. The formal PLS model is provided along with a discussion of the properties of its estimates. An empirical example is provided as a basis for highlighting the various analytic considerations when using PLS and the set of tests that one can employ is assessing the validity of a PLS-based model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Buying firms must pay increased attention to supply chain sustainability issues, as stakeholders might hold them responsible for non-sustainable supply chain activities. Frequently, sustainability problems occur upstream at the sub-supplier level. Building on the literature on multi-tier supply chains (MSCs), we investigated the sustainability management strategies of buying firms in the food, apparel, packaging, and consumer electronics with regard to second-tier suppliers and beyond. In particular, we analyzed seven cases of global MSCs and found four different characteristic MSC types—open, closed, third party, and “don't bother”. We identified three main factors—supply chain complexity, the sustainability management capabilities of the first-tier supplier, and the type of sustainability in focus (i.e., environmental or social sustainability)—that determine when and how buying firms actually extend their sustainability strategies to their sub-suppliers.
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Social networks are a key contributor to the economic and social fabric of life. There is evidence that the social cohesion that social networks provide is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. These social networks and the functions they perform co-exist with, influence and are influenced by the business networks of connected firms and other economic organisations that surround them. This is increasingly so in our ever-more-complex, internationalized and connected world. This paper explores the potential consequences of this influence via a case study that considers the changes to a community's social network and the associated norms emerging from the growing influence of a microfinance providers' network. A case study reports the impact of microfinance on a particular Bangladesh rural community. We show there is a breakdown in traditional social networks in this and other poor rural villages brought about by the taking of micro loans when the families have no means of paying them back. This increased indebtedness to NGOs is perpetuating their poverty and diminishing the community's quality of life including their traditions of bounded solidarity, where families support each other as best they can through common adversities. The case concludes by considering the mechanisms underpinning these processes. This includes competitive structure, i.e. the highly saturated and interconnected structure of the micro finance industry, the dominance of this business network in the economic structure of rural Bangladesh and changing norms, in particular the changes to traditional forms of financial exchange and associated support and risk management. We conclude that public policy and a different business model that is more accountable and altruistic are needed to guide this and other networks whose goals are economic development of the poor.
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Advances in sustainable purchasing put pressure on firms to evaluate and demonstrate the sustainability of their products and services. In this paper, we coin the term sustainable value proposition, develop a process framework for building sustainable value propositions, and illustrate its application with two technology-intensive offerings. By integrating the literature on sustainable marketing and customer value propositions with life cycle assessment methodologies, we build a process framework that can be applied to demonstrate and evaluate the economic, environmental and social benefits of industrial products and services. The framework comprises 1) identification of potential impacts, 2) identification of key value creation mechanisms, 3) choosing key indicators, 4) life cycle modeling, and 5) life cycle value demonstration. Through two case studies, we examine the development of sustainable value propositions in two industry sectors: metallurgical and automotive. The results highlight the value provided to customers through the combination of direct economic benefits and derivative benefits of reduced environmental and social impacts. Our paper contributes to the growing field of sustainable marketing by offering guidelines on how to integrate sustainability with the marketing and purchasing of technology intensive offerings. In addition, we offer guidelines for how to construct sustainable value propositions that resonate with customers.
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While CSR and sustainability have been widely debated topics over the past decades, there is still evidence of unethical practices by businesses, as witnessed through corporate scandals across a number of industry sectors. This highlights the need for firms to collaborate to actively prevent malpractices and instead find ways to improve standards along the whole value chain. With the increased pressure from various stakeholders, calling for firms to address these issues in a collaborative and holistic manner, the development of models facilitating collaboration is vital. Taking a communication perspective, this paper seeks to improve the knowledge on how organisations can manage diverse stakeholders to improve value chain collaboration towards more sustainable practices. Based on a multiple case study methodology, involving in-depth interviews with senior directors in the food and drink value chain, a framework is developed, depicting the value of a branded sustainability program as a useful platform for stimulating collaboration and co-creation from diverse and/or competing stakeholders. The framework builds on, and contributes to several literature strands including CSR/sustainability communication, coopetition and branding.
