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Current (solid) particle number (SPN) regulations Post Euro 6/VI topics Going below 23 nm? Going to the tailpipe? Particle number PEMS Periodical inspection Non-exhaust emissions Conclusions on particle number
Post Euro 6/VI activities
focusing on particle number
B. Giechaskiel, T. Lahde, M. Clairotte, V. Valverde, J. Pavlovic, R. Suarez-Bertoa, T.
Grigoratos, A. Zardini, A. Perujo, A. Marotta, P. Bonnel, G. Martini, P. Dilara
Joint Research Centre, European Commission
Current (solid) particle number (SPN) regulations
Post Euro 6/VI topics
Going below 23 nm?
Going to the tailpipe?
Particle number PEMS
Periodical inspection
Non-exhaust emissions
Conclusions on particle number
Paper # (if applicable) 3
(Solid) Particle Number (SPN) regulations
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, Combustion engines, 174, 3-16
(for some categories)
New type-approval framework Reg. 2018/858 (replaces Dir. 2007/46/EC)
applicable from 2020 and introduces market surveillance
Will focus on environmental performance and safety (20% of tests)
Raise the quality level and independence of type-approval and testing
before a car is placed on the market
Member states will be able to take measures in their national markets,
instead of having to wait for the type-approval authority of the country
that issued the vehicles’ type-approval certificate.
National type-approval authorities will be subject to a peer review
Increase checks of cars that are already on the EU market by Member
European oversight: Forum for exchange of information on enforcement
Market surveillance
Relative good
agreement between
lab and on-road (tests
before SPN-PEMS
No particular issue for
GDIs fulfilling the
6x1012 p/km
Differences could be
explained in most
cases (e.g. mass,
ambient temperature,
DPF fill state etc)
Lab vs on-road SPN measurements
Giechaskiel et al. 2015, Frontiers, 3, 82
Stakeholder event
Took place in Brussels on the 24th October 2019 with the participation of
more than 120 experts. Preceded by a meeting of academic experts
Main topics
In use performance monitoring for compliance and enforcement over the
lifetime of the vehicle
Pollutant emissions to be considered along with CO2/GHG emissions
Currently non-regulated emissions should also be considered
Emission standards for the future
Presentations are available:
Fuel and technology neutral regulations and emission standards
Intelligent geo-fencing
Investigate if and how Remote Sensing can complement the existing
regulatory arsenal
Investigate if OBD is still necessary in the emissions regulation or it is
only a duty of the OEM towards its clients
Evaporation losses: to further investigate for fuel neutrality and running
Two big studies in 2019-2020 to address the issues identified
Legislative process in Europe can be long. At least two years from the
proposal to the final rule should be estimated.
Lead time for the industry to adapt its products
Additional topics
Emphasis on continuous emission monitoring, but care should be taken
on privacy rules
Link regulations with impacts: towards averages and (lifetime) totals, and
reducing risks
Substantial increase in the durability requirements, including Market
Surveillance and In-Service Conformity requirements
Closer links with On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) and the developments
therein. Regulatory emphasis and signalling for further exhaust emission
sensor development.
Modelling and cloud monitoring should also be accounted for improved
accuracy and performance
In-use performance monitoring
The Commission is analysing
that the current OBD
requirements (based on NEDC
demonstrations) can be
applied to WLTP (OBD
requirements with WLTP
compulsory from Jan 2022).
For post-Euro 6/VI legislation,
there is the intention to push
toward OBM (monitoring).
More focus on ISC and market
surveillance and less at type
Monitoring particles
GDIs without GPF
OBD limit
Meaningful OBD, SEMS
Giechaskiel et al. 2012, AST, 46, 719-749
Help address the question: How much emission control needed and what
expense on fuel consumption is acceptable?
Air and climate pollutants should not be dealt separately
No separate standards for different types of fuels and or engines
Address non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions
Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in normal use, including lights,
auxiliaries, winter tires, options, deterioration, etc.
Pollutant and CO2/GHG emissions
Sub 23 nm particles and total (i.e. solid and volatile) particles
NH3Ammonia (hazardous, PM precursor, significant contributor to the
formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols)
HNCO (isocyanic acid)
NO2 - Less direct NO2 helpful to reduce exposure – Maybe sufficient to be
reported for AQ modelling purposes
N2O – Nitrous oxide (High GHG potential, ozone depleting substance)
CH4 – Methane (High GHG potential)
PAHs – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and Aldehydes
Brake, tire, and road wear emissions: particle sizes and composition.
