Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Sanna Brauer
University of Oulu, Faculty of Education
Oulu University of Applied Sciences,
School of Professional Teacher Education
Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –
Inspiring Practices for Emerging
Ecosystems of Competence Development
Cedefop - Second Policy learning forum on teachers and trainers professional development - Thessaloniki - 9-10 April 2019
One of largest northerly cities in the world -
home of the Air Guitar World Championships
Photo: Aleksi Ollila
•It has become increasingly important to develop trainings that
meet the requirements of digitised working life.
•We simply can no longer afford to begin trainings from
ground zero. Educational institutions must innovate to meet the
requirements of social and technological change while tackling
economic challenges (Vähäsantanen, 2015).
•In the digital era, institutions of vocational education and
training (VET) have emerged as transformational and
ﬂexible development environments; more research is needed
in VET and professional development.
Kuvat: Suomen Partiolaiset - Finlands Scouter ry
Digital Open Badges
•Digital open badges offer novel possibilities in identifying and recognising
different competences independent of how they were acquired.
•Competence-based approach requires detailed criteria to assess
•Badges (e.g., Mozilla Open Badges) also may refer to the student’s (the
earner’s) participation in training or certiﬁcate completion (Rughiniş &
•Digital badges are used in learning to encourage students, to pinpoint
progress and to support credentialing (McDaniel & Fanfarelli, 2016). The
attached metadata explain the learning experience to those outside the
social context (Gamrat, Bixler, & Raish, 2016) in which the competence
•Effective badge design is complex by nature with different mechanics
and psychological factors affecting the identiﬁcation and recognition of
competences and eventual earning of badges (McDaniel & Fanfarelli,
electronic microcredentials to identify
and promote excellence and mastery
Personal Learning Environments and Personal Learning Networks in professional teaching
-Understand the opportunities and available via a personal learning environment and network e.g. own skills
development and visualising your own processes. -Understand how a personal learning environment can be
utilised in professional teaching.
-Personal learning environment and network possibilities and challenges in professional teaching.
-Describe your current or a planned personal learning environment and/or network using any desired media
e.g. video / written document. You may also describe a PLE from the perspective of your students and how
they would utilise a PLE.
-Also describe with which kind of tools or environments your described PLE will be accomplished. Upload your
media e.g. to a cloud service and provide a link in your application.
Open Badge Factory https://openbadgefactory.com/v1/badge/_/OKN5IUa44Za3A/criter...
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• A badge includes an
identiﬁcation image, graphic
or icon, the name of the
badge, issuer identiﬁcation
a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n
• The metadata describes the
principles of judgement and
explain how the competence
in question should be
demonstrated (e.g., an online
• Even if competencies are
acquired differently they
should be assessed equally.
“an image ﬁle embedded with
information” (Grant, 2014, p. 7)
From participation awards to addictive learning
and competence-based assessment
OppiminenOnline.com How to
•”Learning Online” is a national competence development program designed for
vocational teachers. 21000 competence-based badges since 2014.
• Identiﬁcation and recognition of teachers’ ICT competences (UNESCO’s ICT-CFT)
through 50 different badges and three levels of requisite skill sets: Level I – SoMe-
Novice equals 10 badges/2 ECTS; Level II – SoMe-Expert 25 badges/2 ECTS; and
Level III – SoMe-Developer 45 badges/5 ECTS.
•Badges are assessed based on an application. Requirements vary from practical
skills demonstrating to demanding strategic planning.
• The level (meta)badges are granted automatically based on non-assessed milestones.
• Digital open badge-driven learning process encourages students to assess their
recent performance as well as achieved competences, including prior learning and
Excellent learning outcomes by quality and quantity: WHY?
DIGITAL OPEN BADGE-DRIVEN LEARNING -
DEVELOPMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS
This study is the ﬁrst European doctoral dissertation to address
digital open badges and digital open badge-driven learning.
1.What motivates students in the digital open badge-driven
2.How do students experience scaffolding in badge-driven learning?
3.What triggers learning in the badge-driven process?
4.How do learners experience the competence-based approach in
the badge-driven learning process of professional development?
optional study paths (17)
progressive challenges and
the extent of required performance (91)
badge-driven learning (67)
study progress (58)
inspiring gamification (55)
option to study regardless
of time and place (28)
Brauer, Siklander & Ruhalahti, 2017
Competence-based Approach to Motivation, Gamification and Triggers of
Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Conceptualising Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Stages of the badge-driven learning process
Brauer, 2019; cf. Salmon, 2018
•Triggers offer to affect learning arousing and maintaining interest (Hidi
& Renninger, 2006; Järvelä & Renninger, 2014; Renninger & Bachrach, 2015) until final
completion of the desired learning action (Dichev et al., 2014).
•Triggers allow students to continue studying after completing the initial
task (Dichev et al., 2014; Werbach, 2014).