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We live in a period marked by the ascendency of corporations. At the same time, the number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) – such as Amnesty International, CARE, Greenpeace, Oxfam, Save the Children, and the WWF – has rapidly increased in the last twenty years. As a result, these two very different types of organization are playing an increasingly important role in shaping our society, yet they often have very different agendas. This book focuses on the dynamic interactions, both conflictual and collaborative, that exist between corporations and NGOs. It includes rigorous models, frameworks, and case studies to document the various ways that NGOs target corporations through boycotts, proxy campaigns, and other advocacy initiatives. It also explains the emerging pattern of cross-sectoral alliances and partnerships between corporations and NGOs. This book can help managers, activists, scholars, and students to better understand the nature, scope, and evolution of these complex interactions. © Michael Yaziji and Jonathan Doh and Cambridge University Press, 2009.
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Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) is increasingly becoming a topical issue for business research and practice. However, there is a dearth internationally of empirical research that has investigated the factors propelling companies to integrate or inhibiting them from integrating sustainability principles in their supply chain management (SCM). Therefore, this study examines the motivators for and barriers to SSCM adoption in the New Zealand business context and aims to contribute to an improved understanding of the motivators of and barriers to SSCM implementation. To this end, an exploratory case study was conducted and senior managers of four large New Zealand based companies were interviewed. The results reveal that sustainability values of top management, a desire to reduce risk and stakeholder management are salient motivators for SSCM adoption. Conversely, a lack of supplier awareness, negative perceptions and inadequate government support are identified as barriers to SSCM implementation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment
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Purpose – Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be misleading unless researchers establish the invariance of their measures. While methods have been proposed to analyze measurement invariance in common factor models, research lacks an approach in respect of composite models. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel three-step procedure to analyze the measurement invariance of composite models (MICOM) when using variance-based SEM, such as partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Design/methodology/approach – A simulation study allows us to assess the suitability of the MICOM procedure to analyze the measurement invariance in PLS applications. Findings – The MICOM procedure appropriately identifies no, partial, and full measurement invariance. Research limitations/implications – The statistical power of the proposed tests requires further research, and researchers using the MICOM procedure should take potential type-II errors into account. Originality/value – The research presents a novel procedure to assess the measurement invariance in the context of composite models. Researchers in international marketing and other disciplines need to conduct this kind of assessment before undertaking multigroup analyses. They can use MICOM procedure as a standard means to assess the measurement invariance.
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International environmental policy has long recognized the role of both the civil and business sectors in the implementation of sustainable development, as reflected by the Earth Summit in 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro) and the resulting publication of the Agenda 21 action plan. The importance of civil organizations is also stressed by the European Union's environmental policy, as indicated by, for instance, the Sixth Environmental Action Plan, which was accepted in 2002. Nevertheless, the common understanding of how non-governmental organizations may influence corporate environmental behavior, especially that of small and medium-sized enterprises, remains limited. This paper presents the results of research examining the relationships between non-governmental organizations and businesses based on the stakeholder theory of the firm. The results show that small and medium-sized enterprises rank the importance of different stakeholders similarly to larger businesses and often engage in cooperation with non-governmental organizations. It is also demonstrated that cooperative strategies constitute an important and effective component of non-governmental organizations' behavior toward businesses and that the indirect influence of the civil sector is as important as its direct impact. The results contribute to the development of the stakeholder theory of the firm and help inform practical decision makers about how to improve relationships between business and non-governmental organizations.
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Sustainable procurement is increasingly on the agenda for purchasing and supply managers seeking to demonstrate corporate social responsibility in their supply chains. In this paper, we identify trends in the literature and establish that this is a burgeoning field. We identify methodological challenges and research gaps to guide future research. We propose a sustainable procurement framework to help structure future research across supply chains. Finally, we introduce each of the papers in the special issue, and identify what makes them stand out as making a novel contribution to research in the field.
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This paper analyzes how national institutions impact corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the food-processing industries of France and Morocco. In this study, CSR practices are defined around two main dimensions: corporate performance (financial versus global) and the CSR approach (defensive versus active). Qualitative data were collected during semi-structured interviews with SME managers in charge of CSR issues. We then performed a content analysis. Our study shows that there is a distinct difference between the CSR practices adopted by SMEs in France and Morocco. Indeed, the findings suggest that under the rule-based governance system of France, most SMEs view CSR as an economic tool and it is adopted as an opportunity-seeking perspective anchored in the search for global performance. The findings also show that under the relationship-based governance system of Morocco, SMEs mainly see CSR from a constraint-reducing perspective. However, some Moroccan SMEs have begun to see the economic opportunities of CSR, especially in accessing foreign markets.