Non-regulated emissions
Diesel: <50%
GDIs: 20%
CNG: 100%
Motorcycles: >60%
Fractions are very
important only when
emissions are close
to the SPN limit
Is there a need to regulate SPN <23 nm?
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, Combustion engines, 174, 3-16
Giechaskiel 2018, IJERPH, 15, 304
Extreme example of PMP systems
The difference between the systems increases at lower particle sizes.
The final result depends on the CMD (median size) of the size distribution
Can we measure SPN <23 nm (accurately)?
Giechaskiel et al. 2017, AST, 51, 626-641
Assumed size
Volatile artefact: Renucleation of volatiles after the evaporation tube or the
catalytic stripper results in volatile particles being counted as solid
Cold start (high amount of volatiles), DPF equipped vehicles (low soot).
Even with catalytic stripper volatile artifact at the 3 nm range can appear
Volatile artifact
Giechaskiel et al. 2017, AST, 51, 626-641
Solid artefact: Measurement of solid particles that are formed after the
vehicle tailpipe (typical sizes at 10 nm or lower)
Typically at high exhaust gas temperatures at unconditioned sampling lines
DPF regenerations, Steady states of gasoline vehicles/motorcycles
Non-volatile (solid) artifact
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, Combustion engines, 174, 3-16 Giechaskiel et al. 2015, SAE 2015-24-2512
Light-duty inter-laboratory exercise with two golden instruments with
catalytic stripper measuring both >10 nm and >23 nm
European phase finished
Japan, China and maybe US will participate
Heavy-duty inter-laboratory exercise with one golden instrument with
catalytic stripper measuring both >10 nm and >23 nm
European phase will finish in June
China and US will participate
Horizon 2020 projects exploring other sampling methodologies, counting
principles and minimum size
Sub-23 nm activities
Objective: Introduction to heavy-duty engines type approval
First analysis of potential benefits/issues presented (heavy-duty)
Primary dilution (cold / hot)
Losses (thermophoresis, agglomeration)
Volatile removal efficiency (CS or ET)
Pressure effects, Time alignment etc.
Correlation with other methods (CVS and partial flow system) and
advantages/disadvantages to be checked
An inter-laboratory correlation exercise is on-going (European part to be
finalised in June). China and US will follow
To be extended to light-duty vehicles
Raw exhaust sampling (fixed dilution)
Uncertainty SPN PEMS:
40 – 65%. Today:
At the higher end HDV
In the middle LDV
At the lower end CPC
based systems
Robust for most
conditions (regeneration,
ambient temperatures,
volatiles, fuels) however
until recently still some
issues were observed
SPN PEMS: overview of all results
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, Combustion engines, 174, 3-16
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, JAS, 123, 161-170
No CVS uncertainty was subtracted because the evaluation was done
compared to PMP systems
Size dependency is higher than 15% when GMD is lower <30 nm or >75 nm
Particle losses are typically lower than 25%
Preliminary SPN margin evaluation (HDV)
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, Env Research, 166, 251-260
Giechaskiel et al. 2019, Sustainability, 11, 1067
Objective: Tamper-proof
methods for exhaust
Initiative of VERT
supported by Switzerland,
the Netherlands, Belgium,
Germany and EU
Proposal: Particle number
for DPF (TNO)
Technical specifications
New Periodical Technical Inspection (NPTI)
Giechaskiel et al. 2018, Combustion engines, 174, 3-16
PMP on brakes focuses on the development of a standardized test
procedure for sampling and measuring brake wear particles (January 2020).