WHAT STUDENTS EXPERIENCE, LEARN AND THEN APPLY
•The prompting trigger of learning might help students visualise
their learning as a reward badge (Brauer, Siklander, & Ruhalahti, 2017,
Fitz-Walter et al., 2011; Gamrat et al., 2016; Hamari, 2017; Montola et al., 2009; Reid et
• Students also gain a sense of excitement similar to that of
playing games (Deterding, 2012; 2015). They benefit from
facilitators’ interaction, collaboration and feedback during
the learning process (Siklander et al., 2017).
In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers’ Ways of Experiencing
the Competence-Based Approach in Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Badge Enthusiastic Team Builder
Profiling Badge Earners
EVERY SINGLE TEACHER WILL HAVE
A DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Skills Tree for Teachers’ Competences
and Ongoing Learning
Curricula of a School
of Professional Teacher
Digital competence framework for educators: Areas and scope (Redecker, 2017, p. 15).
UNESCO’s ICT Competency Framework for Teachers (UNESCO, 2011, p. 3)
The standards and frameworks
are important at the national and
international levels to set the
direction for development.
Ofﬁcial guidelines are not always
the best tool for individuals
seeking to identify personal
competences or to comprehend
the needs of development in
frameworks seek to support
educational institutions and
policymakers in developing
effective and meaningful
(Kools & Stoll, 2016).”
Chips For Game Skills -project focuses on identifying the
needs of the game industry and develop the education
on the basis of them. The goal is to create a common
evaluation criteria – a digital open badge system – which
clarifies the definition and understanding of the learning
objectives in the games industry.
Higher Education’ !
The ESCO Skills/Competences classification
Competitive Skills - National Open Badge -constellation of
problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTRE)
The aim of the project is to develop a nationwide open badge constellation, which enables the veriﬁcation of adults’
problem solving skills in technology-rich environments (PIAAC) by identifying and recognising competences acquired
outside the formal education system, at different levels of education, and in transition phases of the education
structure. In addition, the project provides a requirement framework of competence (determining the composition of
objectives, core contents and assessment criteria) for securing IT-related problem-solving skills in formal and non-formal
Top ten soft skills + 5 soft skills nationally ranked high
Updated EuroPass -standard
Bowen, K. (2018 April 23). Open Badge Anatomy (Updated). Retrieved from http://classhack.com/post/45364649211/open-badge-anatomy-updated
Brauer, S. (2019). Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning –Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers (doctoral dissertation). University of Lapland.
Brauer, S., Kettunen, J. & Hallikainen, V. (2018). “Learning Online” for vocational teachers - Visualisation of competence-based-approach in digital open badge-driven learning. The Journal
of Professional and Vocational Education: Vocational education and training in the Nordic countries, 20(2), 13-29.
Brauer, S., Ruhalahti, S., & Hallikainen, V. (2018). Digital professional learning triggers: in an online badge driven process. Education in the North, 25(1-2), 64-86. https://www.abdn.ac.uk/
Brauer, S. & Siklander, P. (2017). Competence-based assessment and digital badging as guidance in vocational teacher education. In H. Partridge, K. Davis, & J. Thomas (Eds.), Me, Us, IT!
Proceedings ASCILITE2017: 34th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education. 191-196.
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Deterding, S. (2015). The lens of intrinsic skill atoms: A method for gameful design. Human - Computer Interaction, 30(3-4), 294–335. http://doi.org/10.1080/07370024.2014.993471
Dichev, C., Dicheva, D., Angelova, G. & Agre, G. (2014). From gamification to gameful design and gameful experience in learning. Cybernetics and Information Technologies, 14(4), pp.
Fitz-Walter, Z., Tjondronegoro, D., & Wyeth, P. (2011). Orientation passport: Using gamification to engage university students. Proceedings from the 23rd Australian computer-human
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Gamrat, C., Bixler, B., & Raish, V. (2016). Instructional design considerations for digital badges. Digital Badges in Education: Trends, Issues, and Cases, 71–81.
Hamari, J. (2017). Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.
Hidi, S. & Renniger, K.A. (2006). The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development. Educational Psychologist, 41,(2), pp.111–127.
Järvelä, S. and Renniger, K.A. (2014). Designing for learning: Interest, motivation, and engagement. In (R.K. Sawyer, Ed.) Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences, pp. 668–685.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kools,!M., & Stoll, L.!(2016). What Makes a School a Learning Organisation?.!OECD Education Working Papers, 137. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/5jlwm62b3bvh-en
McDaniel, R., & Fanfarelli, J. (2016). Building better digital badges pairing completion logic with psychological factors. Simulation & Gaming, 47(1), 73–102.
Montola, M., Nummenmaa, T., Lucerano, A., Boberg, M., & Korhonen, H. (2009). Applying game achievement systems to enhance user experience in a photo sharing service.
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Renniger, K. A. and Bachrach, J. E. (2015). Studying triggers for interest and engagement using observational methods. Educational Psychologist, 50,(1), pp.58–69.
Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges in undergraduate composition courses: effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers in Education, 2(4), 377–398.
Rughiniş, R., & Matei, S. (2013). Digital badges: Signposts and claims of achievement. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.). Proceedings from HCI international 2013-posters’ extended abstracts. 84-88.
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