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This paper explores what it takes to actualize market innovation. It traces the ongoing efforts instigated by an exporter to bring about, and transform a mainstream market into, a new sustainable market; a market designed to advance ecological and social sustainability goals. We draw attention to the diverse and heterogeneous composite – a socio-technical agencement – whose transformative connections collectively reconfigure and transform the mainstream market into a sustainable market. This paper draws on evidence from an ethnographic study of a newly established sustainable coffee market in Uganda to discuss how market innovation unfolds. It illustrates the ongoing character of market innovation and reveals the agencing work involved in bringing about the agencement and capacitating agencies to realize market innovation.
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The design and implementation of base of the pyramid (BoP) solutions or products require multinational companies to make adjustments to their business strategies and processes. While this strategic opportunity has been argued for in BoP related publications, a 'traditional' strategic management perspective has not been applied. This paper aims towards using the strategic management process as an analytic framework for case studies at the BoP, allowing analysis of which aspects are particularly critical for achieving respective solutions. This includes reaching sustainability related objectives. A total of seven cases covering both products and services have been researched, allowing a contribution towards the applicability of strategic management in respective situations. Further, the importance of specific strategy process elements is assessed. While it seems obvious that strategic management thought can be applied, the analytic criteria put forward (i.e. company, initial need, motivation, external analysis, stakeholder, product/service, strategic choice, organizational implementation, supply chain, economic outcome, effects on sustainable development) are particularly geared towards the BoP solutions. While previous literature centres on analysing needs, the case based research provides the insight that aspects of internal organization, supply chain management and sustainability outcomes are of equal importance. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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This paper focuses on dynamic capabilities and, more generally, the resource‐based view of the firm. We argue that dynamic capabilities are a set of specific and identifiable processes such as product development, strategic decision making, and alliancing. They are neither vague nor tautological. Although dynamic capabilities are idiosyncratic in their details and path dependent in their emergence, they have significant commonalities across firms (popularly termed ‘best practice’). This suggests that they are more homogeneous, fungible, equifinal, and substitutable than is usually assumed. In moderately dynamic markets, dynamic capabilities resemble the traditional conception of routines. They are detailed, analytic, stable processes with predictable outcomes. In contrast, in high‐velocity markets, they are simple, highly experiential and fragile processes with unpredictable outcomes. Finally, well‐known learning mechanisms guide the evolution of dynamic capabilities. In moderately dynamic markets, the evolutionary emphasis is on variation. In high‐velocity markets, it is on selection. At the level of RBV, we conclude that traditional RBV misidentifies the locus of long‐term competitive advantage in dynamic markets, overemphasizes the strategic logic of leverage, and reaches a boundary condition in high‐velocity markets. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has benefited from a renewed interest in supply chains. However, little scholarly attention has been paid to the CSR practices in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)’ supply chains that lie beyond the first-tier supplier. Drawing from the dynamic capabilities perspective, the purpose of this study is twofold: first, to examine how SMEs extend CSR into their multi-tier supply chain (MSC); and second, to investigate the drivers of and the barriers to this process. A multiple-case study was conducted to examine six triadic relationships of SMEs including sub-suppliers. We performed within-case and cross-case analyses. The study shows that SMEs use ‘co-evolving’ or ‘reflexive control’ capabilities to extend CSR to the SME first-tier supplier. The findings reveal that, in contrast, SMEs use ‘active delegation’, ‘supply chain re-conceptualization’ capabilities or a ‘don’t bother’ approach to extend CSR to the SME second-tier supplier. Besides, our study shows that the type of internal drivers (instrumental or normative) determines the dynamic capabilities implemented at the first-tier and at the second-tier supplier level, while external drivers are weak and the barriers are primarily internal.