Major steps taken
Development of a real-world braking test cycle (July 2018)* - There is a
dedicated Task Force (TF1) led by JRC working on the cycle related
Provide a set of minimum requirements for the emissions setup (January
2020) - There is a dedicated Task Force (TF2) led by JRC working on the
cycle related aspects
Regarding tyre wear particles there is a decision to wait for the development
of the abrasion rate method and then examine the relationship between
abrasion rate (material loss per km) and particle emissions
Non-exhaust particle emissions
For some technologies there is a significant fraction of particles below 23
nm. In some cases absolute levels seem to be critical, i.e. high emitters
cannot be identified with the PMP 23nm procedure
Extreme differences between lab and on-road were not identified for
particle number (non-GPF GDIs); this need to be verified for Euro 6d
Decreasing the lower size to 10 nm seems possible with minimum risks:
definition of PCRF (losses), artifacts, equipment investment (PMP and
Decreasing the lower size below 10 nm has high risk (today’s
instruments). Input is needed from Horizon 2020 projects
PEMS and PMP systems can have differences 40-65%. Although up to
35% can come from the particle detector another 20% can come from the
different location
Particle “losses” (e.g. agglomeration, thermophoresis), but also solid
particle formation (solid artefact) have been seen (affecting sub-10 nm
Tailpipe sampling is investigated for type approval and seems a step
forward (less prone to artifacts and particle transformations). However
improper setup has shown artefacts from condensation.
Future regulations will focus on best available technology but they will
also be technology neutral.
Thank you
Barouch Giechaskiel
Joint Research Centre
Via E. Fermi 2749
+39 0332 78 5312
... The PMP (Particulate Measurement Programme), a subgroup of UNECE GRPE, is working on a new methodology for measurements of PM/PN emissions and on the extension of the testing methodology of the number of nanoparticles (PN) for the current cut-off point of 23 nm down to 10 nm, to assess the emission of these particles which are currently not subject to limitation, which is significant especially in the case of gasoline and gaseousfuelled engines [11][12][13][14]. The PMP team is also working on the introduction of methods testing and measuring the emission of particles generated from brake discs and brake pads used in road vehicles and the planned work for new emission standards at the post-Euro 6/VI level [15]. ...
Full-text available
Both the light- and heavy-duty sectors of the automotive industry are currently under unprecedented pressure from a wide range of factors, particularly in terms of environmental performance and fuel consumption. Test procedures have undergone massive changes and continue to evolve, meaning that standards are becoming much harder to meet, especially in Europe but also in other continents. Such developments force changes in testing methodology, the development of powertrains themselves and their aftertreatment systems and strategies and calibrations. A range of strategies are available to overcome these difficulties, as explored during the VIII Congress on Combustion Engines organised by the Polish Scientific Society of Combustion Engines (PTNSS) and hosted at Krakow University of Technology, Poland in June 2019. This paper reports and summarises the topics of the VIII PTNSS Congress and attempts a synthesis on the current status of the field of LD ad HD IC engines, hybrid powertrains and electric vehicles, engine fuel and oil and what the coming years may hold for the automotive and fuel industries and other allied fields.
... If the backpressure of the GPF or the calculated BC value of the ECU is too high, an active regeneration of the GPF is performed. For future exhaust emission standards, OBD or active monitoring of the particulate filter is conceivable [9]. With such a monitoring, more information about the current state of the particulate filter have to be gathered. ...
Conference Paper
In order to comply with future emission regulations, the use of particulate filters in vehicles with direct injection gasoline engines is essential. The current amount of soot and ash in the filter is calculated by a soot load model in the electronic control unit in combination with a differential pressure sensor determining the pressure drop over the particulate filter. Active regeneration is initiated if the calculated amount of soot or the measured differential-pressure is too high. This is associated with additional fuel consumption. An on-board diagnosis for the particulate filter is currently not part of the Euro 6d emission standard. For future exhaust emission standards, on-board diagnosis or active monitoring of the particulate filter is conceivable. One of the benefits of monitoring is the fact that unnecessary active regenerations can be avoided. As a result, there is no additional fuel consumption due to misinterpretations of the amount of soot in the filter. For active monitoring of the particulate filter, a radio-frequency (RF-) sensor, that detects the soot loading of the filter with electromagnetic waves directly, can be used. Such a system has the advantage that by utilizing the filter as a sensor more precise information about the current state of the filter, e.g. a possible damage, can be provided. Worst-case considerations of filter damages, tested at an engine test bench show the advantages which are entailed by a system like that. By means of partial regeneration of the particulate filter it is demonstrated how the remaining amount of soot in the filter can be detected in a better way in comparison to the differential pressure sensor by using the RF-sensor.
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