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In the challenge of making transports and logistics greener, logistics service providers (LSPs) play a central role as the operators of freight transport. Their customers, the shippers, also play an important role in environmental development. Research has identified discrepancies between LSPs and shippers in their environmental practices. This paper takes a relational approach addressing these discrepancies, and the purpose is to develop the understanding of why environmental practices can both flourish and fade in provider-shipper relationships and networks. Paradoxes provide a theoretical lens, while an in-depth case study of two networks provides the empirical basis for the paper. The networks include relationships between LSPs and shippers. Findings show that paradoxes help to raise contextual awareness in the greening of these relationships. Paradoxes in many instances cause environmental practices to fade. One example is when an LSP's environmental ambition gives opportunities for environmental practices, but is limited by the financial goals of the shippers. Findings also indicate that if there are possibilities to relax the paradoxes, environmental practices may instead flourish in the relationships. One example of such a relaxation is environmental competence sustained and cultivated by an LSP, since such competence can increase the power position of the LSP.
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Purpose - The chapter discusses the conditions under which a transport small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) engages in strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) and how complex new technology might be adopted. Design/methodology/approach - The chapter is based on the case study of a transport SME engaging into greening its transport activity with electric trucks. Findings - The case study gives an insight into adoption conditions of radical new technology by an SME where collective adoption is required to make the new system efficient. It suggests that an industry leader undergoes the trial stage to favour later infusion of the innovation across the given industry. It is also shown that strategic CSR from SMEs is hampered by the complex setting into which new technologies are embedded. Practical implications - Environmental concerns engage companies in important technological changes. In order to set up their strategy, SMEs should get involved in professional organizations within their industry and across industries, to benefit from information and ultimately to facilitate adoption where multi-user adoption is a key technology characteristic. Originality/value - The work introduces the challenges of transition economy and new technology adoption in the prospect of greening transport activities. It shows the eco-systemic nature of ongoing changes and the necessity for SMEs to network within and across industries.
Article
The respective literatures on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure and sustainable supplier management have grown in recent years, but little scholarly attention has been paid to the link between the two. Within a framework that incorporates legitimacy and neo-institutional theories, this study investigates how CSR disclosure in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) influences CSR requirements and capacity building with suppliers. Based on an empirical data set of 146 000 SMEs, we test our hypotheses using multiple mediation analysis. Our results indicate that SME CSR disclosure has a positive direct effect on capacity building. When the mediating role of CSR requirements is taken into account, the study reveals that the more SMEs disclose their CSR activities, the more they require CSR from their suppliers, which in turn leads to an increase in capacity building with them. The study also suggests that the SMEs that limit their CSR requirements to the application step are more likely to build capacity with their suppliers than the SMEs that impose CSR verification. Overall, this article provides unique insights for practitioners seeking to determine the circumstances in which the SME practices of sustainable supplier management unfold in practice.
Article
Do large firms exert power to shape the CSR behavior of their SME partners?” We answer this question by proposing a model built on the stakeholder theory and the shareholder theory, and go on to explain how this impact influences the commitment of the SME towards their large partner. The model highlights the central role that different forms of power exercised by the large firm play in the process. A survey of 291 SMEs confirms the key hypotheses, including the mediating role of reward power. The effects of coercive power are noteworthy and they illustrate the complex and competing forces at play in influencing CSR behavioral change in SMEs. The research makes a novel contribution to practice by highlighting among other things, how power, as a negative force via coercion or positively through expert or reward benefits, support or becomes counterproductive to the change process.
Article
This paper provides a systematic review on the subject of environmental sustainability in the service industry of logistics service providers (LSPs) to analyse the advances of the literature on the topic and pick out appropriate research questions to investigate. The literature review has been performed using two academic databases and spans the years 1960–2014. The paper shows that despite the increasing number of papers on the subject, several areas of research are still being neglected. In particular, the paper highlights six main literature gaps concerning the classification of green initiatives, the impact of green initiatives on LSP performance, the evaluation of sustainability performance, the factors influencing the adoption of environmental sustainability initiatives, the customer perspective in the sustainable supply chain, and the information and communication technologies supporting green initiatives. Starting from these six gaps, eight research questions have been identified. These research questions represent possible emerging areas of investigation on the topic.
Article
Purpose : The purpose of this paper is to examine the environmental sustainability practices of third-party logistics providers (TPLs) in a developing country and analyze the efforts made by TPLs to implement green practices through a case study of Moroccan TPLs. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative case study of Moroccan TPLs was conducted using an interview guide. Findings: The findings indicate that the internal and external drivers motivate TPLs to implement green practices while internal and external obstacles hinder them. The authors identified two groups of TPLs, each with a specific environmental sustainability approach. The results indicate also that environmental sustainability is at an early stage of development in Moroccan TPLs. Based on these findings, the authors were able to develop several propositions for further research. It is suggested that TPLs market coverage can influence positively their green initiative; the lack of collaboration and partners involvement hinders TPLs environmental initiatives; and the lack of clear environmental strategy limits TPLs environmental sustainability initiatives. Research limitations/implications: This study has some limitations that provide future research opportunities. Because this study is qualitative, further statistical support is needed to justify wider generalization of its findings. The possibility of generalizing the present findings to countries beyond Morocco is limited by the fact that data were collected exclusively there. Studies might therefore do well to investigate TPLs in developing countries other than Morocco to increase the external validity of the results. Also, the research could be expanded by taking into account how shippers or client companies collaborate with TPLs to improve sustainability initiatives. Practical implications: The results can be used to inform companies about environmental sustainability initiatives that have been implemented or to identify practices that can be adopted. Originality/value: The relevant literature has centered on advanced countries, and few studies have been conducted in the logistics market. Research on the sustainable initiatives of TPLs in developing countries in general and African countries in particular is sparse. This paper addresses this gap by investigating the sustainable practices of TPLs in Morocco. Keywords: Logistics, Third-party logistics, Case study, Environmental sustainability, Logistics providers
Article
The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
Article
In a 2000 article in Industrial Marketing Management, “Issues in Supply Chain Management,” Lambert and Cooper presented a framework for Supply Chain Management (SCM) as well as issues related to how it should be implemented and directions for future research. The framework was comprised of eight cross-functional, cross-firm business processes that could be used as a new way to manage relationships with suppliers and customers. It was based on research conducted by a team of academic researchers working with a group of executives from non-competing firms that had been meeting regularly since 1992 with the objective of improving SCM theory and practice. The research has continued for the past 16 years and now covers a total of 25 years. In this paper, we review the progress that has been made in the development and implementation of the proposed SCM framework since 2000 and identify opportunities for further research.
Article
Manufacturing firms in developing countries have recently started to adopt sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) to manage their environmental responsibility. However, achieving sustainable production within a SSCM context has been one of the most pressing challenges in emerging markets, as it may not involve securing financial benefits. Given the scarcity of empirical evidence, this study raises the proposition that SSCM practices can be both environmentally necessary and good business in the context of emerging economies. In light of this, this paper develops and empirically assesses an integrated SSCM performance framework underpinned by the resource dependence theory (RDT) lens, linking SSCM practices and their relationship with organisational performance. Using the tenants of RDT, this research develops an understanding of how firms use their partners' resources to implement SSCM practices and manage their performance implications.Conducting an empirical study of 128 manufacturing firms (72 in China and 56 in Iran), this study examines and compares the impact of SSCM adoption on environmental and cost performance within these two emerging markets. Using a multiple regression analysis, the results show that there are more similarities than differences amongst these two emerging economies. The results also reveal that the adoption of SSCM practices results in higher levels of the environmental performance of Chinese and Iranian manufacturers, but does not necessarily lead to improved cost performance. Our findings suggest that firms operating within emerging markets need to undertake SSCM initiatives with a broader consideration of their financial bottom line in order to minimise trade-offs between the environmental and cost performance.
Article
Supply chain management theory recognizes the importance of managing supplier relationships. However, we know less about the capabilities underlying such supplier relationship management that are required to restructure and develop the supply base in order to continuously improve its performance. A recent study by Mitrega and Pfajfar (2015) provides initial insights regarding this topic. The objective of the present article is to provide a qualification and extension based on their argument. For this purpose we utilize the concept of supplier relationship management (SRM) capability, in line with a dynamic capabilities approach to management. SRM capability comprises organizational processes and routines oriented at the initiation, development, and ending of supplier relationships. Our study qualifies and extends Mitrega and Pfajfar (2015) by providing a rigorous conceptualization, nomological model, and operationalization of SRM capability. This study specifically shows that differential effects of components of SRM capability exist, which are attributed to the characteristics of the business environment in combination with the firm's strategic choices. A latent class analysis reveals the existence of two groups of distinct SRM capability strategies: a status-quo optimization strategy and a dynamic optimization strategy, which are contingent on characteristics of the supply base and the business environment.
Article
This article synthesizes the large but diverse literature on organizational legitimacy, highlighting similarities and disparities among the leading strategic and institutional approaches. The analysis identifies three primary forms of legitimacy: pragmatic, based on audience self-interest; moral, based on normative approval: and cognitive, based on comprehensibility and taken-for-grantedness. The article then examines strategies for gaining, maintaining, and repairing legitimacy of each type, suggesting both the promises and the pitfalls of such instrumental manipulations.
Article
Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable over time, this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage-value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.
Article
This paper explores whether Moroccan family small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are more or less likely to be socially responsible than nonfamily firms of comparable size. Basing on 20 qualitative case studies, we collected qualitative data during semi-structured interviews with SME managers in charge of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues. We then performed a content analysis. Our study provides consistent support for the stewardship perspective and shows that family SMEs are more likely to be socially responsible than nonfamily SMEs. We therefore posit that familySMEs hold distinctive perspectives on socially responsible business behavior as a result of their involvement in both their business and their community.
Article
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize and analyze what is known regarding the ways in which stakeholder pressure may influence supply chain sustainability. The authors extend this understanding to develop a number of research questions and propositions for future investigation on this topic. Design/methodology/approach – The authors used a systematic review process to study the empirical evidence pertaining to how a stakeholder perspective helps to understand sustainability in the supply chain management domain. Findings – The review has three main findings: stakeholder pressure on sustainability in supply chain management may result in sustainability awareness, adoption of sustainability goals, and/or implementation of sustainability practices; different types of stakeholders have dissimilar influence in the sustainable supply chain decision areas; different stakeholders appears to be more or less influential depending on whether the sustainability issue is environmental or social. Originality/value – This synthesis contributes to the literature by developing insight into the processes by which stakeholder pressure influences SSCM decisions.
Article
In this paper we investigate the collaborative paradigm in Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM). The depth and quality of the relationship between a firm and its suppliers is widely recognised as a critical facilitator of SSCM. Many authors in the field have argued that a collaborative approach to SC relationship management was likely to be more fruitful in achieving sustainable development goals. However, little research has offered a more nuanced perspective on collaborative SSCM and specifically assessed its feasibility outside the context of large companies collaborating on environmental activities. In this paper, we explore collaboration in SSCs through a qualitative study of a large multinational in the food sector working with small agricultural suppliers. We show that there are both supporting and hindering factors to collaborative SSCM. The study reveals the dynamic nature of SC relationships for sustainability and that collaboration can be developed through time thanks to investment in both formal relationship building mechanisms and more relational aspects. The main contributions of the paper lie in its nuanced view of collaboration for SSCM and systematic application of relational theory (Dyer and Singh, 1998) in SSCM.
Article
The objective of this paper is to study the impact of institutional pressures at the country level (i.e., coercive, regulatory, normative) on the adoption of sustainable supplier development practices. Globalization is allowing firms to expand in new markets and to leverage on localization advantages by establishing foreign plants and sourcing internationally. Plants located in different countries might be subject to different institutional pressures shaping their organizational response to sustainability within and outside their domain (e.g., in relation to their suppliers). The paper also aims to examine if firm specific capabilities (e.g., supply chain integration) play an enabling role in the adoption of sustainable supplier development practices. To analyse these relationships we relied on both primary and secondary data, and used hierarchical linear modelling to test our hypotheses. The results show that mimetic pressures have a positive effect on the adoption of sustainable supplier development and that this influence is positively moderated by the firm’s level of supplier integration. Coercive and normative pressures have no effect on the adoption of sustainable supplier development practices. Overall our results suggest that sustainable supplier development is a proactive practice adopted for competitive reasons and enabled by firm specific capabilities.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework that synthesizes approaches and contingency variables to manage the sustainability of multi-tier supply chains and sub-suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – Using a systematic literature review, the authors analyse 39 studies and relevant theories to develop a comprehensive framework that integrates research efforts so far. Findings – The authors build a conceptual framework that incorporates four approaches to manage the sustainability of multi-tier supply chains. They also identify several contingency variables (e.g. power, dependency, distance, industry, knowledge resources) and their effect on the proposed approaches. Research limitations/implications – Based on the framework, six research propositions that advance the theories on multi-tier supply chain management, allow lead firms to develop comprehensive sustainable supply chain strategies and set the ground for future research in the area were developed. Originality/value – This study provides a novel framework for studying sustainability in multi-tier supply chains that goes beyond the single-tier perspective and incorporates the extended supply chain.
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